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  • 1.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Lindström, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Wennergren, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Penttinen, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Mattiasson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    A unique test facility for calibration of domestic flow meters under dynamic flow conditions2021In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 79, article id 101934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early nineties a hot water test facility was planned and constructed for calibration and testing of volume and flow meters at the National Volume Measurement Laboratory at RISE (formerly SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden). The main feature of the test facility is the capability to measure flow in a wide temperature and flow range with very high accuracy. The objective of the project, which was initiated in 1989, was to design equipment for calibration of flow meters with stable flow and temperature conditions. After many years of international debate whether static testing is adequate to represent the later more dynamic application of domestic water meters, the EMPIR project 17IND13 Metrology for real-world domestic water metering (“Metrowamet”) was launched in 2018. The project investigates the influence of dynamic flow testing on the measurement accuracy of different types of domestic flow meters. One of the main objectives of the project is the development of infrastructure to carry out dynamic flow measurements. The existing test facility at RISE was at the time of construction one of the best hot and cold-water test facilities in the world. Due to the Metrowamet project the test facility has been upgraded to meet the needs of an infrastructure for dynamic flow investigations. The first findings from dynamic consumption profile measurements are reported in this paper. © 2021 The Authors

  • 2.
    Klason, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Penttinen, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Mattiasson, Kerstin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Reynolds dependence of four different flow meters used for feed water flow measurements2013In: 16th International Flow Measurement Conference 2013, FLOMEKO 2013, 2013, , p. 610-613Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Penttinen, Olle
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A fully synthetic turbulent boundary condition with a homogeneous vortex distribution2015In: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944, Vol. 190, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporally and spatially resolved simulations of turbulent flow need realistic inlet velocity fluctuations. The vortex method, described and implemented in this work, adds vortices to the inlet mean flow profile. The vortices are randomly distributed over the inlet and they move across the extent of the inlet with a finite life-time. The initial vortex sizes, strengths, as well as their developing motion and life-times, are determined by the inlet mean velocity and turbulence distributions. In contrast to previous studies of the vortex method, the inlet mean velocity and turbulence distributions are in the present work theoretically determined, and thus form an explicit part of the boundary condition. This makes the method independent of precursor RANS simulations. Special care has been taken to distribute the vortices evenly across the inlet. The tangential velocity of the vortices is randomly initialized and the spatial and temporal correlation is preserved. An edge bouncing mechanism is implemented at solid boundaries.

    The boundary condition is applied to a DNS simulation of pipe flow at a Reynolds number of 5300, based on pipe diameter, aiming at reaching fully developed conditions at a short distance from the inlet. The results are compared with those using cyclic boundary conditions, and with two DNS results found in the literature. It is shown that a good agreement is reached for the mean velocity profiles five pipe diameters downstream from the inlet. Also the resolved velocity fluctuations at that location are reasonable. It is concluded that the present implementation of the vortex method boundary condition, based on theoretical mean velocity and turbulence profiles, gives an inlet flow that is sufficiently realistic to reach a well-resolved fully developed turbulent pipe flow at five pipe diameters downstream the inlet.

  • 4.
    Penttinen, Olle
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Ulveström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Andersson, Veronika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Andersson, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Pettersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Towards flow measurement with passive accelerometers2021In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 80, article id 101992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project has been to find suitable methods for flow measurement and characterization with passive accelerometers. The objectives were twofold. Firstly, the process industry could make use of such a sensor for process surveillance. Secondly, the water utilities of today lack simple and cost-efficient alternatives to equip their ageing infrastructures with online flow meters. These kinds of efforts are necessary for the realization of smart maintenance and for the decrease of the currently increasing amount of maintenance needs water utilities of today are experiencing. Liquid flowing in a pipe generates vibrations, detectable with accelerometers fitted along the pipe exterior. The correlated sound from synchronized accelerometers experience a lag which is dependent on the flow rate. Also, if the acquired sound is further processed, there exist a possibility to extract enough features to estimate some additional characteristics, in this case temperature. Experiments were performed at two nominal temperatures, 20 °C and 40 °C. A deep neural network was constructed for non-linear regression purposes to predict flow velocities based on lag and mean frequencies of the vibrations. Further, a proof of concept for this methodology was shown which reached a root mean square deviation from 100.8 L/min to 171.1 L/min for a nominal flow range of 0 to 1500 L/min. In addition, we train a k-nearest neighbour classifier to predict the nominal temperature of our validation dataset with 83 percent accuracy. The work was performed at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, serving as Sweden's national metrology institute for liquid flow and acoustics. © 2021 The Authors

  • 5.
    Åkerlund, Kristin
    et al.
    FVB Sverige, Sweden.
    Nordin, Thomas
    FVB Sverige, Sweden.
    Penttinen, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Dimensionering av servisledningar i distributionssystem2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-established industry practice is to stay below a flow rate of 1 m / s and a pressure drop of 100 Pa / m in service pipes. However, this practice is beginning to be questioned and with a more dynamic approach to system dimensioning, the competitiveness of district heating can increase. In this project, a literature study has been performed regarding current industry practice as well as facts about dimensioning, sound, and internal damage. A relatively great emphasis has been placed on related concepts such as flow/pressure drop, cavitation and corrosion to explain the underlying causes of noise and internal damage. District heating network owners have responded to a survey regarding noise and internal damage. Material- and service providers have been interviewed to get a more in-depth picture of the relationship between sound and flow velocity / pressure drop. The suppliers have also shared their experiences of sound sources and of internal damage within the district heating networks. Vibration measurements have been performed on six different service pipes (different materials and dimensions), as well as two different thermostatic bypass valves in a laboratory environment. A dimensioning guide for service pipes has been produced. It can be stated that current industry practice of 100 Pa/m is not related to the risk of noise in the system. Rather, it is a safety margin to avoid excessive pressure drops in the network, which can affect the ability to maintain the differential pressure. At 1 m/s, it is also not the service lines themselves that give rise to noise even though the pressure drop is rather large for small dimensions. Noise usually occurs in components in the pipe network that reduce the effective cross-sectional area. Network owners refer to control- and thermostatic bypass valves in the survey. From the measurements, a large difference is noted between different makes of thermostatic bypass valves. If the network owner doesn’t own the pypass valve, a maximum differential pressure of 2 bar is recommended. During the measurements, no disturbing noise levels were noted below a flow velocity of 1.5 m / s for the examined pipes. Based on the literature study, we have found recommended maximum speeds of 2 m/s for copper and 3 m/s for steel pipes, from other techniques, which are used as a guideline to reduce the risk of erosion. Based on the project's conclusions, a digital tool has finally been implemented to facilitate the choice of dimension on service lines during design. A more dynamic method of dimensioning service pipes is the most optimal, compared to using the industry practice. Dimensioning of service pipes should be adapted and determined by the flow rate and the pressure drop achieved by weighting the influencing factors listed in this report.

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