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  • 251.
    Gómez-Martínez, Diana
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Correlation between viscoelasticity, microstructure, and molecular properties of zein and pennisetin melts2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 125, no 3, p. 2245-2251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals are a large source of biopolymers, where mainly the starch is used for food and feed. A rapidly growing cereal application is the production of biofuel, mainly produced from corn in the US. The starch is fermented to ethanol leaving spent grain rich in cereal proteins as a by-product. The corn protein zein is currently extracted on a large scale and used in, for example, material applications. Similarly, pennisetin can be extracted from pearl millet, a crop critical for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. The formation of viscoelastic melts is crucial for (bio)plastics production and the viscoelasticity, microstructure, and molecular properties of zein and pennisetin melts were determined here. The proteins were mixed with plasticizers (polyethyleneglycol or glycerol/citric acid) to form melts. The melts displayed a phase separated microstructure with protein-rich and plasticizer-rich regions with distinctly separate T gs. The pennisetin melts formed cross-links at temperatures above 60°C, which could be related to the high content of cysteine and methionine, as compared to zein. As a consequence, pennisetin melts showed a more thermocomplex behavior than zein melts. For zein melts, the mixture of glycerol and citric acid interacted with protein in addition to being a plasticizer causing a high-molecular weight shoulder in the molecular weight distribution. The study showed that, although both zein and pennisetin form viscoelastic melts, the choice of plasticizer strongly affects both melt structure and physical properties. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 252.
    Gómez-Martínez, Diana
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Viscoelasticity and microstructure of a hierarchical soft composite based on nano-cellulose and b-carrageenan2013In: Rheologica Acta, ISSN 0035-4511, E-ISSN 1435-1528, Vol. 52, no 42289, p. 823-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft composites consisting of ?-carrageenan gel interspersed with nano-cellulose were produced mimicking soft material structures. Microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) with a broad distribution of nano-fibre lengths was used as well as nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) consisting of 20-nm nano-rods. The nano-fibre concentration, as well as the potassium ion concentration, was varied. The composites were characterized by rheology and light and electron microscopy. The incorporation of NCC into the carrageenan gel led to significant stiffening, and a sharp peak in the storage modulus occurred during gelation. This peak was not observed with MFC, which produced softer composites. An increase in the potassium concentration generally led to a more aggregated carrageenan structure with coarser network strands and increased modulus. By choosing suitable amount of nano-fibres and potassium concentration, soft composites with tailored properties could be produced. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 253.
    Göransson, L
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Barr, U.K.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, E
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lorentzon, K
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för grisproduktion och framställning av rökt skinka.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Hagman, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Determining local diffusion properties in bio-materials using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching : a literature review2008Report (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Hagman, Joel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effect of gelatin gelation kinetics on probe diffusion determined by FRAP and rheology2010In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 3359-3366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time-dependent diffusion and mechanical properties of gelatin in solution, in the gel state, and during the sol/gel transition were determined using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and rheology. The parameters in the experimental design were 2% w/w and 5% w/w gelatin concentration; 15, 20, and 25?C end quench temperatures; and Na 2-fluorescein, 10 kDa FITC-dextran, and 500 kDa FITC-dextran as diffusion probes. The samples were monitored in solution at 60?C, during quenching, for 75 min at end quench temperatures and after 1, 7, and 14 days of storage at the end quench temperature. The effect of temperature on the probe diffusion was normalized by determining the free diffusion of the probes in pure water for the different temperatures. The results gained by comparing FRAP and rheology showed that FRAP is able to capture structural changes in the gelatin before gelation occurs, which was interpreted as a formation of transient networks. This was clearly seen for 2% w/w gelatin and 20 and 25?C end quench temperatures. The structural changes during sol/gel transition are detected only by the larger probes, giving information about the typical length scales in the gelatin structure. The normalized diffusion rate increased after 7 and 14 days of storage. This increase was most pronounced for fluorescein but was also seen for the larger probes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  • 256.
    Hagman, Joel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Probe diffusion in ?-carrageenan gels determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching2012In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of free volume and heterogeneity on probe diffusion in . ?-carrageenan gels were determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and rheology. By changing the ionic conditions, biopolymer concentration and end temperature, different microstructures and aggregation kinetics in the . ?-carrageenan gels were evaluated. The results of the FRAP measurements were compared to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance diffusometry (NMRd) data from previous studies. The results showed that the free diffusion rates of the probe (FITC dextran) in water were influenced by both temperature and ionic conditions. The free diffusion values were used for normalization of the diffusion rates in the . ?-carrageenan gel measurements. The compatibility between FITC dextran with different molecular weights (10 and 500 kDa) and . ?-carrageenan was evaluated. The results showed that the larger FITC dextran probe phase separates; therefore only the 10 kDa FITC dextran probe was used in the FRAP experiments. FRAP measurements and NMRd probe diffusion in combination with TEM in . ?-carrageenan revealed that the void space, degree of aggregation and heterogeneity influence the probe diffusion rate. The . ?-carrageenan gelation was analyzed at different end temperatures using rheology and FRAP. The FITC dextran probe diffusion was not influenced by . ?-carrageenan aggregation, regardless of rheological gelation kinetics and storage modulus near the gel point. This indicates that the average void space between the gel strands is larger than the size of the probe. Good correlation between the microstructure and the probe diffusion rate in . ?-carrageenan gel with different ionic conditions and constant biopolymer concentration were obtained with TEM and FRAP. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 257.
    Hagsten, Carin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cleaning technology in high temperature food processing - A Literature Review2013Report (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Hall, G
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food and health related habits, attitudes, and lifestiles of Swedish adolescents : [focus group discussions in Gothenburg]2007Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Hall, G
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food related habits and attitudes of Swedish elderly : focus group discussions and interviews2001Report (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Hall, G.
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sensory design of foods for the elderly2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 52, no SUPPL. 1, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims:Elderly persons with dysphagia need food that requires little or no chewing, that is easy to swallow and has attractive sensory characteristics. The aim was to investigate how ingredients varied according to experimental designs influence the perceived sensory, chewing and swallowing characteristics of two types of texture-modified model foods. Methods: Meat- and carrot-based, texture-modified model foods were produced. The following parameters were varied: particle size, fat content, starch and egg composition. The samples were studied using sensory analyses, focus group discussions and consumer studies. Results: The design parameters mainly had an impact on sensory texture attributes. The experts in the focus groups selected three products of each type which were regarded as being optimal for older persons. All the products contained a high proportion of egg yolk and a low amount of starch. Older consumers considered all the selected products to be easy to chew and swallow. The differences between older persons in nursing homes compared to those living in their own homes could be linked to health. Conclusions: Optimization of factors influencing food quality through the use of experimental designs in combination with sensory and consumer studies is required in order to meet the needs and demands of older people. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG.

  • 261. Hallstrom, L.
    et al.
    Vereecken, C.A.
    Widham, K.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Moreno, L.A.
    Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents.: The HELENA Study2011In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 649-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 262.
    Hamberg, L
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Particle aggregation under shear : a literature review1999Report (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Hamberg, L
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Shaping of food microstructures2003Report (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Hamberg, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Shaping of gelling biopolymer drops in an elongation flow2002In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 252, no 2, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shaping, defined as deformation in combination with gel formation of gelatine and ?-carrageenan drops in an elongation flow, was studied. The focus was to investigate the possibility of shaping and fixating small drops in the diameter range 20 to 229 ?m. In the shaping progress and the influence of experimental properties, the viscosity, temperature, and flow of the deforming fluid were examined on the final drop shape. In the experiments a hot emulsion of an aqueous biopolymer solution in silicone oil was injected into cold silicone oil where a deforming elongation flow field existed. After injection, a temperature decrease in the drops resulted in a gel formation of the biopolymer and a fixation of the deformed drop in the flow. The shape was measured and the effect on the drop aspect ratio was determined by image analysis. Over the total drop diameter range, ?-carrageenan was more ellipsoid-shaped than gelatine, with a maximum aspect ratio of 6 compared to 4 for gelatine. For small drops, around 22 ?m, it is possible to shape ?-carrageenan, but for gelatine small drops tend to be unaffected. An increase in viscosity, temperature, and flow resulted in an increase in the final fixated shape of the drops. The differences in drop deformation between the biopolymers were explained by drop-viscosity/oil differences and differences in the kinetics of gel formation. The different gel formation kinetics resulted in a short, well-defined, shaping process for ?-carrageenan, while for gelatine the process was more complex, with both deformation and relaxation present at different stages. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  • 265.
    Hamberg, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aggregation, viscosity measurements and direct observation of protein coated latex particles under shear2001In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aggregation under shear, of latex particles coated with whey protein isolate was monitored, in a continuous phase with a complex behaviour in relation to temperature dependence and shear thinning. The monitoring was done with viscosity measurements and microscopy. An aggregating dispersion of whey coated polystyrene latex particles, salt, sucrose and gelatine was sheared in a rheometer at shear rates between 0.05 and 5 s-1. The viscosity was monitored as a function of time during a temperature increase from 30 to 60°C. The viscosity curves were interpreted with the aid of additional information from light microscopy micrographs. The aggregation was clearly visible as an increase in viscosity. Aggregation was observed to initiate at a temperature between 40 and 50°C. Unbound protein, i.e. protein not a part of particle coating, was found to be essential for the aggregation of latex particles. After aggregation, a shear thinning behaviour was detected. This was due to two phenomena: structural changes of the aggregates and shear thinning behaviour of the dispersion. The build-up of the aggregates was followed by direct observation in a confocal laser scanning microscope. A sequence of micrographs was taken, in an unstopped 3-D flow field generated in a four-roll mill, which showed the evolution of the size of the aggregates. The micrographs were in good agreement with the viscosity measurements. This showed that the four-roll mill and a confocal laser scanning microscope is a useful tool for studying aggregation in an undisturbed 3-D flow. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 266.
    Hamberg, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wohlwend, M.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Shapes and shaping of biopolymer drops in a hyperbolic flow2003In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 641-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shaping of drops in a model system based on ? -carrageenan-emulsion drops in the millimetre range in silicon oil has been studied. The drops were shaped by exposing them to drag forces in a hyperbolic flow, while their shape was fixed simultaneously by introducing gel formation of the biopolymer in the drop. The shape and the shaping process were studied and evaluated with image analysis of macrograph sequences of the shaping. The effect of process conditions, flow speed and cooling temperature on the final shape and shape progress was investigated as well as the effect of different ?-carrageenan drop characteristics, such as drop viscosity and gel strength. Drop viscosity was altered by addition of locust bean gum, LBG, and the gel strength was altered by addition of ions. The ?-carrageenan solutions in the drop were characterised by rheological investigations. With the same type of flow, different shapes could be achieved with small process changes and with high reproducibility. The fixation of the characteristic drop features, perimeter, area, Feret's X and Y, does not occur at the same time and position. For the different process parameters investigated, a change in speed affected the process in a similar way to a change in the viscosity ratio. This applies if the viscosity ratio is changed at a constant temperature, but if the change in the viscosity ratio is temperature-induced, the effect is different. The final shape of the produced drops could be graded into three classes, correlated to the position in the flow field where the drops were fixed. A shape map of the different drop shapes obtained was presented. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 267.
    Hansson, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aroma partition and release from soft drinks, jam, and jellied sweets2003Report (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Hansson, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aroma partition and release from soft drinks, jam, and jellied sweets2003Report (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Hansson, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flavour partitioning and flavour release in relation to the physical properties of the food : a literature review1999Report (Refereed)
  • 270. Hansson, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, J.
    Leufvén, Anders
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The effect of sugars and pectin on flavour release from a soft drink-related model system2001In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three types of sugar and high-methoxyl pectin at different concentrations were added to a soft drink-related model system consisting of water and six flavour compounds. The addition of these ingredients contributes to changes in viscosity and water activity, which in turn affects the release of the flavour compounds to the gas phase above the soft drink. In the study, a higher concentration of sucrose and invert sugar increased the release of five flavour compounds, probably owing to a so-called 'salting-out' effect. Starch syrup at a concentration of 60% increased the amount of three of the flavour compounds released and would probably increase the release of more compounds at a higher concentration. When pectin was added to the system, it was seen that viscosity does not influence release of the flavour molecules, but that the kind of stabiliser used is more important. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 271. Hansson, A.
    et al.
    Leufvén, Anders
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    van Ruth, S.
    The influence of gel strength on aroma release from pectin gels in a model mouth and in vivo, monitored with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry2002In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, no 16, p. 4732-4740Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 272. Hansson, P.-A.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Berit
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of derived operation-specific tractor emission data on results from an LCI on wheat production1999In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 202-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shortage of data for emissions from agricultural tractors contributes to LCA results on environmental load from modern crop production possibly having high error levels and high uncertainties. The first part of this work describes measurements and calculations made in order to obtain operation-specific agricultural emission data. Calculations are based on emission data measured on a standard 70 kW tractor of a widely available make. In the second part, results from an LCI on wheat production based on traditionally used emission data are calculated and compared with results obtained when using the emission data for specific working operations derived in part one. One conclusion of the study is that the emission values, when related to the energy in the used fuel, show very large variations between different driving operations. Another conclusion is that the use of the new data results in a marked reduction of the total air emissions produced in the wheat production chain, especially for CO and HC, but also for NO(?) and SO2.

  • 273.
    Hansén, O
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Zetterberg, L
    Enroth, M
    Norberg, C
    Förslag till indikatorer för att beskriva företags och branschers miljöprestanda.2000Report (Refereed)
  • 274. Hausner, H.
    et al.
    Hartvig, D.L.
    Reinbach, H.C.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bredie, W.L.P.
    Effects of repeated exposure on acceptance of initially disliked and liked Nordic snack bars in 9-11 year-old children2012In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. It is established, however, that repeated exposure to a novel food increases children's acceptance. This study investigated how acceptance of an initially liked and disliked snack bar develops in 9-11 year-old children. Methods: 315 children were randomised into three groups: A control group (n=111) and two groups exposed to an initially liked kamut bar (n=94) and an initially disliked sea buckthorn bar (n=110). Acceptance of both bars was tested before and after the exposure period, and on the 9th exposure. Results: Intake of both bars increased significantly in the exposure groups. There was no difference in the control groups' intake or liking of the bars between pre and post-testing. Liking rose significantly for children exposed to the disliked sea buckthorn bar, while this was not observed in children exposed to the liked kamut bar. In a post-test children exposed to kamut bars had higher intake of that bar than non-exposed children. This was also observed for the sea buckthorn bar that was also given significantly higher liking scores by the exposure group. Conclusions: The majority of children exposed to an initially disliked bar increase acceptance after nine exposures to the same level as an initially liked bar. Children repeatedly exposed to a liked bar show stable acceptance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

  • 275. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Regner, M.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Dejmek, P.
    CFD simulation and ERT visualization of the displacement of yoghurt by water on industrial scale2007In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rinsing step, in which yoghurt is displaced by water, was monitored in a dairy plant using electrical resistance tomography (ERT), with a new hygienic design of the ERT sensors. The same displacement situation was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and showed good agreement with the ERT measurements. CFD was also used to study how different properties, such as flow velocity, wall slip and the rheological properties of the yoghurt, could change the effectiveness of rinsing. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 276. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dejmek, P.
    Plug flow of yoghurt in piping as determined by cross-correlated dual-plane electrical resistance tomography2006In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-correlation of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to determine the velocity profile of yoghurt in a pipe of industrial dimensions. In viscometry, at shear rates higher than 10 s-1, the yoghurt followed the power law model with a K-value of 3.7 Pa sn and an n-value of 0.37. In pipe flow, however, within the tested mean velocity range of 0.05-0.25 m s-1, the yoghurt appeared to flow as a plug. The local velocity was constant from the centreline to within 3 mm of the tube wall, which corresponds to the resolution of the ERT method. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 277. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dejmek, P.
    The electrical conductivity of milk: The effect of dilution and temperature2005In: International journal of food properties, ISSN 1094-2912, E-ISSN 1532-2386, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical conductivity of milk at various dilutions was measured at different temperatures from 2 to 70°C. The results showed that dilution has only a small influence on the temperature dependence of conductivity. A simple power-law model predicts that the conductivity is proportional to the milk concentration to the power of 0.84 and a two-term model describes the temperature dependency. The overall model has a standard deviation of 0.0067 mS cm-1, which corresponds approximately to 0.1% milk at 2°C and 0.07% milk at 70°C. It was further shown that for less than about 25% milk in water Kohlrausch's law and the Debye-Hückel-Onsager theory can be used to describe the relationship between the concentration, temperature, and conductivity using a representative limiting molar conductivity of milk ions of 75 mS cm2 mol-1. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Inc.

  • 278. Henningsson, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, R.
    Dejmek, P.
    Sensor fusion as a tool to monitor dynamic dairy processes2006In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system for monitoring milk and fat concentration in a dynamic milk/water system by fusing information from several sensors was investigated. Standard instrumentation for food production was used, the sensors were a conductivity meter, a density meter and an optical instrument used to measure backscattered light. The system was applied to a dynamic mixing situation. Prediction error did not exceed 2% in the milk concentration and 0.1% fat in the total fat concentration. The applicability of the sensor fusion approach in field conditions was demonstrated by mounting the sensors in a dairy plant and monitoring the start-up of a pasteurizer. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 279. Henriksson, M.
    et al.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Swensson, C.
    Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: Impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations2014In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 1329-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual feedstuffs on ration CF varies due to, for example, cultivation practices and climate conditions and feedstuffs should therefore be assessed in a ration and regional perspective before being used to decrease milk CF. Land use efficiency should be considered together with ration CF, as these can generate goal conflicts. © The Animal Consortium 2014.

  • 280. Henriksson, M.
    et al.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Swensson, C.
    Impact of cultivation strategies and regional climate on greenhouse gas emissions from grass/clover silage2012In: Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal science, ISSN 0906-4702, E-ISSN 1651-1972, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 233-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than half the annual dry matter intake (DMI) of feed by dairy cows can be roughage. Its production and storage constitute a significant part of the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production. This study estimated and analysed the impact of grass/clover silage production practices in five climatically different dairy production regions in Sweden on emitted GHG. GHG emissions calculated by the life cycle assessment method were 0.46-0.54 and 0.48-0.63 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg silage DMI for normal and higher silage nutrient quality, respectively. Crop cultivation for higher nutrient quality through an extra cut and increased nitrogen fertilisation rates increased GHG emissions by up to 16%. Varying the yield level by +/-20% decreased (11%)/increased (15%) GHG emissions per kg DMI. Improved management practices can reduce GHG emissions feed production, but accurate estimates of yield levels and feed losses are needed to reduce uncertainties. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 281. Henriksson, M.
    et al.
    Flysjö, Anna
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Swensson, C.
    Variation in carbon footprint of milk due to management differences between Swedish dairy farms2011In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1474-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production (i.e. the carbon footprint (CF) of milk), this study examined the variation in GHG emissions among dairy farms using data from previous CF studies on Swedish milk. Variations between farms in these production data, which were found to have a strong influence on milk CF, were obtained from existing databases of 1051 dairy farms in Sweden in 2005. Monte Carlo (MC) analysis was used to analyse the impact of variations in seven important parameters on milk CF concerning milk yield (energy-corrected milk (ECM) produced and delivered), feed dry matter intake (DMI), enteric CH4 emissions, N content in feed DMI, N-fertiliser rate and diesel used on farm. The largest between-farm variations among the analysed production data were N-fertiliser rate (kg/ha) and diesel used (l/ha) on farm (CV = 31% to 38%). For the parameters concerning milk yield and feed DMI, the CV was approximately 11% and 8%, respectively. The smallest variation in production data was found for N content in feed DMI. According to the MC analysis, these variations in production data led to a variation in milk CF of between 0.94 and 1.33 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg ECM, with an average value of 1.13 kg CO2e/kg ECM. We consider that this variation of ±17%, which was found to be based on the used farm data, would be even greater if all Swedish dairy farms were included, as the sample of farms in this study was not totally unbiased. The variation identified in milk CF indicates that a potential exists to reduce GHG emissions from milk production on both the national and farm levels through changes in management. As milk yield and feed DMI are two of the most influential parameters for milk CF, feed conversion efficiency (i.e. units ECM produced/unit DMI) can be used as a rough key performance indicator for predicting CF reductions. However, it must be borne in mind that feeds have different CF due to where and how they are produced. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

  • 282.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Structuring water by gelation2008In: Food Materials Science: Principles and Practice, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gels are of central importance for most semisolid food products. A gel can contain more than 99% water and still retain the characteristics of a solid. The network structure will determine whether the water will be firmly held or whether the gel will behave more like a sponge, where water is easily squeezed out. The gel structure will also have a major impact on the texture as well as diffusion of water and soluble compounds. Many food matrixes are based on colloidal gels such as yoghurts, cheeses, many desserts, sausages etc (see also Chapters 19 and 20). In whole foods, there is often a combination of colloidal structures and fragments of biological tissues or gel structures in combination with particles, emulsion and foam structures. This level of complexity of composite food structures will not be dealt with here. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 283.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ekstedt, Susanne
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microstructure processing. A powerful tool for the industry.2000In: European Food and Drink Review, Autumn, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    New approaches to characterizing food microstructures.2000In: MRS Bulletin, no Dec, p. 30-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olofsson, Paula
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ekstedt, Susanne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Pihl, M
    Gatenholm, P
    Marine-inspired water-structured materials: Chapter 282007In: Water Properties in Food, Health, Pharmaceutical and Biological Systems: ISOPOW 10: International symposium on the properties of water, 2007, p. 385-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Hessle, A
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Barr, U.K.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, E
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Floren, B
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, L
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för nötköttsproduktion och framställning av ryggbiff.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 287. Hillerstrom, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, M.
    Pedersen, J.S.
    Altskär, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Van Stam, J.
    Transparency and wettability of PVP/PDMS-IPN synthesized in different organic solvents2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 1828-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) combining a hydrophobic polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) and a hydrophilic polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) was synthesized in different solvents via a two-step preparation method. The solvent used during polymerization of the IPN showed a significant impact on the properties of the PVP/PDMS-IPN. The choice of solvent was affecting both the wettability and transparency of the PVP/ PDMS-IPN. The PVP/PDMS-IPNs turned hydrophilic in all the solvents used in this study, but the transition from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic PVP/PDMS-IPN occurred at lower PVP concentration if a solvent with similar solubility parameter as PVP was chosen. Also, the PVP/PDMS-IPNs were transparent when the samples were polymerized in a good solvent for PVP. It was concluded that the properties of the PVP/PDMS-IPN can be tuned by the selection of the solvent used during polymerization. The size of the PVP phase domains in the PVP/PDMS-IPNs were analyzed with X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sizes of the domains were found to be smaller than 350 nm. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 288.
    Hjalmarsson, S
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berg, S
    Zackrison, S
    Späckats charkhandbok2001Report (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Holm, K
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Structure design for perception of sweetness in food gels2008Report (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Holm, K
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The relations between food structure and sweetness : a literature review2006Report (Other academic)
  • 291. Holm, K.
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sweetness and texture perception in mixed pectin gels with 30% sugar and a designed rheology2009In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 788-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure low-methoxyl (LM) pectin and mixtures of LM and high-methoxyl (HM) pectin in different ratios were used to produce gels with control over the rheological parameter storage modulus (G?). The gels either had similar pectin concentrations and different G? values, or different pectin concentrations and similar G? values. All gels were prepared with 30 g/100 g sugar, in the presence of 0.1 g/100 g CaCl2, at pH 3.5; these are conditions that favour gel formation of both LM and HM pectin. The gels were compared for their sensory characteristics; specifically sweetness, sourness, thickness, and glueyness. Sweetness was found to increase with increasing storage modulus (G?) in pectin gels of similar pectin concentration, but different G? values. Gels with higher proportions of LM pectin were perceived as sweeter than those with low LM pectin ratios. These gels also had increasing loss modulus (G?), and increasing differences between G? and G?, which indicates that diffusion has a bearing on the perception of sweetness in pectin gels. Thickness and glueyness were mostly determined by total pectin concentration. Thickness also increased with increasing LM pectin concentration while glueyness increased with increasing HM pectin concentration. © 2008 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 292. Holm, K.
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sweetness and texture perceptions in structured gelatin gels with embedded sugar rich domains2009In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 2388-2393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered and homogeneous gelatin gels with controlled rheological properties were compared for their sensory characteristics, specifically sweetness, hardness, breakdown behaviour and frothing. All gels and layers had a gelatin/water concentration of 5%. The total sugar concentration was 9% in the layered samples and 0, 9, 15 or 22.5% in the homogeneous samples. These concentrations corresponded to the concentrations in the single layers. A seven-layered sample with different sugar concentrations in the layers gave a higher early sweetness intensity than a homogeneous gel with the same mean total sugar concentration. All layered gels were similar in hardness, breakdown behaviour and frothing; for the homogenous samples, sensory hardness was decreased in samples with much sugar. These gels also fell into smaller pieces than the sugarless sample. This study shows that it is possible by controlling the sugar distribution within a sample to produce sweeter gels while the sugar content is maintained. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 293.
    Holmer, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Healthy snack preferences in Danish and Swedish school children2010Report (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Holmer, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kommunikation och definition av konsistensanpassad kost i vården : kandidatuppsats inom Kostekonomprogrammet2009Report (Other academic)
  • 295. Holmer, A.
    et al.
    Hausner, H.
    Reinbach, H.C.
    Bredie, W.L.P.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8-11 years2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8-11 year-old Danish (n = 134) and Swedish (n = 109) children. Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance. © 2012 Anna Holmer et al.

  • 296.
    Holtz, E
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of methods to measure functional properties of dehydrated fruits2003Report (Other academic)
  • 297. Holtz, E.
    et al.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rittenauer, M.
    Rasmuson, A.
    Influence of dielectric and sorption properties on drying behaviour and energy efficiency during microwave convective drying of selected food and non-food inorganic materials2010In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Drying behaviour and energy efficiency during microwave convective drying of porous materials and foods2008Report (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Holtz, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Karlsson, T.H.
    Rittenauer, M.
    Rasmuson, A.
    The role of processing parameters on energy efficiency during microwave convective drying of porous materials2009In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small-scale microwave convective dryer was built to study the effects of microwave power level, air temperature, and air velocity on drying kinetics, temperature development, and specific energy consumption (MJ/ kg evaporated water) using statistical designs. Increased microwave power had a large significant effect on moisture loss and temperature development and it reduced specific energy consumption. Increased air temperature and air velocity increased specific energy consumption, as their effect on drying kinetics was smaller in the system used. Low air temperature slowed the drying process, without affecting the relationship between average sample temperature and average moisture content during drying.

  • 300.
    Hornborg, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Broadening the perspective on seafood production: Life cycle thinking and fisheries management2014Report (Refereed)
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