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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Sandberg, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete2015Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 67-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study.

  • 2.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Ledan, F
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Real-time monitoring of the degradation of metallic and organic coatings using electrical resistance sensors2017Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, nr 12, s. 1365-1376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of new metallic coatings to protect steel, as well as the optimization of maintenance operations on site requires obtaining relevant corrosion data as function of the exposure conditions. In atmospheric and aggressive environments such as under accelerated corrosion tests or in coastal zones, electrical resistance (ER) sensors have demonstrated their ability to provide relevant real-time corrosion data. Among the sensors commercially available, only single material such as steel, zinc, copper are proposed. However, even if this allows obtaining interesting corrosion data for such reference materials, these data are not representative of industrial systems, such as galvanized steel. Indeed, zinc-based coatings can contain different alloying elements, e.g., aluminum and magnesium, which impact drastically their resistance to corrosion. In addition, with single material sensors, the influence of the galvanic coupling between the coating and the substrate, in the presence of a defect or a cut edge is not considered. In this study, hot dip galvanized, electrogalvanized, and painted steel ER sensors are exposed in accelerated corrosion tests. The results show that this method is very promising to (i) detect the red rust apparition; (ii) assess the corrosion resistance of industrial zinc and organic coatings; and (iii) obtain relevant data in real-time along the exposure time. 

  • 3.
    Elger, R.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Magnusson, H.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Frisk, K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Modelling internal nitridation in an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel2017Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 143-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An austenitic alumina forming stainless steel was exposed in a nitriding atmosphere comprising 5 vol% H2/N2 for 100 and 1000 h. After 100 h, the sample displayed aluminium nitrides down to 450 μm and chromium nitrides down to 200 μm. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and kinetic modelling of the system to simulate 100 h of exposure time were performed using the software ThermoCalc 4.1 including DICTRA. The order of appearance of nitrides in the sample starting from the surface can be understood from the thermodynamic equilibria as well as from results of kinetic modelling. However, the nitridation depth predicted by the kinetic modelling, was larger than experimentally observed, and the cubic chromium nitride predicted to be present on the surface was not detected in the exposed sample. One difference between model and experiment was a thin oxide layer present on the surface of the sample. As this oxide layer can decrease the inwards flux of nitrogen, attempts were made to describe the effects of this layer in the model. The model was also used for qualitative comparison of varying alloy compositions, temperatures and initial nitrogen contents of the matrix.

  • 4.
    Fuertes, N.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Bengtsson, V.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Pettersson, R.
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Rohwerder, M.
    MPI, Germany.
    Use of SVET to evaluate corrosion resistance of heat tinted stainless steel welds and effect of post-weld cleaning2017Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 7-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of heat tints on the corrosion resistance of a 2507 duplex stainless steel tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded joint was assessed. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was used to study oxide dissolution, initiation and propagation of corrosion on the weld. Small spot X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the composition and thickness of the heat tints. Both heat tinted and post-weld cleaned conditions were tested. Post-weld cleaning methods investigated were brushing, brushing plus polishing and brushing plus pickling paste. It was seen that heat tints dissolve by electrochemical reactions that can be mapped with the SVET and correlated with the level of discolouration of the oxides, with the purple–brown oxide being the most active. The mechanical post-weld cleaning methods proved to be insufficient to remove the anodic activity in the heat tint. The most efficient process was brushing followed by pickling which resulted in a totally passive surface measured with SVET and a higher critical pitting temperature.

  • 5.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Spatial distribution and formation of corrosion products in relation to zinc release for zinc sheet and coated pre-weathered zinc at an urban and a marine atmospheric condition2013Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 64, nr 4, s. 300-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc release data from 5 years of unsheltered exposures in a marine and an urban site is compiled for different zinc material types. The thin surface treatment on zinc materials is gradually detached after approximately 2 years at both sites, revealing the pre-weathered zinc surface unprotected. This consequently increased the release rates of zinc from this surface, whereas the zinc runoff rate from the bare zinc sheet remained relatively stable. Raman studies on bare zinc sheet exposed for 5 years at the marine site revealed zinc oxide of varying crystalline nature and hydrozincite to appear localized and separated from each other.

  • 6.
    Jönsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Rendahl, Bo
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Annergren, Ingegerd
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    The use of infrared thermography in the corrosion science area2010Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 61, nr 11, s. 961-965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of infrared (IR) cameras has in recent years gained interest as a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique in a number of different research fields. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emits IR radiation, and the amount of radiation increases with temperature. Infrared thermography is a non-contact technique with high speed which allows inspection of large areas in a relatively short time. In the present work different aspects of IR thermography are described and discussed. Further, corrosion panels with defects, i.e. blisters and filiform corrosion, have been investigated with pulsed thermography. The area of the blisters and filaments, measured with pulsed thermography, have been evaluated, the result obtained have been compared with results from surface profile measurements of the same area. The differences between the results and the limitations of the pulsed thermography are discussed. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 7.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Pelissier, Krystel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    A new accelerated corrosion test for marine paint systems used for ship's topsides and superstructures2018Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 447-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies sponsored by the French Naval Authorities have been conducted during the last 10 years aiming to develop more reliable testing conditions than the conventional neutral salt spray test that should not be used for prediction of material performance. A satisfying correlation to atmospheric field exposure on a ship in service was observed using a 6 months cyclic test from the automotive industry (e.g., Volvo STD23-0014) with a deviation inferior to 25% and an acceleration factor of 4. The possibility to shorten the test duration with a target of 3 months without losing correlation to field exposures is investigated in the present study. A design of experiment is used to study key parameters such as NaCl concentration, the mode of salt application and its frequency as well as the temperature. Ten different marine paint systems used for shipbuilding have been selected. The results indicate an enhancement of the aggressiveness of the test when doubling the salt concentration from 1 to 2 wt%, increasing the number of salt spray per week (from 2 to 3), and the temperature from 35 to 45 °C. The data are compared to marine field exposures in tropical and temperate climates. The most reliable testing conditions to field exposure in marine sites of severity from low C5M to CX on steel include cyclic corrosion tests using 2 wt% of NaCl.

  • 8.
    Lindell, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Crystallographic effects in corrosion of austenitic stainless steel 316L2015Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, nr 8, s. 727-732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron backscatter diffraction and confocal laser microscopy have been used to quantify the degree of crystallographic anisotropy during corrosion of AISI 316L in two test solutions. Corrosion in 30 vol% H2SO4 sulphuric acid shows pronounced crystallographic anisotropy in which the corrosion rate increases in the order {111} < {110} â‰2; {100}. The ratio between the slowest corroding {111} and the fasting corroding {100} surfaces is about 3. Pitting corrosion in a solution of FeCl3 and AlCl3 in ethanol/glycerol agrees with other reported observations that high-atomic density surfaces {111} and {100} are less prone to pit nucleation, however the effect was relative small.

  • 9.
    Persson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Mikhailov, Alexander A.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    In situ studies of the corrosion during drying of confined zinc surfaces2007Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 452-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion process during the drying out of zinc surfaces confined in crevices was studied using real time photograpy and in situ FTIR microspectroscopy. A pH-indicator was used to visualise differences in the pH during the drying process. The distribution and the composition of the corrosion products after several wetting and drying cycles were studied with FTIR microspectroscopy and SEMEDS. An area with high pH formed during the drying process at the border of the electrolyte, with a zone of white corrosion products that contained zinc hydroxycarbonate in the electrolyte inside this area. A differential aeration cell is present at the border of the electrolyte, and the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction takes place close to the border of the electrolyte during the drying process. The corrosion attack and the distribution and composition of the corrosion products on the surface depend strongly on the drying process of the surface. The corrosion attack of confined surfaces was localised, with a significantly higher corrosion attack in some areas. Outside the drying front a thin layer of electrolyte formed as a result of surface tension driven flow of electrolyte from the electrolyte border. This effect was attributed to the alkaline pH of the electrolyte due to the oxygen reduction reaction at the border. A galvanic element was formed between the local cathodes in the area outside the drying front and the anode in the area with bulk electrolyte. The main corrosion products detected after several wet dry cycles were ZnO, Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2, and Zn5(OH)8Cl2 · H2O, but Na2CO3 · 10H2O was also detected. The corrosion products were non-homogeneously distributed on the surface and the distribution was related to the anodic and cathodic processes that took place in different regions on the surface during the corrosion process.

  • 10.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Larche, Nicholas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Vlot, M.
    Corus, The Netherlands.
    Goodwin, Frank E.
    IZA, USA.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Corrosion performance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings in open and confined zones in conditions simulating automotive applications2010Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 412-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Panels coated by hot dipping with zinc (HDG), Zn-5Al (Galfan) and Zn-1.5Al- 1.5Mg coatings at different thicknesses were phosphated and painted on an industrial line. Crevice panels with non-painted bare parts modelling conditions in hem flanges, reference panels with open surfaces and formed non-painted panels were exposed to a cyclic accelerated automotive test. Zn-Al-Mg coatings with the thickness of 10 μ rovided similar or even better protection than HDG and Galfan at 20 mmin both confined and open configurations. In comparison to 10-μm HDG, the Zn-Al-Mg coating delayed red rust appearance in crevices by a factor of 2 and the maximal depth of corrosion in the steel substrate was by 42% lower. Confined areas were more corroded than open surfaces. For HDG, the time to red rust appearance dropped by 50-75%, corrosion attack in steel was from 3.5 to 7 times deeper and mass gain was about 2.3 times higher in crevices than on open surfaces. Corrosion of Zn-Al-Mg may be more affected by local environmental conditions created by the crevice configuration than for HDG. Red rust appearance on formed panels of 20-mm Galfan, 7-, 10- and 14-mm Zn- Al-Mg was delayed to 10-μm HDG by a factor of 2.8, 3.5, 3.8 and >4.5, respectively. No adverse effect of forming was noticed. The results indicate that 2- to 3-fold reduction of the coating thickness for Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings in comparison to traditional HDG may be possible without compromising the corrosion performance.

  • 11.
    Sathirachinda, N.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Wessman, Sten
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Pettersson, R.
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    Evaluation of corrosion behaviour in a 317L stainless steel strip welding using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy2011Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 62, nr 12, s. 1092-1099Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy have been used in combination with SEM/EDS and immersion tests to study a 317L electroslag strip weld which contains austenite and interdendritic ferrite and sigma phase. The individual phases can easily be recognized from the compositional contrast, magnetic pattern and Volta potential variation. Austenite, which is paramagnetic, exhibits the highest Volta potential followed by non-magnetic sigma phase and ferromagnetic ferrite, respectively. Corrosion testing in acidic chloride solutions indicates that the Volta potential measured in air can be related to the tendency to uniform corrosion, while pitting corrosion shows different dependence. In both cases ferrite and sigma phase behaved in a similar manner, indicating that there was no specific detrimental effect of sigma phase on corrosion properties in this material. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 12.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Covercrete with hybrid functions - A novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures2012Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 63, nr 12, s. 1119-1126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Sjögren, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Camitz, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Peultier, J.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD, France.
    Jacques, S.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD, France.
    Baudu, V.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD, France.
    Barrau, F.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD, France.
    Chareyre, B.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD, France.
    Bergquist, A.
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Sweden.
    Pourbaix, A.
    Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Belgium.
    Carpentiers, P.
    Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study, Belgium.
    Corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes in soil2011Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 299-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless steel grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external corrosion of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex steel grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-corrosion temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless steel to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless steels under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless steel pipelines in soil. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 14.
    Stoulil, Jan
    et al.
    Institute of Chemical Technology, Czech Republic.
    Prosek, Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Oswald, Jiri
    Czech Academy of Science, Czech Republic.
    Kriz, P.
    University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Electrochemical properties of corrosion products formed on Zn-Mg, Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Mg coatings in model atmospheric conditions2015Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, nr 8, s. 777-782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical properties of corrosion products formed under sodium chloride deposits on zinc coatings alloyed with aluminium and magnesium have been studied using impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The low-energy band gap identified in corrosion products on hot-dip galvanized steel was associated with their higher electric conductivity and efficiency of the rate-controlling oxygen reduction reaction. It was attributed to the presence of ZnO, zincite. The formation of ZnO was hindered by the alloying. The alloyed coatings were covered by more compact layers of corrosion products with lower electric conductivity and better barrier properties.

  • 15.
    Tabeshian, Ali
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Arnberg, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Aune, Ragnhild
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparison of the electrochemical behavior of amorphous Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10, stainless steel (316LVM), and CoCrMo (F75) in simulated body fluid with and without addition of protein2019Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 652-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical behavior of, and metal ion release from the bulk amorphous (glassy) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloy (Zr-MG) was evaluated in simulated body fluid (phosphate buffer saline [PBS]), with and without additions of protein (albumin Fraction V) at pH 7.4 and 5.2 and at body temperature 310 K (37 °C). The passivation behavior and susceptibility to pitting of the Zr-MG was compared with conventional load bearing implant materials, that is, the medical grade ASTM F75 cast CoCrMo alloy (CoCrMo) and AISI 316 LVM low carbon vacuum re-melted stainless steel alloy (SS). Furthermore, the metal ion release from the main constituent elements of each alloy was measured and compared. All materials showed passive behavior in the PBS solution with and without presence of albumin, though the passive region was smaller for the Zr-MG compared to the CoCrMo and SS. Moreover, all materials experienced pitting corrosion in the PBS solution while the Zr-MG was the most susceptible and the CoCrMo was the least one. Protein additions to the CoCrMo and SS prevented the formation of stable pits at pH 7.4 and 5.2. A decrease in passive region and pitting potential was seen in the case of albumin additions for the Zr-MG at pH 7.4, while the opposite was seen at pH 5.2. Furthermore, the total metal ion release from the Zr-MG was less than for the CoCrMo.

  • 16.
    Talus, Annika
    et al.
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Kinnunen, Hanna
    Valmet Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Enestam, Sonja
    Valmet Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Corrosion of carbon steel underneath a lead/potassium chloride salt mixture2019Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 70, nr 8, s. 1450-1460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High amounts of lead in waste/recycled wood fuel are known to be a contributing factor to the increased corrosion often related to this type of fuel. In combination with potassium, usually present in the fuel, low-melting point salt mixtures between lead chloride (PbCl 2) and potassium chloride (KCl) are expected to form. The purpose of this study is to investigate reactions in the mixed salt of PbCl 2 and KCl and its interactions with carbon steel P265GH and its oxide. Laboratory exposures were performed in an isothermal tube furnace with a salt mixture of PbCl 2/KCl (50/50 mol%) put on steel samples. The test duration was 24 hr at either 300°C or 340°C in an atmosphere of 100 ppm HCl and 20 vol% H 2O in synthetic air. After exposure, the salt mixture consists of distinct areas of KCl and PbCl 2 but also the compounds K 2PbCl 4 and KPb 2Cl 5. A general observation is that the oxide thickness increases with temperature and that areas with Pb/K-mixed salt are frequently found in close connection to more corroded areas. Often the more lead-rich phase KPb 2Cl 5 is located closest to the corrosion product indicating its importance for the corrosion.

  • 17.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Zang, E Q
    Covercrete with hybrid functions: novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures2012Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 63, nr 12, s. 1119-1126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures, the concrete with low water-cement ratio (w/c), high cement content, and large cover thickness is conventionally used for prolonging the passivation period of steel. Obviously, this conventional approach to durable concrete structures is at the sacrifice of more CO2 emission and natural resources through consuming higher amount of cement and more constituent materials, which is against sustainability. By placing an economically affordable conductive mesh made of carbon fiber or conductive polymer fiber in the near surface zone of concrete acting as anode we can build up a cathodic prevention system with intermittent low current density supplied by, e.g., the solar cells. In such a way, the aggressive negative ions such as Cl-, CO3 2-, and SO4 2- can be stopped near the cathodic (steel) zone. Thus the reinforcement steel is prevented from corrosion even in the concrete with relatively high w/c and small cover thickness. This conductive mesh functions not only as electrode, but also as surface reinforcement to prevent concrete surface from cracking. Therefore, this new type of covercrete has hybrid functions. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of feasibility of this approach and discusses the potential durability problems and possible solutions to the potential problems.

  • 18.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Long-term atmospheric corrosion rates of hot dip galvanised steel and zinc-aluminium-magnesium coated steel2019Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn coated steel (Z) and ZnAlMg coated steel (ZM3.7/3 = Zn–Al (3.7 wt.%)-Mg (3.0 wt.%)) have been exposed for 6 years at twelve different weathering sites world wide. The mass loss of the coatings have been measured after 1, 2, 4, and 6 years exposure. From the results, it is shown that ZM3.7/3 had always a better corrosion performance compared to Z. The ratio of performance after 6 years of exposure varied from about 1.4 to 4.4 with a mean value of 2.8. At temperate marine sites (e.g., temperature between 9–20°C) with low to moderate SO 2 pollution a good relationship was observed between the relative performance of ZM3.7/3 and the corrosion rate of Z. It was thus concluded that ZM3.7/3 has a better relative performance in harsh environments. The corrosion performance of ZM3.7/3 was shown to be connected to the formation of protective corrosion products.

  • 19.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Hicks, Kevin
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Kuylenstierna, Johan
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Pradhan, Bidya Banmali
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Dangol, Pradeep
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Mylvakanam, Iyngararasan
    UNEP, Kenya.
    Feresu, Sara Baisai
    Insitute of Environmental Studies, Zimbabwe.
    Lungu, Chozi
    University of Zambia, Zambia.
    Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Kathmandu, Nepal2015Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 170-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon steel, zinc and limestone samples were exposed in Kathmandu for one year. Their corrosion was measured at ten locations and related to SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM concentrations and climatic factors. Corrosion rates vary considerably and are correlated mainly with the SO2 concentration. Estimated policy targets for SO2 are most stringent for limestone, in the range 3 to 6μgm-3. The Kathmandu carbon steel and limestone samples matched a general pattern from exposures at more than twenty sites in Asia and Africa. At these Asian/African sites corrosion of copper is generally higher than corrosion of zinc. This is in contrast to experiences from European conditions where corrosion of zinc is higher than corrosion of copper.

  • 20.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kassman, Håkan
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Sweden.
    Åmand, Lars Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Deposit chemistry and initial corrosion during biomass combustion: The influence of excess O2 and sulphate injection2015Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 118-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of superheater tubes is a serious problem during combustion of fuels with a high content of chlorine, such as waste and certain biomasses. The alkali chlorides are released to the flue gas and may condense on the heat exchanger tubes forming corrosive, chloride-rich deposits. In this work the effect of ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) injection on gaseous alkali chlorides, deposit chemistry and initial corrosion attack of superheater tubes during biomass combustion have been investigated. The investigation was carried out at three different sulphate injection rates (reference, low and high) and at three air excess ratios (λ = 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4). Short-term exposures of Sanicro 28 specimens, using temperature controlled probes, were used for deposit collection and to study the initial corrosion attack. The results showed reduced concentrations of potassium chloride in the flue gas when injecting ammonium sulphate and in particular in combination with high air excess ratios. A decrease of chlorine was also observed in the deposit, but the concentrations did not always correlate to the flue gas measurements. In particular, it was evident that a subsequent sulphation occurred on the tube surface at low air excess ratios. Metallography revealed that sulphation reactions on the tube surface, rather than in the flue gas, had a detrimental effect on the initial corrosion attack. As a consequence, the corrosion attack correlated more clearly to the KCl(g) concentration in the flue gas than the chlorine content in the deposit.

  • 21.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Cyclic long-term testing of gas turbine burner materials in reducing environments at 700 °c2014Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 169-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbines operating under fuel-rich conditions may suffer from material degradation and metal dusting.To evaluate this cyclic exposures have been done at 700 °C during 5000 h in two synthetic environments having a carbon activity of 0.26 and above unity. It was found that the common stainless steel 304L is incapable of withstanding either of the environments, while the stainless steel 253MA performs well because a protective silica layer is formed. The ferritic alumina formers Kanthal APM and Kanthal APMT perform well, together with several commercial chromia forming Ni-base alloys. As a general trend the material degradation is slower in the environment with the higher carbon activity, but pre-oxidised samples of chromia forming alloys did experience sudden and rapid carburisation after scale failure. Also a TBC system failed earlier in this environment, because graphite formation at the top coat/bond coat interface caused spalling of the top coat. Further the MCrAlY bond coat cracked and caused carburisation of the underlying Ni-based substrate. A silicon modified aluminide coating showed good degradation resistance, but stimulated excessive carbon deposition in the environment of high carbon activity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 22.
    Vucko, Flavien
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB.
    Weber, B.
    ArcelorMittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Dosdat, L.
    ArcelorMittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Luckeneder, G.
    Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Bschorr, T.
    Gesellschaft für Schweisstechnik International mbH, Germany.
    Rother, K.
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sciaboni, C.
    Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Italy.
    Sczepanski, J.
    Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, Germany.
    Combined corrosion and fatigue performance of joined materials for automotive applications2016Inngår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, nr 11, s. 1143-1151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue performance of joined assemblies (spot weld and/or adhesive bonding) in corrosive environment. Various assemblies have been tested in alternated and simultaneous fatigue-corrosion modes. Adhesive joints are strongly affected by simultaneous fatigue-corrosion with a large drop of the fatigue life compared to results in air. By alternating fatigue and corrosion, the reduction of fatigue life is important. For spot welding, fatigue life is decreased at higher load amplitudes and increased at lower amplitudes. These results are strongly linked to the opening of the gap near the spot weld at high load amplitudes. At low amplitudes, corrosion might limit the local stress at the notch root of the weld. 

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