Change search
Refine search result
678910 401 - 450 of 500
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 401.
    Söderberg, Hans
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Caddéo Johansson, Sophie
    Eggertson, Christer
    Strondl, Annika
    Modification of the PAS Furnace2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Swerea KIMAB AB has developed a method to study surface reduction on powders and solid materials with the help of a Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy instrument (abbreviated to PAS). The strength of the PAS method is the continuous gas registrations with a very high precision (i.e. down to less than 1ppm). Furthermore, by combining the PAS results together with thermodynamic calculations a deep understanding is gained in the area of surface reduction during heat treatment. PAS is a highly sensitive technique by which ppm levels of different gases within a carrier gas can be measured. This unit is calibrated to measure CO, CO2, CH4, H2O and dew point. The PAS furnace at Swerea KIMAB AB has been modified at in order to improve three main parts of the experimental setup to achieve a purer furnace atmosphere, a possibility to fast cool samples, and a more accurate temperature control.

  • 402.
    Söderberg, Hans
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Eggertson, Christer
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Frisk, Karin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    High-speed imaging of lab scale atomizer2009In: Proceedings of the Euro International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2009, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2009, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout this study a lab scale atomizer with a maximum charge weight of approximately 10 kg has been used. A Photron FASTCAM-X high-speed imaging camera was used to study the melt flow disintegration. The camera has a maximum frame rate of 109500 frames/s and shutter times down to 1.5 μs. This makes it possible to capture fast processes during atomization. The movies show a turbulent flow behavior with short primary break-up lengths (~1-2 cm). General particle speeds are in the range of 100-200 m/s where the smallest particles are even faster. The use of high-speed imaging cameras provides the means to study e.g. melt breakup, disintegration lengths, effect of different nozzle designs, and particle speeds, parameters that are of interest during process development and optimization.

  • 403.
    Tabeshian, Ali
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Arnberg, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Aune, Ragnhild
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparison of the electrochemical behavior of amorphous Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10, stainless steel (316LVM), and CoCrMo (F75) in simulated body fluid with and without addition of protein2019In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 652-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical behavior of, and metal ion release from the bulk amorphous (glassy) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloy (Zr-MG) was evaluated in simulated body fluid (phosphate buffer saline [PBS]), with and without additions of protein (albumin Fraction V) at pH 7.4 and 5.2 and at body temperature 310 K (37 °C). The passivation behavior and susceptibility to pitting of the Zr-MG was compared with conventional load bearing implant materials, that is, the medical grade ASTM F75 cast CoCrMo alloy (CoCrMo) and AISI 316 LVM low carbon vacuum re-melted stainless steel alloy (SS). Furthermore, the metal ion release from the main constituent elements of each alloy was measured and compared. All materials showed passive behavior in the PBS solution with and without presence of albumin, though the passive region was smaller for the Zr-MG compared to the CoCrMo and SS. Moreover, all materials experienced pitting corrosion in the PBS solution while the Zr-MG was the most susceptible and the CoCrMo was the least one. Protein additions to the CoCrMo and SS prevented the formation of stable pits at pH 7.4 and 5.2. A decrease in passive region and pitting potential was seen in the case of albumin additions for the Zr-MG at pH 7.4, while the opposite was seen at pH 5.2. Furthermore, the total metal ion release from the Zr-MG was less than for the CoCrMo.

  • 404.
    Tahir, Abdul Malik
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergman, Ola
    Höganäs AB, Sweden.
    Chasoglou, Dimitris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Frisk, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Behaviour of master alloy during sintering of PM steels: Redistribution and dimensional variations2015In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of alloying elements in low alloyed PM steels in the form of a master alloy gives the advantage of introducing oxidation sensitive but less expensive elements and also allows manipulation in composition adjustment to achieve desired properties. In this work, interrupted sintering trials of the Fe-2MA-0.5C (%) (MA=Cu based master alloy) are performed. The behaviour of the liquid forming master alloy, for instance in terms of liquid phase formation, alloying element redistribution and effect on the dimensional changes, is investigated. The results show that master alloy particles melt over a range of temperature, which is also supported by the thermodynamic calculations. The low swelling in the master alloy system, compared to a reference system of Fe-2Cu-0.5C, is attributed to the progressive melting of the master alloy. The mean diffusion distance of Cu in Fe at the interparticle boundaries is 5.8 μm after 34 min of isothermal holding.

  • 405.
    Tahir, A.M.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Amberg, G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hedström, P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, O.
    Höganäs AB.
    Frisk, Karin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Cu redistribution during sintering of Fe-2Cu and Fe-2Cu-0·5C compacts2014In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective use of alloying elements in powder metallurgical steels requires a deep understanding of their redistribution kinetics during sintering. In this work, interrupted sintering trials of Fe-2Cu and Fe-2Cu-0·5C compacts were performed. Moreover, diffusion simulations of Cu in c-Fe using Dictra were performed. It is found that transient liquid phase penetrates the Fe interparticle and grain boundaries in less than 3 min of holding time. However, C addition limits the penetration of liquid Cu, particularly into grain boundaries of large Fe particles. The results also show that the mean diffusion distance of Cu in c-Fe in the C added system is slightly lower than that in the C-free system at 3 min of holding time; however, after 33 min, the mean diffusion distance is similar in both systems. The diffusion distances of Cu in c-Fe, predicted by Dictra, are in good agreement with the measured values. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 406.
    Talus, Annika
    et al.
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Kinnunen, Hanna
    Valmet Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Enestam, Sonja
    Valmet Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Corrosion of carbon steel underneath a lead/potassium chloride salt mixture2019In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1450-1460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High amounts of lead in waste/recycled wood fuel are known to be a contributing factor to the increased corrosion often related to this type of fuel. In combination with potassium, usually present in the fuel, low-melting point salt mixtures between lead chloride (PbCl 2) and potassium chloride (KCl) are expected to form. The purpose of this study is to investigate reactions in the mixed salt of PbCl 2 and KCl and its interactions with carbon steel P265GH and its oxide. Laboratory exposures were performed in an isothermal tube furnace with a salt mixture of PbCl 2/KCl (50/50 mol%) put on steel samples. The test duration was 24 hr at either 300°C or 340°C in an atmosphere of 100 ppm HCl and 20 vol% H 2O in synthetic air. After exposure, the salt mixture consists of distinct areas of KCl and PbCl 2 but also the compounds K 2PbCl 4 and KPb 2Cl 5. A general observation is that the oxide thickness increases with temperature and that areas with Pb/K-mixed salt are frequently found in close connection to more corroded areas. Often the more lead-rich phase KPb 2Cl 5 is located closest to the corrosion product indicating its importance for the corrosion.

  • 407.
    Talus, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Wickström, Leyla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hjörnhede, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Effect of Lead Content in Used Wood Fuel on Furnace Wall Corrosion of 16Mo3, 304L and Alloy 6252017In: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of furnace wall tubes is a problem often caused by the use of corrosive fuels. The relatively high contents of lead, zinc, alkali metals and chlorides in these fuels are believed to contribute to the corrosion. Initial corrosion as a function of lead content in a wood-based fuel was studied for three materials: 16Mo3, 304L and Alloy 625. The materials were exposed for 8 h in a laboratory combustion test rig at a position resembling furnace wall conditions. The metal temperatures investigated were 350 and 400 °C. Increasing the lead content in the fuel or the temperature accelerated the corrosion rate of 16Mo3. It is proposed that lead and lead oxides in deposits react with iron chloride to form lead chloride, which when combined with alkali chlorides results in a very corrosive deposit containing low melting salt mixtures. Negligible corrosion was observed for 304L and Alloy 625.

  • 408.
    Taxén, Claes
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Letelier, M.V.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
    Lagos, G.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
    Model for estimation of copper release to drinking water from copper pipes2012In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 58, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and prediction of the copper concentration released from copper plumbing tubes due to corrosion, dissolution, precipitation and other processes has not previously been successful. The model presented here is based on a set of dissolution and precipitation reactions, equilibrium between species in solution and solids, mass balance, kinetic expressions, adsorption isotherms, and surface area coverage by precipitates.The model developed has created two major outputs: first; it is the most conclusive collection of mechanistic considerations to date; and second; reasonable correlations between the model and actual data have been obtained for a broad range of waters. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 409.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Larché, Nicholas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Crevice corrosion of stainless steel in tropical seas2017In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 3, 2017, Pages 1982-1993Corrosion Conference and Expo 2017; New Orleans, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2017, Vol. 3, p. 1982-1993Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels are widely used in seawater for different applications in the oil and gas and desalination industry. In natural seawater, all surfaces will be rapidly covered by microorganisms with the formation of a biofilm, inducing a significant shift in corrosion potential for stainless steel in the noble direction. The other significant effect of the biofilm on stainless steel is the significant increase of the cathodic efficiency (e.g. the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen), increasing the rate of propagation of localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied at temperate and cold seawaters, very little is known in tropical seawater in which bioactivity is expected to be different. Open-circuit potential measurements and measurements of the cathodic efficiency have been performed at different temperatures in temperate and in tropical seas. The study aimed at defining the differences between temperate and tropical sites in terms of electrochemical behavior (e.g. open-circuit potential and cathodic current for oxygen reduction). One of the main differences was found to be the critical temperature for biofilm ennoblement which was different for temperate and tropical seawaters. The results are discussed in terms of risk for crevice corrosion for stainless steels in tropical seas.

  • 410.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Lille, Cecilia
    AvestaPolarit, France.
    Arlt, Norbert
    ThyssenKrupp, France.
    Morizot, Arnaud Pierre
    Ugine ALZ, France.
    Cunat, Pierre Jean
    Euro Inox, France.
    Basic considerations for the development of a corrosion test for stainless steels used for automotive applications2004In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the corrosion performance of stainless steel materials for application in the automotive industry has been evaluated by means of on-vehicle testing and laboratory cyclic corrosion tests. Additional laboratory measurements have also been performed in well defined exposure conditions. The results indicate that no cosmetic corrosion was observed upon on-vehicle exposures after 2 years exposure in Sweden and Germany and 5 years exposure in France. Cyclic corrosion tests were also performed in order to assess the corrosion resistance of different stainless steel grades. The results indicate large discrepancies in corrosion resistance when comparing the different cycles. This is explained by differences in chloride deposition, wet/dry cycle condition and way of deposition of the pollution on the samples. From the results it is obvious that cyclic accelerated corrosion tests that have been developed for assessing the performance of precoated materials cannot directly be used to assess the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Hence, there is a need to develop or to adapt cyclic corrosion tests in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Copyright © 2004 SAE International.

  • 411.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Recent advance in corrosion monitoring of atmospheric corrosion2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Article number 13124Corrosion Conference and Expo 2019; Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compact and autonomous corrosion sensor using the principle of electrical resistance variations of its metallic sensitive tracks has been used for different applications under atmospheric corrosion conditions. The measurements of the corrosion rate are performed in-situ both under laboratory and field exposures. From the results, it is possible to better understand the atmospheric corrosion of steel and zinc under various exposure conditions. The technique should also allow the design of reliable and realistic corrosion tests for different industrial applications. 

  • 412.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    A new crevice assembly adapted for tube geometries to test crevice corrosion in seawater2018In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series Volume 2018-April, 2018Corrosion Conference and Expo 2018; Phoenix; United State s;, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crevice corrosion resistance is one of the main criteria for the selection of a given stainless steel grade for seawater applications. Crevice corrosion resistance can be evaluated using different techniques that are described in standards and in the literature. However, the proposed assemblies are often restricted to plate geometry specimens. Some crevice assemblies for tube geometry have been proposed and used during the last ten years, but they showed a large dispersion of the results due to the difficulty to control crevice geometries on curved surfaces. From this background, an optimized crevice assembly was proposed to allow a better control of the reproducibility of crevice corrosion tests on stainless steel tubes. Finite element modelling and laboratory testing have shown that the new proposed design provides a better control of gasket pressure and consequently a better reproducibility than previous existing assemblies. The proposed assembly can be adapted and used for fit-for-purpose testing (e. g. evaluation of different gasket materials, different gasket pressures, etc.). 

  • 413.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Galvanic series in seawater as a function of temperature, oxygen content, and chlorination2018In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 147-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open-circuit potential is one of the main driving forces of galvanic corrosion when two dissimilar metals are in electrical continuity in an electrolyte. From the existing literature, the galvanic series which provides averaged potential of metallic materials in seawater is generally restricted to ambient/ standard conditions or to a limited number of alloys. However, advanced materials have been developed in the last decade and the corrosion potential of any alloy immersed in seawater may be strongly affected by environmental factors. There is a lack of information on these purposes (e.g., effect of dissolved oxygen content, temperatures, chlorination at different levels, or recently developed alloys, etc.). In this work, the open-circuit potential of different stainless steel grades, as well as nickel-based and copper-based alloys, has been systematically measured in seawater under different experimental conditions. In particular, the effect of temperature (from 30°C to 70°C), oxygen content (from 10 ppb to saturation), and chlorination level (from 0 ppm to 0.5 ppm) have been studied. The work can also be used for material selection in terms of risk of bi-metallic corrosion when coupling two materials under these conditions. 

  • 414.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Long-term atmospheric corrosion rates of hot dip galvanised steel and zinc-aluminium-magnesium coated steel2019In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn coated steel (Z) and ZnAlMg coated steel (ZM3.7/3 = Zn–Al (3.7 wt.%)-Mg (3.0 wt.%)) have been exposed for 6 years at twelve different weathering sites world wide. The mass loss of the coatings have been measured after 1, 2, 4, and 6 years exposure. From the results, it is shown that ZM3.7/3 had always a better corrosion performance compared to Z. The ratio of performance after 6 years of exposure varied from about 1.4 to 4.4 with a mean value of 2.8. At temperate marine sites (e.g., temperature between 9–20°C) with low to moderate SO 2 pollution a good relationship was observed between the relative performance of ZM3.7/3 and the corrosion rate of Z. It was thus concluded that ZM3.7/3 has a better relative performance in harsh environments. The corrosion performance of ZM3.7/3 was shown to be connected to the formation of protective corrosion products.

  • 415.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Luckeneder, Gerald
    voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Stellnberger, Karl Heinz
    voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Atmospheric corrosion of ZnAlMg coated steel during long term atmospheric weathering at different worldwide exposure sites2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 148, p. 338-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric corrosion of zinc aluminium magnesium (ZnAlMg) coated steel was studied in a worldwide exposure in Europe, East Asia and USA. The mass loss of ZnAlMg coated steel was about 2–3 times lower compared to hot dipped galvanised steel (HDG) after 4 years exposure. The corrosion of ZnAlMg coated steel was highly localised with selective corrosion attacks in the eutectic phases of the coating. Sulfate and chloride containing corrosion products were formed in the corrosion pits while zinc hydroxy carbonate and carbonate containing layered doubly hydroxides (LDH) formed mainly in the outer parts of corrosion attacks.

  • 416.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Air Pollution Damage to Metals2015In: Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces, IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS , 2015, p. 143-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 417.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of heritage metallic artefacts: Processes and prevention2013In: Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts, Elsevier Ltd , 2013, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses primarily on the common environmental aspects of atmospheric metal corrosion. The effects of climate and pollution on corrosion are reviewed across various timescales, from damage over millennia to the present situation, including short descriptions of the indoor environment and recent developments in international standardisation. The chapter concludes with two sections on future trends in air pollution and climate change. © 2013 Copyright ũ 2013 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.

  • 418.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of metals in 2010-2039 and 2070-20992012In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 55, p. s.1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic parameters and pollution data from the 6FP NOAHs ARK project 'Global Climate Change Impact on Built Heritage and Cultural Landscapes' together with chloride deposition data have been used to predict atmospheric corrosion of metals in 2010-2039 and 2070-2099. Maps of carbon steel and zinc show that future atmospheric corrosion of metals in Europe are dominated by the effects of chloride deposition in coastal and near-coastal areas. The change can in extreme cases be as high as one corrosivity category and in coastal areas of southern Europe corrosion can be higher than the highest values experienced today in Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 419.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hicks, Kevin
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Kuylenstierna, Johan
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Pradhan, Bidya Banmali
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Dangol, Pradeep
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Mylvakanam, Iyngararasan
    UNEP, Kenya.
    Feresu, Sara Baisai
    Insitute of Environmental Studies, Zimbabwe.
    Lungu, Chozi
    University of Zambia, Zambia.
    Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Kathmandu, Nepal2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon steel, zinc and limestone samples were exposed in Kathmandu for one year. Their corrosion was measured at ten locations and related to SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM concentrations and climatic factors. Corrosion rates vary considerably and are correlated mainly with the SO2 concentration. Estimated policy targets for SO2 are most stringent for limestone, in the range 3 to 6μgm-3. The Kathmandu carbon steel and limestone samples matched a general pattern from exposures at more than twenty sites in Asia and Africa. At these Asian/African sites corrosion of copper is generally higher than corrosion of zinc. This is in contrast to experiences from European conditions where corrosion of zinc is higher than corrosion of copper.

  • 420.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kreislová, Katerina
    Svuom Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Faller, Markus
    Empa, Switzerland.
    de la Fuente, Daniel
    CENIM National Centre for Metallurgical Research, Spain.
    Yates, Tim
    BRE Building Research Establishment Ltd, UK.
    Verney-Carron, Aurelie
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Grøntoft, Terje
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Gordon, Andrew
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hans, Ulrik
    Empa, Switzerland.
    ICP materials trends in corrosion, soiling and air pollution (1987-2014)2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987-2014 and include pollution data (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease. SO2 levels, carbon steel and copper corrosion have decreased even after 1997, which is more pronounced in urban areas, while corrosion of the other materials shows no decrease after 1997, when looking at one-year values. When looking at four-year values, however, there is a significant decrease after 1997 for zinc, which is not evident when looking at the one-year values. This paper also presents results on corrosion kinetics by comparison of one- and four-year values. For carbon steel and copper, kinetics is relatively independent of sites while other materials, especially zinc, show substantial variation in kinetics for the first four years, which needs to be considered when producing new and possibly improved models for corrosion. © 2017 by the authors.

  • 421.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kucera, V.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Sherwood, S.
    Center for Technology and Innovation, Endicott.
    Corrosion2009In: The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage, Springer US , 2009, p. 53-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion is a familiar concept-as familiar as the rusting of steel left outside or the green patina of an old copper roof. Corrosion attack is normally seen as a non-desirable effect that causes a loss of aesthetic value and mechanical strength, although many find the patina attractive. This chapter takes those simple concepts and expands them to present the actual mechanisms involved and to relate them to what is happening in the atmosphere. © 2009 Springer-Verlag US.

  • 422.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Asia and Africa2008In: 17th International Corrosion Congress 2008: Corrosion Control in the Service of Society, 2008, Vol. 2, p. 703-716Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project is part of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) funded Program on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC). The Program is managed on Sida's behalf by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and the corrosion project is coordinated by Swerea KIMAB AB. Corrosion attack after one (2002-2003 and 2005-2006), two (2002-2004) and four (2002-2006) years of exposure are presented for 12 test sites in Asia (India, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and China including Hong Kong) and four test sites in Africa (South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Materials exposed are carbon steel, zinc, copper, limestone and paint coated steel. At each test site, the environment is characterized by SO 2, NO 2, HNO 3, O 3, particles, amount and pH of precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Preliminary results are also given from the enlargement of the network (2006-) by inclusion of five new test sites in Asia (Taj Mahal/India, Iran, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Maldives) and two new test sites in Africa (Mozambique and Tanzania). SO 2 is the most important parameter but acid rain is also important for all materials while HNO 3 show correlation to corrosion of zinc and limestone, much similar to the situation in Europe. Attempts to predict corrosion values using dose-response functions developed in Europe have failed, especially for limestone. © 2009 by NACE International.

  • 423.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Ferm, M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Kreislova, K.
    SVUOM Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Brüggerhoff, S.
    Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Germany.
    Doytchinov, S.
    ENEA, Sweden.
    Screpanti, A.
    ENEA, Sweden.
    Grøntoft, T.
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Yates, T.
    BRE Building Research Establishment, UK.
    De La Fuente, D.
    CSIC CENIM, Spain.
    Roots, O.
    Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Estonia.
    Lombardo, T.
    Université Paris Est Créteil, France.
    Simon, S.
    Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Germany.
    Faller, M.
    EMPA, Switzerland.
    Kwiatkowski, L.
    Institute of Precision Mechanics, Poland.
    Varotsos, C.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Tzanis, C.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Krage, L.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Schreiner, M.
    Academy of Fine Arts, Austria.
    Melcher, M.
    Academy of Fine Arts, Austria.
    Grancharov, I.
    University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Bulgaria.
    Karmanova, N.
    JSC SRI Atmosphere, Russia.
    Effects of air pollution on materials and cultural heritage: ICP materials celebrates 25 years of research2012In: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2012Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is given of all results from the International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments (ICP Materials), which was launched in 1985. Since then, about twenty different materials have been exposed repeatedly in a network of test sites consisting of more than twenty sites with an extensive environmental characterisation and more than sixty official reports have been issued. Recent results on trends in corrosion, soiling, and pollution show that corrosion of carbon steel, zinc, and limestone is today substantially lower than 25 years ago, but while corrosion of carbon steel has decreased until today, corrosion of zinc and limestone has remained more or less constant since the turn of the century. Unique data are given on measured HNO3 concentrations from 2002-2003, 2005-2006, and 2008-2009, and the relative average decrease was about the same from 2002-2003 to 2005-2006 as it was from 2005-2006 to 2008-2009. © 2012 Johan Tidblad et al.

  • 424.
    Tolf, E.
    et al.
    Scania CV AB.
    Hedegård, Joakim
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Surface breaking cracks in resistance spot welds of dual phase steels with electrogalvanised and hot dip zinc coating2012In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In normal production of resistance spot welded galvanised structures, it is difficult to completely avoid surface breaking cracks. Known key factors to cause cracking are zinc coating, electrode wear during subsequent welding and insufficient electrode cooling. In this report, an embrittlement mechanism was investigated that could be coupled to the galvanisation method for dual phase steels. With identical bulk material and weld parameters, the first 50 spot welds were crack free with electrogalvanised coating, while only 10 out of 50 were crack free with hot dip galvanised coating. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the worn electrode surfaces used for welding of the hot dip galvanised coating revealed areas of aluminium oxide. Since aluminium oxide is a very strong isolator, the electrical resistance will increase, which in turn is suggested to increase the surface temperature of the spot weld and thereby increase the probability for liquid metal embrittlement and surface cracks. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 425.
    Torkamany, Mohammad Javad
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ghaini, F. Malek
    Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
    Vänskä, Mikko
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Salminen, Antti
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Fahlström, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hedegård, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Wire deposition by a laser-induced boiling front2015In: Optics and Laser Technology, ISSN 0030-3992, E-ISSN 1879-2545, Vol. 69, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laser materials processing the addition of material by wire is an option for techniques like laser welding, laser cladding or rapid prototyping. The stability of the wire deposition is strongly dependent on the wire interaction with the laser beam. For leading position wire feeding, high speed imaging was applied to study the melt transfer from the wire tip to the workpiece during keyhole welding. The observations revealed that a very stable concave processing front forms at the wire tip. A boiling front is established as an extension of the keyhole and the melt film at the front is sheared downwards by the ablation pressure of boiling. The deposition of the molten wire into the weld zone is smooth and controllable. Various wire front geometries and melt transitions are compared for different parameters. The option of laterally oscillating the laser beam is investigated and the interaction mechanism involved is discussed. Wire deposition by inducing a boiling front is explained here for the first time, which should promote future applications use of this very promising technique.

  • 426.
    Tornberg, Malin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Säkerhetsföreskrifter vid laborativt arbete med joniserande strålning från öppna strålkällor: Radiation safety manual for laboratory work with ionizing radiation from unsealed sources2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Säkerhetsföreskrifter vid arbete med joniserande strålning från öppna strålkällor Dokument som säkerhetsföreskrifterna baseras på:  Strålskyddslagen SFS 1988:220  Laboratoriearbete med kemikalier AFS 1997:10  Strålsäkerhetsmyndighetens föreskrifter om laboratorieverksamhet med radioaktiva ämnen i form av öppna strålkällor SSMFS 2008:28  Strålsäkerhetsmyndighetens föreskrifter om grundläggande bestämmelser för skydd av arbetstagare och allmänhet med joniserande strålning SSMFS 2008:51 Övergripande ansvar för att strålskyddet på hela institutet har VD. Strålskyddsexperten fungera som ett stöd vid planering av arbete med joniserande strålning och har ansvar för att strålskydd enligt lagen upprättas. Strålskyddsexperten ansvarar för att uppdatera listan med behörig personal. Kontaktpersonen, som kan vara samma som strålskyddsexperten, fungerar som länk mellan Swerea KIMAB AB och strålskyddsmyndigheten (SSM). Avdelningschefen ansvarar för att strålskyddsföreskrifterna efterföljs inom respektive avdelning och att enbart personal med behörighet utför arbete med joniserande strålning. Avdelningschefen utser även lämplig lokal kontaktperson. Lokal kontaktperson ansvarar för strålskyddsarbetet på daglig basis och att de dokument som krävs för arbete med joniserande strålning färdigställs och finns tillgängliga för berörd personal.

  • 427.
    Tornberg, Malin
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Hagström, Joacim
    Fokuserad jonstrålemikroskopi (Focused Ion Beam “FIB”) i materialforskningen på Swerea KIMAB AB2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ett fokuserat jonstrålemikroskop (Eng. Focused Ion Beam, FIB) kan materialet som ska analyseras manipuleras med en stråle av gallium (Ga+) joner. Jonstrålen kan polera, ”gräva” och avverka materia med hög precision, platsspecifikt med nanometer noggrannhet. Ett FIB-instrument används därför med fördel då analys ska göras av mycket små eller tunna mikrostrukturkomponenter, korngränser, fasgränser eller en sprickspets för att nämna några tillämpningsområden. Det är även möjligt att göra tvärsnittsanalyser av tunna ytbeläggningar eller oxider på material då de yttersta nanometrarna kan friläggas och analyseras i SEM, EDS, EBSD, STEM eller TEM.. Provpreparering för transmissionselektronmikroskopi (STEM/TEM) är ett viktigt användningsområde, då både provuttagning och förtunning av provet kan göras med hög exakthet. Små materialmängder (typiskt 10μm*10μm*80nm) är fördelaktigt när materialet är magnetiskt och högupplösande bilder med hög kvalitet krävs. Moderna FIB är så kallade ”tvåstråleinstrument” (Eng. Dual Beam) där observationer och analyser kan göras med elektronstrålen som i ett konventionellt svepelektronmikroskop. Detta samtidigt som, eller i direkt anslutning till att avverkning gjorts med jonstrålen. En ytterligare fördel med tekniken är att den är tillämpbar på de flesta typer av material, alltifrån metaller till polymerer, keramer och kompositer. Målet med detta projekt var att bygga kompetens för användning och etablera FIB som metod för forskare på Swerea KIMAB AB och att förmedla tekniken till våra kunder. En annan viktig del i projektet var att utvärdera behovet av ett FIB/Dual Beam mikroskop på Swerea KIMAB AB och verka som ett underlag för investering i ett eget instrument. För att en investering ska vara (ekonomiskt) möjlig krävs att ett brett underlag av forskningsprojekt efterfrågar tekniken. Det är därför viktigt att våra kunder får möjlighet att se vad som kan åstadkommas med deras material och vilka problemställningar som kan bearbetas eller lösas med ett FIB mikroskop. I projektet jobbade vi parallellt med medlemsprojekt och andra kundorienterade projekt där material med passande mikrostrukturer studerades, t.ex. rostfritt stål, martensit och bainit. Dessutom arbetade vi tillsammans med forskare inom flertalet forskningsområden på Swerea KIMAB AB, vilka även bidrog med en del av finansieringen. Efter dryga tvår år med kompetensbreddning inom området FIB/Dual Beam ser vi att det finns ett stort intresse av tekniken hos våra kunder och inte minst internt på Swerea KIMAB AB. Vi har visat att det är möjligt att använda FIB-tekniken för provpreparering, analys och karaktärisering av för oss intressanta material, mikrostrukturer och ytskikt. I många fall skulle provpreparering inte ha varit möjlig utan FIB. Vi ser också att det är svårt att ha spetskompetens på området när vi inte har tillgång till ett instrument som vi dels kan jobba med dygnet runt och som vi inte själva kan utrusta specifikt för våra ändamål. Vår övergripande slutsats är att FIB/Dual Beam är en teknik av stor nytta för Swerea KIMAB AB och att vi bör investera i ett eget instrument för att kunna erbjuda våra kunder spetskompetens inom området och god tillgänglighet.

  • 428.
    Tornberg, Malin
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Hutchinsson, Bevis
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Gholina, Ali
    Hagström, Joacim
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Applied method development of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) microscopy2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swerea KIMAB AB has been working with the focused ion beam (FIB) technique for several years now. The aim has been to increase internal as well as external competence regarding the large number of applications that the technique can be used for as well as being able to perform high class experiments with FIB. Well educated personnel running focused ion beam microscope in combination with customers that understand the benefits that the technique can deliver is a key factor to perform successful experiments. The aim this year was to focus on using FIB for more difficult tasks such as performing TEM lift-outs and 3D characterization of microstructures. TEM lift-outs were successfully performed and analysed in TEM on materials from SSAB Oxelösund and Uddeholms AB. 3D characterizations were done on a weld material from ESAB and two high strength low alloy (HSLA) structural steels.

  • 429.
    Toth-Pal, Zsolt
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hammam, Tag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Pressure dependence of thermal contact resistance between copper heat sink and copper DBC surfaces in SiC power device packages2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal contact resistances have been measured in an experiment emulating heat transfer from a SiC die to a cooled heat sink through a heat spreader and a DBC structure. The major surfacedependent parameters are the surface roughness, surface hardness, and planarity. The measured thermal contact resistances are in agreement with theoretical values. When investigating DBC copper surfaces a second interface between the bonded Cu to AlN has to be taken into account. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • 430.
    Toth-Pal, Zsolt
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Zhang, Ya Fan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nee, Hans Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Investigation of pressure dependent thermal contact resistance between silver metallized SiC chip and molybdenum substrate and between molybdenum substrate and bulk copper2016In: Materials Science Forum, 2016, Vol. 858, p. 1061-1065Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal contact resistances between a silver metallized SiC chip and a Molybdenum substrate and between the Molybdenum substrate and bulk Copper were measured in a heat transfer experiment. An experimental method to separate thermal contact resistances in a multilayer heat transfer path was used to extract the layer-specific contact resistances. The experimental results were compared with theory based calculations and also with 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results. The results show significant pressure dependence of the thermal contact resistance and the results show higher thermal contact resistance per unit area between the bulk SiC chip and Molybdenum than between Molybdenum and bulk Copper.

  • 431.
    Toth-Pal, Zsolt
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Zhang, Yafan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Hammam, Tag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Nee, Hans Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Thermal improvement of press-pack packages: Pressure dependent thermal contact resistance with a thin silver interlayer between molybdenum substrate and silicon carbide chip2017In: 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Integrated Power Packaging, IWIPP 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In typical press-pack, free-floating packages the thermal contact resistance between chip and substrate is a major limiting factor for the cooling ability of the power module. We report an introduction of a new, thin Silver interlayer between Molybdenum substrate and chip, and how it improves the thermal contact. The thermal contact resistances were measured with and without a Silver interlayer at different pressures. The surface roughness of the SiC chip and the Molybdenum substrate were characterized. The thermal contact resistances were measured at three different heating power levels. The results show a significant reduction of the thermal contact resistance with only a few micrometer Silver interlayer. The improved cooling effect of a Silver interlayer was also demonstrated with a fluid dynamics type of 3 D simulation comparing temperature distributions with and without a Silver interlayer. These results project a possible thermal improvement in press-pack packages.

  • 432.
    Tran, Q. -T
    et al.
    Saipem sa, France.
    Benoit, G.
    Saipem sa, France.
    Le Guennec, O.
    Saipem sa, France.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Optimization of the corrosion protection for offshore windfarm monopile foundation - Engineering design lessons learnt2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Article number 13378Corrosion Conference and Expo 2019; Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019;, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection barriers are implemented to provide corrosion protection for offshore windfarm monopile foundations. Such protection methods have been applied since the beginning of the offshore windfarm industry with regard to the external surfaces and more recently, since 2010's for the internal surfaces. Design life extension combined with an increase of foundations dimensions lead currently to the requirement for high efficiency / high capability protection barriers. Main findings and engineering lessons learned on how to optimize the above protection barriers design are reviewed in this paper, specially: i. Appropriate interpretation of the new revision (2017-2018) of ISO(1) 129441-5 to define the right environment corrosivity category and subsequent painting systems durability. ii. Relevance of design current densities and drained current into sediments for cathodic protection system from codes & standards. iii. Use of cathodic protection modelling to optimize cathodic protection system design; Findings on mitigation of galvanic anodes interferences are presented to illustrate the purpose. iv. Design of a passive water/air renewal system to prevent side effects resulting from cathodic protection system installed in a nearly closed environment like monopile foundation internal areas. v. Environmental impact of galvanic anodes: ''Myth or reality''?.

  • 433.
    Trigodet, Florian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. Universite Brest, France.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Morrison, Hilary
    Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, US.
    Jebbar, Mohamed
    Universite Brest, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Maignien, Lois
    Universite Brest, France; Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution, US.
    Electroactive bacteria associated with stainless steel ennoblement in seawater2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, no FEB, article id 00170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms can increase the open-circuit potential of stainless steel immersed in seawater of several hundred millivolts in a phenomenon called ennoblement. It raises the chance of corrosion as the open-circuit potential may go over the pitting corrosion potential. Despite the large impact of the ennoblement, no unifying mechanisms have been described as responsible for the phenomenon. Here we show that the strict electrotroph bacterium "Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga" is detected as an ennoblement biomarker and is only present at temperatures at which we observe ennoblement. This bacterium was previously enriched in biocathode systems. Our results suggest that "Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga," and its previously described extracellular electron transfer metabolism coupled to oxygen reduction activity, could play a central role in modulating stainless steel open-circuit potential and consequently mediating ennoblement.

  • 434.
    Trillo, E.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, US.
    Duret-Thual, Claude
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Salvatori, I.
    RINA Consulting, Italy.
    Alleva, L.
    RINA Consulting, Italy.
    Martin, J. W.
    JWM Materials Consulting, UK.
    Assessment of the hydrogen induced stress cracking resistance of precipitation hardened nickel-based alloys using the slow strain rate tensile test method - Experimental parameters and related issues2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019;, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of a Joint Industrial Project (JIP) sponsored by several petroleum companies, the behavior of several Precipitation Hardened (PH) Ni-based alloys with respect to Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (HISC) resistance was studied using the Slow Strain Rate Tensile (SSRT) test method under hydrogen charging conditions. The experimental conditions included a 0.5M sulfuric acid solution at 5 mA/cm2 and at 40°C at a strain rate of 10-6 sec-1. A round robin was performed that highlighted the need to measure the effective strain rate of the specimen during the elastic part of the SSRT test, the cell configuration, the current density, the gas cap composition, were all studied to determine the effects on the results. Once the test conditions had been optimized, the study of different industrial heats was carried out on specimens sampled in three locations, 120 degrees apart and at mid radius. It was found that sampling different areas could lead to changes in the test results, resulting mainly from microstructural variances at different locations of the bar. The results generated in this program could then be studied by relating plastic elongation obtained under CP as well as cracking mode and microstructure compliance with the API 6A CRA standard.

  • 435.
    Troell, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Haglund, S.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hawsho, N.
    Scania AB.
    Extending the use of nitriding processes to reduce distortion and fuel consumption2012In: Quenching Control and Distortion - Proceedings of the 6th International Quenching and Control of Distortion Conference, Including the 4th International Distortion Engineering Conference, 2012, p. 785-791Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet requirements for lower fuel consumption, low friction powertrain-components are needed. Nitriding and nitrocarburizing are thermochemical heat treatment processes that enhance the surface properties, e.g. high resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear as well as low friction and high corrosion resistance, of steel components. Beside this, another benefit is low distortion of the heat treated components due to the low process temperature, which is below the austenitizing temperature. To take a better use of the benefits provided by nitriding processes, and to facilitate replacement of case carburizing which is more commonly used today, a better knowledge and understanding of the properties that are possible to achieve by the different nitriding processes, in combination to selection of steel grade, is needed. A major challenge for many components is how to obtain required strength properties, e.g high-strength fatigue properties, as can be achieved by case carburizing. In this work the influences on compound layer, diffusion zone and residual stresses have been evaluated for different steel grades after nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Copyright © 2012 ASM International® All rights reserved.

  • 436.
    Troell, Eva
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Haglund, S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hawsho, N.
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Sevim, S.
    Bodycote Värmebehandling AB, Sweden.
    Åström, A.
    AGA Gas AB, Sweden.
    Jesperson, H.
    Uddeholms AB, Sweden.
    Properties and performance of nitrided and nitrocarburized steels2014In: Proceedings - European Conference on Heat Treatment and 21st IFHTSE Congress / [ed] Lubben T.Zoch H.-W.Schneider R., Arbeitsgemeineschaft Warmebehandlung u. Werkstofftechnik , 2014, p. 29-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By utilizing nitriding processes in combination with selection of steel grade manufacturing of components with low friction and high wear properties is facilitated. The need for post machining and straightening is reduced as a consequence of low distortions due to the low process temperature. Nitriding and nitrocarburizing of a wide range of steel grades have been applied in order to evaluate influences on compound layer, diffusion zone and residual stresses and consequently the overall impact on fatigue and tribological properties. Demonstrator components, e.g. gear wheels, have been selected and measures to replace carburizing with nitriding processes. The level of distortion is greater for case hardened gear wheels compared to nitrided wheels. Furthermore, there seems to be less scattering in distortion level between the nitrided wheels within a given steel grade, suggesting that the distortions would be easier to predict and compensate for compared to case hardened wheels. The influence of steel and nitriding process was evaluated by wear testing. In lubricated conditions the tribological properties were quite similar for all tested samples. The result in dry conditions resulted in a lower friction at lower loads for some of the nitrided and/or nitrocarburized steels compared to case hardened steel 16MnCr5.

  • 437.
    Vaché, Nicolas
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, France; Total TRTG, France.
    Cazottes, Sophie
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Douillard, Thierry
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Duret-Thual, Claude
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. Université de Lyon, France.
    Dupoiron, Francois
    Total TRTG, France.
    Augustin, Christel
    Total TRTG, France.
    Steyer, Philippe
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Origin of Nickel Catalytic Particles in Carbon Nanotube Formation on a High-Carbon 25Cr–35Ni–Nb Cast Alloy2019In: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, Vol. 91, no 3-4, p. 279-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were formed on a high-carbon 25Cr35Ni–Nb cast alloy using a laboratory-scale experimental set-up that simulated favorable conditions for CNT growth in the presence of ethane and water vapor. After 45 min of exposure to the reactive atmosphere, the entire sample surface was covered with multiwalled nanotubes with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm, indicating the strong catalytic activity of the alloy surface. Transmission electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed the presence of iron-containing Ni 3 C-based catalytic particles at the nanotubes tip. The origin of the nickel in the system was then investigated via cross-sectional observations and discussed. A mechanism similar to the so-called “ex-solution” process was proposed to explain the presence of catalytic particles, while their stability was attested by thermodynamic considerations. A scenario describing the different steps involved in the CNTs formation on the oxide scale is finally proposed.

  • 438.
    Vainik, Rein
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Proficiency test: Nickel base- 20122013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    11 laboratories took part in a proficiency test regarding two Ni-base alloys. The analytical techniques used were GFAAS (Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry), Spark-OES (Spark- Optical Emission Spectrometry), ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry), XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence), GD-MS (Glow Discharge-Mass Spectrometry) and combustion techniques for the elements N, 0 and S. A statistical evaluation was carried out in order to find outlying values by applying the Cochran' s test and the Grub b' s test.

  • 439.
    Vainik, Rein
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Proficiency test: Pb och Bi in steels 20112011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    8 laboratories took part in a proficiency test regarding low levels of Pb and Bi in two steels. 9 sets of data were sent in, meaning that one laboratory contributed with two sets of data. Each set of data was given an anonymous number. The analytical techniques used were GFAAS (Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) and GD-MS (Glow Discharge-Mass Spectrometry). A statistical evaluation was carried out in order to find outlying values by applying the Cochran`s test and the Grubb`s test iteratively.

  • 440.
    Van Den Berg, F. D.
    et al.
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Kok, P. J. J.
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Yang, H.
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Aarnts, M. P.
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Meilland, P.
    ArcelorMittal Global Research, France.
    Kebe, T.
    thyssenkrupp Steel Europe, Germany.
    Stolzenberg, M.
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Krix, D.
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Zhu, W.
    University of Manchester, UK .
    Peyton, A. J.
    University of Manchester, UK .
    Martinez-De-Guerenu, A.
    CEIT, Spain.
    Gutierrez, I.
    CEIT, Spain.
    Jorge-Badiola, D.
    CEIT, Spain.
    Malmström, M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Volker, A.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Duijster, A.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Wirdelius, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Boström, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mocci, C.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Vannucci, M.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Colla, V.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy.
    Davis, C.
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Zhou, L.
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Schmidt, R.
    ArcelorMittal Eisenhüttenstadt, Germany.
    Labbé, S.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Reboud, C.
    CEA Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France.
    Skarlatos, A.
    CEA Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France.
    Leconte, V.
    ALTAIR Engineering France, France.
    Lombard, P.
    ALTAIR Engineering France, France.
    Product uniformity control - A research collaboration of european steel industries to non-destructive evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties2018In: Stud. Appl. Electromagn. Mech., 2018, p. 120-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In steel manufacturing, the conventional method to determine the mechanical properties and microstructure is by offline, destructive (lab-)characterisation of sample material that is typically taken from the head or the tail of the coil. Since coils can be up to 7 km long, the samples are not always representative for the main coil body. Also, the time delay (typically a few days) between the actual production and the availability of the characterisation results implies that these results cannot be exploited for real-time adaptation of the process settings. Information about the microstructure and material properties can also be obtained from electromagnetic (EM) and ultrasonic (US) parameters, which can be measured in real-time, non-destructively, and over the full length of the steel strip product. With the aim to improve the consistency in product quality by use of inline EM and US measurements, a European project called "Product Uniformity Control" (PUC) has been set up as a broad collaboration between 4 major European Steel Manufacturers and 10 Universities / Research institutes. Using both numerical simulations and experimental characterisations, we study the inline measured EM and US parameters in regard of the microstructural and mechanical properties. In this way, we aim to establish an improved understanding of their mutual relationships, and to apply this knowledge in existing and new nondestructive evaluation techniques. In this paper, the concerted approach of modelling and experimental validation will be addressed, and results of this work will be shown in combination with inline measured data.

  • 441.
    Van den Steen, N.
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Simillion, H.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Terryn, H.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Deconinck, J.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Comparing modeled and experimental accelerated corrosion tests on steel2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 9, p. C554-C562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different accelerated corrosion tests on steel are simulated with a Dynamic Electrolyte Film Corrosion model. Based on the time dependent temperature and humidity, combined with the presence of hygroscopic salts, a time dependent electrolyte thickness is calculated. At every timestep, the modeled film thickness dictates the corrosion current. Focussing on the thickness predictions, an elementary corrosion model is adopted to enable the corrosion depth estimations. The trends of the simulated corrosion depths are compared with experimental data obtained with an electrical resistance corrosion sensing system, demonstrating the importance of the electrolyte thickness and composition for a thorough understanding and modeling of atmospheric corrosion on steel. © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 442.
    Vancostenoble, Alix
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Duret-Thual, Claude
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Bosch, Cedric
    Ecole Nationale des Mines, France.
    Delafosse, David
    Ecole Nationale des Mines, France.
    Stress corrosion cracking of ferrito-pearlitic steel in aqueous environment containing dissolved CO22014In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A confined aqueous environment is defined by a very low water-volume to exposed steel-area ratio. In such media containing dissolved CO2, siderite is formed and acts as a protective film. An addition of applied stress and/or environmental fluctuation can disturb the balance between the steel and this protective film, causing the fracture of the latter and leading to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The material studied is a cold drawn and rolled high strength steel composed of ferrite and spheroidized pearlite and has a strong microstructural anisotropy due to the specific cold work process. To investigate its susceptibility to SCC, Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) were carried out on smooth and notched specimens allowing to separate crack initiation and crack propagation. The environment is an aqueous chloride solution saturated in CO2 at pH around 6. Tests were performed under open circuit potential (OCP) and at cathodic potential. Under OCP, localized anodic dissolution in shear bands is responsible for crack initiation. Under cathodic potential, crack initiation is delayed due to the absence of critical defect on the surface. Both fractographic analyses and results obtained on notched specimens showed that hydrogen plays an important role in crack propagation.

  • 443.
    Vattur Sundaram, Maheswaran
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Khodaee, Alireza
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Michael
    Höganäs AB, Sweden.
    Nyborg, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental and finite element simulation study of capsule-free hot isostatic pressing of sintered gears2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 99, no 5-8, p. 1725-1733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to reach full density in powder metallurgy (PM) components is demonstrated in this work. Water-atomised Mo-prealloyed steel powder is utilised for manufacturing cylindrical and gear samples through double pressing and double sintering (DPDS) process route. The effect of sample geometry and powder size fraction on densification is investigated and it is found that the DPDS route enables a density level of > 95% which is sufficient to eliminate the surface open pores. Reaching such high density is necessary, in order to perform capsule-free hot isostatic pressing (HIP). After HIP, full densification is achieved for the cylindrical samples and only near full density is realised for the gears resulting in neutral zone formation due to the density gradient. In order to predict the densification behaviour during the compaction, FEM simulations considering the gear geometry are performed for both the pressing stages and HIP. The simulation predicted a similar densification behaviour with the formation of the neutral zone. The proposed DPDS route with capsule-free HIP in combination with FEM simulation is demonstrated as a potential route for manufacturing full-density PM steel components, e.g. gears, suitable for high-performance applications.

  • 444.
    Vestin, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Randelius, Mats
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Bengtson, Arne
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied on low-alloyed zinc samples2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for chemical analysis in the single-shot regime has been investigated for low-alloyed zinc samples. Several parameters that are important for plasma formation has been investigated and their importance for accurate and precise single-shot measurements are discussed. The standard deviation is compared for measurements performed on a day-to-day basis during four days and for a measurement series consisting of five measurements in one day. It was found that the spread is not larger for a measurement series performed on a single day compared to day-to-day basis. The influence of local spatial inhomogeneities of the alloy elements in the sample concentrations is discussed in this context and the reference samples have been investigated with a scanning electron microscopy and light optical microscopy to verify this. It is found that the relative standard deviation of the signal depends to large extent on the sample homogeneity at low concentrations. The importance of spatial averaging for LIBS when doing calibrations is established in this case. The relative error for single-shot measurements will depend on the slope of the analytical curve and increase at lower concentrations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 445.
    Viklund, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Corrosion of superheater materials in a waste-to-energy plant2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major drawback when generating electricity from waste-fired boilers is the rapid corrosion of critical components such as superheater tubes. In this work a number of commonly-used superheater materials have been exposed on internally cooled probes in a waste-fired grate boiler. The investigated materials are the ferritic steel 13CrMo44, the ferritic-martensitic steel HCM12A, the austenitic steels Super 304, 317L and Sanicro 28, and the nickel-base alloys Hastelloy C-2000 and Inconel 625. Short-term exposures (3 h) for analysis of deposit composition and initial corrosion, as well as long-term exposures (1550 h) to investigate corrosion rates and corrosion characteristics have been made. Analysis revealed a deposit dominated by CaSO 4, KCl and NaCl, but also appreciable amounts of low melting salt mixtures such as ZnCl 2-KCl, PbCl 2-KCl, FeCl 2-KCl and NaCl-NiCl 2. Metal loss measurements showed unacceptably high corrosion rates for 13CrMo44, HCM12A and Super 304. The corrosion attack for these alloys was manifested by the formation of mixed metal chloride/metal oxide scales. A different type of behaviour was seen for the higher alloyed austenitic steels and nickel-base alloys, which were able to form a chromium-enriched oxide next to the metal. However, these alloys suffered from some localised pitting attack. The behaviour is explained by oxide dissolution in the molten salts that are present in the deposit. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  • 446.
    Viklund, Peter
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    High temperature corrosion of Ni-based alloys SCA425+ and IN7922013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the high temperature corrosion of two Ni-base superalloys: a newly developed alloy, SCA425+, and the extensively used IN792. The composition of the two materials is quite similar, but SCA425+ contains more Cr and Al (17.1 and 10 at.% compared to 13.9 and 7.4 at.% in IN792). The results from exposures at 900 C in SO2 (3,000 ppm) + O2 (69 vol%) + H2O (31 vol%) mixed gas for 260 h using 65 h/cycle are compared with those obtained from tests in laboratory air. The microstructure of the formed oxide scales was studied using several techniques, such as XRD, SEM, FIB, EDX, STEM and XPS. It is shown that in IN792 severe internal oxidation takes place after both types of exposures. On the other hand, the newly developed SCA425+ has the tendency to form an alumina layer proving that it has more potential to be used in the aggressive environments. Surprisingly the mass gains for SCA425+ alloy exposed in SO2-rich environment are lower than in laboratory air. The reason for this behavior is discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • 447.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Juma, Sara
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Engvall, Klas
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Corrosion resistance of 304L, 310S and APMT in simulated biomass gasification environments2011In: European Corrosion Congress 2011, EUROCORR 2011, 2011, Vol. 2, p. 1035-1043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification of biomass and waste is one feasible solution for the production of environmentally-friendly substitutes for motor fuels and chemicals. In the present study the austenitic stainless steels 304L and 310S, together with the ferritic APMT were exposed to conditions expected during biomass gasification. Isothermal experiments were performed for 200h at 500°C and 600°C in a bulk gas composition of 40%H 2-30%CO-20%CO 2-10%H 2O. Different exposures were conducted with HCl-concentrations of 0,500 and 1000 ppm. The corrosion behaviour was analysed using SEM-EDS, GDOES, XRD and CLSM. In the syngas atmosphere without HCl no signs of pitting attack or carbon ingress could be observed. In the presence of HCl, pitting attack and graphite formation became evident for both the 304L and 310S alloys. The attack became more severe at higher temperature and HCl-concentration. While the austenitic stainless steels suffered from accelerated corrosion in the presence of chlorine, the ferritic steel APMT displayed a smooth and thin oxide scale under all conditions. The general materials performance observed were of the order APMT > 310S > 304L. The results are discussed in terms of a detrimental effect of chlorine on the ability to form protective oxide scales.

  • 448.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kassman, Håkan
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Sweden.
    Åmand, Lars Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Deposit chemistry and initial corrosion during biomass combustion: The influence of excess O2 and sulphate injection2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of superheater tubes is a serious problem during combustion of fuels with a high content of chlorine, such as waste and certain biomasses. The alkali chlorides are released to the flue gas and may condense on the heat exchanger tubes forming corrosive, chloride-rich deposits. In this work the effect of ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) injection on gaseous alkali chlorides, deposit chemistry and initial corrosion attack of superheater tubes during biomass combustion have been investigated. The investigation was carried out at three different sulphate injection rates (reference, low and high) and at three air excess ratios (λ = 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4). Short-term exposures of Sanicro 28 specimens, using temperature controlled probes, were used for deposit collection and to study the initial corrosion attack. The results showed reduced concentrations of potassium chloride in the flue gas when injecting ammonium sulphate and in particular in combination with high air excess ratios. A decrease of chlorine was also observed in the deposit, but the concentrations did not always correlate to the flue gas measurements. In particular, it was evident that a subsequent sulphation occurred on the tube surface at low air excess ratios. Metallography revealed that sulphation reactions on the tube surface, rather than in the flue gas, had a detrimental effect on the initial corrosion attack. As a consequence, the corrosion attack correlated more clearly to the KCl(g) concentration in the flue gas than the chlorine content in the deposit.

  • 449.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Cyclic long-term testing of gas turbine burner materials in reducing environments at 700 °c2014In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbines operating under fuel-rich conditions may suffer from material degradation and metal dusting.To evaluate this cyclic exposures have been done at 700 °C during 5000 h in two synthetic environments having a carbon activity of 0.26 and above unity. It was found that the common stainless steel 304L is incapable of withstanding either of the environments, while the stainless steel 253MA performs well because a protective silica layer is formed. The ferritic alumina formers Kanthal APM and Kanthal APMT perform well, together with several commercial chromia forming Ni-base alloys. As a general trend the material degradation is slower in the environment with the higher carbon activity, but pre-oxidised samples of chromia forming alloys did experience sudden and rapid carburisation after scale failure. Also a TBC system failed earlier in this environment, because graphite formation at the top coat/bond coat interface caused spalling of the top coat. Further the MCrAlY bond coat cracked and caused carburisation of the underlying Ni-based substrate. A silicon modified aluminide coating showed good degradation resistance, but stimulated excessive carbon deposition in the environment of high carbon activity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 450.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, R.
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    HCl-induced high temperature corrosion of stainless steels in thermal cycling conditions and the effect of preoxidation2011In: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, Vol. 76, p. 111-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous HCl released during combustion is one reason for the severe materials degradation often encountered in power generation from waste and biomass. In this study, three stainless steels (the low alloyed EN 1.4982, the standard EN 1.4301 and the higher alloyed EN 1.4845) were tested by repeated thermal cycling in an environment comprising N 2-10%O 2-5%H 2O-0.05%HCl at both 400 and 700 °C. The materials were exposed with ground surfaces and preoxidised at 400 or 700 °C. A positive effect of preoxidation is evident when alloys are exposed at 400 °C. Oxide layers formed during preoxidation effectively suppress chlorine ingress for all three materials, while chlorine accumulation at the metal/oxide interface is detected for surface ground specimens. The positive effect of preoxidation is lost at 700 °C and corrosion resistance is dependent on alloying level. At 700 °C metal chloride evaporation contributes significantly to the material degradation. Based on the results, high temperature corrosion in chlorinating environments is discussed in general terms. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

678910 401 - 450 of 500
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.8