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  • 20951. Åmand, HL
    et al.
    Nordén, B
    Fant, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides trough dimer formation2012In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 418, no 3, p. 469-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes (" peptiplexes") enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the "chelate effect" and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from its stronger binding to DNA.

  • 20952. Åmand, Linda
    et al.
    Andersson, S
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Urban Water Management AB.
    Junestedt, C
    Rahmberg, M
    Lindblom, E
    Thunberg, A
    Nillsson, A
    SIMULATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF STRICTER NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS DISCHARGE CRITERIA2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20953.
    Åmand, Linda
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Nya utsläppskrav för svenska reningsverk – effekter på reningsverkens totala miljöpåverkan2016Report (Other academic)
  • 20954.
    Ånmark, N.
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Björk, Thomas
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Tool Wear in Soft Part Turning of High Performance Steel2016In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2016, p. 484-487Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on the machinability differentiation in semi finishing of three carburizing steel grades that are used in transmission components such as gears, crown wheels and pinions. A reference steel grade of type 20NiCrMo was compared with a clean steel (S=40 ppm) and an ultra-clean steel (S=10 ppm). Attention is on the link between the characteristics of the non-metallic inclusions of the steel grades and the balance of the flank and rake face wear of the CVD Al2O3 and TiCN coatings. The interaction of abrasive wear and thermo-mechanical degradation of the Al2O3 upper layer will be described. © 2016 The Authors.

  • 20955.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bjork, Thomas
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Karasev, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonsson, P. G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of different inclusions on mechanical properties and machinability of 20NiCrMo carburizing steels2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, ICS 2015, Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, p. 805-808Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern steelmaking, carburizing steels are often used for production of automotive components with elevated levels of toughness and fatigue strength. This study is focused on the link between the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in the steel and the machinability of the given steel grades. For this purpose, inclusion characteristics (such as composition, number, size, morphology etc.) in steel samples were determined by common two-dimensional (2D) observations of inclusions on polished metal surface of samples as well as by three-dimensional (3D) investigations of inclusions after electrolytic extraction from steel samples. The inclusion characteristics were investigated in the three types of 20NiCrMo carburizing steel grades: Steel A - reference steel (410ppm S) having a common level of mechanical properties and machinability, Steel B - steel grade (having 340ppm S) with an improved machinability due to the Ca-treatment and modification of MnS inclusions and Steel C - clean steel grade (40ppm S) having a small amount of inclusions and a higher fatigue strength. It was found that the number of inclusions in Steel B is smaller than that in Steel A and that the inclusion composition is different. At the same time, the estimated machinability (tool life) of the Ca-treated steel was superior to that of the reference steel. However, the significant decrease of the number of inclusions in the clean steel (Steel C) resulted in a lower machinability in comparison to the reference steel grade.

  • 20956.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björk, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Ganea, Anna
    Sandvik Coromant, Sweden.
    Ölund, Patrik
    Ovako, Sweden.
    Hogmark, Sture
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of inclusion composition on tool wear in hard part turning using PCBN cutting tools2015In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 334-335, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on hard part turning of carburizing steels using a PCBN cutting tool in fine machining. Emphasis is on the link between composition of the inclusions in work material and wear mechanisms of the cutting tool. A Ca-treated machinability improved 20NiCrMo steel was included together with three other carburizing steels with different inclusion characteristics. Machining tests were conducted to examine cutting tool life and its balance between excessive flank wear and crater wear. The wear mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and a secondary electron (SE) detector.The longest tool life was obtained when cutting the Ca-treated steel. The improved machinability is linked to the deposition of complex (Mn,Ca)S and (Ca,Al)(O,S) protective slag layers that form on the rake face of the cutting tool during machining. Cutting in this steel also resulted in a typical ridge formation in the tool edge crater. Transfer of workpiece material to the rake face crater is characteristic in hard part turning of steel with high cleanliness. This is suggested to be related to the lack of the sulfides that lubricate conventional machinability treated steels, and that the crater wear of low-sulfur steel is more pronounced than for steels with higher sulfur content.

  • 20957.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of different non-metallic inclusions on the machinability of steels2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 751-783Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  • 20958.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lövquist, Simon
    AB Sandvik, Sweden.
    Vosough, Manouchehr
    AB Sandvik, Sweden.
    Björk, Thomas
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    The Effect of Cleanliness and Micro Hardness on the Machinability of Carburizing Steel Grades Suitable for Automotive Applications2016In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 403-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on soft part turning of carburizing steels using cemented carbide (CC) cutting tools. The emphasis is on the influence of the cleanliness and micro hardness on the machinability of carburizing steel grades. A reference steel grade is included in this study together with a clean steel and an ultra-clean steel. Machining tests are conducted to examine the cutting tool life, the balance between the excessive flank or crater wear and the chip formation. The wear mechanisms are examined by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a back-scatter (BS) detector. It is possible to differentiate between the machinability of the clean steel grades, having only a minor difference in the sulfur and oxygen contents. Furthermore, the longest tool life is obtained when machining the reference steel. The superior machinability of the reference steel R is linked to its high content of sulfur. It is believed that MnS inclusions act as stress raisers in the primary shear zone. Hence, this will improve the chip formation process. The focus of this paper is on the effect of steels cleanliness and micro hardness on the cutting tool life, chip breakability, and resistance to abrasive wear of similar carburizing steel grades in soft part turning.

  • 20959.
    Åsberg, M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, G.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Hatami, Seperh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Fredriksson, W.
    Bodycote Hot Isostatic Pressing AB, Sweden.
    Krakhmalev, P.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Influence of post treatment on microstructure, porosity and mechanical properties of additive manufactured H13 tool steel2019In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 742, p. 584-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an attractive manufacturing technology in tooling applications. It provides unique opportunities to manufacture tools with complex shapes, containing inner channels for conformal cooling. In this investigation, H13, a widely used tool steel, was manufactured using a laser powder bed fusion method. Microstructure, tensile mechanical properties, hardness, and porosity of the AM H13 after stress relieve (SR), standard hardening and tempering (SR + HT), and hot isostatic pressing (SR + HIP + HT) were investigated. It was found that the microstructure of directly solidified colonies of prior austenite, which is typical for AM, disappeared after austenitizing at the hardening heat treatment. In specimens SR + HT and SR + HIP + HT, a microstructure similar to the conventional but finer was observed. Electron microscopy showed that SR and SR + HT specimens contained lack of fusion, and spherical gas porosity, which resulted in remarkable scatter in the observed elongation to break values. Application of HIP resulted in the highest strength values, higher than those observed for conventional H13 heat treated in the same way. The conclusion is that HIP promotes reduction of porosity and lack of fusion defects and can be efficiently used to improve the mechanical properties of AM H13 tool steel.

  • 20960.
    Åslund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Vomhoff, H.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Dewatering mechanisms and their influence on suction box dewatering processes: A literature review2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 389-397Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarizes the present knowledge of suction box dewatering mechanisms. In addition, existing and novel suction box dewatering processes are described for applications in the pulp and paper industry. Three mechanisms that determine the dry content of the web after suction box dewatering are identified, viz. web compression, displacement of water by air, and rewetting. Earlier work focused mainly on the influence of web properties and process parameters for the achievable dry content. That work did not give any information concerning the relative importance of the three mechanisms. There was no measurement of web compression or water displacement. Furthermore, the occurrence of rewetting was neglected by many researchers. A deeper knowledge and, above all, direct measurements are required to better describe suction box dewatering. Some interesting modified suction box dewatering processes were presented in the literature. For example, the use of a membrane on top of the web during dewatering is believed to have the potential for an increase in dry content and energy savings. This increase in dry content is consequently believed to be a result of an increase in web compression.

  • 20961.
    Åslund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Vomhoff, H.
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Waljanson, A.
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    The deformation of chemical and mechanical pulp webs during suction box dewatering2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 403-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of the paper web during and after a suction pulse on initially saturated fibre web made of chemical and mechanical pulp was investigated. A laboratory suction box was used, where the suction time and pressure drop could be varied and controlled. During the experiments, the web thickness, the air flow through the web and the suction pressure were recorded and after the experiments, the dry content of the web was determined. A large deformation was observed when the suction pulse was applied. After the suction pulse, a considerable expansion of the web took place, probably an effect of rewetting. The compression of the web appeared to be the most important dewatering mechanism increasing the dry content of the web. However, if the web is not separated from the forming fabric, rewetting after the suction pulse will greatly reduce the dry content.

  • 20962.
    Ņslund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Evaluation of membrane-assisted dewatering on a pilot paper machine2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 152-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A membrane-assisted dewatering process was evaluated on a pilot paper machine. In this process, a membrane is located on top of the wet web when it passes over the suction box in the forming section. The intentions are twofold. Firstly, the dry content of the web should be increased by a more uniform compression, primarily in the thickness direction. Secondly, the airflow into the suction box should be reduced. The trials were performed using a specially designed membrane loop located at the end of the fourdrinier forming section of STFI-Packforsk’s pilot paper machine EuroFEX. Two different membranes were tested. The use of a membrane resulted in a significant decrease in air consumption to achieve the same dry content of the web at the end of the wire section. To increase the dry content of the web, the structure of the membrane is important.

  • 20963.
    Åslund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Method for studying the deformation of a fibre web during a suction pulse2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 398-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory suction box was built to study the dynamic thickness deformation of a fibre web during a suction pulse. Both the pressure in the suction box and the duration of the suction pulse are adjustable in ranges of 0 to -40 kPa and 50 ms to 10 s, respectively. During and after the suction pulse, the web thickness and the suction pressures can be measured. Furthermore, the air flow through the web can be calculated after the experiment. The first evaluation of the performance of the laboratory suction box shows that the web is considerably compressedaaaa especially during the initial phase of the suction pulse. This indicates that web compression is an important dewatering mechanism. After the suction pulse, a rapid and significant web expansion was observed, implying that considerable rewetting probably occurs.

  • 20964.
    Åslund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Web deformation during membrane-assisted dewatering2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 415-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of membrane-assisted dewatering was evaluated on a laboratory suction box. Different membranes, one impermeable and two permeable membranes were placed on top of the wet web, while a suction pulse was exerted underneath the web. The deformation of the wet web and the dry content of the web were determined approx. 30 seconds after the suction pulse. The results of these experiments were compared with results of those carried out without a membrane. A significantly higher web compression was observed at the end of the suction pulse when a membrane was used. The increased web compression that occurred when using a membrane corresponded to a dry content of 3 to 4%. The highest dry content values were obtained, however, when no membrane was applied. This contradiction was interpreted as a higher rewetting after the suction pulse when a membrane was used. Here, due to the reduced air flow through both the web and the forming fabric, it is likely that more water was available in the forming fabric for rewetting. Apparently, the air flow removed water from the forming fabric that otherwise would have been rewetted by the web.

  • 20965.
    Åslund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Waljanson, Alexander
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    External rewetting after suction box dewatering2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 409-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method has been developed to enable external rewetting to be measured during suction box dewatering. In a laboratory suction box, webs were instantaneously separated from the forming fabric at defined times, both during and after the suction pulse. External rewetting was measured for webs of mechanical (50, 100 g/m2) and chemical pulp (100, 200 g/m 2). Suction pulses with a pressure drop of 10 and 40 kPa, and duration of 50 to 1000 ms were used. A considerable external rewetting was observed occurring primarily directly after the end of the suction pulse. Under the process conditions investigated, rewetting accounted for a dry content decrease of between 3 and 6%.

  • 20966. Åstlund, L
    et al.
    Wang, Q
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Esteve, R
    Almqvist, S
    Rihtnesberg, D
    Reshanov, S
    Zhang, A Z
    Lim, J K
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Bakowski, M
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Schöner, A
    Kaplan, W
    4H- 6H-SiC UV photodetectors2012In: Phys. Status Solid, Vol. c9, no 7, p. 1680-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20967.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Heat transfer between fluid and particles in food processing. Licentiate thesis.1991Report (Refereed)
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  • 20968.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Mätteknik för livsmedelskvalitet1991Report (Refereed)
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  • 20969.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Pastöristering bibehåller hög produktkvalitet hos kyllagrad korv1984Report (Refereed)
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  • 20970.
    Åström, A
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Konsumenters livsmedelsval – hur, varför och när?2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 20971.
    Åström, A
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Sundström, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Vinsmo, L G
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Uppbyggnad av en aseptikstation.1988Report (Refereed)
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  • 20972.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The influence of some key ingredients on the sensory characteristics of mayonnaise.1998In: Food and Drink Review, Spring, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20973.
    Åström, Annika
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Bark, G.
    Heat transfer between fluid and particles in aseptic processing1994In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 97-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp, is one of the critical factors, besides the residence time distribution, that has to be known for the design and development of continuous heat processes of particulate food products. In the present work, data and methods for determining hhp for conditions relevant to aseptic processing have been studied. The influence of product characteristics, such as size and composition of particles, fluid properties, temperature differences and fluid motion, have been investigated. Among the parameters investigated, the flow field around the particles was shown to be the most important for heat transfer but for special conditions the particle size, particle shape or thermal properties of the particle, as well as the apparent viscosity and the thermal properties of the fluid, are equally important for the value of hfp. For safety considerations, the present investigation indicates that hfp values corresponding to an Nu value of 5-6 should be relevant for medium-sized spherical particles transported by a highly viscous liquid. For the quality aspects, different conditions have to be considered. Particles at different positions in·the tube flow will experience different heat transfer. The few particles in the centre of the tube will experience a low heat transfer and hfp values corresponding to Nu values ranging between 5 and 10. The larger amounts of particles are transported in the liquid with a pronounced velocity gradient which yields Nu values of 10-17, while for extreme conditions occurring for sedimented particles, Nu values between 20 and 45 could be expected. © 1993.

  • 20974.
    Åström, Annika
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Goldman, A.
    Heiniö, R.-L.
    Workshop summary: Cross-cultural sensory and consumer studies.2006In: Food Quality and Preferences, Vol. 17, p. 646-649Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20975.
    Åström, Björn
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Non destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive joining is a method that gains ground within primarily the automotive segment due to the introduction of light weight materials and difficult material combinations. Light weight metals like aluminium, titanium and magnesium along side of polymer matrix composites has been used within the aerospace industry for quite some time, but the production series within the automotive segment is usually significantly longer and the production time usually more limited To be able to work with quality assurance on a continuous basis demands non destructive evaluation methods that are fast, reliable and preferably possible to at least partly automate. There are several non destructive evaluations methods that might meet these demands, e.g. (computerised) visual inspection, shearography, IR thermo-graphy, acoustic emission, computer aided tap testing and a few ultrasonic techniques: Guided Wave inspection and laser ultrasonics. In many cases it is desirable to evaluate a bondline prior to adhesive setting, but due to the basic principles of the evaluations method, the adherends or a combination thereof, this is not always possible. In some cases, however it is possible with considerable potential cost saves as a result. The NDE methods probably best suited for pre setting evaluation is IR thermography and Guided Wave inspection. In some cases visual inspection, possibly computer aided, can be a feasible alternative as well.

  • 20976.
    Åström, E.
    et al.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Bonomi, G.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Calliari, I.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Calvini, P.
    University of Genova, Italy; Sezione INFN di Genova, Italy.
    Checchia, P.
    INFN Sezione di Padova, Italy.
    Donzella, A.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Faraci, E.
    Centro Sviluppo Materiali SPA, Italy.
    Forsberg, F.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
    Gonella, F.
    INFN Sezione di Padova, Italy.
    Hu, Xianfeng
    RISE, Swerea, MEFOS.
    Klinger, J.
    INFN Sezione di Padova, Italy.
    Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena
    RISE, Swerea, MEFOS.
    Pagano, D.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Rigoni, A.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Ramous, E.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Urbani, M.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Vanini, S.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Zenoni, A.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Zumerle, G.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Precision measurements of linear scattering density using muon tomography2016In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, no 7, article id P07010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that muon tomography can be used to precisely measure the properties of various materials. The materials which have been considered have been extracted from an experimental blast furnace, including carbon (coke) and iron oxides, for which measurements of the linear scattering density relative to the mass density have been performed with an absolute precision of 10%. We report the procedures that are used in order to obtain such precision, and a discussion is presented to address the expected performance of the technique when applied to heavier materials. The results we obtain do not depend on the specific type of material considered and therefore they can be extended to any application.

  • 20977.
    Åström, Elin
    et al.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Björkvall, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Björkman, Bo M.T.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Dan
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Vanadium oxide solubility in CaO–SiO2–VOX system2017In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 42-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of vanadium oxide in the SiO2–CaO–VOX system was investigated as a function of basicity (CaO/SiO2) at a fixed temperature of 1600°C and oxygen partial pressure of 10−10 atm. Formed phases and microstructures of saturated samples were identified with SEM–EDS analysis and XRD. Maximum solubility of vanadium oxide was between 15 and 20% independent of basicity. Pure karelianite (V2O3) was formed in all samples at saturation of vanadium oxide. The morphology of karelianite changed with the change in basicity in the slag, where needles or threads were formed for slags with basicity B2 = 0.54 and B2 = 0.67 and stars or dendritic patterns were formed with basicity B2 = 1.0 and B2 = 1.22. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was also formed in the slags with star or dendritic patterns.

  • 20978.
    Åström, Malin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    EDI i sågverksbranschen - en kartläggning av informationsflödet hos ett sågverksföretag och av mognaden hos dess potentiella EDI-partner1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    EDI, eller Electronic Data Interchange, är en teknik som används för att effektivisera informationsflödet mellan företag. Tekniken innebär att företagen skickar affärsmeddelanden till varandra på elektronisk väg, via sina administrativa datorsystem. Undersökningen ska fungera som underlag för Iggesunds Timber AB när man ska besluta i vilken utsträckning man ska satsa på EDI. Rapporten är resultatet av det examensarbete, som Malin Åström genomfört för sin jägmästarexamen.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20979.
    Åström, Timas
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Outlook for technical textiles in the Nordic countries [Aussichten für technische Textilien in den nordischen Ländern]2003In: AVR Allgemeiner Vliesstoff-Report, ISSN 1704060, no 4, p. s. 10-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General economic information on industrial textiles in Scandinavia is presented. Areas in which Nordic companies are particularly successful include: automotive and agricultural textiles, sportswear, building textiles, medical textiles, protective garments and safety textiles. Those sectors in which Nordic countries are particularly successful are airbag fabrics, geotextiles, sun protection fabrics, papermakers' felts, camouflage screens and fabric-reinforced composites. The impact of labour costs on manufacturing is discussed. Product development is noted.

  • 20980. Öberg, Kurt
    et al.
    Jonsson, Claes
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Farligt buller i jordbruket: enkätundersökning och pilotstudie för bullermätning2003Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20981. Ödberg, L
    et al.
    Forsberg, S
    McBride, G
    Persson, M
    Stenius, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ström, G
    Surfactant behaviour of wood resin components.Part 2. Solubilization in micelles of rosin and fatty acids1985In: Svensk Papperstidning, ISSN 0283-6831, Vol. 88, p. R118-R125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20982.
    Ödberg, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    McBride, G
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Magnusson, KE
    Characterization of the surface of cellulosic fibers using aqueous two-phase partitioning1985In: Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, ISSN 0340-255X, E-ISSN 1437-8027, Vol. 70, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20983. Ödberg, L
    et al.
    Ström, G
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    ESCA studies of retention and dewatering aids. The adsorption of polymin SNand polymin SN-lignosulfonate complexes on cellulose1983In: Svensk Papperstidning, ISSN 0283-6831, Vol. 86, p. R141-R145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20984.
    Ödegard, E
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Undersökning av betongens tryckhållfasthetsegenskaper vid tidig ålder1962Report (Refereed)
  • 20985.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Analysis of stresses in a cracket reinforced concrete beam1973Report (Refereed)
  • 20986.
    Ödman, Sven T. A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Betongblandningens inverkan på krympningen1969In: Byggmästaren, ISSN 0562-102X, no 6, article id 57Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20987.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Differentialekvation för beräkning av bärande konstruktioners svängningar till följd av åkande laster1948Report (Refereed)
  • 20988.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    En metod att lösa partiella differentialekvationer med tillämpning på rektangulära plattor1948Report (Refereed)
  • 20989.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Energy methods of statics applied to linear boundary value problems1954Report (Refereed)
  • 20990.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Formler för spänningar, sprickbildning och tröghetsmoment hos armerade betongbalkar belastade till brott med konstant böjande moment1978Report (Refereed)
  • 20991.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Stresses in axiallyt reinforced concrete prisms subjected to tension and exposed to drying1962Report (Refereed)
  • 20992.
    Ödman, Sven T A
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Tests on shrinkage of reinforced concrete beams1973Report (Refereed)
  • 20993. Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Ankarson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Hallbjörner, Paul
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Experimental Study of Path Loss for UHF Band Communication Near Water Surface2012In: International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (I.Re.C.A.P.), Vol. 2, no 3, p. 215-219Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20994.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Nils
    Södra Älvsborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Otterskog, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ödman, Natalia
    Södra Älvsborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christer U.
    Lund University, Sweden; SAAB, Sweden.
    A study of different fabrics to increase radar cross section of humans2015In: Stud. Health Technol. Informatics, IOS Press , 2015, Vol. 211, p. 201-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This purpose of the study was to increase the visibility on radar for unprotected pedestrians with the aid of conducting fabric. The experiment comprised measurements of four types of fabric to determine the radio frequency properties, such as radar cross section (RCS) for the vehicle radar frequency 77 GHz and transmission (shielding) in the frequency range 3-18 GHz. Two different thicknesses of polypyrrole (PPy) nonvowen fabric were tested and one thickness for 30 % and 40 % stainless steel fabrics respectively. A jacket with the thinner nonvowen material and one with 40 % steel were tested and compared to an unmodified jacket in the RCS measurement. The measurement showed an increase in RCS of 4 dB for the jacket with the 40 % steel lining compared to the unmodified jacket. The transmission measurement was aimed at determining the fabric with the highest transmission of an incoming radio wave. The 30 % steel fabric and the two thicknesses of the nonvowen fabrics were tested. One practical application is for example the use of radar reflective material in search and rescue (SAR) clothes. The study showed that the 30 % steel fabric was the best candidate for further RCS measurements. © 2015 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 20995.
    Ögren, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Akustik (Eta).
    Propagation of sound - screening and ground effect. Part 1. Non-refracting atmosphere.1997Report (Refereed)
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  • 20996.
    Ögren, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Akustik (Eta).
    Propagation of sound - Screening and ground effect. Part 2: Refracting atmosphere.1998Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 20997.
    Ögren, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Akustik (Eta).
    The design of an array microphone.1996Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 20998.
    Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wennebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Toth, Pal
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of oxidizer injection angle on the entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood powder2018In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 181, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, 5 different axisymmetric burners with different directions of the oxidizer inlets were experimentally tested during oxygen blown gasification of torrefied wood powder. The burners were evaluated under two different O2/fuel ratios at a thermal power of 135 kWth, based on the heating value of torrefied wood powder. The evaluation was based on both conventional methods such as gas chromatography measurements and thermocouples and in-situ measurements using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. It was shown that changes in the near burner region influence the process efficiency significantly. Changing the injection angle of the oxidizer stream to form a converging oxidizer jet increased process efficiency by 20%. Besides increased process efficiency, it was shown that improvements in burner design also influence carbon conversion and hydrocarbon production. The burner with the best performance also produced less CH4 and achieved the highest carbon conversion. The effect of generating swirl via rotating the oxidizer jet axes was also investigated. Swirl broadened or removed the impingement area between the fuel and oxidizer jets, however resulting in differences in performance within the measurement uncertainty.

  • 20999.
    Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology,Sweden.
    Sepman, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Qu, Zhechau
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of Measurement Techniques for Temperature and Soot Concentration in Premixed, Small-Scale Burner Flames2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 11328-11336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical and intrusive measurement techniques for temperature and soot concentration in hot reacting flows were tested on a small-scale burner in fuel-rich, oxygen-enriched atmospheric flat flames produced to simulate the environment inside an entrained flow reactor. The optical techniques comprised two-color pyrometry (2C-PYR), laser extinction (LE), and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), and the intrusive methods included fine-wire thermocouple thermometry (TC) and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) particle analysis. Vertical profiles of temperature and soot concentration were recorded in flames with different equivalence and O2/N2 ratios. The 2C-PYR and LE data were derived assuming mature soot. Gas temperatures up to 2200 K and soot concentrations up to 3 ppmv were measured. Close to the burner surface, the temperatures obtained with the pyrometer were up to 300 K higher than those measured by TDLAS. Further away from the burner, the difference was within 100 K. The TC-derived temperatures were within 100 K from the TDLAS results for most of the flames. At high signal-to-noise ratio and in flame regions with mature soot, the temperatures measured by 2C-PYR and TDLAS were similar. The soot concentrations determined with 2C-PYR were close to those obtained with LE but lower than the ELPI results. It is concluded that the three optical techniques have good potential for process control applications in combustion and gasification processes. 2C-PYR offers simpler installation and 2D imaging, whereas TDLAS and LE provide better accuracy and dynamic range without calibration procedures.

  • 21000.
    Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toth, Pal
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    Garami, Attila
    University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    Sepman, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of a vision-based soft sensor for estimating equivalence ratio and major species concentration in entrained flow biomass gasification reactors2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 450-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of image processing techniques and regression models was evaluated for predicting equivalence ratio and major species concentration (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) based on real-time image data from the luminous reaction zone in conditions and reactors relevant to biomass gasification. Two simple image pre-processing routines were tested: reduction to statistical moments and pixel binning (subsampling). Image features obtained by using these two pre-processing methods were then used as inputs for two regression algorithms: Gaussian Process Regression and Artificial Neural Networks. The methods were evaluated by using a laboratory-scale flat-flame burner and a pilot-scale entrained flow biomass gasifier. For the flat-flame burner, the root mean square error (RMSE) were on the order of the uncertainty of the experimental measurements. For the gasifier, the RMSE was approximately three times higher than the experimental uncertainty – however, the main source of the error was the quantization of the training dataset. The accuracy of the predictions was found to be sufficient for process monitoring purposes. As a feature extraction step, reduction to statistical moments proved to be superior compared to pixel binning.

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