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  • 201.
    Erlandsson, m
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ett användarvänligt dokumentationsformat för livscykelanalysdata (LCA) baserat på SPINE2002Report (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Evenbratt, H
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    QIM (Quality Index Method) assessment of cod and Norway lobster caught by various fishing methods2005Report (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Evenbratt, H
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    QIM (Quality Index Method) assessment of cod and Norway lobster caught by various fishing methods2005Report (Other academic)
  • 204. Fitzpatrick, J.J.
    et al.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food powder handling and processing: Industry problems, knowledge barriers and research opportunities2005In: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Florén, B
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eko(logiska) val med mervärden - en prioritering av ekologiska livsmedel för offentlig sektor : delrapport2012Report (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Florén, B
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Davis, J
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, C
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kartläggning av produktion och konsumtion av livsmedel i Västra Götaland2005Report (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Florén, B
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lorentzon, K
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ekologiska produkters miljönytta2005Report (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Florén, B
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sund, V
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wallman, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lathund för klimatsmart måltidsorientering : delrapport2012Report (Other academic)
  • 209. Flynn, K.
    et al.
    Wahnström, Erik
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Popa, M.
    Ruiz-Bejarano, B.
    Quintas, M.A.C.
    Ideal skills for European food scientists and technologists: Identifying the most desired knowledge, skills and competencies2013In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 18, p. 246-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training food scientists and technologists (FSTs) to have appropriate skills begins with identification of those skills most desired by employers. Between March 2010 and August 2011, 16 workshops in 16 countries had 315 local FST employers contribute ideas of skills desired in their FSTs. Attendees provided as many skills as possible and these descriptive data were quantifed and then analysed with multiple contingency tables and chi squared testing. Of the 3348 skill ideas provided, the most desired skill overall was Communicating, which was identified 13% of the time. Separate analysis of the 792 food sector skills indicated Product Development, at 28%, as the most desired. Geographical region, employment area and FST level of responsibility all significantly influenced the top 3 choices of overall skills and of food sector skills, indicating that most desired skills in the food industry are not uniform. These results should contribute to the improvement of FST training and thus benefit the European food industry. Industrial relevance: The data presented here suggest that improvements in FST training, particularly the acquisition of 'soft skills', will improve Europe's food workforce as these are the skills employers most desire. These data further suggest that geographical region significantly influences those skills most desired by industrial employers. Differences in desired skills at different levels of FST responsibility further suggest that continual FST training i.e., continual professional development, will contribute to improved FST performance. Overall, this study presents data which can improve FST performance and thus contribute to increased innovation and competitiveness of the food and drink industry. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 210.
    Flysjö, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of different Central American agro-food chains2006Report (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Flysjö, A
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, C
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Strid, I
    LCA-databas för konventionella fodermedel : miljöpåverkan i samband med produktion2008Report (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Flysjö, Anna
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Henriksson, M.
    Ledgard, S.
    How does co-product handling affect the carbon footprint of milk?: Case study of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden2011In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 420-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper investigates different methodologies of handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) or carbon footprint (CF) studies. Co-product handling can have a significant effect on final LCA/CF results, and although there are guidelines on the preferred order for different methods for handling co-products, no agreed understanding on applicable methods is available. In the present study, the greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with the production of 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate is investigated considering co-product handling. Materials and methods Two different milk production systems were used as case studies in the investigation of the effect of applying different methodologies in coproduct handling: (1) outdoor grazing system in New Zealand and (2) mainly indoor housing system with a pronounced share of concentrate feed in Sweden. Since the cows produce milk, meat (when slaughtered), calves, manure, hides, etc., the environmental burden (here GHG emissions) must be distributed between these outputs (in the present study no emissions are attributed to hides specifically, or to manure which is recycled on-farm). Different methodologically approaches, (1) system expansion (two cases), (2) physical causality allocation, (3) economic allocation, (4) protein allocation and (5) mass allocation, are applied in the study. Results and discussion The results show large differences in the final CF number depending on which methodology has been used for accounting co-products. Most evident is that system expansion gives a lower CF for milk than allocation methods. System expansion resulted in 63- 76% of GHG emissions attributed directly to milk, while allocation resulted in 85-98%. It is stressed that meat is an important by-product from milk production and that milk and beef production is closely interlinked and therefore needs to be considered in an integrated approach. Conclusions To obtain valid LCA/CF numbers for milk, it is crucial to account for by-products. Moreover, if CF numbers for milk need to be compared, the same allocation procedure should be applied. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 213.
    Flysjö, Anna
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Henriksson, M.
    Ledgard, S.
    The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change: Critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 28, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow is investigated for 23 dairy farms (both organic and conventional) in Sweden. Use of a fixed allocation factor of 90% (based on economic value) indicates a reduction in CF with increased milk yield, while no correlation can be noted when system expansion is applied. The average CF for two groups of farms, organic and high yielding conventional, is also calculated. When conducting system expansion the CF is somewhat lower for the organic farms (which have a lower milk yield per cow, but more meat per kg milk), but when a 90% allocation factor is used, the CF is somewhat higher for the organic farms compared to the high yielding conventional farms. In analysis of future strategies for milk production, it is suggested that system expansion should be applied, in order to also account for environmental impacts from affected systems. Thus, scenarios for milk and meat production should be analysed in an integrated approach in order to reduce total emissions from the livestock sector. How to account for emissions from LUC is highly debated and there is no current shared consensus. Different LUC methods result in significantly different results. In this study, four different LUC methods are applied, using data for organic milk production and high yielding conventional milk production systems in Sweden. Depending on which LUC method was applied, the organic system showed about 50% higher or 40% lower CF compared to the conventional high yielding system. Thus, when reporting CF numbers, it is important to report LUC-factors separately and clearly explain the underlying assumptions, since the method of accounting for LUC can drastically change the results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 214.
    Flysjö, Anna
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Henriksson, M.
    Cederberg, Christel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ledgard, S.
    Englund, J.-E.
    The impact of various parameters on the carbon footprint of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden2011In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 459-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon footprint (CF) of milk production was analysed at the farm gate for two contrasting production systems; an outdoor pasture grazing system in New Zealand (NZ) and a mainly indoor housing system with pronounced use of concentrate feed in Sweden (SE). The method used is based on the conceptual framework of lifecycle assessment (LCA), but only for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. National average data were used to model the dairy system in each country. Collection of inventory data and calculations of emissions were harmonised to the greatest extent possible for the two systems. The calculated CF for 1kg of energy corrected milk (ECM), including related by-products (surplus calves and culled cows), was 1.00kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for NZ and 1.16kg CO2e for SE. Methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from application of nitrogen (as fertiliser and as excreta dropped directly on the field) were the main contributors to the CF in both countries. The most important parameters to consider when calculating the GHG emissions were dry matter intake (DMI), emission factor (EF) for methane from enteric fermentation, amount of nitrogen applied and EF for direct nitrous oxide emissions from soils. By changing one parameter at a time within 'reasonable' limits (i.e. no extreme values assumed), the impact on the total CF was assessed and showed changes of up to 15%. In addition, the uncertainty in CF estimates due to uncertainty in EF for methane from enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions (from soil and due to ammonia volatilisation) were analysed through Monte Carlo simulation. This resulted in an uncertainty distribution corresponding to 0.60-1.52kg CO2e kg-1 ECM for NZ and 0.83-1.56kg CO2e kg-1 ECM for SE (in the prediction interval 2.5-97.5%). Hence, the variation within the systems based on the main EF is relatively large compared with the difference in CF between the countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 215. Fock, H.
    et al.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rasmuson, A.
    Ultrasound Velocity profile (UVP) measurements of pulp suspension flow near the wall2009In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Ultrasound Velocity profiling (UVP) technique is used in this study to investigate the pipe flow of pulp suspensions in the near wall region. Four flow rates and two consistencies were investigated: 1.9 and 4.8% (w/w) consistency. The mean velocity profiles showed a distinct plug at the centre of the pipe, surrounded by a sharp velocity gradient. The plug size increased with increasing consistency or decreasing bulk velocity. The demodulated echo amplitude (DMEA) profile slowly rises from low values near the wall to a distinct maximum at the plug front before slowly decaying towards the pipe centre. Since only the fibres and fines contribute to the attenuation of ultrasound, the demodulated echo amplitude profiles thus indicate and support the hypothesis of the existence of a consistency profile in the near wall area, with a decreasing amount of fines and fibres close to the pipe wall.

  • 216. Ford, J.S.
    et al.
    Pelletier, N.L.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.J.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Proposed Local Ecological Impact Categories and Indicators for Life Cycle Assessment of Aquaculture: A Salmon Aquaculture Case Study2012In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we discuss impact categories and indicators to incorporate local ecological impacts into life cycle assessment (LCA) for aquaculture. We focus on the production stages of salmon farming-freshwater hatcheries used to produce smolts and marine grow-out sites using open netpens. Specifically, we propose two impact categories: impacts of nutrient release and impacts on biodiversity. Proposed indicators for impacts of nutrient release are (1) the area altered by farm waste, (2) changes in nutrient concentration in the water column, (3) the percent of carrying capacity reached, (4) the percent of total anthropogenic nutrient release, and (5) release of wastes into freshwater. Proposed indicators for impacts on biodiversity are (1) the number of escaped salmon, (2) the number of reported disease outbreaks, (3) parasite abundance on farms, and (4) the percent reduction in wild salmon survival. For each proposed indicator, an example of how the indicator could be estimated is given and the strengths and weaknesses of that indicator are discussed. We propose that including local environmental impacts as well as global-scale ones in LCA allows us to better identify potential trade-offs, where actions that are beneficial at one scale are harmful at another, and synchronicities, where actions have desirable or undesirable effects at both spatial scales. We also discuss the potential applicability of meta-analytic statistical techniques to LCA. © 2012 by Yale University.

  • 217.
    Forsman, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Green lean : en strategi för hållbar verksamhetsutveckling2012Report (Refereed)
  • 218. Fransson, S.
    et al.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effect of confinement and kinetics on the morphology of phase separating gelatin-maltodextrin droplets2009In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1446-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of confinement on the structure evolution and final morphology during phase separation and gelation of gelatin and maltodextrin was investigated and compared to the structures seen in bulk phase. Emulsion droplets with diameters from 4 to 300 ?m were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. With the confocal laser scanning microscope it was possible to follow the entire phase separating process inside the droplets in real-time. The samples were either quenched directly from 70°C down to 20°C or exposed to holding times at 40°C. Different cooling procedures were studied to examine the structure evolution both before and after gelation in the restricted geometries. The concentration of the biopolymer mixture was kept constant at 4 w/w% gelatin and 6 w/w% maltodextrin. The results revealed that the size of the confinement had a great effect on both the initiation of phase separation and the final morphology of the microstructure inside the emulsion droplets. The phase separation in small droplets was observed to occur at a temperature above the phase separating temperature for bulk. Small droplets had either a microstructure with a shell of maltodextrin and core of gelatin or a microstructure where the two biopolymers had formed two separate bicontinuous halves. The initiation of phase separation in large droplets was similar to what was seen in bulk. The microstructure in large droplets was discontinuous, resembling the morphology in bulk phase. The kinetics had an effect on the character of the maltodextrin inclusions, as the cooling procedure of a direct quench gave spherical inclusions with an even size distribution, while a holding time at 40°C resulted in asymmetrical and elongated inclusions. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 219. Fransson, S.
    et al.
    Peleg, O.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kroger, M.
    Modelling and confocal microscopy of biopolymer mixtures in confined geometries2010In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 2713-2722Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Fritzson, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Energy efficiency in the meat processing industry : opportunities for process integration2005Report (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Fritzson, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Energy efficiency in the meat processing industry : opportunities for process integration2005Report (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Funebo, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microwave assisted air dehydration of fruits and vegetables : a literature review1997Report (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Funebo, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microwave-assisted air dehydration of fruits and vegetables : dielectric properties and drying process conditions1998Report (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Funebo, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microwave-assisted air-dehydration of fruits and vegetables : processing conditions and product quality2000Report (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Funebo, Tomas
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Skjoldebrand, Christina
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microwave heat treatment of apple before air dehydration: Effects on physical properties and microstructure2000In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Golden delicious apple cubes were heated with microwave energy of high intensity (20 W/g), as a pre-treatment before air-dehydration at 40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C. After the microwave treatment extending for 0.75 up to 5 min, the cubes were finish-dried with only forced air at 2 m/s. Dehydrated and rehydrated samples were analyzed with a puncture test using a texture analyzer. The microstructure of the samples was studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Dried apple pieces were harder and more shrunk when pre-treated with microwaves, compared to only air dehydration. Despite the shrinkage and increased firmness, the rehydration capacity of microwave `blanched' apple cubes was higher than when they were only air-dehydrated. Image analysis of the rehydrated apples showed that large voids (up to 0.5 mm in diameter) had developed, and that these increased with air temperature. Higher magnification of the images revealed cell separation and disruption of cell walls, caused by the microwave heating.

  • 226.
    Funebo, Tomas
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Prothon, F.
    Kidman, Siw
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Skjoldebrand, Christina
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microwave and convective dehydration of ethanol treated and frozen apple: Physical properties and drying kinetics2002In: International journal of food science & technology, ISSN 0950-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2621, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 603-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to examine how the drying kinetics and physical properties of apples are affected by pre-treatment with 95% ethanol or freezing at -18 °C before microwave-assisted air dehydration at 50, 60 and 70 °C. Microwave heating was used to obtain these temperatures in the centre of the apple cubes. After dehydration the shrinkage and rehydration capacity were measured. The texture of dehydrated and rehydrated samples was analysed with a puncture test in a texture analyser. Samples were also analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the correlation between physical and microstructural properties. Diffusivity in the different dehydration processes was calculated. Ethanol-treated apples showed both high rehydration and high effective rehydration capacity compared with the other samples. Freezing before dehydration increased the diffusivity and reduced the firmness of rehydrated apples compared with no pre-treatment.

  • 227.
    Funebo, Tomas
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dielectric properties of fruits and vegetables as a function of temperature and moisture content1999In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative permittivity ??, and relative loss factor, ??, of apple, chervil, mushroom, parsley, and strawberry were measured at 2800 MHz, with a cylindrical TM012 perturbation cavity. The measurements were made over a range of moistures and temperatures. The results show that the relative loss factor has a maximum value at an intermediate moisture content for all the fruits and vegetables investigated. The relative permittivity decreases with increasing temperature at a high moisture content, but at intermediate moisture contents ?? increases with temperature. Equations were developed for interpolation of the relative permittivity and the loss factor.

  • 228.
    Funebo, Tomas
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microwave-assisted air dehydration of apple and mushroom1998In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 353-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave-assisted hot-air dehydration of apple and mushroom was performed with low-power microwave energy. The purpose of the investigation was to compare hot-air drying and microwave-assisted hot-air drying. The air velocity, the microwave output power and the air temperature were the variables in the experiments. The microwave energy was supplied by either microwave applicators with transverse magnetic (TM) modes as dominant modes, or by a multimode cavity microwave oven. The quality parameters were rehydration capacity, bulk density, and colour. Low air velocity caused a browning of the products and a minimum air velocity of 1 m/s was identified. It was possible to reduce the drying time by a factor of two for apple and a factor of four for mushroom by using microwave-assisted hot-air drying. Rehydration capacity was 20-25% better for TM applicator-dried apples and mushrooms than for multimode cavity dried ones. © 1999 Elsevier Science Limited. All rights reserved.

  • 229. Gao, C.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wellner, N.
    Parker, M.L.
    Noel, T.R.
    Mills, E.N.C.
    Plasticization of a protein-based film by glycerol: A spectroscopic, mechanical, and thermal study2006In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 54, no 13, p. 4611-4616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kafirin, the seed storage protein of the cereal sorghum, is highly homologous with the maize storage protein zein. The effects of plasticisation of a kafirin film by glycerol in the absence of water were examined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR and infrared), rheological, and calorimetric methods. The results suggest that at low glycerol levels the glycerol is absorbed onto and possibly into the protein. Increasing the level of glycerol increases the motion of the protein and changes the protein conformation. There are corresponding changes of the mechanical properties of protein films. At 40% (w/w) of glycerol, two glass transition temperatures were observed, one of which corresponded to the glass transition temperature of pure glycerol. This result indicates that at this level of plasticizer there are sufficient glycerol/glycerol interactions occurring to allow a separate glass formation process for glycerol. © 2006 American Chemical Society.

  • 230. Gatenholm, P.
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hygiene: Jellyfish are blueprint for new absorbent materials2007In: Medical Textiles, ISSN 0266-2078, no FEB., p. 9-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four years ago, scientists from the Chalmers University of Technology and the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology initiated a project aimed at examining the little-known mechanisms of jellyfish. The group found out that the jellyfish's structure is made of interacting proteins and polysaccharides that are built up in a highly hierarchic fashion. Ions were also found to play a key role in the mechanism.

  • 231. Geyer, R.
    et al.
    Davis, Jenny
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ley, J.
    He, J.
    Clift, R.
    Kwan, A.
    Time-dependent material fl{ligature}ow analysis of iron and steel in the UK.: Part 1: Production and consumption trends 1970-20002007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a detailed account of the supply chain for iron and steel in the UK, using material fl{ligature}ow analysis. Due to the lack of a universally agreed methodology of material fl{ligature}ow analysis, we include an explanation of the accounting methodology employed in the study. Data for the supply chain has been collected reaching back three decades, enabling analysis of trends in production and consumption of iron and steel over the years. This fi{ligature}rst part of a series of two papers quantifi{ligature}es the iron and steel fl{ligature}ows through the UK economy including the annual amount of iron and steel embodied in all fi{ligature}nal goods that enter the use phase in the UK. The second part explores the more elusive fl{ligature}ows of scrap generation and recycling. In this fi{ligature}rst paper we show that the UK no longer has the capacity to recycle the scrap it collects and is increasingly relying on foreign economies to do so. We also observe that trade in iron and steel products and ferrous metal containing fi{ligature}nal goods has increased dramatically over the years, but remained relatively balanced. Today, one-half of UK's iron and steel production is exported, whereas one-half of the iron and steel entering the UK use phase comes from imported fi{ligature}nal goods. The efficiency with which the UK iron and steel industry transforms iron ore and scrap into iron and steel products has increased substantially. However, there is no significant downward trend in the absolute level of iron and steel use in the UK. Between 1970 and 1981 the annual amount of steel put to use dropped from 16.4 to 10.7 million metric tonnes but climbed back up to 15 million metric tonnes twice since then. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 232. Gilbert, C.
    et al.
    Hall, Gunnar
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Adolescent health and lifestyle: The HELENA project2007In: Food Science and Technology, ISSN 1475-3324, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 44-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HELENA is a three-year project which started in May 2005, designed to assess and enhance the nutrition and lifestyle habits of adolescents in Europe. The inclusion of five food research institutes and four food, drink and ingredient companies within the HELENA consortium highlights the importance placed on industry, as well as young consumers themselves, in understanding the issue of adolescent health and lifestyle. A minimum of 3000 adolescents have taken part in the study, where sources of data have included clinical assessments, body composition measures, food and nutrient intake, physical activity and fitness tests, blood analyses and genetics. The members of HELENA-COMS have investigated the impact of low glycaemic index products on physiological and behavioral responses in slightly overweight adolescents. The research will benefit the food and drink industry, helping it to develop and promote a range of healthy products aimed at adolescents within the European market.

  • 233.
    Gillgren, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Material properties of cereal protein films2008Report (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Gillgren, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Material properties of cereal protein films2008Report (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Gillgren, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mechanical, microstructural and barrier properties of agricultural biopolymer films and foams : a literature review2006Report (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Alven, T.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Impact of melt rheology on zein foam properties2010In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, no 21, p. 5762-5768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zein, the main protein fraction in maize, is left as a by-product from bio-ethanol production. The protein has been investigated as a material for a long time, but mainly in the form of films. In contrast, foamed zein is presented in this article. Zein foams may perhaps be used, e.g. as trays for biodegradable food packages or as scaffolds for tissue engineering. A batch method for manufacturing solid foams was successfully developed, the foams being manufactured by evaporation of solvent from zein resins. In order to be suitable for foam formation, a resin must possess gas-retaining properties, which can be predicted by extensional rheology. The presence of plasticizer in some of the resins decreased their extensional viscosity, and this in turn affected the foaming process. Although all the resins displayed strain-hardening behaviour, there was coalescence of pores in all the foams. Insufficient extensional viscosity resulted in the collapse of pore walls during foam expansion. Structure analysis showed, e.g. that most pores were elongated along the main axis of the mould in which the foams were manufactured. The plasticizer content in the resins had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the foams. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 237.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Barker, S.A.
    Belton, P.S.
    Georget, D.M.R.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Plasticization of zein: A thermomechanical, FTIR, and dielectric study2009In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1135-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zein, the main seed storage protein of maize, has been widely studied as a possible source of material for the production of biodegradable plastic films. Plasticization of zein is critical to make functional films. While there have been a number of publications which report the behavior of systems with a wide variety of plasticizers, there have been few which attempt to examine the interactions of protein and plasticizer at the molecular level. In this paper, we report on the plasticizing effects of water, glycerol, and 2-mercaptoethanol, which were examined by a combination of spectroscopy (FTIR and dielectric) and thermomechanical methods. The results suggest that both water and glycerol are adsorbed onto the protein and form hydrogen bonds with the amide groups. The plasticizer then builds up in patches on the protein surface. 2-Mercaptoethanol only exhibited a weak plasticizing effect due probably to disulfide bond breaking. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 238.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Blennow, A.
    Pettersson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Modulating rheo-kinetics of native starch films towards improved wet-strength2011In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 383-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starch directly functionalised in the plant by modulation of its biosynthesis by mutagenesis and transgene technology was exploited for its extended functionality beyond the normal variation. In this study we investigated the rheological and mechanical properties of films from such structurally highly different starch types derived from potato and cereal sources of normal and mutant and transgenic backgrounds. A new improved technique was developed to permit the dynamic mechanical analysis of films in the presence of water. It was found that the amylose content was decisive for the mechanical properties of the films - an increase in the amylose content resulted in both a higher stress and strain at break. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the speed of hydration and mechanical water resistance of the films. Generally, the films were clear and transparent, even after wetting. Transgenic potato starch with a low content of phosphate displayed an extraordinary combination of high robustness, transparency, mechanical strength and extensibility even in a wet condition. The combination of optimal phosphate and amylose concentrations in this sample probably favoured hydration and amorphisation without compromising the inter-chain interactions of the polysaccharide network. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 239.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Faye, M.-V.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Films from Millet Protein Pennisetin2011In: Food Biophysics, ISSN 1557-1858, E-ISSN 1557-1866, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 474-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics are one of the most commonly used materials today in an immense range of applications. Since plastics originate from petroleum, which is not a renewable resource, we need to find alternatives to achieve environmentally sustainable goals. One of our most abundant renewable resources is cereals; wheat gluten is recognized as a replacement for synthetic plastics. Another cereal protein is pennisetin from pearl millet, which can grow in more arid areas and is therefore an important crop in times of climate change. In contrast to gluten, the material properties of pennisetin have as yet been relatively unexplored. This work evaluated the mechanical and barrier properties of pennisetin films, including three different plasticizers (glycerol only, glycerol/citric acid mixture, and glycerol/lactic acid/polyethylene glycol mixture). The films were cast from ethanol solutions. It was found that all of the three plasticizers resulted in approximately equal thermomechanical properties in the pennisetin films. However, the glycerol/citric acid mixture seemed to give more beneficial tensile and barrier properties. The advantage of this plasticizer mixture was believed to be due to the altered microstructure of the films. The material properties of pennisetin were found to be fully comparable to those of other cereal protein materials. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 240.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mechanical and barrier properties of avenin, kafirin, and zein films2008In: Food Biophysics, ISSN 1557-1858, E-ISSN 1557-1866, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 287-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable and renewable materials can be manufactured from prolamins, which are the major storage protein fraction of cereals. This paper investigates the material properties of oat prolamin (avenin), corn prolamin (zein), and sorghum prolamin (kafirin). Glass transition temperature, dry solid content, stress at break, strain at break, oxygen permeability, and water vapor permeability were analyzed at different plasticizer contents. Avenin was plasticized with glycerol, and kafirin and zein were plasticized with a mixture of polyethylene glycol, glycerol, and lactic acid. Avenin displayed potential, although it did not exhibit the mechanical qualities of gluten, which resembles avenin at the molecular level. Compared to kafirin and zein, avenin was more extensible at low plasticizer contents, while kafirin and especially zein were more extensible at the highest plasticizer content. Avenin was far weaker than the other two at all plasticizer contents. Kafirin and zein displayed similar barrier properties, whereas avenin was notably more permeable. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 241. González-Martinez, G.
    et al.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gekas, V.
    Sjöholm, I.
    Analysis of temperature distribution in potato tissue during blanching and its effect on the absolute residual pectin methylesterase activity.2004In: Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 65, p. 433-441Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Granebring, L
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Konsten att kunna konsistensen : kartläggning av konsistensanpassad kost för äldre i Göteborgs stad2008Report (Other academic)
  • 243. Gronqvist, S.K.
    et al.
    Skipnes, D.
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rosnes, J.T.
    Use of ?-amylase TTI and heat transfer modeling to assess the thermal pasteurization of fried fish burgers2014In: Journal of food processing and preservation, ISSN 0145-8892, E-ISSN 1745-4549, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1547-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) based on inactivation of ?-amylase (BAA70) was used for validation of obtained pasteurization values in fish burgers on a complex frying line with two frying units and a hot air tunnel. The target was a pasteurization value of P70 7.5=2, representing 6 log reduction of Listeria monocytogenes. The TTI was calibrated and had a decimal reduction time D70C of 27.2min and z value of 6.5C. The temperature was measured with thermocouples at different steps in the process and used for validation of a multiphysics computation model. The temperature profile calculated from the model was combined with known inactivation kinetics and the residual ?-amylase activity was calculated and compared with actual values of the TTIs placed in the core of the burgers. Our results showed that ?-amylase BAA70 can be used as a biochemical TTI to validate a specific minimum pasteurization value for fried fish burgers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 244. Grunert, K.G.
    et al.
    Bech-Larsen, T.
    Lähteenmäki, L.
    Ueland, Ö.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention: The role of positive sensory experience.2004In: Agribusiness, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 245. Grunert, K.G.
    et al.
    Lahteenmaki, L.
    Asger Nielsen, N.
    Poulsen, J.B.
    Ueland, O.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Consumer perceptions of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries2001In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 527-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product descriptions of cheese, candy and salmon products were presented to samples of respondents in four Nordic countries. The descriptions represented various applications of genetic modification (GM), varied along a 'distance' dimension and a 'what is modified' dimension, and were presented along with a conventionally produced product. Respondents ranked the products according to preference, and their perceptions were ascertained by the laddering method. Results indicate that respondents regard 'non-GM' as a value in itself, and associate the use of GM with a host of negative consequences and risks, but mostly with uncertainty and unhealthiness. Benefits of the use of GM were perceived and regarded as relevant, but could not compensate for the negative associations. The 'distance' dimension had a clear impact on consumer preferences, whereas the 'what is modified' dimension had effects which were product specific. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 246. Grunert, K.G.
    et al.
    Lahteenmaki, L.
    Boztug, Y.
    Martinsdottir, E.
    Ueland, O.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Perception of health claims among nordic consumers2009In: Journal of Consumer Policy, ISSN 0168-7034, E-ISSN 1573-0700, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 269-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health claim perception was investigated by a web-based instrument with a sample of 4,612 respondents in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Respondents decided which of a pair of claims sounded better, was easier to understand and was more convincing in their opinion. Claims were constructed from an underlying universe combining different active ingredients (familiar, unfamiliar), type of claim (combination of information about ingredient, physiological function and health benefit), framing (positive, negative), and use of qualifier (with, without "may"). Across pairs, the claims differed in the health benefit addressed (cardiovascular health, dementia, bodyweight). Results showed that respondents could be grouped into two roughly equally sized classes that differed in the type of claim preferred: one class prefers "long" claims that give the full story consisting of active ingredient, physiological function and health benefit, whereas the other prefers "short" claims consisting of the health benefit only. Results also showed that the familiar ingredient is preferred to the unfamiliar one, whereas effects of positive versus negative framing depended on the type of health benefit addressed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009.

  • 247. Guillot, G.
    et al.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rudemo, M.
    Spatial prediction of weed intensities from exact count data and image-based estimates2009In: Journal of the Royal Statistic Society, Series C: Applied Statistics, ISSN 0035-9254, E-ISSN 1467-9876, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 525-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collecting weed exact counts in an agricultural field is easy but extremely time consuming. Image analysis algorithms for object extraction applied to pictures of agricultural fields may be used to estimate the weed content with a high resolution (about 1 m2), and pictures that are acquired at a large number of sites can be used to obtain maps of weed content over a whole field at a reasonably low cost. However, these image-based estimates are not perfect and acquiring exact weed counts also is highly useful both for assessing the accuracy of the image-based algorithms and for improving the estimates by use of the combined data. We propose and compare various models for image index and exact weed count and we use them to assess how such data should be combined to obtain reliable maps. The method is applied to a real data set from a 30-ha field. We show that using image estimates in addition to exact counts allows us to improve the accuracy of maps significantly. We also show that the relative performances of the methods depend on the size of the data set and on the specific methodology (full Bayes versus plug-in) that is implemented. © 2009 Royal Statistical Society.

  • 248.
    Gustafsson, J
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, C
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, U
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Emanuelsson, A
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The methodology of the FAO study: Global Food Losses and Food Waste - extent, causes and prevention”- FAO, 20112013Report (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Gustavsson, J
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The climate change impact of retail waste from horticultural products.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stage, J.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 554-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted between 0.4% and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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