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  • 201. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Tractive power in organic farming based on fuel cell technology: Energy balance and environmental load2009In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 102, no 1-3, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed a future hypothetical organic farm self-sufficient in renewable tractor fuel. Biomass from the farm was assumed to be transported to a central fuel production plant and the fuel returned to the farm, where it was utilised in fuel cell powered tractors. The land use, energy balance and environmental impact of five different scenarios were studied. In the first two scenarios, straw was used as raw material for production of hydrogen or methanol via thermochemical gasification. In the third and fourth scenarios, short rotation forest (Salix) was used as raw material for the same fuels. In the fifth scenario, ley was used as raw material for hydrogen fuel via biogas production. The straw scenarios had the lowest impact in all studied environmental impact categories since the Salix scenarios had higher soil emissions and the ley scenario had comparatively large emissions from the fuel production. The energy balance was also favourable for straw, 16.3 and 19.5 for hydrogen and methanol respectively, compared to Salix 14.2 and 15.6. For ley to hydrogen the energy balance was only 6.1 due to low efficiency in the fuel production. In the Salix scenarios, 1.6% and 2.0% of the land was set aside for raw material production in the hydrogen and methanol scenarios respectively. In the straw scenarios no land needed to be reserved, but straw was collected on 4.3% and 5.3% of the area for hydrogen and methanol respectively. To produce hydrogen from ley, 4% of the land was harvested. The study showed that the difference in environmental performance lay in choice of raw material rather than choice of fuel. Hydrogen is a gas with low volumetric energy density, which requires an adapted infrastructure and tractors equipped with gas tanks. This leads to the conclusion that methanol probably will be the preferred choice if a fuel cell powered farm would be put into practice in the future. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 202. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P-A.
    Nitrogen fertiliser production based on biogas: Energy input, environmental impact and land use.2010In: Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, p. 7192-7195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203. Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Det svenska jordbrukets framtida drivmedelsförsörjning2010Report (Refereed)
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  • 204. Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Green nitrogen2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 205. Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    Consequential life cycle assessment of nitrogen fertilisers based on biomass: A Swedish perspective.2012In: Insciences Journal Climate Change, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 80-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekman, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems - key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 207.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Återvinning av växtnäringsämnen ur avloppsvatten – hur gör vi hållbarhetsbedömningar på bästa sätt?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna producera tillräckligt med mat på ett hållbart sätt behöver vi hushålla med växtnäring, och se till att den näring som redan finns i omlopp används på ett klokt sätt. Nya direktiv kring slamanvändning, krav på återförsel av växtnäring och hårdare utsläppskrav på reningsverk innebär att nya system och tekniker behöver utvecklas. Det kan dock vara svårt att veta vilket system eller vilken teknik som ger den största nyttan. Systemanalytiska metoder kan hjälpa till att tydliggöra dessa komplexa frågor.

    Målet med denna studie är att på ett övergripande sätt ge en insikt i hur arbetet kring hållbarhetsbedömningar kopplat till kommunal avloppsvattenrening och återföring av näringsämnen, med fokus på fosfor och kväve kan genomföras. Vidare har fokus legat på metodfrågor inom livscykelanalys (LCA), men en utblick kring andra hållbarhetsbedömningsmetoder ges även i en mindre omfattning. Mycket av det som behandlas inom LCA har dock bäring även för andra metoder för hållbarhetsbedömning.

    Idag finns det olika typer av standarder och riktlinjer för hur LCA-studier bör utföras, dock saknas det specifika riktlinjer för LCA-studier kopplade till näringsåtervinning ur avlopp. Det finns flera skäl till att LCA-metodfrågor kopplade till näringsåterföring behöver utredas; LCA är en metod som framförallt inriktar sig på att bedöma miljöpåverkan av en produkt, medan avloppsvattenrening ofta sker i kommunal regi och i nuläget är inriktat på att rena avloppsvatten och inte fokuserar på att producera produkter. Avloppssystem är ofta integrerade med både vattenförsörjning, energisystemet och jordbruket på ett intrikat sätt. Avlopp är också en sektor som har utsläpp både till luft och vatten, och metoder för att korrekt kunna bedöma dessa utsläpps påverkan på miljö är viktiga att utreda. Användningsområdet för LCA är väldigt brett. LCA kan dock inte svara på om det system som utvärderas är hållbart, bara om systemet har mer eller mindre påverkan än ett annat. LCA kan alltså inte svara på frågeställningar som: Vad är en hållbar återvinningsgrad för växtnäringsämnen?

    Arbetet har resulterat i en diskussion kring när LCA eller systemanalys lämpar sig och vad man bör tänka på när man genomför en LCA och vilka delar som bör ingå. Inom ramen för detta arbete anordnades även en workshop där berörda intressenter deltog från forskning, myndigheter och branschen. Syftet med workshopen var att få in synpunkter kring hur en systemanalys eller LCA bör läggas upp för att ge användbara resultat i beslutsfattande.

    I första hand vänder sig rapporten till dem som arbetar med kommunal avloppsvattenrening, teknikutveckling och myndigheter inom detta område, som har en grundförståelse för systemanalys och vill veta mer.

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    fulltext
  • 208.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fosforprodukter av slam – energianvändning och klimatpåverkan2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the energy use and climate impact of extracting phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge, compared with mineral phosphorus from mining. The two processes that are studied are struvite precipitation and extraction of phosphorus from sludge ash (AshDec). We also looked at the potential recycling rate of plant nutrients in the different systems.

    In the study, we have calculated the environmental impact of introducing the processes for P-recovery, related to a conventional sewage treatment plant with chemical precipitation. It is therefore only the differences that arise in comparison with the reference plant that are included in the calculations. You can think like this: there is an existing sewage treatment plant, where you introduce P recycling. All changes in environmental impact that arise in connection with the investment in this new process are burdens the new P-product.

    The results show that the AshDec scenario has the best recovery rate of phosphorus and energy balance, while the struvite scenario shows the best return rate of nitrogen and the lowest climate impact. However, the sensitivity analyzes show that the results are strongly influenced by different assumptions. For the AshDec scenario, assumption about nitrous oxide emissions from incineration of sludge as well as the handling of energy surplus is crucial. For the struvite scenario, assumptions around the reconstruction of the sewage treatment plant to biological phosphor cleaning is of great significance, especially if the biogas production is affected.

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  • 209. Ahlqvist, J.
    et al.
    Dainiak, M.B.
    Kumar, A.
    Hornsten, Gunnar E.
    Galaev, I.Yu.
    Mattiasson, B.
    Monitoring the production of inclusion bodies during fermentation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of intact inclusion bodies using cryogel minicolumn plates2006In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 354, no 2, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel minicolumn chromatographic method to monitor the production of inclusion bodies during fermentation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system allowing direct analysis of the particles with surface-displayed antigens are described. A 33-kDa protein containing 306 amino acids with three sulfur bridges produced as inclusion bodies was labeled with polyclonal antibodies against 15 amino acid (anti-A15) and 17 amino acid (anti-B17) residues at the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Labeled particles were bound to macroporous monolithic protein A-cryogel adsorbents inserted into the open-ended wells of a 96-well plate (referred to as protein A-cryogel minicolumn plate). The concept behind this application is that the binding degree of inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth to the cryogel minicolumns increases with an increase in their concentration during fermentation. The technique allowed us to monitor the increase in the production levels of the inclusion bodies as the fermentation process progressed. The system also has a built-in quality parameter to ensure that the target protein has been fully expressed. Alternatively, inclusion bodies immobilized on phenyl-cryogel minicolumn plate were used in indirect ELISA based on anti-A15 and anti-B17 antibodies against terminal amino acid residues displayed on the surface of inclusion bodies. Drainage-protected properties of the cryogel minicolumns allow performance of successive reactions with tested immunoglobulin G (IgG) samples and enzyme-conjugated secondary IgG and of enzymatic reaction within the adsorbent. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 210. Ahlqvist, J.
    et al.
    Kumar, A.
    Sundstrom, H.
    Ledung, E.
    Hornsten, E.G.
    Enfors, S.-O.
    Affinity binding of inclusion bodies on supermacroporous monolithic cryogels using labeling with specific antibodies2006In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, E-ISSN 1873-4863, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new chromatographic method based on affinity supermacroporous monolithic cryogels is developed for binding and analyzing inclusion bodies during fermentation. The work demonstrated that it is possible to bind specific IgG and IgY antibodies to the 15 and 17 amino acids at the terminus ends of a 33 kDa target protein aggregated as inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth can be specifically retained in protein A and pseudo-biospecific ligand sulfamethazine modified supermacroporous cryogels. The degree of binding of IgG and IgY treated inclusion bodies to the Protein A and sulfamethazine gels are investigated, as well as the influence of pH on the sulfamethazine ligand. Optimum binding of 78 and 72% was observed on both protein A and sulfamethazine modified cryogel columns, respectively, using IgG labeling of the inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies pass through unretained in the sulfamethazine supermacroporous gel at pH that does not favour the binding between the ligand on the gel and the antibodies on the surface of inclusion bodies. Also the unlabeled inclusion bodies went through the gel unretained, showing no non-specific binding or trapping within the gel. These findings may very well be the foundation for the building of a powerful analytical tool during fermentation of inclusion bodies as well as a convenient way to purify them from fermentation broth. These results also support our earlier findings [Kumar, A., Plieva, F.M., Galaev, I.Yu., Mattiasson, B., 2003. Affinity fractionation of lymphocytes using a monolithic cyogel. J. Immunol. Methods 283, 185-194] with mammalian cells that were surface labeled with specific antibodies and recognized on protein A supermacroporous gels. A general binding and separation system can be established on antibody binding cryogel affinity matrices. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 211.
    Ahlqvist, Josefin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Using monolithic cryogels for direct capture of inclusion bodies during fermentation - a way to monitor the process2006Report (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Ahlqvist, Josefin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Using monolithic cryogels for direct capture of inclusion bodies during fermentation - a way to monitor the process2006Report (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. Andritz, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Kristian
    ÅF, Sweden.
    Bark and wood powder firing in the recovery boiler for maximum power generation2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, PAPTAC , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of co-firing bark or wood powder in a recovery boiler is studied. The effect of increased NPEs in the liquor and lime cycles, the FMT and sticky dust and the smelt composition is assessed by using simulation tools. The results indicate that generating an additional 22-39% HP steam for power production by firing wood powder in the recovery boiler is a viable option, if Cl and K are purged from the ESP dust by a treatment unit. The smelt is enriched with the same proportion of NPEs as the as-fired liquor.

  • 214.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Hydrothermal carbonisation of effluent sludge2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 156-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research was carried out to investigate hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) treatment of different effluent sludges from the pulp and paper industry in a Parr-reactor. Sludge samples were evaluated from a thermomechanical paper (TMP) mill and a kraft market pulp mill (NSWBK). The issues studied included HTC treatment time; addition of acid and alkali; dewatering properties of the resulting slurry; and non-process element (NPE) concentration in the original sludge, the filtrate and the filter cake. It was found that HTC improved the fuel quality. Alkali metals were depleted in TMP and NSWBK sludge and in both cases, the sludge was easier to dewater. The yield was better for TMP than NSWBK sludge and the yield losses had a negative impact on the NSWBK sludge. TMP sludge was already a viable boiler fuel and the treatment improved the fuel qualities even more. The HTC treatment of the NSWBK sludge resulted in lower chlorine and potassium, with lower fuel-nitrogen resulting in lower nitrous oxide. Although HTC treatment improved the low heating value of the sludge, this was counteracted by yield loss. Compared with untreated NSWBK, the overall energy impact was negative. HTC treatment offered mixed opportunities from the viewpoint of the recovery cycle.

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  • 215.
    Ahlstedt, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Time comparison and synchronisation over optical fibre2003Report (Refereed)
  • 216. Ahlstrom, R.
    et al.
    Baird, J.C.
    Jonsson, I.
    School children's preferences for food combinations1990In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students from the 4th, 8th and 11th grades (N = 177) expressed their opinions as to which foodstuffs belong together in a meal. They did this by selecting and grouping cards that depicted the names and pictures of 25 foodstuffs typically offered in their school lunches. Subjects were allowed to create up to 10 different meals under one of four instructions. The cards were dispensed from a specially designed box that could hold single or multiple copies of each food item. Younger students created significantly more meals with few components than did the older students. The types of foodstuffs selected and their groupings were highly similar across grades and for both boys and girls. The meals tended to correspond to those actually available in the school lunch program, but more than 50% of the creations were unique in that each of them was produced by one or two students. These findings suggest that school nutritionists and administrators should strive for maximum variety in their lunch menus. © 1991.

  • 217.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Aluminium i betong - Litteraturstudie och experimentella försök2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens byggprojekt används en mängd olika material för att bygga konstruktioner. Det förekommer att komponenter av aluminium gjuts in i betong vilket medför en risk att täckskiktet spricker p.g.a. korrosionsprodukternas stora volym. Därför är det viktigt att klargöra vilka korrosionsegenskaper aluminium har ingjuten i betong.

  • 218.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Atmosfäriska korrosionsegenskaper för rostfritt stål med olika ytstruktur2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generellt sett så har rostfria stål en hög korrosionsresistens i atmosfärisk miljö p.g.a. den mycket tunna oxidfilmen på ytan, en film som fungerar som en barriär och försvårar initieringen av en korrosionsprocess på stålets yta. Dock så kan rostfria stål få svåra gropfrätningsangrepp i vissa aggressiva atmosfärer där t.ex. klorider och SO2 finns närvarande. Olika ytstrukturer kan ge ytan olika egenskaper som vätbarhet, ytråhet och ytsammansättning. En yta som har hög vätbarhet har en tjockare fuktfilm på ytan jämfört med en yta som har låg vätbarhet. Det är i fuktfilmen på ytan som korrosionsprocesserna sker, aggressiva partiklar och gaser kan tas upp i fuktfilmen från atmosfären och öka korrosionshastigheten. Ytråheten påverkar både vätbarhet och hur mycket partiklar som fastnar på en yta, därmed påverkar ytråheten korrosionshastigheten. Ytsammansättning anger vilka och hur mycket det finns av ett ämne i den skyddande oxidfilmen, ämnen som kan ha betydelse för hur lätt korrosion uppstår, t.ex. så kan olika sulfider fungera som initieringsyta för korrosionsangrepp. I litteraturen har det dragits olika slutsatser om vilken ytegenskap som har störst betydelse för korrosionens omfattning. Vissa studier säger att ytråheten har störst betydelse medan andra säger att ytsammansättningen har störst betydelse. Särskilt låglegerade ferritiska rostfria stål kan få svår gropfrätning i aggressiva miljöer och då har typen av ytstruktur liten betydelse för hur stora korrosionsangreppen blir. För de mer legerade austenitiska stålen kan typen av ytstruktur ha stor betydelse för storleken på korrosionsangrepp. Höglegerade stål som innehåller molybden har generellt sett små korrosionsangrepp och typen av ytstruktur har liten betydelse för korrosionsangreppens omfattning. Sammantaget tycks det dock vara så att ytråheten ändå har relativt stor inverkan på korrosionsresistensen, dock har relativt få studier genomförts där ytråheten verkligen mätts.

  • 219.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rostfritt stål i betong med hög fukt och kloridhalt - Provningsmetod för rostfritt stål i betong: Delrapport IV2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    För betongkonstruktioner som är exponerade i aggressiva miljöer kan korrosionsskador uppstå som kräver kostsamma reparationer. Aggressiva miljöer kan t.ex. vara konstruktioner i kontakt med havsvatten där klorider kan transporteras genom betongskiktet fram till armeringen och där orsakar korrosionsskador. För att förhindra vissa korrosionsskador kan armering av kolstål (som är det vanligaste armeringsmaterialet) bytas ut mot armering i rostfritt stål. Idag finns en mängd olika rostfria stål, med olika korrosionsegenskaper, tillgängliga på marknaden och det är därför viktigt att kunna klassificera korrosionshärdigheten för dessa stål. I en tidigare litteraturstudie ”Elektrokemiska metoder för utvärdering av armeringskorrosion samt kritisk kloridjonkoncentration för rostfritt stål i betong” [1] så undersöktes vad som har rapporterats i litteraturen om provningsmetoder för att undersöka korrosionshärdigheten för rostfritt stål i betong. Det framgick av litteraturstudien att en potentiostatisk metod med polarisering till +200 mV kan vara lämplig. I denna studie har en liknande potentiostatisk metod tillämpats och utvärderats. Provkropparna placerades i ett vattenbad där temperaturen ökade med 5°C per 14 dagar från lägst 20°C till maximalt 40°C. Två austenitiska och tre duplexa stål har undersökts och resultaten visar att stålen EN 1.4301 (304), EN 1.4162 (2101), EN 1.4436 (316) fick korrosionsangrepp vid 4 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt när temperaturen på vattenbadet var mellan 20 och 30°C. Det mer legerade duplexa stålet EN 1.4362 (2304) fick korrosionsangrepp vid 6 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt vid en temperatur på 35°C. Det högst legerade stålet EN 1.4462 (2205) fick inga korrosionsangrepp vid10 vikt-% Cl per cementvikt som var den högsta kloridkoncentrationen.

  • 220.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites – Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry's increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 221.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Sandberg, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study.

  • 222.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Sederholm, Bror
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Wadsö, L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Influence of chloride and moisture content on steel rebar corrosion in concrete2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 1049-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced mortar samples were exposed in humidity chambers with different relative humidity or exposed in cyclic moisture conditions. The rebars were in an “as received” condition meaning that the preexisting oxide scale were intact. The lowest chloride concentration that initiated corrosion was 1% Cl− by mass of cement, corrosion was then observed for samples exposed at 97% relative humidity. It is suggested that the corrosion rate decreases when samples are exposed to a relative humidity lower than 97%. The results indicate that threshold levels should be evaluated at rather humid conditions (97%) despite the fact that the maximum corrosion rate at higher chloride levels is observed in the interval 91–94%. For samples exposed to cyclic moisture conditions, a lower chloride concentration was needed to initiate corrosion compared to samples exposed in static moisture conditions.

  • 223.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sederholm, Bror
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Electrochemical properties of oxide scale on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions with or without chlorides2018In: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2018, article id 5623504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical properties of various iron oxide scales on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions were investigated. The iron oxide scales were manufactured by different heat treatments and grinding processes and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical properties of the scales were assessed by measuring the corrosion potential and using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves. It was found that wustite and magnetite are less noble compared to hematite but are more effective as cathodic surfaces. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the mill scale can be an important contributing factor in the corrosion of steel in concrete.

  • 224.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic potential for substitution of fossil fuels with liquefied biomethane in Swedish iron and steel industry – Synergy and competition with other sectors2020In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 209, article id 112641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the iron and steel industry (ISI) is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most of the emissions result from the use of fossil reducing agents. Nevertheless, the use of fossil fuels for other purposes must also be eliminated in order to reach the Swedish emissions reduction targets. In this study, we investigate the possibility to replace fossil gaseous and liquid fuels used for heating in the ISI, with liquefied biomethane (LBG) produced through gasification of forest residues. We hypothesize that such utilization of fuels in the Swedish ISI is insufficient to independently drive the development of large-scale LBG production, and that other sectors demanding LBG, e.g., for transportation, can be expected to influence the economic potential for the ISI to switch to LBG. The paper investigates how demand for LBG from other sectors can contribute to, or prevent, a phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI under different future energy market scenarios, with additional analysis of the impact of a CO2 emissions charge. A geographically explicit cost-minimizing biofuel production localization model is combined with heat integration and energy market scenario analysis. The results show that from a set of possible future energy market scenarios, none yielded more than a 9% replacement of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI, and only when there was also a demand for LBG from other sectors. The scenarios corresponding to a more ambitious GHG mitigation policy did not achieve higher adoption of LBG, due to corresponding higher biomass prices. A CO2 charge exceeding 200 EUR/tonCO2 would be required to achieve a full phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI. We conclude that with the current policy situation, substitution of fossil fuels by LBG will not be economically feasible for the Swedish ISI.

  • 225.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Bellander, Ulf
    Uppskattning av armerings läge och diameter i färdig konstruktion1979Report (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Klevbo, Göran
    Provningsmetod för plattsättningsbruk1979Report (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Montin, Stefan
    Metoder för bestämning av komprimeringsgrad hos färsk betong1979Report (Refereed)
  • 228. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Catalysis in micellar and liquid crystalline phases1973In: Chemie, Physikalische Chemie und Anwendungstechnik der Grenzflächenaktiven Stoffe, Munchen: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH, 1973, p. 917-924Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Catalysis in micellar and liquid-crystalline phases : I. the system water-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide-hexanol1972In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 94, p. 5196-5199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Phase equilibria and foam stability in solutions of cationic surfactants1971In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 102, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 231. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Shinoda, K
    Friberg, S
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Microemulsions and phase equilibria1974In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 47, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Ahmadkhaniha, D.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effect of SiC particle size and heat-treatment on microhardness and corrosion resistance of NiP electrodeposited coatings2018In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 769, p. 1080-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of NiP composite coatings with nano and sub-micron sized SiC has been carried out to investigate the possibility of replacing hard chromium coatings. The composition and structure of the coatings were evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Microhardness was measured by Vickers indentation and polarization measurements were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results showed that submicron particles can be codeposited with a higher content as compared to nano sized ones. However, even if a smaller amount of the nano-sized SiC particles are incorporated in the coating, the contribution to an increasing microhardness was comparable with the submicron sized particles, which can be related to the higher density of codeposited particles. SiC particles did not change the anodic polarization behavior of NiP coatings in a 3.5% NaCl solution. Finally, the effect of heat-treatment on the coatings properties at 400 °C for 1 h was studied to investigate the contribution of particles and heat-treatment on hardness and corrosion properties. It was found that the heat-treatment doubled the microhardness and changed the anodic polarization behavior of the coatings from passive to active with respect to the as-plated conditions.

  • 233.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pinate, Santiago
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Electrodeposition of Ni high P composite coatings containing nano and submicron ceramic particles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pinate, S.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Electrodeposition of Ni high P composite coatings containing nano and submicro ceramic particles2017In: EUROCORR 2017 - The Annual Congress of the European Federation of Corrosion, 20th International Corrosion Congress and Process Safety Congress 2017, Czech Association of Corrosion Engineers , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, electrodeposition of Ni-P composite coatings has been carried out to investigate the possibility of replacing hard chromium coatings. Therefore, electrodeposition of Ni-P based composite coating with different SiC particle size (50 nm, 100 nm and 500 nm) or B4C (500 nm) was performed. The coating's composition was evaluated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), microhardness of the coatings was measured by Vickers indentor and polarization measurements were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results showed that B4C particles can codeposit in higher percent respect to SiC ones. Ceramic particles increased microhardness of Ni-P coatings to 700HV0.01. The polarization behavior of all the coatings in 3.5% NaCl was similar in as plated state proving that particles did not hindered the passive behaviour. Finally, the effect of heat-treatment (at 400 ºC for 1 hour) on the coating's properties was studied to compare the contribution of particles and heat-treatment on mechanical and corrosion properties of the coatings. Heat-treatment increased the coating's microhardness and changed the anodic polarization behavior of the coatings respect to the as plated conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. All rights reserved.

  • 235.
    Ahmed, Jawwad Imtiaz
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Tim
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Flinta, Christofer
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Moradi, Farnaz
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Pasquini, Rafael
    UFU Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Stadler, Rolf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Automated diagnostic of virtualized service performance degradation2018In: IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium: Cognitive Management in a Cyber World, NOMS 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service assurance for cloud applications is a challenging task and is an active area of research for academia and industry. One promising approach is to utilize machine learning for service quality prediction and fault detection so that suitable mitigation actions can be executed. In our previous work, we have shown how to predict service-level metrics in real-time just from operational data gathered at the server side. This gives the service provider early indications on whether the platform can support the current load demand. This paper provides the logical next step where we extend our work by proposing an automated detection and diagnostic capability for the performance faults manifesting themselves in cloud and datacenter environments. This is a crucial task to maintain the smooth operation of running services and minimizing downtime. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach which exploits the interpretative capabilities of Self- Organizing Maps (SOMs) to automatically detect and localize different performance faults for cloud services.

  • 236.
    Ahmed, Jawwad
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Moradi, Farnaz
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Pasquini, Rafael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Flinta, Christofer
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Stadler, Rolf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Online approach to performance fault localization for cloud and datacenter services2017In: Proceedings of the IM 2017 - 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 873-874Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated detection and diagnosis of the performance faults in cloud and datacenter environments is a crucial task to maintain smooth operation of different services and minimize downtime. We demonstrate an effective machine learning approach based on detecting metric correlation stability violations (CSV) for automated localization of performance faults for datacenter services running under dynamic load conditions.

  • 237.
    Ahmed, Mobyen
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Tim
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Aparicio, Elena
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; Mälarenergi AB, Sweden.
    Baaz, Hampus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Barua, Shaibal
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Bergström, Albert
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Orisio, Daniele
    State Institute of Higher Education "Guglielmo Marconi", Italy.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zambrano, Jesus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    A machine learning approach for biomass characterization2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, p. 1279-1287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to apply and evaluate different chemometric approaches employing several machine learning techniques in order to characterize the moisture content in biomass from data obtained by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The approaches include three main parts: a) data pre-processing, b) wavelength selection and c) development of a regression model enabling moisture content measurement. Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Multiplicative Scatter Correction and Savitzky-Golay first (SG1) and second (SG2) derivatives and its combinations were applied for data pre-processing. Genetic algorithm (GA) and iterative PLS (iPLS) were used for wavelength selection. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and traditional Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, were employed as machine learning regression methods. Results shows that SNV combined with SG1 first derivative performs the best in data pre-processing. The GA is the most effective methods for variable selection and GPR achieved a high accuracy in regression modeling while having low demands on computation time. Overall, the machine learning techniques demonstrate a great potential to be used in future NIR spectroscopy applications. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 - The 10th International Conference on Applied Energy.

  • 238.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uew
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2018In: Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 225), 2018, p. 107-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the software for a run-time assurance infrastructure in the E-care@home system. An experimental evaluation is conducted to verify that the run-time assurance infrastructure is functioning correctly, and to enable detecting performance degradation in experimental IoT network deployments within the context of E-care@home. © 2018, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

  • 239.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Run-Time Assurance for the E-care@home System2017In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, 2017, Vol. 225, p. 107-110Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Ahmed, Saad
    et al.
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Bakar, A.
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Bhatti, Naveed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Alizai, M
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Siddiqui, J. H.
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    The betrayal of constant power × time: Finding the missing joules of transiently-powered computers2019In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 97-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transiently-powered computers (TPCs) lay the basis for a battery-less Internet of Things, using energy harvesting and small capacitors to power their operation. This power supply is characterized by extreme variations in supply voltage, as capacitors charge when harvesting energy and discharge when computing. We experimentally find that these variations cause marked fluctuations in clock speed and power consumption, which determine energy efficiency. We demonstrate that it is possible to accurately model and concretely capitalize on these fluctuations. We derive an energy model as a function of supply voltage and develop EPIC, a compile-time energy analysis tool. We use EPIC to substitute for the constant power assumption in existing analysis techniques, giving programmers accurate information on worst-case energy consumption of programs. When using EPIC with existing TPC system support, run-time energy efficiency drastically improves, eventually leading up to a 350% speedup in the time to complete a fixed workload. Further, when using EPIC with existing debugging tools, programmers avoid unnecessary program changes that hurt energy efficiency.

  • 241.
    Ahmed, Saad
    et al.
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Bhatti, Nayeed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Alizai, Muhammad
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Siddiqui, Junaid
    Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan .
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Efficient intermittent computing with differential checkpointing2019In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 70-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded devices running on ambient energy perform computations intermittently, depending upon energy availability. System support ensures forward progress of programs through state checkpointing in non-volatile memory. Checkpointing is, however, expensive in energy and adds to execution times. To reduce this overhead, we present DICE, a system design that efficiently achieves differential checkpointing in intermittent computing. Distinctive traits of DICE are its software-only nature and its ability to only operate in volatile main memory to determine differentials. DICE works with arbitrary programs using automatic code instrumentation, thus requiring no programmer intervention, and can be integrated with both reactive (Hibernus) or proactive (MementOS, HarvOS) checkpointing systems. By reducing the cost of checkpoints, performance markedly improves. For example, using DICE, Hibernus requires one order of magnitude shorter time to complete a fixed workload in real-world settings.

  • 242.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Häggström, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kamali, Saeed
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kessler, Vadim G.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordblad, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Preparation of iron oxide nanocrystals by surfactant-free or oleic acid-assisted thermal decomposition of a Fe(III) alkoxide2008In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 320, p. 781-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new non-hydrolytic, alkoxide-based route was developed to synthesize iron oxide nanocrystals. Surfactant-free thermal decomposition of the iron 2-methoxy-ethoxide precursors results in the formation of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals with an average size of 5.6 nm. Transmission electron microscope study shows that the nanocrystals are protected against aggregation by a repulsive surface layer, probably originating from the alkoxy-alkoxide ligands. Addition of oleic acid resulted in monodisperse nanocrystals with an average size of 4 nm. Mössbauer analysis confirmed that the nanocrystals mainly consisted of maghemite. Analysis of the magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and the zero field and field cooled measurements displayed an excellent fit to established theories for single-domain superparamagnetic nanocrystals and the size of the magnetic domains correlated well to the crystallite size obtained from transmission electron microscope.

  • 243.
    Ahrentorp, F.
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Astalan, A. P.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Blomgren, J.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Qi, B.
    Thompson Mefford, O.
    Yan, M.
    Courtois, J.
    Berret, J. F.
    Fresnais, J.
    Sandre, O.
    Dutz, S.
    Muller, R.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Sensitive High Frequency AC Suceptometry in Magnetic Nanoparticle Applications2010In: AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1311, p. 213-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Astalan, Andrea
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Blomgren, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wetterskog, Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lak, Aidin
    Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany.
    Ludwig, Frank
    Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany.
    van Ijzendoorn, Leo J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Westphal, Fritz
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Gruttner, Cordula
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Gehrke, Nicole
    nanoPET Pharma GmbH, Germany.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Effective particle magnetic moment of multi-core particles2015In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 380, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the magnetic behavior of magnetic multi-core particles and the differences in the magnetic properties of multi-core and single-core nanoparticles and correlate the results with the nanostructure of the different particles as determined from transmission electron microscopy(TEM). We also investigate how the effective particle magnetic moment is coupled to the individual moments of the single-domain nanocrystals by using different measurement techniques: DC magnetometry, AC susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and TEM. We have studied two magnetic multi-core particle systems – BNF Starch from Micromod with a median particle diameter of 100 nm and FeraSpin R from nanoPET with a median particle diameter of 70 nm – and one single-core particle system – SHP25 from Ocean NanoTech with a median particle core diameter of 25 nm.

  • 245.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Blomgren, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Sarwe, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Sepehri, Sobhan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Emil
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kalaboukhov, Alexei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jesorka, Aldo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Winkler, Dag
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schneiderman, Justin F.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Albert, Jan
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    de la Torre, Theresa Z. G.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Sensitive magnetic biodetection using magnetic multi-core nanoparticles and RCA coils2017In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 427, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use functionalized iron oxide magnetic multi-core particles of 100 nm in size (hydrodynamic particle diameter) and AC susceptometry (ACS) methods to measure the binding reactions between the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and bio-analyte products produced from DNA segments using the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method. We use sensitive induction detection techniques in order to measure the ACS response. The DNA is amplified via RCA to generate RCA coils with a specific size that is dependent on the amplification time. After about 75 min of amplification we obtain an average RCA coil diameter of about 1 µm. We determine a theoretical limit of detection (LOD) in the range of 11 attomole (corresponding to an analyte concentration of 55 fM for a sample volume of 200 µL) from the ACS dynamic response after the MNPs have bound to the RCA coils and the measured ACS readout noise. We also discuss further possible improvements of the LOD.

  • 246.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Sensor Systems.
    Blomgrten, Jakob
    Coil comprising a winding comprising a multi-axial cable2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 247.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Andersson, C.-G.
    Floberg, P.
    Rosen, J.
    Lingnert, Hans
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation during baking of white bread: Steam and falling temperature baking2007In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1708-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation was studied during the baking of white bread. To assess the effect of over-baking, we used a full factorial experimental design in which the baking time was increased by 5 and 10 min at each baking temperature. Additional experiments were performed with steam baking and falling temperature baking. Immediately after baking, the crust was divided into the outer and inner crust fractions, and the water content and acrylamide concentration of each fraction was measured. The outer crust had a significantly lower water content and higher acrylamide concentration than the inner crust did. Crust temperature in combination with water content had a significant effect on acrylamide formation, higher temperatures resulting in higher acrylamide concentrations. However, at very high temperatures and lower water contents, acrylamide concentration was observed to decrease, though the bread colour was then unacceptable for consumption. Steam and falling temperature baking, on the other hand, decreased the acrylamide content while producing bread crust with an acceptable colour. The lowest acrylamide values and an acceptable crust colour were produced by steam baking. © 2007 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 248.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Chamayou, A.
    Dewettinck, K.
    Depypere, F.
    Dumoulin, E.
    Fitzpatrick, J.
    Processing of food powders2008In: Food Materials Science: Principles and Practice, p. 341-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of formulation engineering concepts in food manufacturing and the demand for diversity in food products has driven a substantial market increase for food ingredients. Most ingredients are supplied in powder form and therefore a better understanding of dispersed solid food systems is important both for food ingredient manufactures and food producers. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 249.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J.
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

  • 250.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

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