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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation2017In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

  • 2.
    Bach-Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of potassium impregnation on the emission of tar and soot from biomass gasification2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 1458, p. 619-624Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrained flow gasification of biomass has the potential to generate synthesis gas as a source of renewable chemicals, electricity, and heat. Nonetheless, formation of tar and soot is a major challenge for continuous operation due to the problems they cause at downstream of the gasifier. Our previous studies showed the addition of alkali in the fuel can bring significant suppression of such undesirable products.

    The present work investigated, in a drop tube furnace, the effect of potassium on tar and soot formation (as well as on its intermediates) for three different types of fuels: an ash lean stemwood, a calcium rich bark and a silicon rich straw. The study focused on an optimal method for impregnating the biomass with potassium. Experiments were conducted for different impregnation methods; wet impregnation, spray impregnation, and solid mixing to investigate different levels of contact between the fuel and the potassium.

    Potassium was shown to catalyze both homogenous and heterogeneous reactions. Wet and spray impregnation had similar effects on heterogeneous reactions (in char conversion) indicating that there was an efficient molecular contact between the potassium and the organic matrix even if potassium was in the form of precipitated salts at a micrometer scale. On the other hand, potassium in the gas phase led to much lower yields of C2 hydrocarbons, heavy tars and soot. These results revealed that potassium shifted the pathways related to tar and soot formation, reducing the likelihood of carbon to end up as soot and heavy tars by favouring the formation of lighter compounds such as benzene. A moderate interaction between the added potassium and the inherent ash forming elements were also observed: Potassium had a smaller effect when the fuel was naturally rich in silicon.

    The combined results open the door to a gasification process that incorporates recirculation of naturally occurring potassium to improve entrained flow gasification of biomass.

  • 3.
    Bach-Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    On the role of potassium as a tar and soot inhibitor in biomass gasification2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 254, article id 113488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work investigates in a drop tube furnace the effect of potassium on carbon conversion for three different types of fuels: an ash lean stemwood, a calcium-rich bark and a silicon-rich straw. The study focuses on an optimal method for impregnating the biomass with potassium. The experiments are conducted for 3 different impregnation methods; wet impregnation, spray impregnation, and dry mixing to investigate different levels of contact between the fuel and the potassium. Potassium is found to catalyse both homogenous and heterogeneous reactions. All the impregnation methods showed a significant effect of potassium on heterogeneous reactions (char conversion). The fact that dry mixing of potassium in the biomass shows an effect reveals the existence of a gas-induced mechanism that supply and distributes potassium on the char particles. Concerning the effect of potassium on homogenous reactions, it is found that potassium in the gas phase leads to much lower yields of C2 hydrocarbons, heavy tars and soot. The results indicate that potassium reduces the likelihood of light aromatic to progress toward heavier polyaromatic hydrocarbons clusters, thereby inhibiting the formation of soot-like material. A moderate interaction between the added potassium and the inherent ash forming elements is also observed: Potassium has a smaller effect when the fuel is naturally rich in silicon. The combined results are of interest for the design of a gasification process that incorporates recirculation of naturally occurring potassium to improve entrained flow gasification of biomass. 

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Black liquor gasification: CFD model predictions compared with measurements2010In: International Chemical Recovery Conference, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 160-171Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Experiments and mathematical models of black liquor gasification: Influence of minor gas components on temperature, gas composition, and fixed carbon conversion2010In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, predictions from a reacting Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of a gasification reactor are compared to experimentally obtained data from an industrial pressurized black liquor gasification plant. The data consists of gas samples taken from the hot part of the gasification reactor using a water cooled sampling probe. During the considered experimental campaign, the oxygen-to-black liquor equivalence ratio (λ was varied in three increments, which resulted in a change in reactor temperature and gas composition. The presented numerical study consists of CFD and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the considered λ-range using boundary conditions obtained from the experimental campaign. Specifically, the influence of methane concentration on the gas composition is evaluated using both CFD and thermodynamic equilibrium. The results show that the main gas components (H 2, CO, CO2) can be predicted within a relative error of 5% using CFD if the modeled release of H2S and CH4 are specified a priori. In addition, the calculations also show that the methane concentration has large influence on the reactor outlet temperature and final carbon conversion.

  • 6.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90–130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 7.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiaojan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning. Part 2: Techno-economic assessment2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning system comprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reduction with zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol production allowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantage derived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

  • 8.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base – Techno-economic assessment2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5–11 and 4–10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55 to 101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58–104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

  • 9.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning. Part 1: Gasifier performance2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production. Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

  • 10.
    Jafri, Awer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel productionpathways:: Part 2. economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity andproduction potentials2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 172, p. 1312-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting the deployment of forest-based drop-in and high blend biofuels is considered strategically important in Sweden but many aspects of the overall performance of the foremost production technologies are as yet unexamined. This paper evaluates the technology maturity, profitability, investment requirements, GHG performance and Swedish biofuel production potential of six commercially interesting forest-based biofuel production pathways.

    Significant heterogeneity in technology maturity was observed. Lack of technical demonstration in industrially representative scales renders the liquefaction-hydrotreatment route for drop-in biofuels less mature than its gasification-catalytic upgrading counterpart. It is a paradox that short-term priority being accorded to pathways with the lowest technology maturity. Nth-of-a-kind investments in (a) gasification-based methanol, (b) hydropyrolysis-based petrol/diesel, and (c) lignin depolymerization-based petrol/diesel were profitable for a range of plant sizes. The profitability of pulp mill-integrated small gasification units (<100 MW) goes against the common perception of gasification being economically feasible only in large scales. New low-cost options for debottlenecking production at recovery boiler-limited kraft mills appear worth investigating. GHG emission reductions ranged from 66 to 95%; a penalty was incurred for high consumption of natural gas-based hydrogen. Swedish biofuel production potentials ranged from 4 to 27 TWh/y but a more feasible upper limit is 12–15 TWh/y.

  • 11.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 401-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis. While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

  • 12.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marke, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Löwnertz, Patrik
    Chemrec AB, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov G.W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Sørensen, Esben Lauge
    Haldor Topsøe A/S, Denmark.
    Salomonsson, Per
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Two years experience of the BioDME project: A complete wood to wheel concept2014In: Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 2014, Vol. 33, p. 744-750, article id 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyl ether (DME), is an excellent diesel fuel that can be produced through gasification from multiple feedstocks. One particularly interesting renewable feedstock is the energy rich by-product from the pulping process called black liquor (BL). The concept of utilizing BL as gasifier feed, converting it via syngas to DME and then compensating the withdrawal of BL energy from the pulp mill by supplying biomass to a conventional combined heat and power plant, is estimated to be one of the most efficient conversion concepts of biomass to a renewable fuel on a well-to-wheel basis. This concept has been demonstrated by the four-year BioDME project, including field tests of DME-fueled heavy-duty trucks that are operated commercially. Up till the summer of 2013 more than 500 tons of BioDME has been produced and distributed to 10 HD trucks, which in total has run more than 1 million km in commercial service. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 744–750, 2014

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