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  • 51.
    Jonsson, Lena
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Thermal degradation of carotenes and influence on their physiological functions1991In: Advances in Human Genetics, ISSN 0065-275X, Vol. 289, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Jonsson, Lena
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Thermal degradation of carotenes and influence on their physiological functions1991In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 289, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Jordansson, E
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Konfokal lasermikroskopi : inledande metodikutveckling1994Report (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Kihlberg, Reinhold
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Livsmedel som skydd mot cancer.1993In: Livsmedelsteknik, no 4, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Kihlberg, Reinhold
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Livsmedel som skydd mot cancer.: Effekter av antioxidanter.1993In: Livsmedelsteknik, no 5, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Kim, H-R
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Microscopic evaluation of hydroxypropyl potato starch granules in relation to the degrees of substitution1991Report (Refereed)
  • 57. Kim, H.-R.
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Eriksson, Caj
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Microscopic evaluation of hydroxypropyl potato starch granules during treatment with urea.1992In: Stärke, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 136-141Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 58. Kim, H.-R.
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Eriksson, Caj
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Structural characteristics of hydroxypropyl potato starch granules depending on their molar substitution.1992In: Stärke, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 111-116Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 59. Kingamkono, R.
    et al.
    Sjögren, E.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Kaijser, B.
    Inhibition of different strains of enteropathogens in a lactic fermenting cereal gruel.1995In: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol. 11, p. 299-303Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 60. Kingamkono, R.
    et al.
    Sjögren, E.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Kaijser, B.
    pH and acidity in lactic-fermenting cereal gruels: Effects on viability of enteropathogenic microorganisms.1994In: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol. 10, p. 664-669Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Langton, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Correlating microstructure with texture of particulate biopolymer gels1995Report (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Langton, M
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    The microstructure of yoghurt : a literature review1991Report (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Fine-stranded and particulate gels of beta-lactoglobulin and whey protein at varying pH.1992In: Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 523-539Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Image analysis determination of particle size distribution.1993In: Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Image analysis of particulate whey protein gels1996In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different methods of image analysis have been used to characterize particulate gel networks quantitatively. The methods have been used to analyse the effect of different preparation conditions on the microstructure of whey protein gels. The microstructure has been characterized at different structural levels by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The structural parameters have been quantified by digital image analysis and by using a group of experienced microscopists evaluating SEM-micrographs. A stereological approach was used to quantify pore size, particle size and amount of threads within the pores in volume weighted mean volumes. The mode of aggregation was determined by the expert microstructural panel. A 2-level fully factorial experimental design has been used, with heating rate (1-5°C/min), pH (4.6-5.4) and salt addition (0-0.1 mol/dm3) as design parameters. The results showed that the heating rate and the pH had main effects on both the particle size and the pore size. The faster heating rate produced both pores and particles of smaller volume. The mean volume of the particles varied between 0.3 and 1.4 ?3, which could be compared to diameters between 0.8 and 1.4 ?3 if a spherical shape is assumed. The size of pores and particles increased by an increase in pH. Pore volume was found to be affected by an interaction between heating rate and pH. The change in pH had a pronounced effect when the slower heating rate was used. If the voids were approximated with a spherical shape, the diameters varied between 10 and 40 ?, compared with the volumes between 1200 and 29 100 ?3. The interaction effects showed that the heating rate influenced the mode of aggregation at the higher pH 5.4, whereas the salt addition affected the mode of aggregation at the lower pH 4.6. © Oxford University Press.

  • 66.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Texture as a reflection of microstructure1996In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 7, no 42067, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of texture has been correlated to the micro-structure of particulate whey protein gels. A full, two-level, factorial experimental design was used in which the processing conditions, pH, heating rate and addition of salt were used as design factors. The texture of the gels was analyzed by a sensory panel, and the microstructure was analysed by light and electron microscopy. The microstructure was quantified by using different types of image analysis. In this study of particulate whey protein gels, the test principles of analysing texture were divided into two groups: destructive tests and non-destructive tests. The micro-structural parameters can also be divided into two groups: overall network dimensions (pore size and particle size) and strand characteristics. The texture as measured with destructive methods was sensitive to overall network dimensions, whereas texture as measured with non-destructive methods was sensitive to the strand characteristics of particulate protein gels.

  • 67.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Texture as a reflection of microstructure1996In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 7, no 42067, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of texture has been correlated to the micro-structure of particulate whey protein gels. A full, two-level, factorial experimental design was used in which the processing conditions, pH, heating rate and addition of salt were used as design factors. The texture of the gels was analyzed by a sensory panel, and the microstructure was analysed by light and electron microscopy. The microstructure was quantified by using different types of image analysis. In this study of particulate whey protein gels, the test principles of analysing texture were divided into two groups: destructive tests and non-destructive tests. The micro-structural parameters can also be divided into two groups: overall network dimensions (pore size and particle size) and strand characteristics. The texture as measured with destructive methods was sensitive to overall network dimensions, whereas texture as measured with non-destructive methods was sensitive to the strand characteristics of particulate protein gels.

  • 68. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Malting of oats in a pilot-plant process.: Effects of heat treatment, storage and soaking conditions on phytate reduction.1995In: Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 21, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Lennersten, M S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    The influence of light and packaging materials on oxidative deterioration in foods : a literature review1995Report (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Leufvén, Anders
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Charlotte
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    The sorption of aroma components from tomato juice by food contact polymers.1994In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 64, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71. Lilja-Hallberg, M.
    et al.
    Härröd, Magnus
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Enzymatic and non-enzymatic esterification of long polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine in isooctane.1995In: Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, Vol. 12, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72. Lilja-Hallberg, Marianne
    et al.
    Härröd, Magnus
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Enzymatic esterification of long polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophoshpatidylcholine in isooctane and ethanol.1994In: Biocatalysis, Vol. 9, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73. Lorri, W.
    et al.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels: viscosity and flour concentration.1993In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 44, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74. Lorri, W.
    et al.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Lower prevalence of diarrhoea in young children fed lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels.1993In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75. Lowenadler, J.
    et al.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Determination of dissolved carbon dioxide by coulometric titration in modified atmosphere systems1994In: Letters in Applied Microbiology, ISSN 0266-8254, E-ISSN 1472-765X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 285-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in microbiological media at different pH values, water activities (a,), temperatures, buffering capacities and ratios of headspace to media volumes was determined by using a coulometer. Buffering capacity and ratio of headspace to media volume were shown to be the major factors influencing the solubility of CO, in modified atmosphere model systems. The growth inhibitory effects of different dissolved CO2 concentrations (0-50 ?mol ml-1) were determined for Pseudomanas fragi at 8°C and 22°C. Pseudomonas fragi was shown to be strongly affected by the CO2 concentration in the media. A carbon dioxide concentration of 40 ?mol ml-1 was needed to inhibit Ps. fragi at 8°C. The importance of measuring dissolved CO2 Concentrations in modified atmosphere packaging applications was shown and the coulometer proved to be an excellent tool for this purpose.

  • 76.
    Lundgren, Birgit
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Karlstrom, B.
    Torrang-Lindbom, G.
    Andersson, Yngve
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Clapperton, J.
    Extruded wheat flour: Flavour and texture-comparison of evaluations by two laboratories1991In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensities of flavour and texture attributes of 23 extruded wheat flour samples were evaluated by two laboratory panels in Sweden and in the UK. For most attributes good agreement between the two panels was obtained. Discrepancies were considered to be caused by inadequate definition of the terms. © 1992.

  • 77.
    Lundin, L
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Binary polysaccharide systems and phase mechanisms : a literature review1993Report (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Lundin, Leif
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Influence of locust bean gum on the rheological behaviour and microstructure of K-?-carrageenan1995In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixtures of ?-carrageenan-locust bean gum (LBG) were analysed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic viscoelastic measurements. The effect of two different mannose:galactose (M:G) ratios of LBG on the rheology and microstructure of ?-carrageenan in KCl was studied. The rheological differences observed in the mixed gel as LBGs were added were found to be dependent on M:G ratio, salt concentration and LBG content. Monolayers of dilute samples of ?-carrageenan mixed with LBGs in varying ratios in 0.10 M KCl were visualised by low-angle rotary metal shadowing for transmission electron microscopy. The results obtained showed that LBG hindered the self-association of ?-carrageenan, and that the effect was enhanced at a higher M:G ratio and as the LBG contents were increased. Small deformation viscoelastic measurements were performed on ?-carrageenan-LBG mixtures in 0.050 and 0.10 M KCl at constant temperatures of 38 and 48 °C, respectively. Increased rheological stability was observed for mixtures containing a relatively high LBG content. Mixtures with a relatively low LBG content showed a maximum in storage modulus and an increase in phase angle. The stabilising effect of LBG on the rheology of the blends was more effective for the LBG with high M:G and as the LBG content was increased. © 1996.

  • 79.
    Lundin, Leif
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Multivariate analysis of the influence of locust bean gum, ?s-casein, and ?-casein on viscoelastic properties of Na-?-carrageenan gels1998In: Food hydrocolloids, ISSN 0346-718X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 175-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The viscoelastic effects of ?s-casein, ?-casein and locust bean gums with two different mannose to galactose ratios on Na-?-carrageenan gels in 0.25 M NaCl are studied using multivariate methods. Partial least square regression shows that it is possible to obtain a relation between the storage modulus (G?) and the concentration of the polymers in the mixture. Evaluation of the models obtained during the course of gelation, storage and melting shows that the G? of the ?-carrageenan system is predominantly influenced by locust bean gum with a high mannose to galactose ratio. Significant co-operative concentration effects are observed for ?-carrageenan in combination with the locust bean gums. No co-operative concentration effects are observed between the caseins and the locust bean gums, which suggests that the effects of these can be evaluated separately. ?s-Casein influences the G? in the initial state of gelation, whilst ?-casein shows effects after gel formation.

  • 80.
    Lundin, Leif
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Supermolecular aspects of xanthan-locust bean gum gels based on rheology and electron microscopy1995In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The viscoelastic properties and supermolecular structure of synergistic gels, formed by xanthan and locust bean gum (LBG) of two different mannose:galactose ratios (M:G), have been investigated by small deformation viscoelastic measurements and by low angle rotary-shadowing for transmission electron microscopy. The rheological properties at 20 °C for mixtures subjected to heating and cooling cycles in the temperature range 30-80 °C were found to be dependent on the M:G ratio. Mixtures of xanthan and LBG mixed at temperatures ?40 °C were found to form true gels with low phase angles. Blends of xanthan and LBG with a low M:G ratio did not show any increase in synergistic effects as the temperature was increased, whilst the mixture of xanthan and LBG with a high M:G ratio showed a strong increase in synergistic effects as the temperature was raised above 60 °C. A difference in gelation temperature (Tg) of ~13 °C was observed between the mixtures of xanthan and the two LBG fractions. The Tg for xanthan with a high M:G ratio was ~53 °C, whilst the Tg for mixtures of xanthan and LBG with a low M:G ratio was ~40 °C. Results obtained using electron microscopy showed that the xanthan-LBG network was formed from xanthan supermolecular strands, and addition of LBG did not influence the xanthan structure. The observed structural features of the gels were independent of heat treatment and LBG fraction. The structural similarities and rheological differences observed between xanthan and the LBG fractions are discussed in comparison with existing interaction models at the molecular level. Based on these results, a speculative network model at the supermolecular level is presented. © 1995.

  • 81.
    Löwenadler, J
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Dissolved CO? and its growth inhibiting effect on microorganisms in MAP model systems1994Report (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Löwenadler, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Modified atmosphere packaging : carbon dioxide, its interactions with micro-organisms and application as a food preservative : a review1994Report (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Marcuse, Reinhard
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Pokorny, J.
    Higher correlation with sensory evaluation of oxidative rancidity by modified TBA test.1994In: Fat Science and Technology, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 185-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84. Mattila-Sandholm, T.
    et al.
    Ali-Vehmas, T.
    Wirtanen, G.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Sandholm, M.
    Automated fluorimetry in quality control of pasteurized and ultra-high temperature-treated starch soup.1991In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 26, p. 325-326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Mårdén, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Att arbeta med HACCP : hur och varför?1995Report (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Mårtensson, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Handledning i HACCP arbete1994Report (Refereed)
  • 87. Nerbrink, Eva
    et al.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    Blomqvist, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Mårdén, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Jämförelse av olika metoder för analys av Listeria1993Report (Refereed)
  • 88. Nerbrink, Eva
    et al.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    Blomqvist, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Mårdén, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Jämförelse av olika metoder för analys av Listeria1993Report (Refereed)
  • 89. Nijhuis, H.H.
    et al.
    Torringa, E.
    Luyten, H.
    Rene, F.
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Funebo, Tomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Research needs and opportunities in the dry conservation of fruits and vegetables1996In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1429-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumer demand for healthy convenience meals with 'near fresh' properties challenges researchers and industry to develop new or improved conservation procedures for food products. However, this recent food trend towards fresh image on one side and convenience on the other side often conflict. In most cases the fresh quality is negatively affected by the processing procedure. Therefore nowadays efforts are focussed on extending the shelf life of fresh products. However, sophisticated energy demanding facilities are required for storage and transporation, whereas the use of ecologically unsound cooling agents is a major drawback. The development of a dehydration process on the basis of electromagnetic energy (EME) may bring about a major breakthrough with respect to the retention of product quality and improved rehydration characteristics. Due to the tenfold weight reduction established in the dehydration process transport and storage costs are minimised thus reducing energy consumption. In comparison with fresh and frozen products minimal storage facilities are required. The strategy of a consortium of five EC-research centres and two dutch drying companies is to combine and fine tune hot air drying (low processing costs) and EME-drying (quality retention) into a hybrid process, to compare the performance with conventional methods and to include packaging and storage effects. Optimisation of the rewettability is one of the major concerns since food materials with near fresh properties can only be obtained from dry material if rehydration characteristics are excellent. To establish such dried fruits and vegetables will be considered as blends of polymeric materials. Many quality deterioration mechanisms can be attributed to the mobility of the polymeric matrix and the diffusion of water. Properties thus depend on the composition, the physical properties of the polymers (mobility) and the overall structure of the dried material. This approach in which process conditions in the dehydration of food materials are linked to a broad range of relevant macroscopic as well as microscopic data is highly innovative and will provide important scientific information. The process-quality relationships are a solid basis to optimize both existing and novel dehydration methods.

  • 90.
    Nilsson, K
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Quality of frozen rainbow trout : effects of different freezing and thawing treatments1994Report (Refereed)
  • 91. Nilsson, K.
    et al.
    Ekstrand, Bo
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Enzyme leakage in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) related to various thawing treatments1994In: Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung, ISSN 0044-3026, Vol. 198, no 3, p. 253-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frozen rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was thawed so that different tempering times, followed by different duration times in the temperature intervall called the latent zone (LZ), were obtained. The different thawing treatments resulted in different effects on the muscle membrane system. To estimate the resulting tissue damage, the leakage of the lysosomal enzymes ?-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20) and ?-N-glucosaminidase (E.C. 3.2.1.30) was measured as the relationship between the enzyme activity in centrifuged tissue fluid (CTF) and in total homogenate. The volume and protein content of the CTF were also measured. The tempering rate seemed to influence the enzyme leakage more than different duration times in the LZ. Slow tempering increased the enzyme leakage more than fast tempering. Samples taken 1 h in the LZ showed an increased activity compared with samples taken directly after completed tempering. No significant further increase was found in samples taken after 10 or 24 h in the LZ, either for the rapidly or the slowly tempered group. © 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  • 92. Nilsson, K.
    et al.
    Ekstrand, Bo
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Refreezing rate after glazing affects cod and rainbow trout muscle tissue.1994In: Journal of Food Science, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 797-838Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93. Nilsson, K.
    et al.
    Ekstrand, Bo
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    The effect of storage on ice and various freezing treatments on enzyme leakage in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)1993In: Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung, ISSN 0044-3026, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the biochemical changes in fish muscle during ice storage and freezing-thawing processes, the activities of certain marker enzymes in the cell interstitial fluid from muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were measured. The enzymes analysed were: lysosomal ?-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20), ?-N-glucosaminidase (E.C. 3.2.1.30) and acid phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2). The activity in centrifuged tissue fluid (CTF) was compared with the activity in total homogenate. When ice storage was varied between 3 and 14 days, it did not affect enzyme leakage into the CTF significantly. However, there was a distinct difference between fresh fish and fish iced even for only 1 day, which gave increased leakage of marker enzymes. When the ice-stored samples were subject to a freezing-thawing cycle they showed a marked increase in enzyme activity in the press juice. When the freezing process was varied so as to achieve different freezing rates, the slowest freezing rate caused the highest enzyme leakage. © 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  • 94.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Ekstrand, Bo
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Frozen storage and thawing methods affect biochemical and sensory attributes of rainbow trout1995In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 627-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainbow trout were subjected to four thawing treatments after being stored at -18°C and -40°C for 0, 3, 7, 13 and 18 mo. Membrane integrity was estimated as the volume of centrifuged tissue fluid (CTF) and by lysosomal (3-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity in CTF. Slow thawing, in air at 5°C, resulted in higher NAG activity in CTF and a larger volume of CTF than fast thawing, at 25°C in water, independent of storage time. After 3 or more months storage, a higher NAG activity in CTF and a larger volume of CTF were found in all - 18°C stored samples compared to that at -40°C. Sensory evaluation confirmed differences between trout stored at - 18°C and at - 40°C for 18 mo.

  • 95.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Ekstrand, Bo
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Sensory and chemically measured effects of different freeze treatments on the quality of farmed rainbow trout.1995In: Journal of Food Quality, Vol. 18, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 96. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Egelandsdal, B.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Olsen, R.L.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Liquid loss as effected by post mortem ultrastructural changes in fish muscle: Cod (Gadus morhua L) and salmon (Salmo salar)1996In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 301-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed in order to assess the effect of early post mortem structural changes in the muscle upon the liquid-holding capacity of wild cod, net-pen-fed cod (fed cod) and farmed salmon. The liquid- holding capacity was measured by a low speed centrifugation test. Transmission electron microscopy was used to discover ultrastructural changes both in the connective tissue and in the myofibrils. Differential scanning calorimetric thermograms of the muscle proteins were recorded to elucidate whether fundamental differences did exist between the proteins of the raw material tested. Multivariate statistics were used to explicate the main tendencies of variations in the thermograms. The salmon muscle possessed much better liquid-holding properties than the cod muscle, and wild cod better than fed cod regardless of the storage time. Both fed cod and farmed salmon, underwent the most severe structural alterations, probably caused by the low muscle pH values. The higher liquid-holding capacity of the salmon muscle was related to species specific structural features and better stability of the muscle proteins. The myofibrils of the salmon muscle were denser and intra- and extracellular spaces were filled by fat and a granulated material. The differences in thermograms of muscle from wild and fed cod were largely explained by the variations in pH. The severe liquid loss of fed cod is due to a low pH induced denaturation and shrinkage of the myofibrils. Post mortem degradation of the endomysial layer and the sarcolemma may have further facilitated the release of liquid.

  • 97. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Ultramicroscopical structures and liquid loss in heated cod (Gadus morhua L) and salmon (Salmo salar) muscle1996In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 337-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed in order to assess the effect of heating in pre-and post-rigor muscle of fed cod, wild cod and farmed salmon harvested at different times of the year. The structural changes in muscle samples pre- heated from 5 to 60°C were qualitatively evaluated using both light and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The microstructural changes are discussed in relation to the liquid loss measured by a low-speed centrifugation test. The heat-induced structural changes varied between the fish tested, reflecting different degrees of post mortem degradation prior to heating, the muscle-pH and species-specific structural properties. The fed fish, both cod and salmon, underwent the most severe structural degradation. This reflected both the low muscle pH and the more severe post mortem degradation observed in these fish prior to heating, compared with the wild cod. Heating caused extensive shrinkage of the myofibrils and hence, widened intermyofibrillar and extracellular spaces in both the fed cod and the salmon muscle. In the sample of wild cod muscle, the extracellular spaces were narrow and the myofibrils were closely packed. The difference in heat-induced liquid loss of the fed compared with the wild cod muscle coincides with their different structural features, as observed both by LM and TEM. The better liquid-holding properties of the salmon muscle than the cod muscle are attributed to the species-specific ultrastructural features as observed with TEM. In addition to the denser appearance of the salmon myofibres, it is suggested that both fat droplets and aggregated sarcoplasmic proteins filling the intermyofibrillar and extracellular spaces are important in preventing release of liquid upon heating.

  • 98. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Liquid holding capacity and structural changes during heating of fish muscle: Cod (Gadus Morhua L.) and salmon (Salmo Salar).1993In: Food Structure, Vol. 12, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Olsen, R.L.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Factors influencing liquid-holding capacity and structural changes during heating of comminuted cod (gadus morhua l.) muscle1996In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 29, no 42006, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of liquid in cod muscle finely comminuted with salt was studied as a function of heating temperature from 5 to 70 °C. Three different groups of raw material were tested: wild and farmed maturing cod and wild post-spawn cod. The effects of ionic strength, pH and heating temperature upon liquid-holding capacity were examined either individually or simultaneously by using a general linear statistical model. The liquid-holding capacity was measured by a low-speed centrifugation net test. The microscopic changes of the comminuted samples were evaluated by light microscopy. The intact muscle, used as raw material, was investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. The liquid loss was very low and almost constant between 5 and 30 °C, and increased rapidly thereafter at elevated temperatures. NaCl concentration, pH, heating temperature and interactions among these factors influenced the liquid released according to a first-order interaction linear model. Upon comminution with salt, most of the fibre structure is lost and a homogeneous phase is formed from the depolymerized myofibrils. Pores and gaps appeared in the protein matrix upon heating, enhancing the liquid loss. Melted collagen was seen either as a thin film or as an aggregated network structure, depending on the temperature, in the aqueous phase filling the pores and gaps. Wild, maturing cod possessed better liquid-holding capacity at higher heating temperatures than did both farmed and post-spawn fish, owing to different fibre structure. Post-spawn fish underwent a more severe degradation than did the maturing fish during ice-storage. ©1996 Academic Press Limited.

  • 100. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Olsen, R.L.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Liquid-holding capacity and structural changes in comminuted salmon (Salmo salar) muscle as influenced by pH, salt and temperature1995In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 329-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of liquid in salmon muscle comminuted with salt was studied as a function of pH and heating temperature. A factorial experiment was designed to compare the effects of; the raw material, NaCl concentration, pH, degree of comminution and heating temperature in order to evaluate both main effects and interaction effects. The liquid-holding capacity was measured by a low speed centrifugation net test. The changes in microstructure in the samples were investigated by light microscopy using fat- and protein-staining techniques. The heating temperature, pH, NaCl concentration, variation of raw material and degree of comminution influenced liquid loss according to a second-order interaction linear model. The interaction effect between low pH, low salt concentration and high temperature was strongest. Addition of salt extracted the myofibrillar proteins and resulted in a homogeneous protein matrix with few intact fibres and uniformly dispersed fat droplets. Liquid loss was closely related to the microstructure of the comminutions. When heated above 30 °C, enlarged pores and gaps, some of them forming channels, occurred in the protein matrix. In comminutions prepared with a low salt concentration and/or a low pH the more frequent presence of pores and gaps enhanced the liquid loss. © 1995 Academic Press Limited.

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