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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Sandberg, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete2015Ingår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 67-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tang, Luping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sederholm, Bror
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Electrochemical properties of oxide scale on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions with or without chlorides2018Ingår i: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2018, artikel-id 5623504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical properties of various iron oxide scales on steel exposed in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions were investigated. The iron oxide scales were manufactured by different heat treatments and grinding processes and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical properties of the scales were assessed by measuring the corrosion potential and using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves. It was found that wustite and magnetite are less noble compared to hematite but are more effective as cathodic surfaces. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the mill scale can be an important contributing factor in the corrosion of steel in concrete.

  • 3.
    Christodoulakis, John
    et al.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Tzanis, Chris G.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Varotsos, Costas A.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Ferm, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Impacts of air pollution and climate on materials in Athens, Greece2017Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 439-448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than 10 years now the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, has contributed to the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) ICP Materials (International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments) programme for monitoring the corrosion/soiling levels of different kinds of materials due to environmental air-quality parameters. In this paper we present the results obtained from the analysis of observational data that were collected in Athens during the period 2003-2012. According to these results, the corrosion/soiling of the particular exposed materials tends to decrease over the years, except for the case of copper. Based on this long experimental database that is applicable to the multi-pollutant situation in the Athens basin, we present dose-response functions (DRFs) considering that "dose" stands for the air pollutant concentration, "response" for the material mass loss (normally per annum) and "function", the relationship derived by the best statistical fit to the data.

  • 4.
    Gil, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    GILDES model simulations of the atmospheric corrosion of copper induced by low concentrations of carboxylic acids2011Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 158, nr 12, s. C429-C438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer simulation with a GILDES-based model using the COMSOL multiphysics software was performed for copper exposed to low concentrations of carboxylic acids in humidified air at room temperature. GILDES is a six-regime computer model (Gas, the Interface between gas and liquid, the Liquid, the Deposition layer, the Electrodic region near the surface and the Solid). The simulations were compared to previously published in-situ results for copper at the same conditions analysed by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Experimental and calculated results agree with each other with respect to the effect of corrosion, showing formic acid as the most aggressive followed by acetic and propionic acid. This is supported by a higher ligand- and proton-promoted dissolution found in formic acid exposures, followed by acetic and propionic exposures. The dominating precipitated phases were Cu2O, Cu(OH)2, Cu(CH 3COO)2 H2O, Cu(HCOO)2 4H 2O and Cu(CH3CH2COO)2 H 2O. Besides Cu2O, the simulations suggest that the hydrated form of the respective carboxylates is the most likely compound to be formed in this type of atmospheres. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 5.
    Gil, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    GILDES model simulations of the atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by low concentrations of carboxylic acids2012Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 159, nr 3, s. C123-C128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The GILDES computer based model was successfully applied to the atmospheric corrosion of zinc exposed to low concentrations of carboxylic acids in humidified air at room temperature. Under these exposure conditions the expected precipitated phases are zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH) 2) and several forms of hydrated zinc carboxylate, Zn(CH 3CH 2COO) 22H 2O, Zn(CH 3COO) 22H 2O and Zn(HCOO) 22H 2O. The results were compared to those from laboratory exposures obtained in the same conditions. The model correctly predicts the trend for ZnO and zinc carboxylate formation found in experimental exposures for the three acids tested. According to the simulations, surface protonation, surface acid base reactions, as well as ligand- and proton- induced dissolution reactions play a major role in the initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc. Henrys law constant (K H) is found to be an important parameter but uncertain due to different reported literature values. When K H is increased the formation rate of zinc carboxylate also increases. K H increases in the sequence propionic acid acetic acid formic acid, the same order as found for the calculated dissolution rate. © 2012 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 6.
    Grøntoft, Terje
    et al.
    NILU Norwegian institute for air research, Sweden.
    Verney-Carron, Aurelie
    CNRS Université Paris-Est, France.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Cleaning costs for European sheltered white painted steel and modern glass surfaces due to air pollution since the year 20002019Ingår i: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikel-id 167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports estimated maintenance-cleaning costs, cost savings and cleaning interval increases for structural surfaces and windows in Europe obtainable by reducing the air pollution. Methodology and data from the ICP-materials project were used. The average present (2018) cleaning costs for sheltered white painted steel surfaces and modern glass due to air pollution over background, was estimated to be ~2.5 Euro/m 2 ·year. Hypothetical 50% reduction in the air pollution was found to give savings in these cleaning costs of ~1.5 Euro/m 2 ·year. Observed reduction in the air pollution, from 2002-2005 until 2011-2014, have probably increased the cleaning interval for white painted steel with ~100% (from 12 to 24 years), representing reductions in the single intervention cleaning costs from 7 to 4%/year (= % of one cleaning investment, per year during the cleaning interval) and for the modern glass with ~65% (from 0.85 to 1.3 years), representing reductions in the cleaning cost from 124 to 95%/year. The cleaning cost reductions, obtainable by 50% reduction in air pollution, would have been ~3 %/year for white painted steel and ~60%/year for the modern glass, representing ~100 and 50% additional cleaning interval increases. These potential cleaning cost savings are significantly higher than previously reported for the weathering of Portland limestone ornament and zinc monuments.

  • 7.
    Irwin, J.
    et al.
    University of the West of England.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Air quality policy2009Ingår i: The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage, Springer US , 2009, s. 269-295Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two main ways to protect cultural heritage objects from air pollution damage. First, by reducing ambient levels of air pollution and second, by instigating local management strategies that either reduce the impact of pollution or repair the damage.

  • 8.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Development of atmospheric corrosion in the changing pollution and climate situation2008Ingår i: 17th International Corrosion Congress 2008: Corrosion Control in the Service of Society, 2008, Vol. 3, s. 1877-1891Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During a long time SO 2 has been the most important pollutant accelerating atmospheric corrosion of several materials including objects of cultural heritage. The quantification of the effect of pollution has been subject of several projects performed in the last decades in Europe and Northern America ( ICP Materials and MULTI-ASSESS) and in Asia and Southern Africa (RAPIDC). Data from these programmes show that the S-pollution has decreased dramatically in the industrial countries of the temperate zone, while the SO 2 levels are high in several places in the RAPIDC network. Dose-response functions (DRF) have been developed for the new multipollutant situation in the temperate zone containing apart of SO 2 and pH also HNO 3 and particulate matter. The results from temperate zone can not directly be used in subtropical/tropical regions. Recent data will allow development of DRF:s for these regions. The developed DRF:s contain apart of pollution also climatic parameters used in climate change models and they have been used in the NOAHś ARK project for estimations of effects of global climate changes on atmospheric corrosion in Europe. © 2009 by NACE International.

  • 9.
    Nordänger, Svante
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tidbeck, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Accelerated corrosion testing - A qualification method for field testing?2017Ingår i: Corrosion Management, ISSN 1355-5243, nr 135, s. 13-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated corrosion test methods have been used for a long time to predict performance of coating systems in real applications. These methods have also been used for qualifying individual systems, and for benchmarking different systems in particular applications.

  • 10. Parker, JL
    et al.
    Claesson, PM
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Cho, DL
    Ahlberg, A
    Tidblad, Johan
    Blomberg, E
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Plasma modification of mica1990Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 134, s. 449-458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When mica is exposed to a low temperature nonpolymer-forming plasma the surface structure is altered by a combination of sputtering and chemical reaction with reactive species in the plasma. The chemical composition of the surface is altered without a significant increase in surface roughness under optimal conditions. The effect of the plasma process parameters (exposure time, power, flow rate, and pressure) on the extent of surface modification has been investigated by means of ESCA and contact angle measurements. After exposure to water vapor plasma the mica surface becomes reactive to silanation with chlorosilanes in the gas phase. The durability of mica surfaces modified by plasma treatment and subsequent reaction with some chlorosilanes has been investigated. The forces between water plasmatreated surfaces after silanation have been measured using a surface force apparatus.

  • 11.
    Rosales, B.M.
    et al.
    CIDEPINT.
    Vera, R.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.
    De Rincon, O.T.
    Universidad Del Zulia.
    Di Sarli, A.
    CIDEPINT.
    Rocha Valenzuela, J.A.
    University of San Andres.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion2012Ingår i: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 12.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Air Pollution Damage to Metals2015Ingår i: Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces, IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS , 2015, s. 143-164Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of heritage metallic artefacts: Processes and prevention2013Ingår i: Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts, Elsevier Ltd , 2013, s. 37-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses primarily on the common environmental aspects of atmospheric metal corrosion. The effects of climate and pollution on corrosion are reviewed across various timescales, from damage over millennia to the present situation, including short descriptions of the indoor environment and recent developments in international standardisation. The chapter concludes with two sections on future trends in air pollution and climate change. © 2013 Copyright ũ 2013 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of metals in 2010-2039 and 2070-20992012Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 55, s. s.1-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic parameters and pollution data from the 6FP NOAHs ARK project 'Global Climate Change Impact on Built Heritage and Cultural Landscapes' together with chloride deposition data have been used to predict atmospheric corrosion of metals in 2010-2039 and 2070-2099. Maps of carbon steel and zinc show that future atmospheric corrosion of metals in Europe are dominated by the effects of chloride deposition in coastal and near-coastal areas. The change can in extreme cases be as high as one corrosivity category and in coastal areas of southern Europe corrosion can be higher than the highest values experienced today in Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 15.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Hicks, Kevin
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Kuylenstierna, Johan
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Pradhan, Bidya Banmali
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Dangol, Pradeep
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Mylvakanam, Iyngararasan
    UNEP, Kenya.
    Feresu, Sara Baisai
    Insitute of Environmental Studies, Zimbabwe.
    Lungu, Chozi
    University of Zambia, Zambia.
    Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Kathmandu, Nepal2015Ingår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 170-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon steel, zinc and limestone samples were exposed in Kathmandu for one year. Their corrosion was measured at ten locations and related to SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM concentrations and climatic factors. Corrosion rates vary considerably and are correlated mainly with the SO2 concentration. Estimated policy targets for SO2 are most stringent for limestone, in the range 3 to 6μgm-3. The Kathmandu carbon steel and limestone samples matched a general pattern from exposures at more than twenty sites in Asia and Africa. At these Asian/African sites corrosion of copper is generally higher than corrosion of zinc. This is in contrast to experiences from European conditions where corrosion of zinc is higher than corrosion of copper.

  • 16.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kreislová, Katerina
    Svuom Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Faller, Markus
    Empa, Switzerland.
    de la Fuente, Daniel
    CENIM National Centre for Metallurgical Research, Spain.
    Yates, Tim
    BRE Building Research Establishment Ltd, UK.
    Verney-Carron, Aurelie
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Grøntoft, Terje
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Gordon, Andrew
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Hans, Ulrik
    Empa, Switzerland.
    ICP materials trends in corrosion, soiling and air pollution (1987-2014)2017Ingår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, nr 8, artikel-id 969Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987-2014 and include pollution data (SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease. SO2 levels, carbon steel and copper corrosion have decreased even after 1997, which is more pronounced in urban areas, while corrosion of the other materials shows no decrease after 1997, when looking at one-year values. When looking at four-year values, however, there is a significant decrease after 1997 for zinc, which is not evident when looking at the one-year values. This paper also presents results on corrosion kinetics by comparison of one- and four-year values. For carbon steel and copper, kinetics is relatively independent of sites while other materials, especially zinc, show substantial variation in kinetics for the first four years, which needs to be considered when producing new and possibly improved models for corrosion. © 2017 by the authors.

  • 17.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kucera, V.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Sherwood, S.
    Center for Technology and Innovation, Endicott.
    Corrosion2009Ingår i: The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage, Springer US , 2009, s. 53-103Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion is a familiar concept-as familiar as the rusting of steel left outside or the green patina of an old copper roof. Corrosion attack is normally seen as a non-desirable effect that causes a loss of aesthetic value and mechanical strength, although many find the patina attractive. This chapter takes those simple concepts and expands them to present the actual mechanisms involved and to relate them to what is happening in the atmosphere. © 2009 Springer-Verlag US.

  • 18.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Asia and Africa2008Ingår i: 17th International Corrosion Congress 2008: Corrosion Control in the Service of Society, 2008, Vol. 2, s. 703-716Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This project is part of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) funded Program on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC). The Program is managed on Sida's behalf by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and the corrosion project is coordinated by Swerea KIMAB AB. Corrosion attack after one (2002-2003 and 2005-2006), two (2002-2004) and four (2002-2006) years of exposure are presented for 12 test sites in Asia (India, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and China including Hong Kong) and four test sites in Africa (South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Materials exposed are carbon steel, zinc, copper, limestone and paint coated steel. At each test site, the environment is characterized by SO 2, NO 2, HNO 3, O 3, particles, amount and pH of precipitation, temperature and relative humidity. Preliminary results are also given from the enlargement of the network (2006-) by inclusion of five new test sites in Asia (Taj Mahal/India, Iran, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Maldives) and two new test sites in Africa (Mozambique and Tanzania). SO 2 is the most important parameter but acid rain is also important for all materials while HNO 3 show correlation to corrosion of zinc and limestone, much similar to the situation in Europe. Attempts to predict corrosion values using dose-response functions developed in Europe have failed, especially for limestone. © 2009 by NACE International.

  • 19.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Ferm, M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Kreislova, K.
    SVUOM Ltd, Czech Republic.
    Brüggerhoff, S.
    Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Germany.
    Doytchinov, S.
    ENEA, Sweden.
    Screpanti, A.
    ENEA, Sweden.
    Grøntoft, T.
    NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Yates, T.
    BRE Building Research Establishment, UK.
    De La Fuente, D.
    CSIC CENIM, Spain.
    Roots, O.
    Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Estonia.
    Lombardo, T.
    Université Paris Est Créteil, France.
    Simon, S.
    Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Germany.
    Faller, M.
    EMPA, Switzerland.
    Kwiatkowski, L.
    Institute of Precision Mechanics, Poland.
    Varotsos, C.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Tzanis, C.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Krage, L.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Schreiner, M.
    Academy of Fine Arts, Austria.
    Melcher, M.
    Academy of Fine Arts, Austria.
    Grancharov, I.
    University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Bulgaria.
    Karmanova, N.
    JSC SRI Atmosphere, Russia.
    Effects of air pollution on materials and cultural heritage: ICP materials celebrates 25 years of research2012Ingår i: International Journal of Corrosion, ISSN 1687-9325, E-ISSN 1687-9333, Vol. 2012Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is given of all results from the International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments (ICP Materials), which was launched in 1985. Since then, about twenty different materials have been exposed repeatedly in a network of test sites consisting of more than twenty sites with an extensive environmental characterisation and more than sixty official reports have been issued. Recent results on trends in corrosion, soiling, and pollution show that corrosion of carbon steel, zinc, and limestone is today substantially lower than 25 years ago, but while corrosion of carbon steel has decreased until today, corrosion of zinc and limestone has remained more or less constant since the turn of the century. Unique data are given on measured HNO3 concentrations from 2002-2003, 2005-2006, and 2008-2009, and the relative average decrease was about the same from 2002-2003 to 2005-2006 as it was from 2005-2006 to 2008-2009. © 2012 Johan Tidblad et al.

  • 20.
    Vinka, Tor-Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Korrosion på metaller i kloridhaltig atmosfär på Bohus-Malmön2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redogör för en exponering under ett år av två olika provtagare för mätning av kloriddeponering och metaller på Bohus-Malmön under perioden 2008-2009. Syftet med exponeringen var att jämföra de två metoderna för kloriddeponering och föreslå den mest lämpliga för framtida mätningar och ta fram systematiska data för korrosion av olika bruksmetaller på platser på Bohus-Malmön med varierande kloridhalt och avstånd från havet. De två metoder som använts för kloriddeponering är ”wet candle”, bestående av en veke med strumpa i kontakt med en lösning av glycerol, samt en provtagare bestående av ett teflonfilter rullat kring en cylinder. Den stora skillnaden mellan de båda metoderna är att ”wet candle” hela tiden är våt medan den passiva provtagaren kan vara torr eller våt, beroende på den omgivande luftens fuktighet. Månadsvisa mätningar har genomförts på tre olika platser på Bohus-Malmön med ett avstånd från havet mellan 50 och 350 m. Båda metoderna och alla tre mätplatserna, totalt sex mätserier visar i stort sett samma årstidsvariation. Den största deponeringen skedde under augusti - oktober och dessa tre månader stod tillsammans för 60 % av den totala kloriddeponeringen. Totalt sett ger dock teflonfiltret systematiskt låga värden på kloriddeponering och kan inte ersätta wet candle i den nuvarande utformningen. Det systematiska felet kan bero på mindre deponering på teflonfiltret, eftersom detta inte alltid är fuktigt, eller på att tidigare deponerad klorid blåses bort av starka vindar. Systematiska data för korrosion av kolstål, koppar, zink, förzinkat stål, och tre olika aluminiumsorter har uppmätts på fem olika platser på Bohus-Malmön med varierande kloridhalt och avstånd från havet. Databasen kan användas för att undersöka inverkan av avstånd från havet samt för att jämföra olika materials känslighet för kloriddeponering. Kloriddeponeringen har det starkaste sambandet med avstånd från havet, varje 100 m i ökat avstånd från havet resulterar i en ungefärlig halvering av kloriddeponeringen. För korrosionen är sambandet betydligt svagare men tydligast för kolstål, koppar och aluminium Al 1050A, följt av zink och Al 3003 och sist förzinkat stål och Al 6063 som praktiskt taget har ingen avklingning alls med avstånd från havet. Uppmätta korrosionshastigheterna för kolstål, zink, koppar och aluminium för första året exponering har jämförts med beräknade korrosionshastigheter med ekvationer i svensk standard SS-EN ISO 9223:2012. De beräknade korrosionshastigheterna var högre än de uppmätta förutom för koppar där uppmätt korrosionshastighet var högre än den beräknade närmast havet.

  • 21.
    Watt, J.
    et al.
    Middlesex University.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Hamilton, R.
    Middlesex University.
    Kucera, Vladimir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    The effects of air pollution on cultural heritage2009Bok (Refereegranskat)
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