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  • 1.
    Akbari, Saaed
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Effect of PCB cracks on thermal cycling reliability of passive microelectronic components with single-grained solder joints2019In: Microelectronics and reliability, ISSN 0026-2714, E-ISSN 1872-941X, Vol. 93, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead-free tin-based solder joints often have a single-grained structure with random orientation and highly anisotropic properties. These alloys are typically stiffer than lead-based solders, hence transfer more stress to printed circuit boards (PCBs) during thermal cycling. This may lead to cracking of the PCB laminate close to the solder joints, which could increase the PCB flexibility, alleviate strain on the solder joints, and thereby enhance the solder fatigue life. If this happens during accelerated thermal cycling it may result in overestimating the lifetime of solder joints in field conditions. In this study, the grain structure of SAC305 solder joints connecting ceramic resistors to PCBs was studied using polarized light microscopy and was found to be mostly single-grained. After thermal cycling, cracks were observed in the PCB under the solder joints. These cracks were likely formed at the early stages of thermal cycling prior to damage initiation in the solder. A finite element model incorporating temperature-dependant anisotropic thermal and mechanical properties of single-grained solder joints is developed to study these observations in detail. The model is able to predict the location of damage initiation in the PCB and the solder joints of ceramic resistors with reasonable accuracy. It also shows that the PCB cracks of even very small lengths may significantly reduce accumulated creep strain and creep work in the solder joints. The proposed model is also able to evaluate the influence of solder anisotropy on damage evolution in the neighbouring (opposite) solder joints of a ceramic resistor.

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  • 2.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mishra, Madhav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Packaging Induced Stresses in Embedded and Molded GaN Power Electronics Components2023In: Int. Conf. Therm., Mech. Multi-Phys. Simul. Exp. Microelectron. Microsyst., EuroSimE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses created during the packaging process can adversely affect the reliability of electronics components. We used incremental hole-drilling method, following the ASTM E 837-20 standard, to measure packaging induced residual stresses in discrete packages of power electronics components. For this purpose, we bonded a strain gauge on the surface of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) power component, drilled a hole through the thickness of the component in several incremental steps, recorded the relaxed strain data on the sample surface using the strain gauge, and finally calculated the residual stresses from the measured strain data. The recorded strains and the residual stresses are related by the compliance coefficients. For the hole drilling method in the isotropic materials, the compliance coefficients are calculated from the analytical solutions, and available in the ASTM standard. But for the orthotropic multilayered components typically found in microelectronics assemblies, numerical solutions are necessary. We developed a subroutine in ANSYS APDL to calculate the compliance coefficients of the hole drilling test in the molded and embedded power electronics components. This can extend the capability of the hole drilling method to determine residual stresses in more complex layered structures found in electronics. 

  • 3.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kostov, Konstantin Stoychev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wang, Qin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Salter, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Ceramic Additive Manufacturing Potential for Power Electronics Packaging2022In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1857-1866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with silicon-based power devices, wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor devices operate at significantly higher power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and more electric airplanes. This necessitates development of power electronics packages with enhanced thermal characteristics that fulfil the electrical insulation requirements. The present research investigates the feasibility of using ceramic additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, to address thermal and electrical requirements in packaging gallium nitride (GaN) based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The goal is to exploit design freedom and manufacturing flexibility provided by ceramic AM to fabricate power device packages with a lower junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (<italic>R</italic>&#x03B8;JA). Ceramic AM also enables incorporation of intricate 3D features into the package structure in order to control the isolation distance between the package source and drain contact pads. Moreover, AM allows to fabricate different parts of the packaging assembly as a single structure to avoid high thermal resistance interfaces. For example, the ceramic package and the ceramic heatsink can be printed as a single part without any bonding layer. Thermal simulations under different thermal loading and cooling conditions show the improvement of thermal performance of the package fabricated by ceramic AM. If assisted by an efficient cooling strategy, the proposed package has the potential to reduce <italic>R</italic>&#x03B8;JA by up to 48%. The results of the preliminary efforts to fabricate the ceramic package by AM are presented, and the challenges that have to be overcome for further development of this manufacturing method are recognized and discussed. 

  • 4.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kostov, Konstantin Stoychev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Low Inductive SiC Power Electronics Module with Flexible PCB Interconnections and 3D Printed Casing2022In: 2022 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging, NordPac 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices are steadily increasing their market share in various power electronics applications. However, they require low-inductive packaging in order to realize their full potential. In this research, low-inductive layouts for half-bridge power modules, using a direct bonded copper (DBC) substrate, that are suitable for SiC power devices, were designed and tested. To reduce the negative effects of the switching transients on the gate voltage, flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs) were used to interconnect the gate and source pins of the module with the corresponding pads of the power chips. In addition, conductive springs were used as low inductive, solder-free contacts for the module power terminals. The module casing and lid were produced using additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, to create a compact design. It is shown that the inductance of this module is significantly lower than the commercially available modules.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Simulations and Fabrication of a SiC-Based Power Module with Double SidedCooling: in Proceedings of the IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference 20152015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nord, Stefan
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Lampic, Gorazd
    Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd, Slovenia.
    Gotovac, Gorazd
    Elaphe Propulsion Technologies Ltd, Slovenia.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Baumgartel, Hauke
    Hella Fahrzeugkomponenten GmbH, Germany.
    Brusius, Matthias
    Sensitec GmbH, Germany.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH, Germany.
    Hilpert, Florian
    Fraunhofer IISB, Germany.
    Otto, Alexander
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Frankeser, Sophia
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    COSIVU - Compact, smart and reliable drive unit for fully electric vehicles2016In: 2016 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium (Pan Pacific), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2016, article id 7428413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COSIVU is a three year collaborative research project that ended in September 2015 and which has been funded within the European Green Car Initiative (now the European Green Vehicle Initiative). COSIVU addresses one of the most critical technical parts in fully electrical vehicles (FEV) besides the energy storage system: the mechatronic drive-train unit. The COSIVU project has delivered a new system architecture for multiple wheel drive-trains by a smart, compact and durable single-wheel drive unit with integrated electric motor, full silicon carbide (SiC) power electronics (switches and diodes), a novel control and health monitoring module with wireless communication, and an advanced ultra-compact cooling solution. DfR utilizing FEM simulations ensures first time right solutions. This paper presents the main results including the architecture of the drive train solution as well as the modular design of the inverter based on Inverter Building Blocks, one per phase. Performance tests are presented here for the first time for both the heavy duty commercial vehicle solution performed in a test rig by Volvo, and the tests of the COSIVU solution adapted to a passenger car done by Elaphe.

  • 7.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Amen, Rafael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Thermo-mechanical simulations and measurements on high temperature interconnections2011In: 12th Int. Conf. on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2011, 2011, article id 5765772Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to place sensors or electronics in very high temperature environments, new materials and methods for interconnection are required. A comparative study between different electrical interconnection methods for very high operation temperatures (500 °C - 800 °C) is presented. Thermo-mechanical simulations and characterization of samples of the interconnection types during high temperature exposure are presented. The results of the thermo-mechanical simulations showed that stresses are low in a connection system based on liquid interconnection. This system, however, proved to be difficult to realize due to problems with oxides and sealing of the metallic liquid. Modeling of an interconnection based purely on mechanical pressure without any solder or metallic bond showed high stress. This was also confirmed during high temperature exposure where the connection failed. High stress was also predicted for an interconnection based on nano-Ag paste. The high temperature tests, however, showed promising results at 800 °C for over 100 hours. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Edwards, Mark
    University of Oxford.
    Kaulfersch,, Eberhard
    Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems ENAS.
    Neumaier, Klas
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Hilpert, F
    Otto, Alexander
    Modelling and fabrication of a SiC-based power module with double sidedcooling2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Edwards, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Simon, J
    Noël, S
    Romanjek, K
    Simulation-driven packaging of proof of concept thermoelectric modules: Proceedings of SMTA PanPacific Microelectronics Symposium 20142014In: Proceedingsof SMTA Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Edwards, Michael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Volvo Group Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Otto, Alexander
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH, Germany.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Thermo-mechanical simulations of SiC power modules with single and double sided cooling2015In: 2015 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015, article id 7103136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effectively removing dissipated heat from the switching devices enables a higher current carrying capability per chip area ratio, thus leading to smaller or fewer devices for a given power requirement specification. Further, the use of SiC based devices has proven to increase the efficiency of the system thereby reducing the dissipated heat. Thermal models have been used to compare SiC power modules. Single and double sided cooling have been simulated. The simulated maximum temperatures were 141 °C for the single sided version and 119.7 °C for the double sided version. In addition, the reliability of a single sided module and thermally induced plastic strains of a double sided module have been investigated. A local model of the wire bond interface to the transistor metallization shows a 3‰ maximum increase in plastic strain during the power cycle. Simulations of the creep strain rates in the die attach solder layer for a power cycling loads also shows a 3‰ increase in creep strain per cycle.

  • 11.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Enoksson, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wieser, M.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Barabash, S.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Emanuelsson, M.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics.
    Microshutters for MEMS-based time-of-flight measurements in space2011In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2011, p. 597-600Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the fabrication, integration and first operation of a mechanical microshutter in a time-of-flight (TOF) based ion detector in space. The microshutter is fabricated from a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer and operated in a resonance mode, 306 kHz. Open time of the shutter is 100 ns. The microshutters are integrated in the PRIMA instrument, which is part of the payload on the Swedish PRISMA mission. PRISMA was successfully launched into low Earth orbit on June 15, 2010.

  • 12.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Formánek, J.
    Czech Technical University.
    Laposa, A.
    Czech Technical University.
    Jakovenko, J.
    Czech Technical University.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Simulations of a high temperature pressure sensor packaging and interconnection2012In: EuroSimE 2012: 13th International Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling and thermal cycling of a high temperature pressure sensor packaging is presented. The packaging is based on the green-state milling of alumina to the desired geometry and conduits for the electrical conductors, followed by sintering of the ceramics with the electrical conductors inside. The electrical interconnections are based on silver. For short term operation, the package can be exposed to temperatures close to the melting temperature of silver (961°C). It has shown operational in temperature cycling above 600°C for more than 1800 hours. Modeling of the package show that the stress in the electrical interconnections are close to the yield stress of silver at 20°C. The stress free temperature in the modeling was set to 850°C. Temperature induced stress and strains in the packaging and a fatigue simulation are performed. The package is generic and can be converted to fit most geometries and high temperature applications. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 13.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Mann, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Otto, Alexander
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Berhner Nanotest und DesIgn GmbH, Germany.
    Edwards, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Modeling of SiC power modules with double sided cooling2014In: 2014 15th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2014, IEEE Computer Society , 2014, article id 6813864Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) based transistor devices have demonstrated higher efficiency switching operation compared to silicon-based, state-of-the-art solutions due to the superior electrical and thermal properties of the SiC material. The improved current density and thermal conductivity allows SiC-based power modules to be smaller than their silicon counterparts for comparable current densities. The active chip area can be reduced further by effectively cooling the devices. In this work, a new power module including SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and diodes and integrated double sided cooling will be introduced. The target application of these modules is a new drive-train system for commercial electric vehicles.

  • 14.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Volvo Group Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH, Germany.
    Edwards, Michael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Otto, Alexander
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Design and Fabrication of a SiC-Based Power Module with Double-Sided Cooling for Automotive Applications2015In: Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2015: Smart Systems for Green and Automated Driving, 2015, p. 157-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrification of drive trains combined with special requirements of the automotive and heavy construction equipment applications drives the development of small, highly integrated and reliable power inverters. To minimize the volume and increase the reliability of the power switching devices a module consisting of SiC devices with double sided cooling capability has been developed. There are several benefits related to cooling the power devices on both sides. The major improvement is the ability to increase the power density, and thereby reduce the number of active switching devices required which in turn reduces costs. Other expected benefits of more efficient cooling are reductions in volume and mass per power ratio. Alternatively, improved reliability margins due to lower temperature swings during operation are can be expected. Removing the wire bonds on the top side of the devices is expected to improve the reliability regardless, since wire bonds are known to be one of the main limitations in power switching devices. In addition, it is possible to design the package with substantially lower inductance, which can allow faster switching of the devices. In this paper the design, simulations and fabrication process of a double sided SiC-based power module are presented.

  • 15.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    Volvo Group Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Otto, Alex
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Mann, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Frankeser, Sophia
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Thermal Simulations and Experimental Verification of Power Modules Designed for Double Sided Cooling2016In: Electronic Components and Technology, ISSN 0569-5503, p. 1415-1422, article id 7545609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling power modules on both sides of the active switching devices reduces the operational junction temperature compared to conventional single sided cooling. In this work, thermal simulations of power modules based on single sided cooling concepts are compared with double sided cooling counterparts. Expected junction temperatures, maximum temperatures and maximum current capability is analyzed. In addition, experimental verification in the form of comparisons with thermal characterization tests for both single-And double sided power modules based on SiC bipolar junction transistors is presented. Results from simulations show that cooling of both sides of the active switching devices can reduce the thermal resistance by more than 40 percent. This number depends on the heat transfer coefficient. From one example, simulating a worst case stall condition of the electric machine, the use of double sided cooling reduces the maximum junction temperature from 167 °C to 106 °C at a load current of 300 A using a heat transfer coefficient of 4 kW/m2K and 4 kHz switching frequency. Furthermore, the temperature decreases to 97°C if AlN-based DBC substrates are used instead of alumina DBCs. Results from the experimental comparison between double-And single sided cooling showed that the maximum temperature for a load current range of 15 A to 50 A was reduced by 18 percent to 55 percent by using double sided cooling. At a device temperature of 60 °C, the increased thermal capability of the double sided version allowed for a 20 A higher load current, which corresponded to operation under 50 percent higher power losses. Double sided cooling also increased the maximum current capability through a single SiC BJT by more than 20 percent beyond the maximum current capability through the single sided cooling version.

  • 16.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Toth-Pal, Zsolt
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Forslund, Mattias
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Shisha, Samer
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Failure mechanism assessment of TO-247 packaged SiC power devices2018In: ASME 2018 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, InterPACK 2018, 2018, article id V001T04A016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the automotive industry shifts towards the electrification of drive trains, the efficiency of power electronics becomes more important. The use of silicon carbide (SiC) devices in power electronics has shown several benefits in efficiency, blocking voltage and high temperature operation. In addition, the ability of SiC to operate at higher frequencies due to lower switching losses can result in reduced weight and volume of the system, which also are important factors in vehicles. However, the reliability of packaged SiC devices is not yet fully assessed. Previous work has predicted that the different material properties of SiC compared to Si could have a large influence on the failure mechanisms and reliability. For example, the much higher elastic modulus of SiC compared to Si could increase strain on neighboring materials during power cycling. In this work, the failure mechanisms of packaged Si- and SiC-based power devices have been investigated following power cycling tests. The packaged devices were actively cycled in 4.5 s heating and 20 s cooling at ΔT = 60 - 80 K. A failure analysis using micro-focus X-ray and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) was carried out in order to determine the most important failure mechanisms. The results of the analysis indicate that the dominant failure mechanism is wire bond liftoff at the device chip for all of the SiC-based devices. Further analysis is required to determine the exact failure mechanisms of the analyzed Si-based devices. In addition, the SiC-based devices failed before the Si-based devices, which could be a result of the different properties of the SiC material.

  • 17.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Goncalves, Johnny
    NOTE Norrtelje AB, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    NOTE Norrtelje AB, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kwarnmark, Mikael
    Cogra Pro AB, Sweden.
    Feasibility of PCB-integrated vibration sensors for condition monitoring of electronic systems2018In: ASME 2018 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, InterPACK 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of electronics in systems used in safety critical applications, such as for example self-driving vehicles requires new methods to assure the hardware reliability of the electronic assemblies. Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) that uses a combination of data-driven and Physics-of-Failure models is a promising approach to avoid unexpected failures in the field. However, to enable PHM based partly on Physics-of-Failure models, sensor data that measures the relevant environment loads to which the electronics is subjected during its mission life are required. In this work, the feasibility to manufacture and use integrated sensors in the inner layers of a printed circuit board (PCB) as mission load indicators measuring impacts and vibrations has been investigated. A four-layered PCB was designed in which piezoelectric sensors based on polyvinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were printed on one of the laminate layers before the lamination process. Manufacturing of the PCB was followed by the assembly of components consisting of BGAs and QFN packages in a standard production reflow soldering process. Tests to ensure that the functionality of the sensor material was unaffected by the soldering process were performed. Results showed a yield of approximately 30 % of the sensors after the reflow soldering process. The yield was also dependent on sensor placement and possibly shape. Optimization of the sensor design and placement is expected to bring the yield to 50 % or better. The sensors responded as expected to impact tests. Delamination areas were present in the test PCBs, which requires further investigation. The delamination does not seem to be due to the presence of embedded sensors alone but rather the result of a combination of several factors. The conclusion of this work is that it is feasible to embed piezoelectric sensors in the layers of a PCB.

  • 18.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Goncalves, Johnny
    NOTE Norrtelje AB, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    NOTE Norrtelje AB, Sweden.
    Kwarnmark, Mikael
    Cogra Pro AB, Sweden.
    Feasibility of Printed Circuit Board-Integrated Vibration Sensors for Condition Monitoring of Electronic Systems2019In: Journal of Electronic Packaging, ISSN 1043-7398, E-ISSN 1528-9044, Vol. 141, no 3, article id 031010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of electronics in systems used in safety critical applications, such as self-driving vehicles, requires new methods to assure the hardware reliability of the electronic assemblies. Prognostics and health management (PHM) that uses a combination of data-driven and physics-of-failure models is a promising approach to avoid unexpected failures in the field. However, to enable PHM based partly on physics-of-failure models, sensor data that measure the relevant environment loads to which the electronics are subjected during its mission life are required. In this work, the feasibility to manufacture and use integrated sensors in the inner layers of a printed circuit board (PCB) as mission load indicators measuring impacts and vibrations has been investigated. A four-layered PCB was designed in which piezoelectric sensors based on polyvinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were printed on one of the laminate layers before the lamination process. Manufacturing of the PCB was followed by the assembly of components consisting of ball grid arrays (BGAs) and quad flat no-leads (QFN) packages in a standard production reflow soldering process. Tests to ensure that the functionality of the sensor material was unaffected by the soldering process were performed. Results showed a yield of approximately 30% of the sensors after the reflow soldering process. The yield was also dependent on sensor placement and possibly shape. Optimization of the sensor design and placement is expected to bring the yield to 50% or better. The sensors responded as expected to impact tests. Delamination areas were present in the test PCBs, which requires further investigation. The delamination does not seem to be due to the presence of embedded sensors alone but rather the result of a combination of several factors. The conclusion of this work is that it is feasible to embed piezoelectric sensors in the layers of a PCB.

  • 19.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Åklint, Thorbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Edwards, Michael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Model verification of heat exchangers in a flow test rig2015In: 2015 16th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015, article id 7103135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In power electronics, more efficient removal of heat from the junction of power devices leads to a higher power rating per die, which in turn leads to fewer die and reduced system volume. Since temperature is a main driver in expected failure modes an increase in cooling capability can also enhance margins of the device reliability. Previously, CFD simulations of two novel heat exchanger designs that will be used in a power module with double sided cooling have been reported on. The heat exchangers are fabricated by direct 3D manufacturing of copper structures, which allows almost complete freedom in geometric design. Two novel geometries of heat exchanger cooling structures have previously been modeled in terms of thermal performance and expected pressure drop. A flow rig has been designed and calibrated to measure thermal performance and pressure drops of these heat sinks. For calibration purposes, measurements of the thermal response of wave structured and unstructured heat sinks are reported here. The results show that, as expected, the heat sink temperatures are lower for all flow rates in the wavestructured geometry. A thermal CFO model accurately predicts the behavior of the temperature difference between inlet and outlet versus flow rate, but predicts higher absolute temperature values. It was also found that the model underestimates the pressure drop over the tested heat sillies. The pressure drop across a novel pine cone geometry heat sink fabricated by additive manufacturing methods was also measured. Comparisons to a reduced model, which neglects everything before the inlet and after the outlet of the tested device, showed that the behavior of this pine structured heat sink was not predicted correctly. The pressure drop increased more rapidly with flow rates in the model than in the measurements. The main source of error in the measurements and simulations comes from a lack of thermal loading. Future work to improve the flow rig includes possibilities to increase the temperature loading at the bottom of the heat sink under test.

  • 20.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Åklint, Thorbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sandberg, Chet
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    High temperature packaging for SiC power transistors2012In: Proceedings - 2012 45th International Symposium on Microelectronics, IMAPS 2012, 2012, p. 1124-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power transistors based on silicon carbide (SiC) are now commercially available. They have a higher efficiency and higher voltage blocking capabilities than conventional silicon devices. The wide-band gap and chemical inertness of SiC makes it suitable to high temperature operation. However, there is a need for new packaging for power transistors that can operate in higher temperatures. We have developed a package based on ceramics and silver for high temperature operation of SiC power transistors. Three types of SiC devices from different manufacturers are packaged and tested in room temperature. Though the devices were still functional after the packaging process, their performance seem to have degraded. This could be a result of the high temperature packaging process and the measurement setup. FEM simulations are also performed to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of the package. The target operating temperature of the package is 400°C. Modeling show stress concentrations at the corners of the device chip and suggests that this stress is decreased if the substrate metallization is changed from copper to silver.

  • 21.
    Claesson, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lindqvist, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Kardeby, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Lejon, Erik
    Gestamp HardTech AB, Sweden.
    Ulfberg, Petter
    Proximion AB, Sweden.
    Rendall, Helen
    Proximion AB, Sweden.
    Hedin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Ottosson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Ohlsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Kvarned, Anders
    Uddeholms AB, Sweden.
    Karamchedu, Seshendra
    Uddeholms AB, Sweden.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Acreo.
    lntegrated Optical Fiber Sensors in Additive Manufactured Metal Components for Smart Manufacturing Applications2019In: Smart Systems Integration; 13th International Conference and Exhibition on Integration Issues of Miniaturized Systems, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work combines fiber optic sensors with additive manufacturing to enable integration of temperature and strain sensors in metal components. In this paper, we present a fiber optic sensor network integrated in press hardening tools to monitor the contact between the tool and the metal sheet during forming operation. The tools are manufactured through metal powder bed fusion using laser melting processes (PBF-SLM), after which the tools are prepared for sensor integration. A demonstrator press hardening tool with integrated fiber optic sensors was heated using an electric heat foil and the sensor measurements was compared to a thermal simulation model. The sensor technology is based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), integrated at several positions along the optical fiber. FBGs are in-fiber sensors that are multiplexed. lt is possible to place hundreds of FBG sensors along one single fiber, thus allowing for quasidistributed sensing of temperature or strain. The optical fiber itself can be less than 100 micrometer in diameter, allowing for sensing at several points in a minimally invasive way, when integrated in a tool or component.

  • 22.
    Dejke, Valter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Eng, Matthias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Charnley, Josephine
    Lusstech, UK.
    Lussey, David
    Lusstech, UK.
    Lussey, Chris
    Lusstech, UK.
    Development of prototype low-cost qtss™ wearable flexible more enviro-friendly pressure, shear, and friction sensors for dynamic prosthetic fit monitoring2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 11, article id 3764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a current healthcare need for improved prosthetic socket fit provision for the masses using low-cost and simple to manufacture sensors that can measure pressure, shear, and friction. There is also a need to address society’s increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of electronics and IoT devices. Prototype thin, low-cost, and low-weight pressure, shear, and loss of friction sensors have been developed and assembled for trans-femoral amputees. These flexible and conformable sensors are simple to manufacture and utilize more enviro-friendly novel magnetite-based QTSS™ (Quantum Technology Supersensor™) quantum materials. They have undergone some initial tests on flat and curved surfaces in a pilot amputee trial, which are presented in this paper. These initial findings indicate that the prototype pressure sensor strip is capable of measuring pressure both on flat and curved socket surfaces in a pilot amputee trial. They have also demonstrated that the prototype shear sensor can indicate increasing shear forces, the resultant direction of the shear forces, and loss of friction/slippage events. Further testing, amputee trials, and ongoing optimization is continuing as part of the SocketSense project to assist prosthetic comfort and fit. © 2021 by the authors

  • 23.
    Edwards, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Thermo-mechanical modelling and design of SiGe-based thermo-electric modules for high temperature applications2013In: 2013 14th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2013, 2013, article id 6529990Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal electric modules (TEMs) utilise the Seebeck effect that occurs in thermally-insulating semiconductors to generate electricity from a sufficient thermal gradient. This has specific applications in the automotive industry where TEMs can be used as energy harvesters in vehicle engines, exhaust systems and large scale industrial applications, leading to lower greenhouse emissions and fuel consumption [1]. In this work, the proposed thermo-electric (TE) material for the TEM is nanostructured SiGe, designed to enhance TE performance. The TEM needs to ultimately be able to operate from ∼40°C on the cold side of the device up to a maximum of at least 650°C on the hot side. Using the thermo-mechanical models developed, thermo-mechanical loads have been modelled. The modelling results have then been used to select the packaging materials to ensure that the thermo-mechanical stresses on the TEM are manageable. The thermo-mechanical simulations were used to determine the best combination materials used for packaging and found that using W/AlN/W substrates on both the hot side and cold side of the module produces a maximum stress of ∼130 MPa when 650°C is applied to the hot side and 45°C is applied to the cold side, which is below the AlN flexural stress of 600 MPa [2]. This indicates that it may be possible to produce a high temperature TEM that does not crack at the first instance when a large thermal gradient is applied.

  • 24.
    Edwards, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Da Silva, Melina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    The shear strength of nano-Ag solders and the use of Ag interconnects in the design and manufacture of SiGe-based thermo-electric modules2014In: 2014 15th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2014, IEEE Computer Society , 2014, article id 6813811Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermo-electric modules can be used to convert heat into electricity by utilizing the Seeback effect. It is now possible to buy BiTe thermo-electric modules that can operate up to temperatures of around 300°C. However, many applications, such as the harvesting of exhaust gas from large vehicles or gas turbine heat, may occur at higher temperatures Therefore, new materials and manufacturing processes need to be developed to produce packaged TEM that can operate at a maximum operating temperature of 650°C. Two critical areas in the manufacture of a SiGe TEM are the choice and strength of materials used to both solder the TE material to the rest of the module and the metal used for the interconnects. The interconnection material needs to be sufficiently strong to withstand large temperature fluctuations while maintaining a low contact resistance, as well as being compatible with the nano-Ag solder. Shear force tests of the sintered thermo electrical leg material showed that the joints are brittle when sintered to W metallized AlN substrates are used and ductile fracture behavior when sintered to Cu metallized AlN substrates using the NanoTach K nano silver paste. Almost all of the joints were found to be brittle when using the NachTach X nano silver paste. Shear testing of the solder joints showed that the X paste joints were variable in strength and stiffness, having a typical Young's modulus between 10 and 100 MPa at room temperature. The K paste joints were stiffer, but had a similar strength as compared to the X paste joints.

  • 25.
    Edwards, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Rusche, Ulrich
    Eberspächer Exhaust Technology GmbH and Co. KG, Germany.
    Bukes, Tobias
    Eberspächer Exhaust Technology GmbH and Co. KG, Germany.
    Gaiser, Gerd
    Eberspächer Exhaust Technology GmbH and Co. KG, Germany.
    Da Silva, Melina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    The shear strength of nano-Ag sintered joints and the use of Ag interconnects in the design and manufacture of SiGe-based thermo-electric modules2015In: Microelectronics and reliability, ISSN 0026-2714, E-ISSN 1872-941X, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 722-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermo-electric modules (TEMs) can be used to convert heat into electricity by utilizing the Seeback effect. It is now possible to buy BiTe thermo-electric modules that can operate up to temperatures of around 300 °C. However, many applications, such as the harvesting of excess gas turbine heat, may occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, new materials and manufacturing processes need to be developed to produce packaged TEMs that can operate at a maximum operating temperature of 650 °C. Two critical areas in the manufacture of a SiGe TEM are the choice and strength of materials used to both sintered joint the TE material to the rest of the module and the metal used for the interconnects. The interconnection material needs to be sufficiently strong to withstand large temperature fluctuations while maintaining a low contact resistance, as well as being compatible with the nano-Ag sintered joint. Shear force tests of the sintered thermo electrical leg material showed that the joints are brittle when sintered to W metallized AlN substrates are used and ductile fracture behavior when sintered to Cu metallized AlN substrates using the NanoTach K nano silver paste. Almost all of the joints were found to be brittle when using the NachTach X nano silver paste. Shear testing of the sintered joints showed that the X paste joints were variable in strength and stiffness, having a typical Young's modulus between 10 and 100 MPa at room temperature. The K paste joints were stiffer, but had a similar strength as compared to the X paste joints.

  • 26.
    Edwards, M.J.
    et al.
    University of Bath.
    Le Boulbar, E.D.
    University of Bath.
    Vittoz, S.
    TIMA Laboratory (UJF CNRS G-INP).
    Vanko, G.
    Slovak Academy of Sciences.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Rufer, L.
    TIMA Laboratory (UJF CNRS G-INP).
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lalinský, T.
    Slovak Academy of Sciences.
    Bowen, C.R.
    University of Bath.
    Allsopp, D.W.E.
    University of Bath.
    Pressure and temperature dependence of GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistor based sensors on a sapphire membrane2012In: Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 18626351, Vol. 9, p. 960-963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a high pressure sensor based on a GaN/AlGaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) that uses its 375 mm thick sapphire substrate to provide a robust base and enables device operation up to at least 60 bar (6 MPa). Transduction of changes in ambient pressure occurs via piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects on the channel conductance. The HEMTs were strategically placed along an 8 mm 2 GaN/AlGaN/GaN/sapphire chip; where the central 4 mm diameter behaves as a pressure sensitive 'drumskin'. The location of peak response lies in the HEMT at the geometric centre of the drumskin, demonstrated by the change in I DS when the pressure was increased from 0 to 60 bar. The response of six strategically placed HEMTs along the chip's surface, were compared to a finite element model to predict sensor behaviour. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 27.
    Eng, Mattias P.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Misiorny, Maciej
    QRTECH AB, Sweden.
    Söderkvist Vermelin, Wilhelm
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mishra, Madhav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Simple Hybrid Model for Estimating Remaining Useful Life of SiC MOSFETs in Power Cycling Experiments2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recording and prediction of the accumulated damage, which will eventually lead to the failure of power electronic modules, is an aspect of high importance for power electronic systems design and, in particular, for development of Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) schemes for in-field applications. To this end, this paper presents a simple and cost-effective prognostic method for predicting the remaining useful life (RUL) of TO-247 packaged silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) subjected to power cycling experiments. The model assumes that the major failure mode is bond-wire lift-off and uses a damage accumulation scheme based on Paris’ crack law. The only inputs to the model are historical data on the average junction temperature swing and the temperaturecompensated drain-source ON-state resistance at the peak temperature of the current cycle. Using only these two input values, the model is shown to predict RUL with surprising accuracy for the range of constant current loads determining cycling conditions under which the test data series have been acquired. This work is a first step in an ongoing project towards building more elaborate prognostic schemes for RUL-determination of SiC power MOSFETs in actual working conditions, using physics-informed neural networks (PINNs).

  • 28.
    Eng, Mattias P.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mishra, Madhav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Söderkvist Vermelin, Wilhelm
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    A Link between the Lab and the Real World-A Setup for Accelerated Aging of Power Electronics Using Mission Profiles from the Field2024In: 25th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2024, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To generate data used for developing schemes and models for CM, PHM, and for estimating RUL of power electronic devices, accelerated aging experiments in the form of power cycling are often performed. In these experiments, a set current is passed through the power devices and is turned on and off in regular cycles. Due to the mismatch in CTEs of the materials in the devices, the on/off cycles will generate thermally induced stress in the various material interfaces, which is the main cause of failures. Most of the power cycling setups that are currently used can only manage a single set on-state current level and fixed on/off times (which is also the common standard for lifetime testing); a condition that is very far from most real applications. The experimental setup described here is based on a Gamry Reference 3000AEpotentiostat/galvanostat/ZRA working with a Gamry 30k Booster, which can be programmed to generate a variable load current profile and will thus enable the application of more realistic conditions for accelerated aging of power electronic devices in the lab. This will improve prognostics model development and provide excellent use cases for evaluating the capabilities of the prognostics algorithms for generalization to field conditions. The application of variable load profiles from the field, instead of the regular on/off cycles traditionally used, is not compatible with the commonly used method of using the chip itself as a temperature sensor. Instead, we here present a novel method of estimating the junction temperature using a device specific derivation of thermal parameters from the measured cooling block temperature, case temperature, and dissipated power in conjunction with simulations using the PySpice simulation package implemented in Python. The setup coupled with the new junction temperature estimation is an important step in enabling predictive maintenance of power devices that is currently missing from the power electronics community. © 2024 IEEE.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, T
    et al.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Nord, S
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    COSIVU - Compact, Smart and Reliable Drive Unit for Commercial Electric Vehicles2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hilpert, Florian
    et al.
    Vehicle Power Electronics Fraunhofer IISB, Germany.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Arenz, Stefan
    Vehicle Power Electronics, Germany.
    Modular integration of a 1200 v SiC inverter in a commercial vehicle wheel-hub drivetrain2014In: 2014 4th International Electric Drives Production Conference, EDPC 2014 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014, article id 6984400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU-funded FP7 project COSIVU [1] aims at a new system architecture for drive-trains of commercial vehicles. The project scope is the development of a smart, compact and durable single-wheel drive unit with integrated electric motor, compact transmission, full 1200V silicon carbide (SiC) inverter (switches and diodes) and an advanced and compact cooling solution. This paper focusses on the modular packaging concept of the integrated power stage, using 'Inverter Building Blocks', and the design of a double sided cooling of the power modules using a 3D printing technology.

  • 31.
    Le Boulbar, Emmanuel D.
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Edwards, Michael J.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Vittoz, Stephane
    CNRS, France.
    Vanko, Gabriel
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Rufer, Libor
    CNRS, France.
    Johander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lalinsky, Tibor
    Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia.
    Bowen, Chris R.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Allsopp, Duncan W.E.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Effect of bias conditions on pressure sensors based on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor2013In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 194, p. 247-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports the bias and pressure sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) sensing elements strategically placed on a pressure sensitive diaphragm clamped at its edges. The sensitivity was over 150 times greater in the weak inversion regime than in the strong inversion regime of the HEMT, leading to a drain current change of >38% when a pressure of 50 bar was applied. The sensitivity of the HEMT to pressure followed an exponential dependence from atmospheric pressure up to 80 bar, behaviour explained by the response of the density of a two-dimensional electron gas to pressure induced changes in the HEMT threshold voltage in the weak inversion regime. Finally, it was found that the sensitivity of the HEMT was maximum when it was situated in the middle of the diaphragm, whereas a device mounted over the clamping point showed less than 0.02% change in drain current when pressure change of 50 bar was applied.

  • 32.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Andersson, Dag
    Simulations of the impact of single-grained lead-free solder joints on the reliability of ball Grid Array components2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of lead-free solder joints often consists of only one or a few randomly oriented tin grains as a result of a large degree of undercooling during solidification. Due to the severe anisotropy of single crystal Sn and the random nature of the microstructure, the stress state and microstructural evolution of each joint will be unique.

  • 33. Otto, Alexander
    et al.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Neumaier, Klaus
    Fairchild Semiconductor.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    ON Semiconductors .
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Rzepka, Sven
    Fraunhofer ENAS.
    Reliability of new SiC BJT power modules for fully electric vehicles2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Otto, Alexander
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Kaulfersch, Eberhard
    Berliner Nanotest und Design GmbH, Germany.
    Frankeser, Sophia
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zschieschang, Olaf
    Fairchild Semiconductor GmbH, Germany.
    Rzepka, Sven
    Fraunhofer ENAS, Germany.
    Reliability investigation on SiC BJT power module2016In: PCIM Europe 2016: International Exhibition and Conference for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, Renewable Energy and Energy Management, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2016, p. 1063-1071, article id 7499474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper reliability investigation results for a power module fully based on silicon carbide (SiC) devices are presented. The module comprises four SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and four SiC diodes in half-bridge configuration and is part of a newly developed 3-phase inverter for construction vehicles as well as for passenger car applications. The reliability investigations include electro-thermal and thermo-mechanical finite element simulations as well as power cycling tests with subsequent failure analyses. Furthermore, a double-sided cooling approach for the SiC BJT power module will be described and its thermal performance compared to the single-sided cooling version. 

  • 35.
    Pressel, Klaus
    et al.
    Infineon Technologies AG Germany, Germany.
    Moser, Josef
    Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Austria.
    Rzepka, Sven
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Zhao, Susan
    Signify, Netherlands.
    van Driel, Willem
    Signify, Netherlands.
    Giammatteo, Paolo
    Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Italy.
    Bulut, Baris
    Enforma Bilişim A.Ş., Turkey.
    Soyturk, Mujdat
    Marmara University, Turkey.
    Pomante, Luigi
    Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Italy.
    The H2020-ECSEL Project “iRel40” (Intelligent Reliability 4.0)2021In: 2021 24th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD), 2021, p. 311-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on many discoveries and inventions, electronics started affecting people’s everyday lives in a significant fashion following the invention of the first solid state transistor in late 1940s. The miniaturization paved way for the mass electronics production and later the digital revolution, the outcomes of which are visible to all members of the public today. After about a two-decade-long swing around 2000s from hardware towards software regarding what affects lives more, a point has now been reached where electronics is more important to all and its use is more ubiquitous and crucial than ever before. In most if not all of end user or industrial applications, the capability and quality of electronics hardware are the key determining factors.The European electronics components and systems (ECS) industry has traditionally had a high base line for electronics innovation. However, the industry is now compelled, partly due to competition and partly due customer demand, to manufacture even more reliable electronics products than before. Guaranteeing the reliability of electronics hardware entails the entire ECS value chain to undergo a paradigm shift to holistically address reliability as a key issue. The European ECS industry previously adopted overseas outsourcing considerably, however it is now taking steps to reshape itself into a more coherent value chain with the aim of having not only the electronics designs but also the electronics manufacturing made in Europe.H2020-ECSEL programme successfully funds highly competitive projects in the area of electronics components and systems. We present here a prologue to a similarly funded project entitled Intelligent Reliability 4.0 ("iRel40"), by providing a background to the topic of ECS, project objectives, and the methodologies and implementations we plan to undertake during the 36-month period of this ongoing project.

  • 36.
    Risseh, Arash E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Olof
    TitanX Engine Cooling Holding, Sweden.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF, Elektronikhårdvara.
    Contet, Arnaud
    TitanX Engine Cooling Holding, Sweden.
    Frobenius lng, Fabian
    EberSpracher Gmbh, Germany.
    Gaiser, Gerd
    EberSpracher Gmbh, Germany.
    Saramat, Ali
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Skare, Thomas
    TitanX Engine Cooling Holding, Sweden.
    Nee, Simon
    KTH Royal Institute of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Dellrud, Jam
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Design of a Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery Application on a Drivable Heavy Duty Vehicle2017In: SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, ISSN 1946391X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 26-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) consists of a number of thermoelectric elements, which advantageously can be built into modules, arranged thermally and electrically, in a way such that the highest possible thermal power can be converted into electrical power. In a unique waste heat recovery (WHR) project, five international companies and research institutes cooperated and equipped a fully drivable Scania prototype truck with two TEGs. The entire system, from the heat transfer in the exchangers to the electrical power system, was simulated, built and evaluated. The primary experimental results showed that approximately 1 kW electrical power could be generated from the heat energy. In this paper the entire system from design to experimental results is presented.

  • 37.
    Söderkvist Vermelin, Wilhelm
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lövberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Misiorny, Maciej
    QRTECH AB, Sweden.
    Eng, Mattias P.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Data-Driven Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Discrete Power Electronic Devices2023In: 33rd European Safety and Reliability Conference: The Future of Safety in a Reconnected World / [ed] Mário P. Brito, Terje Aven, Piero Baraldi, Marko Čepin, Enrico Zio, 2023, p. 2595-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust and accurate prognostics models for estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) are becoming an increasingly important aspect of research in reliability and safety in modern electronic components and systems. In this work, a data driven approach to the prognostics problem is presented. In particular, machine learning models are trained to predict the RUL of wire-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) subjected to power cycling until failure. During such power cycling, ON-state voltage and various temperature measurements are continuously collected. As the data set contains full run-to-failure trajectories, the issue of estimating RUL is naturally formulated in terms of supervised learning. Three neural network architectures were trained, evaluated, and compared on the RUL problem: a temporal convolutional neural network (TCN), a long short-term memory neural network (LSTM) and a convolutional gated recurrent neural network (Conv-GRU). While the results show that all networks perform well on held out testing data if the testing samples are of similar aging acceleration as the samples in the training data set, performance on out-of-distribution data is significantly lower. To this end, we discuss potential research directions to improve model performance in such scenarios.

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