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  • 151.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden; COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    ASArP: Automated Security Assessment & Audit of Remote Platforms using TCG-SCAP synergies2015Ingår i: Journal of Information Security and Applications, ISSN 2214-2134, E-ISSN 2214-2126, Vol. 22, s. 28-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many enterprise solutions today are built upon complex distributed systems which are accessible to the users globally. Due to this global access, the security of the host platforms becomes critical. The platform administrators use security automation techniques such as those provided by Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) standards to protect the systems from the vulnerabilities that are reported daily; furthermore, they are responsible for keeping their systems compliant to the relevant security recommendations (governmental or industrial). Additionally, third party audit and certification processes are used to increase user trust in enterprise solutions. However, traditional audit and certification mechanisms are not continuous , that is, not frequent enough to deal with the daily reported vulnerabilities, and for that matter even auditors expect platform administrators to keep the systems updated. As a result, the end user is also forced to trust the platform administrators about the latest state of the platform. In this paper we develop an automated security audit and certification system (ASArP)(ASArP) which can be used by platform users or by third party auditors. We use security automation techniques for continuous monitoring of the platform security posture and make the results trustworthy by using trusted computing (TCG) techniques. The prototype development of ASArPASArP validates the implementation feasibility; it also provides performance benchmarks which show that the ASArPASArP based audit and certification can be done much more frequently (e.g. daily or weekly). The feasibility of ASArPASArP based continuous audits is significantly better than traditional platform audits which are dependent on the physical presence of the auditors, thus making frequent audits much more expensive and operationally infeasible.

  • 152.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Björkman, Mats
    Continuous Security Evaluation and Auditing of Remote Platforms by Combining Trusted Computing and Security Automation Techniques2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In new distributed systems paradigms like cloud computing, the security of the host platforms is very critical. The platform administrators use security automation techniques to ensure that the outsourced platforms are set up correctly and follow the security recommendations. However, the remote platform users still have to trust the platform owner. The third party security audits, used to shift the required user trust from the platform owner to a trusted entity, are scheduled and are not very frequent to deal with the daily reported vulnerabilities. In this paper we propose a continuous remote platform evaluation mechanism to be used by the remote entity to increase the platform user trust. We analyze the existing SCAP and trusted computing (TCG) standards for our solution, identify their shortcomings, and suggest ways to integrate them. Our proposed platform security evaluation framework uses the TCG-SCAP synergy to address the limitations of each technology when used separately.

  • 153.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Björkman, Mats
    Security and Trust Preserving VM Migrations in Public Clouds2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the security and trust implications of virtual machine (VM) migration from one cloud platform to the other in an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud service model. We show how to extend and complement previous Trusted Computing techniques for secure VM launch to also cover the VM migration case. In particular, we propose a Trust_Token based VM migration protocol which guarantees that the user VM can only be migrated to a trustworthy cloud platform. Different from previous schemes, our solution is not dependent on an active (on-line) trusted third party. We show how our proposed mechanisms fulfill major security and trust requirements for secure VM migration in cloud environments.

  • 154.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Rasmusson, Lars
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Björkman, Mats
    Securely Launching Virtual Machines on Trustworthy Platforms in a Public Cloud2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud model which allows cloud users to run their own virtual machines (VMs) on available cloud computing resources. IaaS gives enterprises the possibility to outsource their process workloads with minimal effort and expense. However, one major problem with existing approaches of cloud leasing, is that the users can only get contractual guarantees regarding the integrity of the offered platforms. The fact that the IaaS user himself or herself cannot verify the provider promised cloud platform integrity, is a security risk which threatens to prevent the IaaS business in general. In this paper we address this issue and propose a novel secure VM launch protocol using Trusted Computing techniques. This protocol allows the cloud IaaS users to securely bind the VM to a trusted computer configuration such that the clear text VM only will run on a platform that has been booted into a trustworthy state. This capability builds user confidence and can serve as an important enabler for creating trust in public clouds. We evaluate the feasibility of our proposed protocol via a full scale system implementation and perform a system security analysis.

  • 155. Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    Boman, Magnus
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    A trading agent built on constraint programming2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trading Agent Competition (TAC) combines a fairly realistic model of the Internet commerce of the future, including shopbots and pricebots, with a challenging problem in automated reasoning and decision making. Automated trading via auctions under severe time constraints are to be con-ducted by entering autonomous agents into TAC, assuming the role of travel agents. The TAC game rules, as well as a description of the discrete op-timization problem faced by an agent that wishes to allocate goods to its clients, are described. The TAC’01 entry “006”, encapsulating a constraint programming solution, is explained in some detail.

  • 156.
    Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Brown, Stanley
    Johansson, Johan
    Stability puzzles in phage lambda2002Ingår i: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Physical Review E, Vol. 65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the absence of RecA-mediated cleavage of the repressor, the [lambda] prophage is exceptionally stable. We develop a stochastic model that predicts the stability of such epigenetic states from affinities of the molecular components. We find that the stability, in particular, depends on the maximum possible cI protein production, and on the number of cro proteins per transcribed mRNA. We apply the model to the behavior of recently published mutants of OR and find, in particular, that a mutant that overexpress cro behaves in a different way than what was predicted, thus suggesting that the current view of the OR switch is incomplete. The approach described here should be generally applicable to the stability of expressed states.

  • 157.
    Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Ekman, Jan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Kreuger, Per
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    GENFUNK2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This document summarizes the results obtained by SICS in project GENFUNK (2001). The project was carried out in collaboration with Global Genomics AB (Stockholm, Sweden). Jointly obtained results will be presented separately. Main funding was provided by Swedish Research Agency VINNOVA. Project GENFUNK studied a novel approach of measuring the global gene expression. In the method, mRNA is extracted from a tissue sample and transformed into cDNA captured on magnetic beads. This is then acted on by type IIS restriction endonucleases, which recognize certain short DNA sequences and cut the DNA close to those sequences. The resulting fragments are amplified in PCR with selected ligation fragments, and displayed in capillary electrophoresis. Determining the gene expression levels from the peak data is combinatorial optimization problem, which can in principle be solved, to give expression levels of most genes active in sampled cells, with good accuracy.

  • 158. Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    El-Ansary, Sameh
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    A Physics-Style Approach to Scalability of Distributed Systems2005Ingår i: Global Computing, Springer , 2005, 1, s. 266-272Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to treat large scale distributed systems as physical systems? The importance of that question stems from the fact that the behavior of many P2P systems is very complex to analyze analytically, and simulation of scales of interest can be prohibitive. In Physics, however, one is accustomed to reasoning about large systems. The limit of very large systems may actually simplify the analysis. As a first example, we here analyze the effect of the density of populated nodes in an identifier space in a P2P system. We show that while the average path length is approximately given by a function of the number of populated nodes, there is a systematic effect which depends on the density. In other words, the dependence is both on the number of address nodes and the number of populated nodes, but only through their ratio. Interestingly, this effect is negative for finite densities, showing that an amount of randomness somewhat shortens average path length. This work is funded by the Swedish funding agency VINNOVA, PPC project and the European PEPITO and EVERGROW projects.

  • 159.
    Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Fanelli, Duccio
    Self-gravitating systems in a three-dimensional expanding universe2002Ingår i: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear evolution of one-dimensional perturbations in a three-dimensional expanding Universe is considered. A general Lagrangian scheme is derived, and compared to two previously introduced approximate models. These models are simulated with heap-based event-driven numerical procedure that allows for the study of large systems, averaged over many realisations of random initial conditions. One of the models is shown to be qualitatively, and, in some respects, concerning mass aggregation, quantitatively similar to the adhesion model.

  • 160.
    Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Fanelli, Duccio
    Gurbatov, S.N
    Moshkov, Yu
    The inner structure of Zeldovich' pancakes2003Ingår i: Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Vol. 186, s. 171-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of a planar perturbation in a Einstein–de Sitter Universe is studied using a previously introduced Lagrangian scheme. An approximate discrete dynamical system is derived, which describes the mass agglomeration process. Quantitative predictions for the late-time mean density profile are obtained therefrom, and validated by numerical simulations. A simple but important result is that the characteristic scale of a mass agglomeration is an increasing function of cosmological time t. For one kind of initial conditions we further find a scaling regime for the density profile of a collapsing object. These results are compared with analogous investigations for the adhesion model (Burgers equation with positive viscosity). We further study the mutual motion of two mass agglomerations, and show that they oscillate around each other for long times, like two “heavy particles”. Individual particles in the two agglomerations do not mix effectively on the time scale of the inter-agglomeration motion.

  • 161.
    Aurell, Erik
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sneppen, Kim
    Epigenetics as a first exit problem2002Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 88, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a framework to discuss stability of epigenetic states as first exit problems in dynamical systems with noise. We consider in particular the stability of the lysogenic state of the lambda prophage, which is known to exhibit exceptionally large stability. The formalism defines a quantative measure of robustness of inherited states. In contrast to Kramers' well-known problem of escape from a potential well, the stability of inherited states in our formulation is not a numerically trivial problem. The most likely exit path does not go along a steepest decent of a potential -- there is no potential. Instead, such a path can be described as a zero-energy trajectory between two equilibria in an auxiliary classical mechanical system. Finding it is similar to e.g. computing heteroclinic orbits in celestial mechanics. The overall lesson of this study is that an examination of equilibria and their bifurcations with changing parameter values allow us to quantify both the stability and the robustness of particular states of a genetic control system.

  • 162.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A systematic mapping of the research literature on system-of-systems engineering2015Ingår i: 2015 10th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), 2015, 6, s. 18-23, artikel-id 7151918Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research area systems-of-systems engineering has increased rapidly over the last decade and now contains a substantial body of literature. To get an overview of the field, a systematic mapping of the literature has been done, covering over 3000 papers. It revealed a field massively dominated by US researchers, with an emphasis on military and space systems. A large number of people are involved, but few researchers focus on the area, and citations are fairly low compared to other fields. Important research topics include architecture, modeling and simulation, integration and interoperability, communication, sustainability, and safety and security. There are signs of immaturity within the research area, and it is recommended that existing venues are complemented with an international scientific event with very high standards for submissions.

  • 163.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15), New York, NY, USA: ACM , 2015, 9, artikel-id a15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems is an extension of traditional embedded systems, where communication to the outside world is given more emphasis. This leads to a new design space also for software development, allowing new allocation strategies for functionality. In traditional embedded systems, all functionality was inside the product, but now it becomes possible to partition the software between the embedded systems and IT systems outside the product. This paper investigates, through a case study from the automotive domain, possible new allocation alternatives where computation is offloaded from the embedded system to a server, and what additional architectural concerns this leads to, including performance, resource utilization, robustness, and lifecycle aspects. In addition, the paper addresses new opportunities created by allocating functionality outside the embedded systems, and thus making data available for extended services, as well as the larger concerns that result on the organizational level, including new competency in architecture and DevOps.

  • 164.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Embedded and Enterprise Software and Systems2012Ingår i: Aligning Enterprise, System, and Software Architectures, IGI Global , 2012, 6, s. 39-57Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries rely heavily on embedded software and systems to maximize business value in their products. These systems are very complex and the architecture is important to control the complexity and make development efficient. There are often also connections between the embedded system and the different lifecycle processes, and hence to the enterprise systems supporting those processes. It is rare to start from scratch when developing new products, and instead these companies evolve their products over time, which means that architecting needs to be evolutionary. In this chapter, it is described what such an evolutionary architecting process can look like based on observations from industry, and how the process can be continuously improved using a maturity model. It is also presented how the embedded system relates to different elements of the enterprise architecture.

  • 165.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Evolutionary Architecting of Software-Intensive Systems2012Ingår i: ERCIM NewsArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most industrial software-intensive systems have a very long life span, and undergo many changes after their initial conception. To ensure that they maintain the desired system-level properties, it is essential that their architecture is also updated to reflect the added functionality. To this end, we have investigated how Evolutionary Architecting should be carried out in order to provide a strong basis for a system, not only at conception but throughout its life. The results are concrete and based on empirical findings, and include both a new state-of-the-art process description and a light-weight maturity evaluation method.

  • 166.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Improving the Evolutionary Architecting Process for Embedded System Product Lines2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries developing complex products based on embedded systems rely on architecting as a key activity. Furthermore, they use product line approaches to find synergies between their products. This means that they use a base platform which is adapted to different products, and the architecture of the product line thus evolves over time. In previous case studies we have seen that these companies often lack a defined process for the evolutionary architecting of these product lines. The contribution of this paper is to present such a process, which matches key characteristics of mature architecting practices. It is also discussed how this process compares to observations in industry.

  • 167.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On how to deal with uncertainty when architecting embedded software and systems2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the topic of uncertainty in the context of architecting embedded software and systems. It presents links between complexity and uncertainty, and identifies different kinds of uncertainty. Based on this, it elaborates why uncertainty arises in the architecting of software-intensive systems, and presents ten different tactics that can be employed to deal with uncertainty and mitigate the associated risks.

  • 168.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Proceedings of the 1st Scandinavian Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems (SWESoS 2015)2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid digitization of society is to a large extent driven by the interconnection of existing systems in order to co-ordinate their activities. This leads to systems-of-systems (SoS), where the parts more or less voluntarily co-operate for mutual benefits while keeping their autonomy. The term SoS started to become relevant some 20 years ago, and accelerated as a research area about 10 years ago. Although some people tend to take SoS as a synonym for large and complex systems, the research community has arrived at a fairly precise characterization of the term. In an SoS, the elements, or constituent systems, exhibit an operational and managerial independence, meaning that they can operate outside the SoS context, and have different owners. They choose to collaborate in order to achieve a common goal, manifested as an emergent property of the SoS, i.e. a property not existent in any of its parts in isolation. The field so far has been dominated by US researchers focusing on military and space applications. Key topics include architecture, communications, interoperability, modeling and simulation, and also a number of properties where dependability attributes such as safety play an important role. From its origins in the government driven sectors, SoS are now spreading to civilian and commercial usage. To investigate the needs and strategies for Sweden in relation to SoS, VINNOVA in late 2014 commissioned a consortium led by the Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS) to develop a research and innovation agenda for the area. The agenda project has included an industrial perspective captured in a series of workshops with practitioners, and also a research perspective. The latter was handled through an extensive research literature review, which indicated a poor representation of Scandinavia in the SoS research community. Also, a survey was sent to all relevant Swedish universities, research institutes, and funding agencies, and the result of this was somewhat contradictory. Many researchers are indeed working on topics related to SoS, but often use different terms for it, and publish at other venues than the SoS community. Given the large, but scattered, activity in the highly multidisciplinary SoS area, SICS and the Swedish Chapter of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) decided to organize the 1st Scandinavian Workshop on the Engineering of Systems of Systems (SWESoS 2015). The primary purpose of the workshop was to create a meeting place for researchers and practitioners interested in SoS. The workshop was intended to be an informal event, focusing on presentation of results and ongoing research, to stimulate interaction among the researchers. This proceedings volume contains the extended abstracts of those presentations. In many cases, the presentations are based on work already published elsewhere, and the interested reader can find links to more material in each contribution. The scope of the workshop was all aspects related to SoS engineering. This included, but was not restricted to, the following topics when applied to systems of systems: Autonomous and cooperative systems; Business models, including software ecosystems; Case studies of applications in different domains; Control strategies; Communication; Dependability, robustness, and other quality attributes; Enterprise architecture; Governance; Interoperability; Modeling and simulation, including multi-agent systems; Service oriented architecture; Systems engineering methods; and Systems thinking. In total, 16 papers were submitted to the workshop, and 13 were accepted for presentation, whereas the remaining three were somewhat outside the core scope of the event.

  • 169.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Safety Analysis for Systems-of-Systems2015Ingår i: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, Vol. 102, s. 22-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 170.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review2017Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, s. 1033-1045, artikel-id 7547317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

  • 171.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Systems-of-systems for border-crossing innovation in the digitized society - A strategic research and innovation agenda for Sweden2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes a strategic research and innovation agenda for the area systems-of-systems. The agenda has been developed during the first half of 2015 in a project led by SICS Swedish ICT AB, in collaboration with INCOSE Sweden and a large number of representatives from industry and academia, with financial support from Vinnova. The overall conclusion of the agenda is: Sweden needs a world-leading capability to rapidly develop trustworthy systems-of-systems. A system-of-systems (SoS) can informally be defined as a group of independent collaborating systems. The elements of an SoS, called constituent systems, retain an operational and managerial independence, but when combined in a certain way, they provide together a new capability that is emergent from their cooperation. There are many applications of SoS, often as a consequence of the digitization of society which opens new possibilities for system integration. Examples can be found within command and control systems for defense and civilian crisis management; construction and mining; manufacturing and the reindustrialization; transportation; and health care. System integration is traditionally a Swedish area of strength, and by improving SoS knowledge, competitive advantages can be reached. SoS is also an important enabler for innovation, through the ability to combine existing technical products, processes, and organizations in new ways. Having the ability for rapid SoS development is very important for businesses to bring new innovations to market. However, to advance the practice of SoS engineering, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including improving the theoretical foundations; the socio-technical aspects; architecture; modeling and simulation; interoperability; trust; business and legal aspects; development processes and methods; and standardization. As part of the agenda project, a survey has been done of international and Swedish research in the area. Internationally, the SoS field is dominated by US researchers, with a very strong focus on military and space applications. A large number of people are involved, but few persons focus on the area. In comparison, Sweden has entered the research area much later, and only now is attention growing. As is the case internationally, few researchers focus on SoS, and many of them do not even call their research SoS. Activities are scattered over many organizations throughout the country. Many of the researchers in SoS in Sweden come from a background in Software Engineering or Control Engineering, and this is in contrast with the international research, which has its basis in Systems Engineering. In Sweden, research topics such as business aspects (in particular innovation), control systems, governance, and Internet of Things are more pronounced than internationally. However, there is little research in Sweden on the underlying, fundamental principles of SoS engineering. This is likely to be in part a consequence of the funding strategies currently implemented. The analysis shows a broad but scattered Swedish research community lacking critical mass. There is a high competence in software and control engineering, and in empirical research methods, but the lack of systems engineering competence is alarming, since it is fundamental for desired advances, such as in the reindustrialization (Industry 4.0). To achieve the desired capability in SoS development requires knowledge, competence, and capacity, which are provided through substantially increased research and education actions. It is suggested that research in the area is organized as a national SoS center-of-centers that coordinates activities at different academic member organizations. This requires increased research funding. There is also an urgent need for education in systems engineering, systems thinking, and SoS. It is proposed that the center-of-centers also takes responsibility for this, by developing joint courses in those disciplines, including on-line courses for practitioners, and PhD schools for industrial and academic doctoral students. To complement this, societal actions are needed to remove obstacles for building SoS, and enforcing standards. Finally, it is necessary to create meeting places, including triple helix flagship projects, that can fuel the interactions between individuals and organizations interested in SoS.

  • 172.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architectural Concepts for Federated Embedded Systems2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Federated embedded systems (FES) is an approach for systems-of-systems engineering in the domain of cyber-physical systems. It is based on the idea to allow dynamic addition of plug-in software in the embedded system of a product, and through communication between the plug-ins in different products, it becomes possible to build services on the level of a federation of products. In this paper, architectural concerns for FES are elicited, and are used as rationale for a number of decisions in the architecture of products that are enabled for FES, as well as in the application architecture of a federation. A concrete implementation of a FES from the automotive domain is also described, as a validation of the architectural concepts presented.

  • 173.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On the Conceptual Design of a Dynamic Component Model for Reconfigurable AUTOSAR Systems2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently developed the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which is now being introduced widely in production vehicles. The standard structures the application into reusable components that can be deployed in a specific vehicle using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of a dynamic component model that extends an AUTOSAR based control unit with the possibility to add plug-in components that execute on a virtual machine. This concept is intended to give benefits in terms of much shorter deployment time for new functions, even into vehicles that have already been produced. Further, it creates opportunities for vehicles to take part in federated embedded systems together with other products. It also opens up a market for third-party developers, and fosters open innovation in an ecosystem around the automotive software business.

  • 174.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ni, Ze
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Eilert
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    MOPED: A Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design of Cyber-Physical Systems2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing importance of cyber-physical and embedded systems in industry, there is a strong demand for engineers with an updated knowledge on contemporary technology and methods in the area. This is a challenge for educators, in particular when it comes to creating hands-on experiences of real systems, due to their complexity and the fact that they are usually proprietary. Therefore, a laboratory environment that is representative of the industrial solutions is needed, with a focus on software and systems engineering issues. This paper describes such an environment, called the Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design (MOPED). It consists of a model car chassis, equipped with a network of three control units based on standard hardware, and running the automotive software standard AUTOSAR, which consists of operating system, middleware, and application software structures. It is equipped with various sensors and actuators, and is open to extensions both in hardware and software. It also contains elements of future systems, since it allows connectivity to cloud services, development of federated embedded systems, and continuous deployment of new functionality. In this way, the platform provides a very relevant learning environment for cyber-physical systems, today and in the future.

  • 175.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Characteristics of Software Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems: A Case Study2014Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, Vol. 51, s. 1457-1475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Traditionally, Embedded Systems (ES) are tightly linked to physical products, and closed both for communication to the surrounding world and to additions or modifications by third parties. New technical solutions are however emerging that allow addition of plug-in software, as well as external communication for both software installation and data exchange. These mechanisms in combination will allow for the construction of Federated Embedded Systems (FES). Expected benefits include the possibility of third-party actors developing add-on functionality; a shorter time to market for new functions; and the ability to upgrade existing products in the field. This will however require not only new technical solutions, but also a transformation of the software ecosystems for ES. Objective: This paper aims at providing an initial characterization of the mechanisms that need to be present to make a FES ecosystem successful. This includes identification of the actors, the possible business models, the effects on product development processes, methods and tools, as well as on the product architecture. Method: The research was carried out as an explorative case study based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to ES that represent different roles in a future ecosystem for FES. The interview data was analyzed and the findings were mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC). Results: The findings from the study describe the main characteristics of a FES ecosystem, and identify the challenges for future research and practice. Conclusions: The case study indicates that new actors exist in the FES ecosystem compared to a traditional supply chain, and that their roles and relations are redefined. The business models include new revenue streams and services, but also create the need for trade-offs between, e.g., openness and dependability in the architecture, as well as new ways of working.

  • 176.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2016Ingår i: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 23-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

  • 177.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Skoglund, Mats
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Quality assurance in software ecosystems: A systematic literature mapping and research agenda2015Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 114, s. 69-81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Software ecosystems are becoming a common model for software development in which different actors cooperate around a shared platform. However, it is not clear what the implications are on software quality when moving from a traditional approach to an ecosystem, and this is becoming increasingly important as ecosystems emerge in critical domains such as embedded applications. Therefore, this paper investigates the challenges related to quality assurance in software ecosystems, and identifies what approaches have been proposed in the literature. The research method used is a systematic literature mapping, which however only resulted in a small set of six papers. The literature findings are complemented with a constructive approach where areas are identified that merit further research, resulting in a set of research topics that form a research agenda for quality assurance in software ecosystems. The agenda spans the entire system life-cycle, and focuses on challenges particular to an ecosystem setting, which are mainly the results of the interactions across organizational borders, and the dynamic system integration being controlled by the users.

  • 178.
    Aylett, Ruth
    et al.
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Kriegel, Michael
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Wallace, Iain
    Heriot-Watt University, UK.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Mercurio, Johanna
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Memory and the Design of Migrating Virtual Agent2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses an experiment examining the impact of interaction memory on user perceptions of a virtual agent with multiple embodiments and migration between them. The outcome showed users perceived agents with memory as more competent, but it had no significant effect on a strong perception of consistent identity across multiple embodiments.

  • 179. Aylett, Ruth
    et al.
    Kriegel, Michael
    Wallace, Iain
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Mercurio, Johanna
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Vargas, Patricia
    Do I remember you? Memory and identity in multiple embodiments.2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates user perceptions of continuous identity as agents migrate between different embodiments. It reports an experiment seeking to establish whether migrating or not migrating the interaction memory of the agent would affect the user’s perception of consistent agent identity over different embodiments. The experiment involved a treasure hunt in which a virtual agent migrated from a screen to a mobile phone in order to accompany a user while they searched for clues. A total of 45 subjects took part in three different conditions with 15 subjects in each. The outcome showed that the presence of memory affected the competence users ascribed to the virtual agent but had no significant effect on a strong perception of consistent identity across multiple embodiments.

  • 180.
    Azzarà, Andrea
    et al.
    Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Italy.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Virtual Resources for the Internet of Things2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 2nd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), 2015, 12, s. 245-250, artikel-id 7389060Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Virtual Resources: a software architecture to resolve the tension between effective development and efficient operation of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Emerging IoT architectures exhibit recurring traits: resource-limited sensors and actuators with RESTful interfaces at one end; full-fledged Cloud-hosted applications at the opposite end. The application logic resides entirely at the latter, creating performance issues such as excessive energy consumption and high latencies. To ameliorate these, Virtual Resources allows developers to push a slice of the application logic to intermediate IoT devices, creating a continuum between physical resources and Cloud-hosted applications. With Virtual Resources, for example, developers can push processing of sensed data to IoT devices close to the physical sensors, reducing the data to transmit and thus saving energy. We describe the key concepts of Virtual Resources and their realization in a CoAP prototype atop resource-constrained devices. Experimental results from cycle-accurate emulation indicate that Virtual Resources enable better performance than Cloud-centric architectures, while retaining the RESTful interaction pattern. For example, energy consumption in representative scenarios improves up to 40% and control loop latencies reduce up to 60%.

  • 181. Baar, Michael
    et al.
    Will, Heiko
    Schiller, Jochen
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Deadlock-free resource arbitration for sensor nodes2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch "Drahtlose Sensornetze", 2008, 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 182. Baccour, Nouha
    et al.
    Koubaa, Anis
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Zuniga, Marco
    Habib, Youssef
    Boano, Carlo Alberto
    Alves, Mario
    Radio Link Quality Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks: a Survey2012Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Sensor NetworksArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 183. Baccour, Nouha
    et al.
    Koubaa, Anis
    Noda, Claro
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Alves, Mario
    Youssef, Hossein
    Zuniga, Marco
    Boano, Carlo Alberto
    Römer, Kay
    Puccinelli, Daniele
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Radio Link Quality Estimation in Low-Power Wireless Networks2013 (uppl. 12)Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 184. Bagci, Ibrahim Ethem
    et al.
    Pourmirza, Mohammad Reza
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Roedig, Utz
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Codo: Confidential Data Storage for Wireless Sensor Networkss2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used to collect and process confidential information. Confidentiality must be ensured at all times and, for example, solutions for confidential communication, processing or storage are required. To date, the research community has addressed mainly the issue of confidential communication. Efficient solutions for cryptographically secured communication and associated key exchange in WSNs exist. Many WSN applications, however, rely heavily on available on-node storage space and therefore it is essential to ensure the confidentiality of stored data as well. In this paper we present Codo, a confidential data storage solution which balances platform, performance and security requirements. We implement Codo for the Contiki WSN operating system and evaluate its performance.

  • 185. Bagci, Ibrahim Ethem
    et al.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Chung, Tony
    Roedig, Utz
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Combined Secure Storage and Communication for the Internet of Things2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 186.
    Bagci, Ibrahim Ethem
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Roedig, Utz
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fusion: Coalesced Confidential Storage and Communication Framework for the IoT2015Ingår i: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, Vol. 9, nr 15, s. 2656-2673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive security mechanisms are required for a successful implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT). Existing solutions focus mainly on securing the communication links between Internet hosts and IoT devices. However, as most IoT devices nowadays provide vast amounts of flash storage space it is as well required to consider storage security within a comprehensive security framework. Instead of developing independent security solutions for storage and communication we propose Fusion, a framework which provides coalesced confidential storage and communication. Fusion uses existing secure communication protocols for the IoT such as IPsec and DTLS and re-uses the defined communication security mechanisms within the storage component. Thus, trusted mechanisms developed for communication security are extended into the storage space. Notably, this mechanism allows us to transmit requested data directly from the file system without decrypting read data blocks and then re-encrypting these for transmission. Thus, Fusion provides benefits in terms of processing speed and energy efficiency which are important aspects for resource constrained IoT devices. The paper describes the Fusion architecture and its instantiation for IPsec and DTLS based systems. We describe Fusion’s implementation and evaluate its storage overheads, communication performance and energy consumption

  • 187.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    A Token-Based MAC Protocol for Achieving High Reliability in VANET2016Ingår i: BMW Summer School 2016, 2016, 6Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 188.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS. Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    Bohm, Annette
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable Token-Based MAC Protocol for V2V Communication in Urban VANET2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2016, 5, artikel-id 7794823Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety applications developed for vehicular environments require every vehicle to periodically broadcast its status information (beacon) to all other vehicles, thereby avoiding the risk of car accidents in the road. Due to the high requirements on timing and reliability posed by traffic safety applications, the current IEEE 802.11p standard, which uses a random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, faces difficulties to support timely and reliable data dissemination in vehicular environments where no acknowledgement or RTS/CTS (Request-to-Send/Clear-to-Send) mechanisms are adopted. In this paper, we propose the Dynamic Token-Based MAC (DTB-MAC) protocol. It implements a token passing approach on top of a random access MAC protocol to prevent channel contention as much as possible, thereby improving the reliability of safety message transmissions. Our proposed protocol selects one of the neighbouring nodes as the next transmitter; this selection accounts for the need to avoid beacon lifetime expiration. Therefore, it automatically offers retransmission opportunities to allow vehicles to successfully transmit their beacons before the next beacon is generated whenever time and bandwidth are available. Based on simulation experiments, we show that the DTB-MAC protocol can achieve better performance than IEEE 802.11p in terms of channel utilization and beacon delivery ratio for urban scenarios.

  • 189.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable and Efficient Token-Based MAC Protocol for Platooning Applications2016Ingår i: 12th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2016), 2016, 12Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is both a challenging and rewarding application. Challenging since strict timing and reliability requirements are imposed by the distributed control system required to operate the platoon. Rewarding since considerable fuel reductions are possible. As platooning takes place in a vehicular ad hoc network, the use of IEEE 802.11p is close to mandatory. However, the 802.11p medium access method suffers from packet collisions and random delays. Most ongoing research suggests using TDMA on top of 802.11p as a potential remedy. However, TDMA requires synchronization and is not very flexible if the beacon frequency needs to be updated, the number of platoon members changes, or if retransmissions for increased reliability are required. We therefore suggest a token-passing medium access method where the next token holder is selected based on beacon data age. This has the advantage of allowing beacons to be re-broadcasted in each beacon interval whenever time and bandwidth are available. We show that our token-based method is able to reduce the data age and considerably increase reliability compared to pure 802.11p.

  • 190.
    Bandmann, Olav
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Dam, Mads
    Sadighi, Babak
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Constrained delegation2002Ingår i: Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2002, 1, , s. 12Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sometimes it is useful to be able to separate between the management of a set of resources, and the access to the resources themselves. Current accounts of delegation do not allow such distinctions to be easily made, however. We introduce a new model for delegation to address this issue. The approach is based on the idea of controlling the possible shapes of delegation chains. We use constraints to restrict the capabilities at each step of delegation. Constraints may reflect e.g. group memberships, timing constraints, or dependencies on external data. Regular expressions are used to describe chained constraints. We present a number of example delegation structures, based on a scenario of collaborating organisations.

  • 191. Bardeli, Rolf
    et al.
    Boujemaa, Nozha
    Compañó, Ramón
    Doch, Christoph
    Geurts, Joost
    Gouraud, Henri
    Joly, Alexis
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    King, Paul
    Köhler, Joachim
    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis
    Le Moine, Jean-Yves
    Ortgies, Robert
    Point, Jean-Charles
    Rotenberg, Boris
    Rudström, Åsa
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Schreer, Oliver
    Sebe, Nicu
    Snoek, Cees
    CHORUS Deliverable 2.2: Second report - identification of multi-disciplinary key issues for gap analysis toward EU multimedia search engines roadmap2008Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    After addressing the state-of-the-art during the first year of Chorus and establishing the existing landscape in multimedia search engines, we have identified and analyzed gaps within European research effort during our second year. In this period we focused on three directions, notably technological issues, user-centred issues and use-cases and socio- economic and legal aspects. These were assessed by two central studies: firstly, a concerted vision of functional breakdown of generic multimedia search engine, and secondly, a representative use-cases descriptions with the related discussion on requirement for technological challenges. Both studies have been carried out in cooperation and consultation with the community at large through EC concertation meetings (multimedia search engines cluster), several meetings with our Think-Tank, presentations in international conferences, and surveys addressed to EU projects coordinators as well as National initiatives coordinators. Based on the obtained feedback we identified two types of gaps, namely core technological gaps that involve research challenges, and “enablers”, which are not necessarily technical research challenges, but have impact on innovation progress. New socio-economic trends are presented as well as emerging legal challenges.

  • 192. Baresi, Luciano
    et al.
    Ghezzi, Carlo
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Loupe: Verifying Publish-Subscribe Architectures with a Magnifying Lens2011Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Software EngineeringArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 193.
    Baresi, Luciano
    et al.
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Dustdar, Schahram
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Building Software for the Internet of Things2015Ingår i: IEEE Internet Computing, ISSN 1089-7801, E-ISSN 1941-0131, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 6-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The guest editors present a special issue on building software for the Internet of Things (IoT).

  • 194. Barton, John J.
    et al.
    Folowosele, Fopefolu
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Houston, Mave
    Zhai, Shumin
    Connection Times for Strange Devices2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 195. Barton, John J.
    et al.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Folowosele, Fopefolu
    Harrison, Beverly
    Dialing for Displays: Session Initiation Protocol for Opportunistic Augmentation2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic augmentation denotes connecting a personal mobile device to another device to gain a transient advantage for the user. For example, a mobile phone user might borrow a large display and keyboard from a desktop personal computer. This uniquely ubiquitous computing activity requires effective device and service discovery as well as appropriate media usable across two or more devices. In this paper we show how Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), the call signaling protocol for Voice over IP, effectively separates discovery from media-rendering selection in opportunistic augmentation. This separation improves system flexibility while allowing users or system administrators to choose the most appropriate discovery technologies for the environment. We also describe two phone-centric discovery mechanisms and demonstrate the practicality of the system by implementation and use in a test environment.

  • 196.
    Baumann, Christoph
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Näslund, Mats
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Schwarz, Oliver
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Thorsen, Hans
    T2 Data AB, Sweden.
    A High Assurance Virtualization Platform for ARMv82016Ingår i: 2016 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 2016, 9, s. 210-214, artikel-id 7561034Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results from the ongoing research project HASPOC, developing a high assurance virtualization platform for the ARMv8 CPU architecture. Formal verification at machine code level guarantees information isolation between different guest systems (e.g.~OSs) running on the platform. To use the platform in networking scenarios, we allow guest systems to securely communicate with each other via platform-provided communication channels and to take exclusive control of peripherals for communication with the outside world. The isolation is shown to be formally equivalent to that of guests executing on physically separate platforms with dedicated communication channels crossing the air-gap. Common Criteria (CC) assurance methodology is applied by preparing the CC documentation required for an EAL6 evaluation of products using the platform. Besides the hypervisor, a secure boot component is included and verified to ensure system integrity.

  • 197.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The product line engineering approach is a promising concept to identify and manage reuse in a structured and efficient way and is even applied for the development of safety critical embedded systems. Managing the complexity of variability and addressing functional safety at the same time is challenging and is not yet solved. Variability management is an enabler to both establish traceability and making necessary information visible for safety engineers. We identify a set of requirements for such a method and evaluate existing variability management methods. We apply the most promising method to an industrial case and study its suitability for developing safety critical product family members. This study provides positive feedback on the potential of the model-based method PLUS in supporting the development of functional safety critical embedded systems in product lines. As a result of our analysis we suggest potential improvements for it.

  • 198.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Industrial challenges to achieve functional safety compliance in product lines2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

  • 199. Behboodi, Arash
    et al.
    Crombez, Pieter
    de las Heras, Jose Javier
    De Poorter, Eli
    Handziski, Vlado
    Lemic, Filip
    Moerman, Ingrid
    Van Haute, Tom
    Verhoeve, Piet
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Wolisz, Adam
    Evaluation of RF-based Indoor Localization Solutions for the Future Internet2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 200.
    Behboodi, Arash
    et al.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Wirström, NIclas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Lemic, Filip
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Wolisz, Adam
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Interference Effect on Localization Solutions: Signal Feature Perspective2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015, 10, artikel-id 7145885Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of interference on localization algorithms through the study of the interference effect on signal features that are used for localization. Particularly, the effect of interference on packet-based Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), reported by IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 technologies, and on Time of Flight (ToF), reported by IEEE 802.15.4 technology, is studied using both theoretical discussions and experimental verifications. As for the RSSI values, using an information theoretic formulation, we distinguish three operational regimes and we show that the RSSI values, in dBm, remain unchanged in the noise-limited regime, increase almost linearly with interference power in dBm in the interference-limited regime and cannot be obtained due to packet loss in the collision regime. The maximum observable RSSI variation is dependent on the transmission rate and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). We also show that ToF is, interestingly, decreased under interference which is caused in the symbol synchronization procedure at the receiver. After providing the experimental results, we discuss how the localization algorithms are affected by interference.

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