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  • 20901. Zonta, D.
    et al.
    Pozzi, M.
    Wu, Huayong
    Zanon, P.
    Ceriotti, M.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Picco, G. P.
    Murphy, A. L.
    Guna, S.
    Real-Time Health Monitoring of Historic Buildings with Wireless Sensor Networks2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20902. Zottl, Andreas
    et al.
    Lindahl, Markus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Nordman, Roger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Rivière, Philippe
    Miara, Marek
    Evaluation method for comparison of heat pump systems with conventional heating systems - Concept for evaluation of CO2-reduction potential2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20903. Zottl, Andreas
    et al.
    Nordman, Roger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Coevoet, Michel
    Rivière, Philippe
    Miara, Marek
    Benou, Anastasia
    Riederer, Peter
    Andersson, Kajsa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Lindahl, Markus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Guideline for heat pump field measurements for hydronic heating systems The guideline contains information on what to measure in order to calculate SPF and about the required measurement quality.2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20904.
    Zrida, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of extreme temperatures on micro-damage development in CF/polyimide laminates2015In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CF Thornel® T650 8-harness satin weave fabric composite with thermosetting polyimide NEXIMID® MHT-R resin designed for high service temperatures is produced at around 390°C and therefore high thermal stresses develop after cooling down to room temperature. Thermal transverse stresses in bundles/layers are tensile and lead to multiple intra-bundle /intra-laminar cracking. When the composite plate is subjected to large and repeated temperature variations, new cracks can appear due to thermally induced fatigue stress. Experimental results show that the highest temperature in the cycle, where thermal stresses are low, has a significant detrimental effect on thermal fatigue resistance. Another observed phenomenon is thermal aging: at high temperature the mechanical properties are degrading with time. Aging and fatigue effects were separately analyzed for quasi-isotropic laminates with lay-up [(+45/-45)/(90/0)]2s. 

  • 20905.
    Zrida, H.
    et al.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Ayadi, Z.
    Ecole Européenne D'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux.
    Varna, J.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Effective stiffness of curved 0°-layers for stiffness determination of cross-ply non-crimp fabric composites2014In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, no 14, p. 1339-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the 0°-tow waviness on axial stiffness of cross-ply non-crimp fabric composites is analysed using multiscale approach. The curved 0°- and 90°-layers are represented by flat layers with effective stiffness properties and classical laminate theory is used to calculate the macroscopic stiffness. The effective 0°-layer stiffness is calculated analysing isolated curved 0°-layers subjected not only to end loading, but also to surface loads. The surface loads are identified in a detailed finite element analysis and approximated by a sinus shaped function with amplitude depending on the waves parameters. The sinus shaped surface loads are then applied to an isolated curved 0°-layer finite element model together with end loading to calculate the effective stiffness of the layer. Finally, the effective 0°-layer stiffness was successfully used to calculate the macroscopic stiffness of the composite proving validity of the approach being used and showing that, without losing accuracy, elastic properties in the 90°-layers with bundle structure can be replaced by the transverse stiffness of the homogenised 90°-layer material. © 2014 The Author(s).

  • 20906.
    Zrida, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Ayadi, Z.
    Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Master curve approach to axial stiffness calculation for non-crimp fabric biaxial composites with out-of-plane waviness2014In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 64, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of 0°-tow out-of-plane waviness on the biaxial non-crimp-fabric (NCF) composite axial stiffness is investigated. Homogenizing, the bundle mesostructure of the NCF composite is replaced by layers. Then the composite is represented by a laminate with flat layers with effective stiffness properties representing the curved 0°-layer and the 90°-layer with varying thickness. It is shown that the NCF composite knock-down factor characterizing the stiffness degradation has almost the same dependence on wave parameters as the knock-down factor for the curved 0°-layer. Numerical analysis showed that 90°-layer knock-down factor versus amplitude curves for different wavelength can be reduced to one master curve which can be described by a one-parameter expression with the parameter dependent on the used material. This observation is used to obtain high accuracy for analytical predictions for knock-down factors for cases with different wavelength and amplitudes based on two FE calculations only. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20907.
    Zrida, Habiba
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; University of Lorraine, France.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Microcracking in thermally cycled and aged Carbon fibre/polyimide laminates2017In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 94, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibre T650 8-harness satin weave fabric composites with thermosetting polyimide resin designed for high service temperatures are solidified at 340 °C. High thermal stresses develop after cooling down to room temperature, which lead to multiple cracking in bundles of the studied quasi-isotropic composite. The composites are subjected to two thermal cycling ramps and the increase of crack density in each bundle is quantified. Comparison of two ramps with the same lowest temperature shows that the highest temperature in the cycle has a significant effect on thermal fatigue resistance. During thermal aging tests at 288 °C the mechanical properties are degrading with time and the crack density after certain aging time is measured. Aging and fatigue effects are separately analysed showing that part of the cracking in thermal cycling tests is related to material aging during the high temperature part of the cycle. Numerical edge stress analysis and fracture mechanics are used to explain observations. The 3-D finite element edge stress analysis reveals that there is large edge effect that induces a large difference in the damage state between the different layers on the edge. The linear elastic fracture mechanics explains the higher initiated and propagated crack density in the surface layers comparing to the inner layers.

  • 20908.
    Zucca, M.
    et al.
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca, Italy.
    Bottauscio, O.
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca, Italy.
    Harmon, S.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Guilizzoni, R.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Schilling, F.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Schmidt, M.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ankarson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, AstaZero.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Tammi, K.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Sainio, P.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Romero, J. B.
    Research Centre for Energy Resources, Spain.
    Puyal, E. L.
    Research Centre for Energy Resources, Spain.
    Pichon, L.
    Laboratoire Génie électrique et électronique de Paris, France.
    Freschi, F.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Cirimele, V.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Bauer, P.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Dong, J.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Maffucci, A.
    Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Italy.
    Ventre, S.
    Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Italy.
    Femia, N.
    Università degli studi di salerno, Italy.
    Capua, G. Di
    Università degli studi di salerno, Italy.
    Kuster, N.
    Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Sweden.
    Liorni, I.
    Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Sweden.
    Metrology for Inductive Charging of Electric Vehicles (MICEV)2019In: 2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE), 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union funded project MICEV aims at improving the traceability of electrical and magnetic measurement at charging stations and to better assess the safety of this technology with respect to human exposure. The paper describes some limits of the instrumentation used for electrical measurements in the charging stations, and briefly presents two new calibration facilities for magnetic field meters and electric power meters. Modeling approaches for the efficiency and human exposure assessment are proposed. In the latter case, electromagnetic computational codes have been combined with dosimetric computational codes making use of highly detailed human anatomical phantoms in order to establish human exposure modeling real charging stations. Detailed results are presented for light vehicles where, according to our calculations, the concern towards human exposure is limited. Currently, the project has reached half way point (about 18 months) and will end in August 2020.

  • 20909.
    Zucca, M.
    et al.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Loader, B.
    NPL Management Limited, UK.
    Schmidt, M.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Tammi, K.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Bruna Romero, J.
    Fundacion CIRCE, Spain.
    Pichon, L.
    CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France.
    Freschi, F.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Bauer, P.
    Technische Universiteit Delft, Netherlands.
    Blandow, V.
    TÜV SÜD AG, Germany.
    Maffucci, A.
    Università degli Studi di Cassino, Italy.
    Femia, N.
    Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Italy.
    Kuster, N.
    Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Switzerland.
    The Project 'Metrology for Inductive Charging of Electric Vehicles'2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European metrology programme for innovation and research (EMPIR) is the current main programme for European research on metrology. In 2016, within the EMPIR call, the project 'Metrology for inductive charging of electric vehicles' (MICEV) was approved and it started in September 2017. Inductive charging is a wireless charging technology that will be widely used with electric vehicles (EVs) in the near future, offering many advantages over traditionally fuelled and current EVs. The project aims to advance inductive power transfer (IPT) for EV charging by developing metrology techniques for measuring power transfer efficiency and reliable demonstration of compliance with existing safety standards for human exposure. The main research topics are: measurement of the power transmitted on-board, transmission efficiency, requirements for measurements in the dynamic charging, assessment of magnetic field exposure.

  • 20910. Zuniga, Marco
    et al.
    Irzynska, Izabela
    Hauer, Jan-Hinrich
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Boano, Carlo Alberto
    Römer, Kay
    Link Quality Ranking: Getting the Best out of Unreliable Links2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 20911.
    Zurek, Monika
    et al.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    University of Oxford, UK; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commission, Italy.
    Vervoort, Joost
    University of Oxford, UK; Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Marijke
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Garrone, Maria
    KU Leuven University, Belgium.
    Havlík, Petr
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Heckelei, Thomas
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ingram, John
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Kuijsten, Anneleen
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Shutes, Lindsay
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Geleijnse, Johanna
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Terluin, Ida
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    van't Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Wijnands, Jo
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Zimmermann, Andrea
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy.
    Achterbosch, Thom
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Assessing sustainable food and nutrition security of the EU food system-an integrated approach2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 4271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering the EU food system towards a sustainability transformation requires a vast and actionable knowledge base available to a range of public and private actors. Few have captured this complexity by assessing food systems from a multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective, which would include (1) nutrition and diet, environmental and economic outcomes together with social equity dimensions and (2) system interactions across country, EU and global scales. This paper addresses this gap in food systems research and science communication by providing an integrated analytical approach and new ways to communicate this complexity outside science. Based on a transdisciplinary science approach with continuous stakeholder input, the EU Horizon2020 project 'Metrics, Models and Foresight for European SUStainable Food And Nutrition Security' (SUSFANS) developed a five-step process: Creating a participatory space; designing a conceptual framework of the EU food system; developing food system performance metrics; designing a modelling toolbox and developing a visualization tool. The Sustainable Food and Nutrition-Visualizer, designed to communicate complex policy change-impacts and trade-off questions, enables an informed debate about trade-offs associated with options for change among food system actors as well as in the policy making arena. The discussion highlights points for further research related to indicator development, reach of assessment models, participatory processes and obstacles in science communication. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 20912.
    Zylberstein, Marek
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Informationsergonomi i skogs- och jordbruksmaskiner1993Report (Refereed)
  • 20913.
    Álvarez, E.
    et al.
    Oxeon AB, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, F.
    Oxeon AB, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    González, E.
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Sainz De Aja, J. R.
    Aernnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica S.A, Spain.
    Developed technologies for damage simulation in ultrathin composite reinforcements and novel material with outstanding impact performance2016In: International SAMPE Technical Conference, Soc. for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damage assessments in the aerospace industry are for composites more demanding than they were before for traditional materials. The simulation of impact damage and damage growth has become increasingly important where testing of manufactured parts could be highly expensive, and reliable models are therefore essential for those materials that shall be used in this industry. Following the vested interest in Spread Tow reinforcements and its ultra-thin plies due to outstanding performance (among them the market leading TeXtreme®), the European Air TN project DAMTEX has aimed to develop analytical and FE models to predict the impact damage and damage propagation in thin woven composites. Extensive testing has been performed to feed and validate the material models through the characterization of fiber failure, delamination and residual strengths after an impact event in a drop tower test. As a result of the better understanding of these novel materials, a new Spread Tow reinforcement with improved damage performance has been developed. The interlaminar toughness, limited damage and excellent CAI results observed in this new material have outperformed those in currently used carbon fiber reinforcements. TeXtreme® will present the results from the DAMTEX project with regard to the acquired knowledge and developed technologies and materials.

  • 20914.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Moreno-Ramírez, Jorge S.
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Pimentel, Carlos
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain; CSIC Instituto de Geociencias IGEO, Spain.
    Casado, Santiago
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Matta, Micaela
    Université de Bordeaux, France.
    Gierschner, Johannes
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Muccioli, Luca
    Université de Bordeaux, France.
    Yoon, Seong-Jun
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Varghese, Shinto
    Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
    Park, Soo Young
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Gnecco, Enrico
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Pina, Carlos M.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; CSIC Instituto de Geociencias IGEO, Spain.
    Molecular-scale shear response of the organic semiconductor β -DBDCS (100) surface2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 11, article id 115422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present friction-force microscopy (FFM) lattice-resolved images acquired on the (100) facet of the semiconductor organic oligomer (2Z,2′Z)-3,3′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(2-(4-butoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile) (β-DBDCS) crystal in water at room temperature. Stick-slip contrast, lateral contact stiffness, and friction forces are found to depend strongly on the sliding direction due to the anisotropic packing of the molecular chains forming the crystal surface along the [010] and [001] directions. The anisotropy also causes the maximum value of the normal force applicable before wearing to increase by a factor of 3 when the scan is performed along the [001] direction on the (100) face. Altogether, our results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the molecular origin of friction anisotropy on soft crystalline surfaces, which has been often hypothesized but rarely investigated in the literature.

  • 20915.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IMDEA Nanoscience, Spain.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Kjellin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Camacho, Alejandra
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, US.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Luengo, Gustavo S.
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, France.
    Nanomechanical properties of human skin and introduction of a novel hair indenter2016In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 54, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical resistance of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, to deformation has been evaluated at different length scales using Atomic Force Microscopy. Nanomechanical surface mapping was first conducted using a sharp silicon tip and revealed that Young’s modulus of the stratum corneum varied over the surface with a mean value of about 0.4 GPa. Force indentation measurements showed permanent deformation of the skin surface only at high applied loads (above 4 μN). The latter effect was further demonstrated using nanomechanical imaging in which the obtained depth profiles clearly illustrate the effects of increased normal force on the elastic/plastic surface deformation. Force measurements utilizing the single hair fiber probe supported the nanoindentation results of the stratum corneum being highly elastic at the nanoscale, but revealed that the lateral scale of the deformation determines the effective elastic modulus.This result resolves the fact that the reported values in the literature vary greatly and will help to understand the biophysics of the interaction of razor cut hairs that curl back during growth and interact with the skin.

  • 20916. Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Flanking transmission in light weight timber houses with elastic flanking isolators2012In: 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, INTER-NOISE 2012;, AtlasBooks / Institute of Noise Control Engineerin , 2012, , p. 2289-2300Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20917. Ågren, J.
    et al.
    Hamidjaja, R. A.
    Hansen, T.
    Ruuls, R.
    Thierry, S.
    Vigre, H.
    Janse, I.
    Sundström, A.
    Segerman, B.
    Koene, M.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Rotterdam, B.
    Derzelle, S.
    In silico and in vitro evaluation of PCR-based assays for the detection of Bacillus anthracis chromosomal signature sequences2013In: Virulence, ISSN 2150-5594, E-ISSN 2150-5608, Vol. 4, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a zoonotic pathogen that is relatively common throughout the world and may cause life threatening diseases in animals and humans. There are many PCR-based assays in use for the detection of B. anthracis. While most of the developed assays rely on unique markers present on virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, relatively few assays incorporate chromosomal DNA markers due to the close relatedness of B. anthracis to the B. cereus group strains. For the detection of chromosomal DNA, different genes have been used, such as BA813, rpoB, gyrA, plcR, S-layer, and prophage-lambda. Following a review of the literature, an in silico analysis of all signature sequences reported for identification of B. anthracis was conducted. Published primer and probe sequences were compared for specificity against 134 available Bacillus spp. genomes. Although many of the chromosomal targets evaluated are claimed to be specific to B. anthracis, cross-reactions with closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains were often observed. Of the 35 investigated PCR assays, only 4 were 100% specific for the B. anthracis chromosome. An interlaboratory ring trial among five European laboratories was then performed to evaluate six assays, including the WHO recommended procedures, using a collection of 90 Bacillus strains. Three assays performed adequately, yielding no false positive or negative results. All three assays target chromosomal markers located within the lambdaBa03 prophage region (PL3, BA5345, and BA5357). Detection limit was further assessed for one of these highly specific assays. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

  • 20918. Ågren, Magnus
    High-Level Modelling and Local Search2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial optimisation problems are ubiquitous in our society and appear in such varied guises as DNA sequencing, scheduling, configuration, airline-crew and nurse rostering, combinatorial auctions, vehicle routing, and financial portfolio design. Their efficient solution is crucial to many people and has been the target for much research during the last decades. One successful area of research for solving such problems is constraint programming. Yet, current-generation constraint programming languages are considered by many, especially in industry, to be too low-level, difficult, and large. In this thesis, we argue that solver-independent, high-level relational constraint modelling leads to a simpler and smaller language, to more concise, intuitive, and analysable models, as well as to more efficient and effective model formulation, maintenance, reformulation, and verification. All this can be achieved without sacrificing the possibility of efficient solving, so that even time-pressed modellers can be well assisted. Towards this, we propose the ESRA relational constraint modelling language, showcase its elegance on some real-life problems, and outline a compilation philosophy for such languages. In order to compile high-level languages such as ESRA to current generation constraint programming languages, it is essential that as much support as possible is available in these languages. This is already the case in the constructive search area of constraint programming where, e.g., different kinds of domain variables, such as integer variables and set variables, and expressive global constraints are readily available. However, in the local search area of constraint programming, this is not yet the case and, until now, set variables were for example not available. This thesis introduces set variables and set constraints in the local search area of constraint programming and, by doing this, considerably improves the possibilities for using local search. This is true both for modelling and solving problems using constraint-based local search, as well as for using it as a possible target for the compilation of ESRA models. Indeed, many combinatorial optimisation problems have natural models based on set variables and set constraints, three of which are successfully solved in this thesis. When a new set constraint is introduced in local search, much effort must be spent on the design and implementation of an appropriate incremental penalty function for the constraint. This thesis introduces a scheme that, from a high-level description of a set constraint in existential second-order logic with counting, automatically synthesises an incremental penalty function for that constraint. The performance of this scheme is demonstrated by solving real-life instances of a financial portfolio design problem that seem unsolvable in reasonable time by constructive search.

  • 20919.
    Ågren, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Memoisation for constraint-based local search2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a memoisation technique for constraint-based local search based on the observation that penalties with respect to some interchangeable elements need only be calculated once. We apply the technique to constraint-based local search on set variables, and demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by significantly speeding up the penalty calculation of a commonly used set constraint.

  • 20920.
    Ågren, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Set Constraints for Local Search2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 20921.
    Ågren, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Department of Information Technology.
    Tracing and Explaining the Execution of CLP(FD) Programs in SICStus Prolog2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in Constraint Programming (CP) we now witness gives rise to a demand for new and improved debugging techniques. Graphical tools, such as constraint- and search-tree visualizers, seem to be appropriate to get a general understanding of the complex process of constraint solving. However, many such tools have been built in an ad hoc way, forcing the developer to, for each new tool, provide relevant information from the constraint solver. In this thesis, we present a solution to the problem, limiting ourselves to Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains (clpfd). In order to do this, we come up with a trace structure for describing the execution of clpfd programs in detail. The trace structure consists of various trace events, each trace event containing different information depending on when in the solving process it is created. Among other things, the trace structure contains information about constraint posting, constraint awakening and domain narrowing. We also incorporate explanations in the trace structure, i.e. reasons for why certain solver actions occur. Furthermore, we come up with a format for describing the execution of the filtering algorithms of global constraints. An implementation of the trace structure in sicstus Prolog is also presented, as well as a tool using the trace; an extension to the ordinary Prolog debugger.

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  • 20922.
    Ågren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Tracing and Explaining the Execution of CLP(FD) Programs in SICStus Prolog2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in Constraint Programming (CP) we now witness gives rise to a demand for new and improved debugging techniques. Graphical tools, such as constraint- and search-tree visualizers, seem to be appropriate to get a general understanding of the complex process of constraint solving. However, many such tools have been built in an ad hoc way, forcing the developer to, for each new tool, provide relevant information from the constraint solver. In this thesis, we present a solution to the problem, limiting ourselves to Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains (\clpfd). In order to do this, we come up with a trace structure for describing the execution of \clpfd\ programs in detail. The trace structure consists of various trace events, each trace event containing different information depending on when in the solving process it is created. Among other things, the trace structure contains information about constraint posting, constraint awakening and domain narrowing. We also incorporate explanations in the trace structure, i.e.\ reasons for why certain solver actions occur. Furthermore, we come up with a format for describing the execution of the filtering algorithms of global constraints. An implementation of the trace structure in \sicstus\ Prolog is also presented, as well as a tool using the trace; an extension to the ordinary Prolog debugger.

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  • 20923.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Sbihi, Mohamed
    Truchet, Charlotte
    Zampelli, Stéphane
    Six ways of integrating symmetries within non-overlapping constraints2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report introduces six ways for handling a chain of lexicographic ordering constraint between the origins of identical orthotopes (e.g., rectangles, boxes, hyper-rectangles) subject to the fact that they should not pairwise overlap. While the first two ways deal with the integration of a chain of lexicographic ordering constraint within a generic geometric constraint kernel, the four latter ways deal with the conjunction of a chain of lexicographic ordering constraint and a non-overlapping or a cumulative constraint. Experiments on academic two and three dimensional placement problems as well as on industrial problems show the benefit of such a strong integration of symmetry breaking constraints and non-overlapping ones.

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  • 20924.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Sbihi, Mohamed
    Truchet, Charlotte
    Zampelli, Stéphane
    Six ways of integrating symmetries within non-overlapping constraints2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces six ways for handling a chain of lexicographic ordering (lex-chain) constraint between the origins of identical orthotopes (e.g., rectangles, boxes, hyper-rectangles) subject to the fact that they should not pairwise overlap. While the first two ways deal with the integration of a lex-chain constraint within a generic geometric constraint kernel, the four latter ways deal with the conjunction of a lex-chain constraint and a non-overlapping or a cumulative constraint. Experiments on academic two and three dimensional placement problems as well as on industrial problems show the benefit of such a strong integration of symmetry breaking constraints and non-overlapping ones.

  • 20925.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pearson, Justin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Generic incremental algorithms for local search2007In: Constraints, ISSN 1383-7133, E-ISSN 1572-9354, Vol. 12, p. 293-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new (global) constraint is introduced in local search, measures for the penalty and variable conflicts of that constraint must be defined, and incremental algorithms for maintaining these measures must be implemented. These are complicated and time-consuming tasks, which clearly reduces the productivity of the local-search practitioner. We introduce a generic scheme that, from a description of a constraint in monadic existential second-order logic extended with counting, automatically gives penalty and variable-conflict measures for such a constraint, as well as incremental algorithms for maintaining these measures. We prove that our variable-conflict measure for a variable x is lower-bounded by the maximum penalty decrease that may be achieved by only changing the value of x, as well as upper bounded by the penalty measure. Without these properties, the local search performance may degrade. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by replacing a built-in global constraint by a modelled version, while still obtaining competitive results in terms of runtime and robustness. This is especially attractive when a particular (global) constraint is not built in.

  • 20926.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Flener, Pierre
    Pearson, Justin
    Incremental algorithms for local search from existential second-order logic2005In: Proceedings of CP'05, Springer-Verlag , 2005, 2, Vol. 3709, p. 47-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local search is a powerful and well-established method for solving hard combinatorial problems. Yet, until recently, it has provided very little user support, leading to time-consuming and error-prone implementation tasks. We introduce a scheme that, from a high-level description of a constraint in existential second-order logic with counting, automatically synthesises incremental penalty calculation algorithms. The performance of the scheme is demonstrated by solving real-life instances of a financial portfolio design problem that seem unsolvable in reasonable time by complete search.

  • 20927.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Flener, Pierre
    Pearson, Justin
    Inferring variable conflicts for local search2006In: Proceedings of CP'06, Springer-Verlag , 2006, 2, Vol. 4204, p. 665-669Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For efficiency reasons, neighbourhoods in local search are often shrunk by only considering moves modifying variables that actually contribute to the overall penalty. These are known as conflicting variables. We propose a new definition for measuring the conflict of a variable in a model and apply it to the set variables of models expressed in existential second-order logic extended with counting (EMSO). Such a variable conflict can be automatically and incrementally evaluated. Furthermore, this measure is lower-bounded by an intuitive conflict measure, and upper-bounded by the penalty of the model. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by replacing a built-in global constraint by an EMSO version thereof, while still obtaining competitive results.

  • 20928.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Flener, Pierre
    Pearson, Justin
    Revisiting constraint-directed search2007In: Proceedings of LSCS'07, the 4th International Workshop on Local Search Techniques in Constraint Satisfaction, 2007, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We revisit the exploration of constraint-directed neighbourhoods, where a (small) set of constraints is picked before considering the neighbouring configurations where those constraints have a decreased (or preserved, or increased) penalty. Given the semantics of a constraint, such neighbourhoods can be represented via new attributes or primitives for the corresponding constraint object. We show how to define these neighbourhoods for set constraints, whether built-in or specified in monadic existential second-order logic. We also present an implementation of the corresponding primitives in our local search framework. Using these new primitives, we show how some common local-search algorithms are simplified, compared to using just a variable-directed neighbourhood, while not incurring any run-time overhead.

  • 20929.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Pearson, Justin
    Revisiting constraint-directed search2009In: Information and Computation, Vol. 207, p. 438-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In constraint-based local search the solutions are described declaratively by a conjunction of (often high-level) constraints. In this article we show that this opens up new ideas for constraint-directed search. For a constraint we introduce three neighbourhoods, where the penalty for that constraint alone is decreasing, increasing, or unchanged. We give specialised algorithms for common constraints that efficiently implement these neighbourhoods. Further, we give a general algorithm that implements these neighbourhoods from specifications of constraints in monadic existential second-order logic. Finally, we show how common constraint-directed local search algorithms are often easier to express using these neighbourhoods.

  • 20930.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Flener, Pierre
    Pearson, Justin
    Set variables and local search2005In: Proceedings of CP-AI-OR'05, Springer-Verlag , 2005, 2, Vol. 3524, p. 19-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many combinatorial (optimisation) problems have natural models based on, or including, set variables and set constraints. This was already known to the constraint programming community, and solvers based on constructive search for set variables have been around for a long time. In this paper, set variables and set constraints are put into a local-search framework, where concepts such as configurations, penalties, and neighbourhood functions are dealt with generically. This scheme is then used to define the penalty functions for five (global) set constraints, and to model and solve two well-known applications.

  • 20931.
    Ågren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Szeredi, Tamas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Tracing and explaining execution of CLP(FD) programs2002In: Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Logic Programming Environments, WLPE 2002, 2002, 1, , p. 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work in the area of tracing CLP(FD) programs mainly focuses on providing information about control of execution and domain modification. In this paper, we present a trace structure that provides information about additional important aspects. We incorporate explanations in the trace structure, i.e. reasons for why certain solver actions occur. Furthermore, we come up with a format for describing the execution of the filtering algorithms of global constraints. Some new ideas about the design of the trace are also presented. For example, we have modeled our trace as a nested block structure in order to achieve a hierarchical view. Also, new ways about how to represent and identify different entities such as constraints and domain variables are presented.

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  • 20932.
    Ågårdh, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Kvalitetssäkring inom byggområdet1986Report (Refereed)
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  • 20933.
    Ågårdh, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Modanalys av förspänd betongbro i Stora Höga. Metod för detektering av skador.1990Report (Refereed)
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  • 20934.
    Ågårdh, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Modelling soft impacts for vibrational excitation of civil engineering structures.1993Report (Refereed)
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  • 20935.
    Ågårdh, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Oförstörande provningsmetoder för betongkonstruktioner. Rapport från en studieresa i Canada och USA.1994Report (Refereed)
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  • 20936. Åhman, F
    et al.
    Tromborg, B
    Mörk, J
    Aurelius, A
    Djupsjöbacka, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berntson, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Measurements Simulation of nonlinear Noise in an SOA2005In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 16-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20937. Åhman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Waern, Annika
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Modelling the interests of a news service user2001In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on User Modeling 2001, 13-17 July 2001, Sonthofen, Germany, 2001, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a filtering service for an on-line news channel. In this domain, both content-based and collaborative filtering proved difficult to apply. Our solution was make extensive use of user involvement. In particular, we use the information gathered when users send tips about news articles to their friends. The paper describes the types of user involvement that our system allows, the techniques used for user modelling, and how these are used to generate relevant user-adaptive behaviour.

  • 20938. Åisjöen, F
    et al.
    Schneiderman, JF
    Astalan, AP
    Kalabukhov, A
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Winkler, D
    A new approach for bioassays based on frequency€“ time-domain measurements of magnetic nanoparticles2010In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 25, p. 1008-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20939. Åisjöen, F
    et al.
    Schneiderman, JF
    Astalan, AP
    Kalabukhov, A
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Winkler, D
    The need for stable, mono-dispersed, biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles for one-step immunoassays2010In: Journal of Physics, Vol. 200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20940. Åisjöen, F
    et al.
    Schneiderman, JF
    Zaborowska, M
    Shunmugavel, K
    Magnelind, P
    Kalabukhov, A
    Petersson, K
    Prieto Astalan, A
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Winkler, D
    Fast sensitive measurement of specific antigen-antibody binding reactions with magnetic nanoparticles HTS SQUID2009In: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity., Vol. 19, no 3, p. 848-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20941.
    Åkerfeldt, M.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Strååt, Martin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Electrically conductive textile coating with a PEDOT-PSS dispersion and a polyurethane binder2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive textile coatings have been prepared by the addition of a dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS) and ethylene glycol to a polyurethane-based coating formulation. The formulations were designed to have similar viscosities, measured with a rheometer using a cone-and-plate set-up. The formulations were applied to woven poly(ethylene) terephthalate substrates using a direct coating method. The concentration PEDOT-PSS in the finished coatings varied between 0.7 and 6.2 wt%, the coating deposit between 19 and 155 g/m2 and the drying procedure between 4 hours at 20°C and 10 minutes at 150°C. Surface resistivity was measured with a ring probe and surface topology was addressed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PEDOT-PSS concentration had a large effect on the resistivity, which dropped by five orders of magnitude with an increased concentration. The steepest decrease occurred between 1 and 3 wt% PEDOT-PSS, indicating a percolation threshold. An increased coating deposit resulted in a resistivity drop by a factor 10, but no significant effect on the resistivity of the samples could be ascertained by variation of the drying conditions when samples had been subjected to subsequent annealing. © The Author(s) 2013.

  • 20942.
    Åkerfeldt, M.
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Strååt, Martin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Influence of coating parameters on textile and electrical properties of a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/polyurethane-coated textile2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 83, no 20, p. 2164-2176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile coatings with electrical conductivity were obtained by the addition of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and ethylene glycol (EG) to a polyurethane (PU)-based coating formulation. Variations of the coating formulation, the coating amount and the drying conditions, as well as the absence of an annealing step, were investigated. The coated fabrics were evaluated for tear strength and bending rigidity as well as surface resistivity and appearance before and after Martindale abrasion. A high proportion of PEDOT:PSS dispersion in the formulation and the presence of EG provided low surface resistivity. This composition resulted in softer samples with higher tear strength than those containing more PU-binder. All coatings proved to withstand abrasion to a similar extent. The surface resistivity increased gradually with the abrasion, about one half order of magnitude, except for those coatings that had been subjected to a faster drying process, where the surface resistivity increased somewhat faster. © The Author(s) 2013.

  • 20943.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lund, Anja
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Textile sensing glove with piezoelectric PVDF fibers and printed electrodes of PEDOT:PSS2015In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 85, no 17, p. 1789-1799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an entirely polymer-based motion sensing glove with possible applications, for example, in physical rehabilitation is described. The importance of comfort for the wearer and the possibility to clean the glove in normal laundering processes were important aspects in the development. The glove is all textile and manufactured using materials and methods suitable for standard textile industry processes. For the first time, melt-spun piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers with conductive cores were machine embroidered onto a textile glove to function as a sensor element. Electrodes and electrical interconnections were constituted by a screen printed conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) formulation. The screen printing of the interconnections was shown to be a reliable method for reproducible material deposition, resulting in an average surface resistivity value of 57 Ω/square. A repeated strain of 10% only influenced the resistance of the interconnections initially and to a very limited extent. The influence of washing on the electrical resistance of the printed interconnections was also studied; after 15 wash cycles the average surface resistivity was still below 500 Ω/square, which was deemed sufficient for the polymeric sensor system to remain functional during long-term use. Sensor data from the glove was also successfully used as input to a microcontroller running a robot gripper, in order to demonstrate its potential applications.

  • 20944.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. University of Borås.
    Nilsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gillgard, Philip
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Textile piezoelectric sensors – melt spun bi-component poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibres with conductive cores and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) coating as the outer electrode2014In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 1, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented here addresses the outer electroding of a fully textile piezoelectric strain sensor, consisting of bi-component fibre yarns of β-crystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) sheath and conductive high density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon black (CB) core as insertions in a woven textile, with conductive poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) coatings developed for textile applications. Two coatings, one with a polyurethane binder and one without, were compared for the application and evaluated as electrode material in piezoelectric testing, as well as tested for surface resistivity, tear strength, abrasion resistance and shear flexing. Both coatings served their function as the outer electrodes in the system and no difference in this regard was detected between them. Omission of the binder resulted in a surface resistivity one order of magnitude less, of 12.3 Ω/square, but the surface resistivity of these samples increased more upon abrasion than the samples coated with binder. The tear strength of the textile coated with binder decreased with one third compared to the uncoated substrate, whereas the tear strength of the coated textile without binder increased with the same amount. Surface resistivity measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the samples subjected to shear flexing showed that the coatings without the binder did not withstand this treatment, and that the samples with the binder managed this to a greater extent. In summary, both of the PEDOT:PSS coatings could be used as outer electrodes of the piezoelectric fibres, but inclusion of binder was found necessary for the durability of the coating.

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  • 20945.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan..
    Strååt, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    A rheology study of a textile coating paste containing PEDOT:PSS2011In: Papers presented at the nordic rheology conference, 2011, p. 269-273Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20946.
    Åkermo, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Avveckling av energiskog på åkermark1990Report (Refereed)
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  • 20947.
    Åkermo, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mekanisk och termisk blastdödning i potatis1989Report (Refereed)
  • 20948.
    Åkesson, D.
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University College of Borås.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Seppälä, J.
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Processing of structural composites from biobased thermoset resins and natural fibres by compression moulding2009In: Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, ISSN 1556-6560, E-ISSN 1556-6579, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of producing composites from renewable materials for the furniture industry, a number of thermoset prepregs were manufactured and evaluated. The applicability of two different biobased thermoset resins was evaluated. The first resin is based on soybean oil and the second on lactic acid. Both resins are cross-linkable and produced from renewable resources. Prepregs were manufactured from the two resins together with natural fibres (flax and cellulose). Furthermore, sheet moulding compound (SMC) was developed from lactic acid based resin together with glass fibre. Seat shells were produced from the prepregs by compression moulding. Curing of the composites was monitored using a response surface methodology. Further, the fibre ratio, mechanical properties as well as adhesion between the matrix and the fibre were evaluated. These prepregs offers short cycle times and yield products with suitable mechanical properties. Issues related to the preparation and the processing of the prepregs are discussed in the article. Copyright © 2009 American Scientific Publishers.

  • 20949.
    Åkesson, Karl-Petter
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. ICE.
    Bullock, Adrian
    Rodden, Tom
    A toolkit for user re-configuration of ubiquitous domestic environments2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a distributed system with the aim to allow inhabitants to re-configure arrangements of devices and to understand the behaviour of these devices in tandem by making visible the various configurations. The purpose is to address the evolutionary nature of the domestic environments. We describe two different configuration facilities and the underlying infrastructure.

  • 20950.
    Åkesson, Karl-Petter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ljungberg, Fredrik
    Coupling real and virtual environments1998Conference paper (Refereed)
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