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  • 1.
    Agirre, Joseba A.
    et al.
    MGEP, Spain.
    Etxeberria, L.
    MGEP, Spain.
    Barbosa, R.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Basagiannis, S.
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Giantamidis, G.
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Bauer, Thomas
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Ferrari, E.
    Rulex Innovation Labs, Italy.
    Labayen Esnaola, M.
    CAF SIGNALLING, Spain.
    Orani, V.
    CNR-IEIIT, Italy.
    Öberg, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pereira, David
    CISTER/ISEP, Portugal.
    Proenca, Jose
    CISTER/ISEP, Portugal.
    Schlick, Rupert
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Smrcka, Ales
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Tiberti, W.
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Tonetta, S.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Bozzano, M.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Yazici, A.
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    The VALU3S ECSEL project: Verification and validation of automated systems safety and security2021In: Microprocessors and microsystems, ISSN 0141-9331, E-ISSN 1872-9436, Vol. 87, article id 104349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers of automated systems and their components have been allocating an enormous amount of time and effort in R&D activities, which led to the availability of prototypes demonstrating new capabilities as well as the introduction of such systems to the market within different domains. Manufacturers need to make sure that the systems function in the intended way and according to specifications. This is not a trivial task as system complexity rises dramatically the more integrated and interconnected these systems become with the addition of automated functionality and features to them. This effort translates into an overhead on the V&V (verification and validation) process making it time-consuming and costly. In this paper, we present VALU3S, an ECSEL JU (joint undertaking) project that aims to evaluate the state-of-the-art V&V methods and tools, and design a multi-domain framework to create a clear structure around the components and elements needed to conduct the V&V process. The main expected benefit of the framework is to reduce time and cost needed to verify and validate automated systems with respect to safety, cyber-security, and privacy requirements. This is done through identification and classification of evaluation methods, tools, environments and concepts for V&V of automated systems with respect to the mentioned requirements. VALU3S will provide guidelines to the V&V community including engineers and researchers on how the V&V of automated systems could be improved considering the cost, time and effort of conducting V&V processes. To this end, VALU3S brings together a consortium with partners from 10 different countries, amounting to a mix of 25 industrial partners, 6 leading research institutes, and 10 universities to reach the project goal.

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  • 2.
    Agirre, Joseba A
    et al.
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Yazici, Ahmet
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.
    Di Blasio, Katia
    Intecs Solutions S.p.a., Italy.
    De la Vara, Jose Luis
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Yayan, Ugur
    Inovasyon Muhendislik Ltd. Sti, Turkey.
    Barbosa, Raul
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Etxeberria, Leire
    Mondragon University, Spain.
    Nazaria, Massimo
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Karaca, Mustafa
    Inovasyon Muhendislik Ltd. Sti, Turkey.
    Multidimensional Framework for Characterizing Verification and Validation of Automated Systems2022In: 18th European dependable computing conference (EDCC 2022), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification and Validation (V&V) of automated systems is becoming more costly and time-consuming because of the increasing size and complexity of these systems. Moreover, V&V of these systems can be hindered if the methods and processes are not properly described, analysed, and selected. It is essential that practitioners use suitable V&V methods and enact adequate V&V processes to confirm that these systems work as intended and in a cost-effective manner. Previous works have created different taxonomies and models considering different aspects of V&V that can be used to classify V&V methods and tools. The aim of this work is to provide a broad, comprehensive and a easy to use framework that addresses characterisation needs, rather than focusing on individual aspects of V&V methods and processes.To this end, in this paper, we present a multi-domain and multi-dimensional framework to characterize and classify V&V methods and tools in a structured way. The framework considers a comprehensive characterization of different relevant aspects of V&V. A web-based repository has been implemented on the basis of the framework, as an example of use, in order to collect information about the application of V&V methods and tools. This way, practitioners and researchers can easily learn about and identify suitable V&V processes.

  • 3.
    Ajpi, C.
    et al.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, N.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, S.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Fe3+-BDC metal organic framework as material for lithium ion batteries2023In: Journal of Molecular Structure, ISSN 0022-2860, E-ISSN 1872-8014, Vol. 1272, article id 134127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a new metal-organic framework (MOF). The compound Fe-BDC-DMF was synthetized by the solvothermal method and prepared via a reaction between FeCl3.6H2O and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) or terephthalic acid using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The powder was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis. The electrochemical properties were investigated in a typical lithium-ion battery electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charging and discharging. The synthetized Fe-BDC-DMF metal-organic framework (MOF) contains a mixture of three phases, identified by PXRD as: MOF-235, and MIL-53(Fe) monoclinic with C2/c and P21/c space groups. The structure of the Fe-BDC is built up from Fe3+ ions, terephalates (BDC) bridges and in-situ-generated DMF ligands. The electrochemical measurements conducted in the potential range of 0.5–3.5 V vs. Li+/Li0 show the voltage profiles of Fe-BDC and a plateau capacity of around 175 mAh/g. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 4.
    Ajpi, Cesario
    et al.
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, Naviana
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Vargas, Max
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and characterization of LiFePO4-PANI hybrid material as cathode for lithium-ion batteries2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the synthesis of LiFePO4-PANI hybrid materials and studies their electrochem. properties (capacity, cyclability and rate capability) for use in lithium ion batteries. PANI synthesis and optimization was carried out by chem. oxidation (self-assembly process), using ammonium persulfate (APS) and H3PO4, obtaining a material with a high degree of crystallinity. For the synthesis of the LiFePO4-PANI hybrid, a thermal treatment of LiFePO4 particles was carried out in a furnace with polyaniline (PANI) and lithium acetate (AcOLi)-coated particles, using Ar/H2 atm. The pristine and synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, SEM, IR and TGA. The electrochem. characterizations were carried out by using CV, EIS and galvanostatic methods, obtaining a capacity of 95 mAhg-1 for PANI, 120 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4 and 145 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4-PANI, at a charge/discharge rate of 0.1 C. At a charge/discharge rate of 2 C, the capacities were 70 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4 and 100 mAhg-1 for LiFePO4-PANI, showing that the PANI also had a favorable effect on the rate capability.

  • 5.
    Ajpi, Cesario
    et al.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leiva, Naviana
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Vargas, Max
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of NiII coordination network: Poly-[tris(µ4-Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(µ1-dimethylformamide-κ1O)-trinickel(II)] as material for lithium ion batteries2022In: Journal of Molecular Structure, ISSN 0022-2860, E-ISSN 1872-8014, Vol. 1265, article id 133316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compound Ni3(C8H4O4)3(C3H7NO)3, poly-[tris(µ4-Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(µ1-dimethylformamide-κ1O)-trinickel(II)], was synthesized by the solvothermal method prepared via reaction between NiCl2•6H2O and terephthalic acid using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The structure was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analyses. The electrochemical properties as a potential active material in lithium-ion batteries were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves in a battery half-cell. The characterization results show that the coordination network contains one independent structure in the asymmetric unit. It is constructed from Ni2+ ions, terephthalate bridges and in-situ-generated DMF ligands, forming two similar two-dimensional (2D) layer structures. These similar 2D layers are in an alternating arrangement and are linked with each other by dense H—H interactions (45%) to generate a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular framework with ordered and disordered DMF molecules. The electrochemical measurements, conducted in the potential range of 0.5–3.5 V vs Li/Li+, show that Ni3(C8H4O4)3(C3H7NO)4 has good electrochemical properties and can work as anode in lithium-ion batteries. The material presents an initial specific capacity of ∼420 mAh g−1, which drops during consecutive scans but stabilizes at ∼50 mAh g−1. However, due to the wide potential range there are indications of a gradual collapse of the structure. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows an increase of charge transfer resistance from 24 to 1190 Ohms after cycling likely due to this collapse.

  • 6.
    Avula, Ramana R.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Oechtering, Tobias J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mansson, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adversarial Inference Control in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Bayesian Approach With Application to Smart Meters2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 12, p. 24933-24948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emergence of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) in utility systems like electricity, water, and gas networks, data collection has become more prevalent. While data collection in these systems has numerous advantages, it also raises concerns about privacy as it can potentially reveal sensitive information about users. To address this issue, we propose a Bayesian approach to control the adversarial inference and mitigate the physical-layer privacy problem in CPSs. Specifically, we develop a control strategy for the worst-case scenario where an adversary has perfect knowledge of the user’s control strategy. For finite state-space problems, we derive the fixed-point Bellman’s equation for an optimal stationary strategy and discuss a few practical approaches to solve it using optimization-based control design. Addressing the computational complexity, we propose a reinforcement learning approach based on the Actor-Critic architecture. To also support smart meter privacy research, we present a publicly accessible ’Co-LivEn’ dataset with comprehensive electrical measurements of appliances in a co-living household. Using this dataset, we benchmark the proposed reinforcement learning approach. The results demonstrate its effectiveness in reducing privacy leakage. Our work provides valuable insights and practical solutions for managing adversarial inference in cyber-physical systems, with a particular focus on enhancing privacy in smart meter applications. 

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  • 7.
    Bach, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Forsström, Ellinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Piehl, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Raza, Zeeshan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rydbergh, Torbjörn
    Marine Benchmark, Sweden.
    HAMNEN SOM ENERGINOD : Ett koncept för hamnens roll i omställningen mot ett hållbart transportsystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsystemet står inför en enorm utmaning då trycket på genomförandet av hållbara operationer aldrig varit större. Enligt IEA står transportsektorn för 16% av det totala koldioxidutsläppet i världen som med nödvändighet måste minska för att vi ska kunna lämna efter oss en planet med resurser för framtida generationer. Utmaningen kräver att alla delar av transportsystemet gör sitt bidrag, oavsett om det handlar om transportoperatörer, transportnoder, myndigheter på såväl lokal, regional som global nivå och tvärs samtliga transportslag. Det slutar dock inte där, det är lika viktigt att de som konstruerar olika typer av lastbärare och fordon för både gods- och persontransporter också beaktar den energi som förväntas vara tillgänglig i rätt kvantitet och till rätt pris. Energiproducenter behöver också tillgodose att efterfrågade energibärare produceras och finns att tillgå vid rätt plats och i tillräcklig kvantitet då den behövs. Detta är i linje med de behov av insatser som Sveriges regering lyfter inom transporteffektivitet, hållbara förnybara drivmedel samt energieffektiva fordon och fartyg, för att reducera Sveriges territoriella CO2 utsläpp i linje med de globala målen. En viktig del av transportsystemet är hamnar som har fönster mot flera olika transportslag och utgör multimodala noder som förväntas ombesörja en så sömlös övergång mellan olika transportslag som möjligt, såsom till/från sjö, järnväg och väg. Svenska hamnar är inget undantag, utan i Sverige med sin längsta europeiska kustremsa behöver Sveriges hamnar också etablera tillräcklig kapabilitet för att hantera såväl inhemska transportbehov som förväntade transporter för import och export på ett hållbart sätt. Hamnar står inför utmaningen att både bedriva sina operationer på ett så hållbart sätt som möjligt genom nyttjande av fossilfri energi, att förse besökare med fossilfria energibärare, och att balansera sitt nyttjande och distribution av hållbar energi med de behov som omgivningen har. Organisationer med lastbilar, tåg, och fartyg som besöker en transportnod, däribland hamnar, förväntar sig att de kan försörjas med viss energi. Transportnoder kan således inte bara betraktas utifrån att vara en effektiv omlastningspunkt, utan behöver också betraktas utifrån den roll som transportnoden har och kan komma att ta i den del av energisystemet som relaterar till transportsystemet. Hamnar som transportnoder behöver således etablera en förmåga som energinod. I föreliggande projekt har trender beaktats för utvecklingen inom olika transportslag, intervjuer genomförts med svenska hamnar samt en enkätundersökning genomförts riktad till en majoritet av Sveriges hamnar. I projektet identifieras att de viktigaste drivkrafterna för hamnarnas hållbarhets- och omställningsarbete är kundkrav, kostnadsbesparingar, hamnens interna målsättning (ofta baserad på ägarnas krav och vision) samt regelverk. Slutsatsen är att Sveriges hamnar har en stark ambition att utveckla sin förmåga som energinod för olika roller. Samtidigt råder en villrådighet om vilka satsningar som skulle ge störst effekter för hamnens verksamhet. Viktigt att notera är också att olika hamnar har olika förutsättningar och roller i transportsystemet, beroende på dess geografiska placering, storlek och typ av gods / passagerare som hanteras. Samtidigt görs stora investeringar i Sveriges hamnsystem, för att proaktivt utveckla en kapabilitet att möta dagens och morgondagens transportbehov, särskilt i ljuset av den omflyttning som sker från vägbundna transporter till järnväg och sjö. Det är vanligt att hamnar etablerar inlandsterminalskapabilitet, d v s skapar förmåga för omlastning mellan tåg och väg där inte någon sjötransport behöver vara inblandad. Många av Sveriges järnvägsoperatörer ser hamnar som strategiska noder i järnvägssystemet. Dessutom det är tydligt från intervjuerna, vilket även styrks av enkätsvar, att respondenterna anser att otillräckliga finansiella medel, höga kostnader och skatt, omogen teknik, infrastruktur, effekt, standardisering, kompetens, och politisk otydlighet är de största utmaningar som påverkar svenska hamnars roll i hållbarhets- och omställningsarbete. Baserat på genomförd trend- och nulägesanalys föreslås en mognadsmodell som rådgivande för hamnens proaktiva utveckling av sin energinodskapacitet. Denna modell tar utgångspunkt i att hamnen etablerar en energistrategi som tar höjd för nödvändiga samarbeten och investeringar som de både blir tvingade till genom regelverk, påverkade av genom beslut och själva har rådighet över. Hamnarna är tydliga med att huvudverksamheten är att utgöra en transportnod, men att de, för att möjliggöra en omställning mot ett hållbart transportsystem, också behöver ge utrymme för andra aktörer, såsom energiproducenter och energidistributörer att bedriva sin verksamhet relaterat till hamnens geografiska område. Således behöver det kluster av aktörer som ingår i hamnen som nod expanderas till att också innefatta producenter och distributörer av energi. Hamnens energistrategi är rådgivande för att hamnen skall kunna etablera en förmåga som säkerställer att de krav som hamnens operationer, hamnens besökare och hamnens roll med sin geografiska placering, möts. Föreslagen mognadsmodell riktar uppmärksamhet just till dessa nivåer av förmåga och skapar grunder för formuleringen av en proaktiv strategi för den enskilda hamnens roll i transportsystemets energiomställning. En viktig grund blir då att simulera framtida energibehov, såsom inom elförsörjnings- och eldistributionsområdet, men även för andra energibärare, varför detta projekt föreslår ett fortsättningsprojekt där förväntade energibehov kan simuleras och bli rådgivande för strategi, samverkan och investering för Sveriges hamnar. En sådan simuleringsmodell bygger på hamnens digitala förmåga att fånga och använda data från operationer för att säkerställa att hamnen bidrar till transporteffektivitet, användning av hållbara förnybara drivmedel samt energieffektiva fordon och fartyg. Samspelet mellan hamnen som energinod och transportbärares kapabilitet att drivas på hållbar energi samt energiproducenters/energidistributörers förmåga att tillhandahålla fossilfri energi, utgör grunden till fossilfria transporter. Fossilfria väg-, järnvägs- och sjötransporter kan således inte etableras utan att ta hänsyn till alla ingående komponenter. I denna nödvändiga transformation har hamnar och andra transportnoder en nyckelroll.

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  • 8.
    Ban, Branko
    et al.
    Torquery Consulting, Sweden.
    Illinois, Ian Brown
    Institute of Technology, USA.
    Kersten, Anton
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Alvier Mechatronics, Sweden.
    Batra, Tushar
    Alvier Mechatronics, Sweden.
    Torque Ripple Reduction Utilizing Pole-Shoe Extensions for a Traction Wound Field Synchronous Machine2023In: 2023 International Conference on Electrical Drives and Power Electronics, EDPE 2023 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive study on optimizing a water-cooled automotive traction Wound Field Synchronous Machine using an inverse-cosine pole-shaping variant with pole-shoe extensions. The objective was to maximize torque and minimize total loss at base speed, considering constraints like torque ripple, thermal loading, and mechanical stress yield factor. The optimization of the baseline design was conducted via a differential evolution algorithm. The design effectively fulfills all design requirements, maintaining the active volume constraints. Through iterative post-optimization adjustments of the pole shape, the effects on machine performance were analyzed. The inverse-cosine pole-shaping with novel pole-shoe extensions proves to be a superior approach. Compared to a design without pole-shoe extensions (6.49% torque ripple), the baseline design enables a ripple reduction of 2.45 %. The conclusion is that the pole-shoe extensions have considerable influence on torque-ripple. 

  • 9.
    Barbosa, Raul
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Basagiannis, Stelios
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Giantamidis, Georgios
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Becker, Hauke
    NXP Semiconductor, Germany.
    Ferrari, Enrico
    Rulex Innovation Labs, Italy.
    Jahic, Jasmin
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Kanak, Alper
    ERARGE, Turkey.
    Labayen Esnaola, Mikel
    CAF SIGNALLING, Spain.
    Orani, Vanessa
    CNR-IEIIT, Italy.
    Pereira, David
    CISTER/ISEP Polytechnic Institute of Porto; Portugal.
    Pomante, Luigi
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Schlick, Rupert
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology; Austria.
    Smrcka, Ales
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Yazici, Ahmet
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    The VALU3S ECSEL Project: Verification and Validation of Automated Systems Safety and Security2020In: 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers of automated systems and their components have been allocating an enormous amount of time and effort in R&D activities. This effort translates into an overhead on the V&V (verification and validation) process making it timeconsuming and costly. In this paper, we present an ECSEL JU project (VALU3S) that aims to evaluate the state-of-the-art V&V methods and tools, and design a multi-domain framework to create a clear structure around the components and elements needed to conduct the V&V process. The main expected benefit of the framework is to reduce time and cost needed to verify and validate automated systems with respect to safety, cyber-security, and privacy requirements. This is done through identification and classification of evaluation methods, tools, environments and concepts for V&V of automated systems with respect to the mentioned requirements. To this end, VALU3S brings together a consortium with partners from 10 different countries, amounting to a mix of 25 industrial partners, 6 leading research institutes, and 10 universities to reach the project goal.

  • 10.
    Benavente-Araoz, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Varini, Maria
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Cabrera, Saul
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of Partial Cycling of NCA/Graphite Cylindrical Cells in Different SOC Intervals2020In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 167, no 4, article id 040529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quasi-realistic aging test of NCA/graphite lithium-ion 18650 cylindrical cells is performed during a long-term low c-rate cycling and using a new protocol for testing and studying the aging. This to emulate a characteristic charge/discharge profile of off-grid PV-battery systems. The cells were partially cycled at four different cut-off voltages and two state of charge ranges (ΔSOC) for 1000 and 700 cycles over 24 months. Differential voltage analysis shows that a combination of loss of active material (LAM) and loss of lithium inventory (LLI) are the causes of capacity loss. Cells cycled with high cut-off voltages and wide ΔSOC (20% to 95%) were severely affected by material degradation and electrode shift. High cut-off voltage and narrow ΔSOC (65% to 95%) caused greater electrode degradation but negligible cell unbalance. Cell impedance is observed to increase in both cells. Cells cycled with middle to low cut-off voltages and narrow ΔSOC (35%-65% and 20% to 50%) had comparable degradation rates to calendar-aged cells. Cycling NCA/graphite cells with low c-rate and high cut-off voltages will degrade the electrode in the same way high c-rate would do. However, low c-rate at low and middle cut-off voltages greatly decrease cell degradation compared to similar conditions at middle to high c-rate, therefore increasing battery lifetime. © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 11.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Edvall, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Emmanouilidis, Dimitris
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Envik, Christel
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Löfqvist, Jonas
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Örn, Mattias
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Renström, Håkan
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Svedlund, Jerry
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Laddinfrastruktur och frekvensreglering: en fallstudie2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att elnätet ska fungera måste frekvensen hållas inom snäva gränser och därför handlar Svenska Kraftnät upp olika typer av stödtjänster för frekvensreglering. De senaste åren har kostnaderna för dessa tjänster ökat kraftigt, bland annat till följd av en allt högre andel intermittent elproduktion. Behoven är prognostiserade att öka ytterligare under de kommande åren. Detta har skapat ett ökat intresse för batterier och deras möjligheter att stödja elnätet. Men batterier och tillhörande kraftelektronik är kostsamt. Samtidigt finns en stor och alltjämt växande batterikapacitet i landets elbilar och med hjälp av dubbelriktad laddning, så kallad vehicle-to-grid öppnas nya möjligheter att komma åt denna potential för att på ett mer resurseffektivt sätt balansera elnätet. Projektets övergripande mål har varit att utreda hur standardisering kan användas för att påskynda och öka användandet av elbilar som resurs för flexibilitetstjänster till elnätet. Bland annat har en fallstudie genomförts av Axess Logistics anläggning i Malmö hamn och möjligheterna för att deras långtidsparkerade elbilar ska kunna leverera frekvensreglering till elnätet har studerats. Resultaten visar på att studerade standarder i stort inte utgör ett direkt hinder för användandet av elbilar för frekvensreglering men att förändringar av exempelvis ISO15118 skulle kunna öka möjligheterna att använda elbilar för att leverera frekvensreglering. Till exempel genom införande av krav på mätnoggrannhet på aktiv effekt, förkortning av tillåtna svarstider, krav på lokal frekvensmätning med god noggrannhet. För långtidsparkerade bilar vore det framförallt värdefullt att arbeta fram, och i standard beskriva, en funktion där elbilens BMS kan uppmanas av EVSE att hålla batteriet i ett tillstånd där det kan användas för att snabbt svara på en begäran om i-/urladdning. Detta så att elbilen kan vara förberedd för frekvensreglering även om den för stunden inte aktivt laddar eller matar effekt till elnätet. Detta en åtgärd som skulle kunna ha stor positiv påverkan på möjligheterna för långtidsparkerade elbilar att leverera frekvensreglering. Exemplifierande användarcykler för långtidsparkerade bilar har studerats för FCR-N och FCR-D. Resultaten visar att den förväntade cyklingen skiljer stort mellan dessa olika frekvensregleringstjänster och antyder att valet av frekvensregleringstjänst behöver studeras utifrån både förväntad ekonomi och eventuellt batterislitage. Överslagsräkningar på eventuella intäkter från deltagande i frekvensreglering har genomförts och de preliminära resultaten visar att investering av dyrare laddinfrastruktur som klarar Vehicle-to-Grid skulle kunna återbetalas inom ett år med 2022 års nivåer av ersättning för frekvensreglering. I en framtid där nya elbilar antas ha stöd för Vehicle-to-Grid har potentialen för att använda långtidsparkerade elbilar på logistikanläggningar till frekvensreglering preliminärt bedömts ligga mellan 110 och 165 MW för svenska förhållanden. Detta motsvarar ca 5-8% av den nordiska FCR-marknaden. På sikt kan också långtidsparkerade bilar hos återförsäljare, flygplatser med mera att utgöra en betydande potential.

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  • 12.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    The role of policy labs for introducing autonomous vehicles2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains the methodological approach of policy labs as used in applied research projects on autonomous vehicles in Sweden. While introducing new technologies we need to ensure that regulations and policies keep up with the fast-paced technological development.  Policy labs is one way of managing the perceived conflict between technological innovation and existing regulations. Within a policy lab, a wide range of stakeholders gather to solve the bottlenecks for innovations together. We show through three different R&D projects how the policy lab approach can be applied and which results, improvements and challenges it revealed for introducing autonomous vehicles.  

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  • 13.
    Carlsson, Annika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nordin Fürdös, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Adams, Paul
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Forsström, Ellinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Haberl, Felix
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Johansson, Monica
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Parthav, Desai
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Flytande väte som ett logistiskt bränsle – En förstudie2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large investments are being made by energy companies to provide hydrogen production, distribution, and refuelling infrastructure. It is hence critical to find hydrogen pathways that are efficient and feasible. This means deciding between the usage of liquid hydrogen (LH2) or compressed hydrogen (CGH2) value-chains from production to storage onboard vehicles in some transport segments such as heavy-duty trucks. During the project the as yet unestablished concept of cryo-compressed hydrogen (CcH2) was also considered. The project aimed at identifying the critical challenges and current limitations that impact the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications. It has focused on increasing the knowledge about technologies that can make LH2 or CGH2 infrastructure and vehicle usage more efficient and safer, by assessing the current state of technology as well as maturity and potential of new technologies. Included in this was also a segment focused on the safety of the different alternatives along the later parts of the value-chain. The project as a whole was conducted as a literature study. For the technology maturity in different parts of the value-chain the project has summarized the results in a very high-level categorisation system, see table below The definitions are mainly qualitatively and show where the technologies are in these categories: • Established (Used on a larger scale, ~TRL 9-10) • Proven concept (Demonstrators or soon reaching this stage, ~TRL 7-8) • Initial design (No public demonstrators available, ~TRL 3-6) • Uncertain applicability (Applicability was not established in this work) • Not applicable (Cannot be used for this state of hydrogen) Technological maturity in the hydrogen value-chain The table above also gives an overview of the segments included in the report. In combination with the technological evaluation a qualitative cost analysis of the different hydrogen storage states was also done. Here it is indicated that though LH2 has a higher cost in the initial part of the value-chain, it has lower costs in the end segments. Therefore, it is possible that the end-price for the user will be similar for both LH2 and CGH2. The full cost can be compared first when LH2 refuelling stations and vehicles are publicly built, and cost information is available. The same is true for CcH2. During the safety, regulations and standards pre-study the following was concluded. From a safety perspective, there are no insurmountable barriers with respect to the use of LH2 on-board heavy-duty road vehicles in the medium term, however, there are several challenges to overcome, not least in the short term. Within the EU there are regulations which allow the type-approval of heavy-duty road vehicles with LH2 storage systems. However, these are based on work undertaken 15 - 20 years ago and are widely acknowledged as in need of being updated and validated in the same way that CGH2 road vehicle regulations have been. Similarly, there is a lack of up-to-date industry standards for road vehicle LH2 storage systems. A particular gap is the absence of an up-to-date standard that can be referenced in regulations for the refuelling receptacle geometry. Additionally, for LH2 refilling stations as a whole there are no suitable, up to date international standards, so there is a risk that individual countries set their own requirements. Overall, the project concluded that there are no show-stoppers for the implementation of LH2. It is a feasible value-chain from both the technology, cost and safety perspective. It could also in the future become comparable with the more proven CGH2 value-chain, but some initial hurdles and investments need to be overcome.

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  • 14.
    Cassel, Anders
    et al.
    Qamcom Research and Technology Ab, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology Ab, Sweden.
    Christensen, Ole Martin
    Qamcom Research and Technology Ab, Sweden.
    Heyn, Hans-Martin
    Volvo Technology Ab, Sweden.
    Leadersson-Olsson, Susanna
    Veoneer Sweden Ab, Sweden.
    Majdandzic, Mario
    Semcon Sweden Ab, Sweden.
    Sun, Peng
    Veoneer Sweden Ab, Sweden.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Trygvesson, Jörgen
    Comentor Ab, Sweden.
    On Perception Safety Requirements and Multi Sensor Systems for Automated Driving Systems2020In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2020-April, no AprilArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One major challenge in designing SAE level 3-5 Automated Driving Systems (ADS) is to define requirements for the perception system that would enable argumentation for safe operation. The safety requirements on the perception system can only be fulfilled through redundancy in the sensor hardware. It is, however, a challenge to specify the redundancy that is required in the sensor system. Safe operation for an ADS is significantly more difficult compared to advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). The safety argumentation for ADAS typically argues that in case of a failure in the sensor array a fail-silent behavior is acceptable because the human driver can take control of the vehicle back. This argumentation however is not possible when developing level 4 or higher automation. This paper investigates prerequisites for applying a systematic methodology for analyzing redundancy in a multi-sensor system and the relation to a conceptual ADS functional architecture. This analysis must address the complexity that comes with partially overlapping sensor data from different sensors and considers variations in performance and characteristics due to changes in the environmental conditions. The paper introduces the term incomplete redundancy and presents a systematic methodology for analyzing redundancy. The aim is to provide arguments for how several sensors in a system, when appropriately combined, meet an assigned safety requirement on a higher level. Each sensor will then be assigned a certain responsibility and contributes with a sub-set of information. A set of questions of importance to address as a foundation for such a methodology are defined and discussed. The definitions of redundancy and independence between sensors are discussed as well as contract-based functional safety to adapt to different environmental and operating conditions.

  • 15.
    Damschen, Marvin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Farooqui, Ashfaq
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Häll, Rickard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Landström, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Development and onboard assessment of drone for assistance in firefighting resource management and rescue operations2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides comprehensive information for deciding whether to pursue the deployment of adrone system for increasing safety on ship. The assessments of technical and legal feasibility as wellas usefulness of a drone system for surveying the open decks of a ro-ro ship are presented. The usecases of fire patrol, fire resource management and search & rescue operations are targeted. Aprototype drone system is detailed that is built on open standards and open-source software for highextensibility and reproducibility. Technical feasibility is assessed positively overall using a purpose-designed drone-control software, in-field tests and a demonstration onboard of DFDS PetuniaSeaways. The needs for further development, analysis and long-term tests are described. The legalfeasibility assessment gives an overview of applicable maritime and airspace regulations within theEU. It concludes that the drone system should be seen complementary to existing fire safety systemsand that operational authorization is best applied for in collaboration with a ship owner. Usefulnessis assessed using responses from maritime experts to an online questionnaire on the targeted usecases. Results are positive with two major challenges identified: achieving a reasonable selling priceand obtaining the ship operators’ and crews’ trust in the system. Finally, a SWOT analysis gives aconcise summary of the performed assessments and can be used as input to the strategic businessplanning for a potential drone system provider.

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  • 16.
    Damschen, Marvin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Iovino, Salvatore Danilo
    Hitachi Rail STS.
    Canesi, Stefano
    Hitachi Rail STS.
    Ottonello, Elia
    Hitachi Rail STS.
    Parrilla Ayuso, Francisco
    Indra Sistemas S.A..
    Lanillos Carrasco, Guillermo
    Indra Sistemas S.A..
    Schenker, Moritz
    German Aerospace Center (DLR).
    Stickel, Sebastian
    German Aerospace Center (DLR).
    Goikoetxea, Javier
    Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles, S.A. (CAF).
    Nalbant, Merve (Contributor)
    DB.
    Zander, Edgard
    Systra.
    Riquier, Vincent
    Systra.
    Business Model2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of X2Rail-3 (Grant Agreement No. 826141) Task 7.5 is an analysis of the businessmodel for the Virtually Coupled Train Sets (VCTS) concept. The VCTS concept was developed inX2Rail-3 Work Packages 6 and 7. The MOVINGRAIL project, which was the only project fundedunder the IP2 open call S2R-OC-IP2-01-2018, provided inputs concerning the cost effectiveness,application roadmap as well as business risks and overall market potential of VCTS. Thisdeliverable (D7.5) is the outcome of Task 7.5. First, it provides an analysis of the inputs providedby MOVINGRAIL, putting them in context with previous X2Rail-3 work. Then, taking theconclusions of the analysis into account, two different application cases for VCTS are presented.Strategies to implement the application cases are detailed, including a vision for implementingVCTS within the RCA and OCORA reference architectures. Finally, the business case of VCTS iscompared against business objectives identified within the LinX4Rail project.

    The application cases for VCTS presented in this deliverable are standalone VCTS and ETCS-based VCTS. Standalone VCTS is an application of VCTS that focuses on low-traffic lines thatare today using Class B signalling systems that cannot be upgraded to ETCS in a cost-effectiveway. In summary, it is a low-cost onboard train protection system which has the objectives ofproviding an economically interesting upgrade path for Class B systems and raising the maturityof the underlying technology required for VCTS, thus, fostering the wide-scale introduction. ETCS-based VCTS is an application of VCTS that focuses on high-traffic lines and bases on ETCS Level2 or Level 3. ETCS-based VCTS is the actual goal of the VCTS concept and has the mainobjectives of reducing headway and improving flexibility of operation in order to increase linecapacity and provide the technical basis for innovative business models.

    For each application case, a migration strategy is presented, detailing the non-technical andtechnical steps required for implementing and on-site testing a first complete demonstrator withina period of three to five years. The migration strategies provide details for train protection, trafficmanagement, automatic train operation, on-board train integrity, communication and VCTS (on-board and trackside, if applicable) sub-systems. As detailed in Deliverable 7.4 “Impact Analysis”which was prepared in parallel to this deliverable, the introduction of VCTS does not change thefundamental principles of any of the existing sub-systems, i.e., a full rework is not required.

    Beyond the migration strategies, the vision of implementing ETCS-based VCTS within the RCAand OCORA reference architectures is presented, which would imply software changes only and,thus, simplify the migration considerably. Finally, the impact of VCTS is compared against thebusiness objectives identified in the LinX4Rail project. Taking the presented migration strategiesand MOVINGRAIL input into account, it is shown that VCTS is in line with the RUs’, IMs’ andsuppliers’ business objectives.

    Ultimately, VCTS is an innovative concept that can raise scepticism by operators and the generalpublic. Its safety can be achieved within the near future, but this needs to be communicated clearlyto foster the acceptance of VCTS. Only then, VCTS cannot only improve current railway operationwith increased capacity, reliability and lower operational costs, but even provide the basis for novelbusiness models that benefit from the increased flexibility.

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  • 17.
    Edvall, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Skärhem, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    HANDLINGSPLAN - Regional samverkan kring vätgas2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handlingsplan är framtagen inom projektet Regional samverkan kring vätgas som finansieras av Klimatledande Processindustri där Västsvenska Kemi- och Materialklustret ingår. Handlingsplanen utgår från det geografiska område i och i närheten av Göteborg, Stenungsund och Lysekil, det område där kemi- och raffinaderiindustrierna på västkusten är verksamma. Handlingsplanen innehåller prioriterade frågeställningar och aktiviteter att utföra i närtid och är framtagen av RISE i samarbete med Borealis, Chalmers, Göteborg Energi, Göteborgs Hamn, Inovyn, Linde Gas, Liquid Wind, Nordion Energi, Perstorp, Preem, St1, Uniper samt Vattenfall. Syftet med projektet är att skapa samverkan kring vätgasrelaterade frågor baserat på identifierade behov hos nyckelaktörer i regionen. Projektet ska även identifiera vilka former för samverkan som på bästa sätt kan underlätta och påskynda omställningen till ett klimatneutralt samhälle, givet regionens specifika utmaningar och möjligheter kopplat till vätgas.

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  • 18.
    Eiler, Konrad
    et al.
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Mölmen, Live
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sort, Jordi
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Spain.
    Pellicer, Eva
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Oxygen reduction reaction and proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance of pulse electrodeposited Pt–Ni and Pt–Ni–Mo(O) nanoparticles2022In: Materials Today Energy, ISSN 2468-6069, Vol. 27, article id 101023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are an important alternative to fossil fuels and a complement to batteries for the electrification of vehicles. However, their high cost obstructs commercialization, and the catalyst material, including its synthesis, constitutes one of the major cost components. In this work, Pt–Ni and Pt–Ni–Mo(O) nanoparticles (NPs) of varying composition have been synthesized in a single step by pulse electrodeposition onto a PEMFC's gas diffusion layer. The proposed synthesis route combines NP synthesis and their fixation onto the microporous carbon layer in a single step. Both Pt–Ni and Pt–Ni–Mo(O) catalysts exhibit extremely high mass activities at oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with very low Pt loadings of around 4 μg/cm2 due to the favorable distribution of NPs in contact with the proton exchange membrane. Particle sizes of 40–50 nm and 40–80 nm were obtained for Pt–Ni and Pt–Ni–Mo(O) systems, respectively. The highest ORR mass activities were found for Pt67Ni33 and Pt66Ni32–MoOx NPs. The feasibility of a single-step electrodeposition of Pt–Ni–Mo(O) NPs was successfully demonstrated; however, the ternary NPs are of more amorphous nature in contrast to the crystalline, binary Pt–Ni particles, due to the oxidized state of Mo. Nevertheless, despite their heterogeneous nature, the ternary NPs show homogeneous behavior even on a microscopic scale. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 19.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Monteserin, Carlos
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian spectral element method for nonlinear wave interaction with fixed structures2019In: Water Waves, ISSN 2523-367X, Vol. 1, p. 315-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a high-order nodal spectral element method for the two-dimensional simulationof nonlinearwaterwaves. The model is based on themixed Eulerian–Lagrangian(MEL) method. Wave interaction with fixed truncated structures is handled usingunstructured meshes consisting of high-order iso-parametric quadrilateral/triangularelements to represent the body surfaces as well as the free surface elevation. A numericaleigenvalue analysis highlights that using a thin top layer of quadrilateral elementscircumvents the general instability problem associated with the use of asymmetricmesh topology.We demonstrate howto obtain a robustMELscheme for highly nonlinearwavesusing an efficient combination of (i) global L2 projectionwithout quadratureerrors, (ii) mild modal filtering and (iii) a combination of local and global re-meshingtechniques. Numerical experiments for strongly nonlinear waves are presented. Theexperiments demonstrate that the spectral element model provides excellent accuracyin prediction of nonlinear and dispersive wave propagation. The model is also shownto accurately capture the interaction between solitary waves and fixed submerged andsurface-piercing bodies. The wave motion and the wave-induced loads compare wellto experimental and computational results from the literature.

  • 20.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Palm, Johannes
    Sigma Energy & Marine AB, Sweden.
    High-fidelity modelling of moored marine structures: multi-component simulations and fluid-mooring coupling2022In: Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy, ISSN 2198-6444, E-ISSN 2198-6452, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 513-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-fidelity viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models coupled to dynamic mooring models is becoming an established tool for marine wave-body-mooring (WBM) interaction problems. The CFD and the mooring solvers most often communicate by exchanging positions and mooring forces at the mooring fairleads. Mooring components such as submerged buoys and clump weights are usually not resolved in the CFD model, but are treated as Morison-type bodies. This paper presents two recent developments in high-fidelity WBM modelling: (i) a one-way fluid-mooring coupling that samples the CFD fluid kinematics to approximate drag and inertia forces in the mooring model; and (ii) support for inter-moored multibody simulations that can resolve fluid dynamics on a mooring component level. The developments are made in the high-order discontinuous Galerkin mooring solver MoodyCore, and in the two-phase incompressible Navier–Stokes finite volume solver OpenFOAM. The fluid-mooring coupling is verified with experimental tests of a mooring cable in steady current. It is also used to model the response of the slack-moored DeepCwind FOWT exposed to regular waves. Minor effects of fluid-mooring coupling were noted, as expected since this a mild wave case. The inter-mooring development is demonstrated on a point-absorbing WEC moored with a hybrid mooring system, fully resolved in CFD-MoodyCore. The WEC (including a quasi-linear PTO) and the submerged buoys are resolved in CFD, while the mooring dynamics include inter-mooring effects and the one-way sampling of the flow. The combined wave-body-mooring model is judged to be very complete and to cover most of the relevant effects for marine WBM problems. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 21.
    Farooqui, Ashfaq
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Claase, Tijsse
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Fabian, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    On Active Learning for Supervisor Synthesis2024In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 21, p. 78-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supervisory control theory provides an approach to synthesize supervisors for cyber-physical systems using a model of the uncontrolled plant and its specifications. These supervisors can help guarantee the correctness of the closed-loop controlled system. However, access to plant models is a bottleneck for many industries, as manually developing these models is an error-prone and time-consuming process. An approach to obtaining a supervisor in the absence of plant models would help industrial adoption of supervisory control techniques. This paper presents, an algorithm to learn a controllable supervisor in the absence of plant models. It does so by actively interacting with a simulation of the plant by means of queries. If the obtained supervisor is blocking, existing synthesis techniques are employed to prune the blocking supervisor and obtain the controllable and non-blocking supervisor. Additionally, this paper presents an approach to interface the with a PLC to learn supervisors in a virtual commissioning setting. This approach is demonstrated by learning a supervisor of the well-known example simulated in Xcelgo Experior and controlled using a PLC. interacts with the PLC and learns a controllable supervisor for the simulated system. Note to Practitioners—Ensuring the correctness of automated systems is crucial. Supervisory control theory proposes techniques to help build control solutions that have certain correctness guarantees. These techniques rely on a model of the system. However, such models are typically unavailable and hard to create. Active learning is a promising technique to learn models by interacting with the system to be learned. This paper aims to integrate active learning and supervisory control such that the manual step of creating models is no longer needed, thus, allowing the use of supervisory control techniques in the absence of models. The proposed approach is implemented in a tool and demonstrated using a case study. 

  • 22.
    Farooqui, Ashfaq
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Towards Formal Fault Injection for Safety Assessment of Automated Systems2023In: Fifth International Workshop on Formal Methods for Autonomous Systems, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reasoning about safety, security, and other dependability attributes of autonomous systems is a challenge that needs to be addressed before the adoption of such systems in day-to-day life. Formal methods is a class of methods that mathematically reason about a system’s behavior. Thus, a correctness proof is sufficient to conclude the system’s dependability. However, these methods are usually applied to abstract models of the system, which might not fully represent the actual system. Fault injection, on the other hand, is a testing method to evaluate the dependability of systems. However, the amount of testing required to evaluate the system is rather large and often a problem. This vision paper introduces formal fault injection, a fusion of these two techniques throughout the development lifecycle to enhance the dependability of autonomous systems. We advocate for a more cohesive approach by identifying five areas of mutual support between formal methods and fault injection. By forging stronger ties between the two fields, we pave the way for developing safe and dependable autonomous systems. This paper delves into the integration’s potential and outlines future research avenues, addressing open challenges along the way.

  • 23.
    Ferrari, Enrico
    et al.
    Rulex Innovation Labs, Italy.
    Schlick, Rupert
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    De la Vara, Jose Luis
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Criteria for the Analysis of Gaps and Limitations of V&V Methods for Safety- and Security-Critical Systems2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As society increasingly relies on safety- and security- critical systems, the need for confirming their dependability becomes essential. Adequate V&V (verification and validation) methods must be employed, e.g., for system testing. When selecting and using the methods, it is important to analyze their possible gaps and limitations, such as scalability issues. However, and as we have experienced, common, explicitly defined criteria are seldom used for such analyses. This results in analyses that consider different aspects and to a different extent, hindering their comparison and thus the comparison of the V&V methods. As a solution, we present a set of criteria for the analysis of gaps and limitations of V&V methods for safety- and security-critical systems. The criteria have been identified in the scope of the VALU3S project. Sixty-two people from 33 organizations agreed upon the use of nine criteria: functionality, accuracy, scalability, deployment, learning curve, automation, reference environment, cost, and standards. Their use led to more homogeneous and more detailed analyses when compared to similar previous efforts. We argue that the proposed criteria can be helpful to others when having to deal with similar activities.

  • 24.
    Flink, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Hedberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Guide gällande dokumentationskrav för EN ISO 138492020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Machinery directive gives the requirements for safe machinery, and safe machine control, within the European Union. The European standard EN ISO 13849-1 describes safety-related machine control. This report explains some of the documentation requirements, especially for safety-related machine control systems.

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  • 25.
    Folkesson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Kleberger, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nowdehi, Nasser
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    On the Evaluation of Three Pre-Injection Analysis Techniques for Model-Implemented Fault- and Attack Injection2022In: IEEE 27th Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC 2022), 2022, p. 130-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault- and attack injection are techniques used to measure dependability attributes of computer systems. An important property of such injectors is their efficiency that deals with the time and effort needed to explore the target system’s fault- or attack space. As this space is generally very large, techniques such as pre-injection analyses are used to effectively explore the space. In this paper, we study two such techniques that have been proposed in the past, namely inject-on-read and inject-on-write. Moreover, we propose a new technique called error space pruning of signals and evaluate its efficiency in reducing the space needed to be explored by fault and attack injection experiments. We implemented and integrated these techniques into MODIFI, a model-implemented fault and attack injector, which has been effectively used in the past to evaluate Simulink models in the presence of faults and attacks. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to integrate these pre-injection analysis techniques into an injector that injects faults and attacks into Simulink models.The results of our evaluation on 11 vehicular Simulink models show that the error space pruning of signals reduce the attack space by about 30–43%, hence allowing the attack space to be exploited by fewer number of attack injection experiments. Using MODIFI, we then performed attack injection experiments on two of these vehicular Simulink models, a comfort control model and a brake-by-wire model, while elaborating on the results obtained

  • 26.
    Gjerløw, Jan Carsten
    et al.
    Akershus County Council, Norway.
    Cornander, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Assessment of Clean Fuel Deployment and Market Access of Clean Fuels in the Northern Scandria®Corridor2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the status of Clean Fuel deployment in the Northern Scandria®Corridor and to describe experiences of market access of Clean Fuels. The report benchmarks Clean Fuel performance in the Northern Scandria®Corridor in the European context, provides results related to obstacles and success factors, exemplifies relevant best practice in the Corridor regions and provides relevant contacts. It will enable the partners to identify crucial barriers and best practice examples. The geographic scope comprises the regions located along the Baltic Sea Region stretch of the Scandinavian-Mediterranean Core Network Corridor (in this report referred to as the “Northern Scandria®Corridor”), including regions in Eastern Germany, the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, Denmark, South Sweden, Southeast Norway and Southwest Finland. See Figure 3 and detailed description of included regions in Chapter 2. In some sections of this report, statistics from The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) are used. Numbers from EAFO are provided at national level only. However, in many cases, development at national level can also provide a picture on development in the Northern Scandria®Corridor. The major objective of the Scandria®2Act project is to foster clean, multimodal transport throughout the Corridor regions, and to increase connectivity and competitiveness of the Corridor regions while at the same time minimising negative environmental impact created by transport activities. The joint approach addresses the deployment of Clean Fuels and multimodal transport services and the establishment of a multilevel governance mechanism. This report is an output of the work package of Clean Fuel Deployment, which aims to enable the deployment of Clean Fuels with regard to freight and passenger transport along the Northern Scandria®Corridor. In preparing this report, an assessment of Clean Fuel market access experiences has been carried out in parallel with an assessment of Clean Fuel deployment in the Northern Scandria®Corridor. Information was collected through a questionnaire answered by partners and national experts and through telephone interviews with national experts from each region. Information and statistics have also been gathered from reports, literature, EAFO and national reports from the partner countries regarding the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (DAFI). The assessment has followed the Scandria®2Act multi-fuel approach, including electricity, hydrogen, biomethane and natural gas.

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  • 27.
    Gopalakrishnan, Pavithra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Bioflex - Synergies with electrolytical hydrogen2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bioflex project investigate the compatibility of operation between a two-stage bioprocess and an electrolyser to produce Hydrogen and Methane. Process water from Nordic Sugar in Örtofta, a sugar industry is utilized in the bioreactors. AP2 investigates energy balances and upscaling of the bioprocess, technical compatibility and synergistic effects between electrolysis and the two-step bioprocess. This assignment examines how waste heat from electrolysis can be used to pre-heat process water before entering the bioprocess reactors.

    This study analyses three possible configurations of scaled up installation, with a 5MW Alkaline electrolyser and 20m3 bio-Hydrogen reactor and 100m3 bio-Methane reactor. The overall efficiency in combined operation mode and stand-alone operation of electrolyser when connection with a high temperature District Heating Network (DHN) are comparable 86-88%. However, under both these cases come with an installation of heat pump which is cost intensive. For electrolyser sizes less than 5MW, water treatment of the seasonal effluent from bioreactors is less energy efficient. Based on pilot study in AP1, the 20m3 bio-Hydrogen reactor can produce similar amount of Hydrogen as the 5MW electrolyser. The purities of these two methods are different, hence the overall dimensioning of the system would depend on demand and end user for these products.

    In the present scenario, with seasonal availability of process water for the bioprocess, the percentage of overlapping working hours of electrolyser and bioreactors varies between 25% to a maximum of 40%. Higher operating hours for bioreactor is recommended to achieve maximum efficiency and consistency of supply.

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  • 28.
    Green, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Vätgaselektrifiering av transporterbjudandet för tunga fordon (HydroHaul): En analys av praktisk och ekonomisk lämplighet för vätgasdrift hos ett åkeri2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vätgas har tidigare konstaterats vara ett fossilfritt, lågemissions, drivmedel som passar bra för långväga tunga transporter. Detta till följd av dess likheter med dieseldrift gällande främst räckvidd och tanktider. I Värmland och Västra Götaland finns det goda planer och medel beviljade för att etablera tankstationer för vätgas. Med infrastruktur på plats behöver nu åkerier överväga huruvida vätgas är lämpligt för att genomföra sina transportuppdrag.

    Stay Fresh Sweden är ett framgångsrikt åkeriföretag som kör livsmedelsgods och var tidigt ute att köra gasdrivna och batterielektriska lastbilar. För deras distribution i Värmland drivs lastbilarna på uteslutande Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Denna förstudie har således analyserat hur praktiskt och ekonomiskt möjligt det är att övergå från HVO-drift till vätgasdrift för Stay Fresh transportuppdrag i Värmland. Två beräkningsmodeller har tagits fram för att beräkna Stay Fresh vätgasbehov och vilken Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) det skulle innebära med vätgasdrift. Beräkningsmodellerna baseras på verksamhetsspecifika data från Stay Fresh och från tidigare genomförda forskningsstudier inom ämnesområdet.

    Resultatet pekar på att det är praktiskt genomförbart för Stay Fresh att driva lastbilar på vätgas. Endast mindre rutinförändringar rörande tankning kan behövas, exempelvis ett extra tankstopp per dag eller tankning på annan plats under transportrutten. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv förväntas övergången från HVO till vätgas ha en marginell påverkan, beroende på val av lastbilsmodell.

    Acceptansen och praktiskt utförande av nyckelaktörer såsom serviceföretag, chaufförer, teknikleverantörer och kund anses inte vara ett hinder för omställning till vätgasdrift. Snarare tvärtom, att det finns en entusiasm och få tendenser till oro kring denna typ av lastbilar.

    Däremot är inköpspriset för vätgaslastbilar osäkert och kan tänkas vara högre än vad denna studie initialt räknat på. Å andra sidan förväntas priset på vätgas minska över tid, vilket har en markant påverkan på den ekonomiska kalkylen. En känslighetsanalys har därför analyserat inköpspriset på fordon och vätgaspriset vid tankstationen. Slutsatsen är att Stay Fresh kommer vara betydligt mer beroende av priset på vätgas snarare än inköpspriset för en vätgasdriven lastbil.

    Med denna förstudie genomförd har nu Stay Fresh ett beslutsunderlag för att avgöra om ett nästa steg är intressant att gå vidare med, nämligen att satsa på ett pilotprojekt med vätgasdrivna lastbilar för deras transportuppdrag.

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  • 29.
    Green, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Hilmersson Haag, Alvin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Piehl, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Havsbaserad vindkrafts påverkan på övrigt näringsliv – en intervju och litteraturstudie inom REKA-projektet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshore wind energy’s impact on other industries – an interview and literature study withing the REKA project

    This study investigates the impact of establishing offshore wind farms on various industries, particularly fisheries and tourism. It also provides an overview of other affected sectors. The research explores the development of offshore wind power in terms of technology, costs, and the establishment process. Interviews with stakeholders in Scotland, Denmark, and Belgium, where offshore wind farms are already operational, supplemented by a literature review, form the basis of the study. The findings indicate that offshore wind installations can have short-term negative effects on the marine environment, specifically fish stocks, despite protective measures. However, in the long run, positive effects may arise through the creation of artificial reefs. The long term this has on the fishing industry is unclear. The study's main observation is that wind power installations occupy areas previously utilized by the fishing industry, necessitating coordinated planning to minimize impacts. Early involvement of all relevant stakeholders and the formulation of clear, long-term plans for marine area utilization are essential for facilitating the fishing industry's adaptation to changing conditions. Conversely, offshore wind power establishment can generate positive outcomes for other industries, offering employment opportunities and fostering economic development. Realizing these benefits requires infrastructure investments and skill development to support the construction, operation, and maintenance of wind farms. The study's authors emphasize the importance of adopting a comprehensive approach and promoting dialogue among stakeholders to ensure a holistic understanding of the maritime environment. By coordinating different sectors, conflicts and dissatisfaction can be minimized while opportunities are maximized. Additionally, the study reveals the decreasing costs of offshore wind power relative to electricity generation and the ongoing advancements in floating wind power technology, enabling installations in deeper waters.

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  • 30.
    Gyllenhammar, Magnus
    et al.
    Zenseact, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    ADS Safety Assurance – Future Directions2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More effective, efficient and flexible ways to manage safety assurance are needed for the successful development and release of Automated Driving Systems (ADSs). In this paper we propose a set of desired assurance method criteria and present an initial overview of available safety assurance methods and how they contribute to the proposed criteria. We observe that there is a significant gap between the state-of-the-art research and the state-of-practise for safety assurance of ADSs and propose to investigate reasons for this as future work. A next step will be to investigate how to merge the elements from the different assurance methods to achieve a method addressing all criteria. 

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  • 31.
    Gyllenhammar, Magnus
    et al.
    Zenseact, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Zenseact, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Astus AB, Sweden.
    Sandblom, Fredrik
    Volvo Autonomous Solutions, Sweden.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Minimal Risk Condition for Safety Assurance of Automated Driving Systems2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have yet to see wide deployment of automated driving systems (ADSs) on public roads. One of the reasons is the challenge of ensuring the systems’ safety. The operational design domain (ODD) can be used to confine the scope of the ADS and subsequently also its safety case. For this to be valid the ADS needs to have strategies to remain in the ODD throughout its operations. In this paper we discuss the role of the minimal risk condition (MRC) as a means to ensure this. Further, we elaborate on the need for hierarchies of MRCs to cope with diverse system degradations during operations.

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  • 32.
    Gyllenhammar, Magnus
    et al.
    Zenuity AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Autonomous Intelligent Driving, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heyn, Hans-Martin
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Jan
    Systemite AB, Sweden.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Towards an Operational Design Domain That Supports the Safety Argumentation of an Automated Driving System2020In: 10th European Congress on Embedded Real Time Systems (ERTS 2020), Toulouse, France, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges for self-driving road vehicles is how to argue that their safety cases are complete.The operational design domain (ODD) of the automated driving system (ADS) can be used to restrict where the ADS is valid and thus confine the scope of the safety case as well as the verification. To complete the safety case there is a need to ensure that the ADS will not exit its ODD. We present four generic strategies to ensure this. Use cases (UCs) provide a convenient way providing such a strategy for a collection of operating conditions (OCs) and furth erensures that the ODD allows for operation within the real world. A framework to categorise the OCs of a UC is presented and it is suggested that the ODD is written with this structure in mind to facilitate mapping towards potential UCs. The ODD defines the functional boundary of the system and modelling it with this structure makes it modular and generalisable across different potential UCs. Further, using the ODD to connect the ADS to the UC enables the continuous delivery of the ADS feature. Two examples of dimensions of the ODD are given and a strategy to avoid an ODD exit is proposed in the respective case.

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  • 33.
    Hagebring, Fredrik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Farooqui, Ashfaq
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Fabian, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lennartson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    On Optimization of Automation Systems: Integrating Modular Learning and Optimization2022In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 1662-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compositional Optimization (CompOpt) was recently proposed for optimization of discrete-event systems of systems. A modular optimization model allows CompOpt to divide the optimization into separate sub-problems, mitigating the state space explosion problem. This paper presents the Modular Optimization Learner (MOL), a method that interacts with a simulation of a system to automatically learn these modular optimization models. MOL uses a modular learning that takes as input a hypothesis structure of the system and uses the provided structural information to split the acquired learning into a set of modules, and to prune parts of the search space. Experiments show that modular learning reduces the state space by many orders of magnitude compared to a monolithic learning, which enables learning of much larger systems. Furthermore, an integrated greedy search heuristic allows MOL to remove many sub-optimal paths in the individual modules, speeding up the subsequent optimization.

  • 34.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Erdogan, Murat
    Veoneer, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Thorsén, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Jaxing, Johan
    Agreat, Sweden.
    Örsmark, Ola
    Comentor, Sweden.
    Örtenberg Toftås, Mathias
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Out-of-Distribution Detection as Support for Autonomous Driving Safety Lifecycle2023In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatic. )Volume 13975 LNCS, Pages 233 - 242, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, p. 233-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is moving towards increased automation, where features such as automated driving systems typically include machine learning (ML), e.g. in the perception system. [Question/Problem] Ensuring safety for systems partly relying on ML is challenging. Different approaches and frameworks have been proposed, typically where the developer must define quantitative and/or qualitative acceptance criteria, and ensure the criteria are fulfilled using different methods to improve e.g., design, robustness and error detection. However, there is still a knowledge gap between quality methods and metrics employed in the ML domain and how such methods can contribute to satisfying the vehicle level safety requirements. In this paper, we argue the need for connecting available ML quality methods and metrics to the safety lifecycle and explicitly show their contribution to safety. In particular, we analyse Out-of-Distribution (OoD) detection, e.g., the frequency of novelty detection, and show its potential for multiple safety-related purposes. I.e., as (a) an acceptance criterion contributing to the decision if the software fulfills the safety requirements and hence is ready-for-release, (b) in operational design domain selection and expansion by including novelty samples into the training/development loop, and (c) as a run-time measure, e.g., if there is a sequence of novel samples, the vehicle should consider reaching a minimal risk condition. [Contribution] This paper describes the possibility to use OoD detection as a safety measure, and the potential contributions in different stages of the safety lifecycle. © 2023, The Author(s)

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  • 35.
    Jolak, Rodi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mohamad, Mazen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Kim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nowdehi, Nasser
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Scandariato, Ricardo
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    CONSERVE: A framework for the selection of techniques for monitoring containers security2022In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 186, article id 111158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Container-based virtualization is gaining popularity in different domains, as it supports continuous development and improves the efficiency and reliability of run-time environments. Problem: Different techniques are proposed for monitoring the security of containers. However, there are no guidelines supporting the selection of suitable techniques for the tasks at hand. Objective: We aim to support the selection and design of techniques for monitoring container-based virtualization environments. Approach:: First, we review the literature and identify techniques for monitoring containerized environments. Second, we classify these techniques according to a set of categories, such as technical characteristic, applicability, effectiveness, and evaluation. We further detail the pros and cons that are associated with each of the identified techniques. Result: As a result, we present CONSERVE, a multi-dimensional decision support framework for an informed and optimal selection of a suitable set of container monitoring techniques to be implemented in different application domains. Evaluation: A mix of eighteen researchers and practitioners evaluated the ease of use, understandability, usefulness, efficiency, applicability, and completeness of the framework. The evaluation shows a high level of interest, and points out to potential benefits. © 2021 The Authors

  • 36.
    Katsidoniotaki, Eirini
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Shahroozi, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Palm, Johannes
    Sigma Energy & Marine AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Jens
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Göteman, Malin
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Sweden.
    Validation of a CFD model for wave energy system dynamics in extreme waves2023In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 268, article id 113320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of wave energy converters should rely on numerical models that are able to estimate accurately the dynamics and loads in extreme wave conditions. A high-fidelity CFD model of a 1:30 scale point-absorber is developed and validated on experimental data. This work constitutes beyond the state-of-the-art validation study as the system is subjected to 50-year return period waves. Additionally, a new methodology that addresses the well-known challenge in CFD codes of mesh deformation is successfully applied and validated. The CFD model is evaluated in different conditions: wave-only, free decay, and wave–structure interaction. The results show that the extreme waves and the experimental setup of the wave energy converter are simulated within an accuracy of 2%. The developed high-fidelity model is able to capture the motion of the system and the force in the mooring line under extreme waves with satisfactory accuracy. The deviation between the numerical and corresponding experimental RAOs is lower than 7% for waves with smaller steepness. In higher waves, the deviation increases up to 10% due to the inevitable wave reflections and complex dynamics. The pitch motion presents a larger deviation, however, the pitch is of secondary importance for a point-absorber wave energy converter. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 37.
    Kleberger, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    An Integrated Safety and Cybersecurity Resilience Framework for the Automotive Domain2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become more and more connected with their surroundings and utilize an increasing number of services, they also become more exposed to threats as the attack surface increases. With increasing attack surfaces and continuing challenges of eliminating vulnerabilities, vehicles need to be designed to work even under malicious activities, i.e., under attacks. In this paper, we present a resilience framework that integrates analysis of safety and cybersecurity mechanisms. We also integrate resilience for safety and cybersecurity into the fault – error – failure chain. The framework is useful for analyzing the propagation of faults and attacks between different system layers. This facilitates identification of adequate resilience mechanisms at different system layers as well as deriving suitable test cases for verification and validation of system resilience using fault and attack injection.

  • 38.
    Lindahl, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; ALISTORE-European Research Institute, France.
    Early stage techno-economic and environmental analysis of aluminium batteries2023In: Energy Advances, ISSN 2753-1457, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 420-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For any proper evaluation of next generation energy storage systems technological, economic, and environmental performance metrics should be considered. Here conceptual cells and systems are designed for different aluminium battery (AlB) concepts, including both active and passive materials. Despite the fact that all AlBs use high-capacity metal anodes and materials with low cost and environmental impact, their energy densities differ vastly and only a few concepts become competitive taking all aspects into account. Notably, AlBs with high-performance inorganic cathodes have the potential to exhibit superior technological and environmental performance, should they be more reversible and energy efficient, while at the system level costs become comparable or slightly higher than for both AlBs with organic cathodes and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Overall, with continued development, AlBs should be able to complement LIBs, especially in light of their significantly lower demand for scarce materials. 

  • 39.
    Lindborg, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Forsström, Ellinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ivarsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Falkendal, Theresa
    Nilsson Energy, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans-Olof
    Nilsson Energy, Sweden.
    Större tankar - Det samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma i att subventionera vätgastankstationers infrastruktur2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska elsystemet står inför en rad utmaningar. En ökande andel intermittent energi ställer ökade krav på balansering i våra nät, dessutom pågår en samhällsomfattande elektrifiering samtidigt som nyetablerade industrier ställer höga krav på tillgängligheten av effekt. Parallellt pågår ett omfattande arbete att minska Sveriges utsläpp av växthusgaser. Vätgas väntas anta en nyckelroll; främst inom industrin men även inom transportsektorn. Etableringen av en storskalig användning av vätgas öppnar samtidigt upp för att skapa energinyttor i andra delar av samhället, inte minst vad det gäller att stötta upp elnäten genom att erbjuda energilagringskapacitet och flexibilitet. I denna studie har ett framtidsscenario (år 2045) utretts. Det bygger på data från Svenska kraftnät samt på två hypotetiska utvecklingstrender; 1. Vätgas har antagit en dominerade roll inom elektrifieringen av transportsektorn. Vätgastankstationer är lika vanligt förekommande som dagens bränslestationer för vägbundna fordon. 2. Nämnda vätgastankstationer skalar upp vätgaslagringskapaciteten för att parallellt med att tillgodose transportbehovet även skapa nätnytta på transmissionsnätsnivå och därigenom minska behovet av investeringar i nätförstärkningar. Studiens syfte har varit att utreda den tekniska potentialen för ovanstående framtidsscenario, samt att undersöka hur en sådan utveckling av tankstationernas verksamhet skulle kunna komma att påverka priset på vätgas som bränsle. Dessutom har det i studien utretts om den ekonomiska besparing som de uteblivna nätförstärkningarna medför hade varit tillräckliga för att skapa politiska styrmedel i form av ett investeringsstöd riktat till ägare av tankstationerna för att täcka installationskostnaden för de utökade lagren. De nättekniska analyserna har i studien begränsats till att utreda vätgasens potentiella nätnytta vid handelsgränser på stamnätsnivå mellan elområden i Sverige samt vid förbindelser till våra grannländer. Studien har också begränsats till att enbart undersöka nätnyttan vid de handelsgränser som har ett förväntat behov av nätförstärkningar i framtiden. Resultat av studien visar: • Utökade lager vid vätgastankstationer kan skapa ett visst stöd till transmissionsnätet där handelsflödet når gränsen för den maximala handelskapaciteten. Förutsättningen är att det enbart inträffar stundtals och vid tidpunkter utspridda över året. Den totala nätnyttan är således väldigt begränsad. Ett fåtal undantag för detta har noterats där nätnyttan blir mer betydande. I dessa fall krävs dock en betydligt större bränslecellskapacitet vid de tänkta tankstationerna än vad som kan tänks vara standard för en vätgastankstation för att kunna tillhandhålla tillräcklig effekt i nätet. • Den utökade lagringskapaciteten vid tankstationerna har stor påverkan på vätgaspriset. Två parametrar som är av stor betydelse för detta är elpris och 6 (72) CAPEX (investeringskostnad). Ett investeringsstöd på minst 50% behövs för att priset på vätgas ska bli lägre för en tankstation med ett lager på 4 000 kg (utökat lager, även inkluderande en bränslecell på 300 kW), jämfört med ett lager på 100 kg (standard-lager). • Det råder begränsade förutsättningarna för ett betydande investeringsstöd för vätgastankstationer enbart baserat på den nätnytta som vätgastankstationer kan generera på transmissionsnätnivå. Två faktorer som visats ha stor betydelse för resultatet är valet av styrstrategi för hur lagerkapaciteten ska kunna nyttjas av näten samt tillgänglig bränslecellskapacitet vid tankstationerna. • Mer omfattade stödsystem blir möjliga först när fler ”vätgas-nyttor” vägs in. Det sakas dock idag kunskap om hur ett sådant stöd skulle utformas. Utöver ovanstående resultat genomförs en inventering av andra ”nyttor” som tankstationerna skulle kunna bidra med, både mot nätet men andra energimarknader. Sammanfattningsvis kan det konstateras att decentraliserade vätgastankstationer utgör ett intressant inslag i den framtida energimarknaden med flera potentiella användningsområden. Det råder också goda möjligheter för att bygga mer komplexa affärsmodeller/ekonomiska styrmedel då fler nyttor tas i beaktande. Av studien framgår det tydligt att även om nyttan av tankstationernas lager är begränsad på stamnätsnivå är möjligheterna betydligt större på lägre nätnivåer. I dessa sammanhang är det mer troligt att vätgasen kan komma att ta en mer betydande roll.

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  • 40.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nordin Fürdös, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nilsson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Axelsson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vätgas som alternativ för skogsindustrins transporter– en jämförande studie (H2Timmer)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta förstudieprojekt har visat att vätgasdrift för timmerlastbilar ger något högre men ändå liknande kilometerkostnad som ren batteridrift, men snabbare tankning och längre körsträcka, vilket ger större flexibilitet för åkaren. Även biodrivmedel kan vara ett konkurrenskraftigt alternativ. Skogsindustrin är en av Sveriges största transportanvändare. För timmertransporter är lastbil det klart viktigaste transportslaget och skogsindustrins transporter motsvarar ca 17 % av Sveriges transporterade gods på väg. Ett alternativ för omställning av skogsindustrins transporter till fossilfrihet är förnybar vätgas, som kan produceras genom elektrolys med förnybar el. Precis som el ger vätgas inte upphov till några lokala emissioner vid användningen. Produktion av vätgas kan potentiellt ha synergier för skogsindustrins massabruk, som behov av syrgas och tillgång till överskottsel. Projektet har undersökt vätgas som alternativ för skogsindustrins transporter. Hela värdekedjan, inklusive produktion, komprimering, lagring, och användning inkluderas i analysen som beaktar kostnader, energieffektivitet och växthusgasutsläpp ur ett ”well-to wheel”-perspektiv. Studien inkluderar jämförelser med andra möjliga alternativ för att ställa om transporterna till fossilfrihet så som elektrifiering och biodrivmedel. Projektet har gett resultat som kommer att ligga till grund för en mer detaljerad projekteringsstudie inför ett framtida demonstrations- och pilotprojekt. Studien som finansierats av Trafikverket genom TripleF har genomförts av RISE tillsammans med 6 skogsindustribolag, tre företag från fordonsbranschen och två systemintegratörer med fokus på vätgas. Medverkande företag och organisationer: Sveaskog, SmurfitKappa, Metsä Group, Holmen, StoraEnso, BillerudKorsnäs, AB Volvo, Volvo Penta, Volvo CE, Nilsson Energy, Euromekanik, Energiforsk, Skogsindustrierna.

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  • 41.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nordin Fürdös, Axel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Persson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Axelsson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vätgas som alternativ för skogsindustrins transporter– en jämförande studie (H2Timmer): Exekutiv sammanfattning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta förstudieprojekt har undersökt vätgas som alternativ för skogsindustrins transporter. Hela värdekedjan, inklusive produktion, komprimering, lagring, och användning inkluderas i analysen som beaktar kostnader, energieffektivitet och växthusgasutsläpp ur ett ”well-to wheel”-perspektiv. Projektet har genomförts av RISE tillsammans med följande företag och organisationer: Sveaskog, SmurfitKappa, Metsä Group, Holmen, StoraEnso, BillerudKorsnäs, AB Volvo, Volvo Penta, Volvo CE, Nilsson Energy, Euromekanik, Energiforsk, Skogsindustrierna.

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  • 42.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Farooqui, Ashfaq
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    CarFASE: A Carla-based Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Faults and Attacks on Autonomous Driving Stacks2023In: 2023 53rd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, p. 92-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents CarFASE, an open-source carla-based fault and attack simulation engine that is used to test and evaluate the behavior of autonomous driving stacks in the presence of faults and attacks. Carla is a highly customizable and adaptable simulator for autonomous driving research. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of CarFASE by running fault injection experiments on OpenPilot, an open-source advanced driver assistance system designed to provide a suite of features such as lane keeping, adaptive cruise control, and forward collision warning to enhance the driving experience. A braking scenario is used to study the behavior of OpenPilot in the presence of brightness and salt&pepper faults. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the tool in evaluating the safety attributes of autonomous driving systems in a safe and controlled environment.

  • 43.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Malik, Mateen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modeling and Evaluating the Effects of Jamming Attacks on Connected Automated Road Vehicles2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we evaluate the safety of a platoon offour vehicles under jamming attacks. The platooning applicationis provided by Plexe-veins, which is a cooperative drivingframework, and the vehicles in the platoon are equipped withcooperative adaptive cruise control controllers to represent thevehicles’ behavior. The jamming attacks investigated are modeledby extending ComFASE (a Communication Fault and AttackSimulation Engine) and represent three real-world attacks,namely, destructive interference, barrage jamming, and deceptivejamming. The attacks are injected in the physical layer of theIEEE 802.11p communication protocol simulated in Veins (avehicular network simulator). To evaluate the safety implicationsof the injected attacks, the experimental results are classifiedby using the deceleration profiles and collision incidents of thevehicles. The results of our experiments show that jammingattacks on the communication can jeopardize vehicle safety,causing emergency braking and collision incidents. Moreover,we describe the impact of different attack injection parameters(such as, attack start time, attack duration and attack value) onthe behavior of the vehicles subjected to the attacks.

  • 44.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    Simulation-based Fault Injection in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Modelled in SUMO2021In: 51st Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks(DSN) - Best of SELSE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded electronic systems used in vehicles are becoming more exposed and thus vulnerable to different types of faults and cybersecurity attacks. Examples of these systems are advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) used in vehicles with different levels of automation. Failures in these systems could have severe consequences, such as loss of lives and environmental damages. Therefore, these systems should be thoroughly evaluated during different stages of product development. An effective way of evaluating these systems is through the injection of faults and monitoring their impacts on these systems. In this paper, we present SUFI, a simulation-based fault injector that is capable of injecting faults into ADAS features simulated in SUMO (simulation of urban mobility). Simulation-based fault injection is usually used at early stages of product development, especially when the target hardware is not yet available. Using SUFI we target car-following and lane-changing features of ADAS modelled in SUMO. The results of the fault injection experiments show the effectiveness of SUFI in revealing the weaknesses of these models when targeted by faults and attacks.

  • 45.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    SUFI: A Simulation-based Fault Injection Tool for Safety Evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Modelled in SUMO2021In: 17th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC 2021), IEEE conference proceedings, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded electronic systems used in vehicles are becoming more exposed and thus vulnerable to different types of faults and cybersecurity attacks. Examples of these systems are advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) used in vehicles with different levels of automation. Failures in these systems could have severe consequences, such as loss of lives and environmental damages. Therefore, these systems should be thoroughly evaluated during different stages of product development. An effective way of evaluating these systems is through the injection of faults and monitoring their impacts on these systems. In this paper, we present SUFI, a simulation-based fault injector that is capable of injecting faults into ADAS features simulated in SUMO (simulation of urban mobility) and analyse the impact of the injected faults on the entire traffic. Simulation-based fault injection is usually used at early stages of product development, especially when the target hardware is not yet available. Using SUFI we target car-following and lane-changing features of ADAS modelled in SUMO. The results of the fault injection experiments show the effectiveness of SUFI in revealing the weaknesses of these models when targeted by faults and attacks.

  • 46.
    Malik, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    VTI, Sweden.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks2023In: Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC, IEEE Computer Society , 2023, p. 23-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification. 

  • 47.
    Malik, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    VTI, Sweden.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks2023In: 28th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC 2023), IEEE conference proceedings, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification.

  • 48.
    Malik, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    ComFASE: A Tool for Evaluating the Effects of V2V Communication Faults and Attacks on Automated Vehicles2022In: 52nd annual IEEE/IFIP international conference on dependable systems and networks (DSN2022), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents ComFASE, a communication fault and attack simulation engine. ComFASE is used to identify and evaluate potentially dangerous behaviours of interconnected automated vehicles in the presence of faults and attacks in wireless vehicular networks. ComFASE is built on top of OMNET++ (a network simulator) and integrates SUMO (a traffic simulator) and Veins (a vehicular network simulator). The tool is flexible in modelling different types of faults and attacks and can be effectively used to study the interplay between safety and cybersecurity attributes by injecting cybersecurity attacks and evaluating their safety implications. To demonstrate the tool, we present results from a series of simulation experiments, where we injected delay and denial-of-service attacks on wireless messages exchanged between vehicles in a platooning application. The results show how different variants of attacks influence the platooning system in terms of collision incidents.

  • 49.
    Mirzai, Aria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Coban, Ali Zülfükar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Almgren, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Aoudi, Wissam
    Clavister, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Tobias
    Clavister, Sweden.
    Scheduling to the Rescue; Improving ML-Based Intrusion Detection for IoT2023In: EUROSEC '23: Proceedings of the 16th European Workshop on System Security. May, 2023., Association for Computing Machinery , 2023, p. 44-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With their inherent convenience factor, Internet of Things (IoT) devices have exploded in numbers during the last decade, but at the cost of security. Machine learning (ML) based intrusion detection systems (IDS) are increasingly proving necessary tools for attack detection, but requirements such as extensive data collection and model training make these systems computationally heavy for resource-limited IoT hardware. This paper’s main contribution to the cyber security research field is a demonstration of how a dynamic user-level scheduler can improve the performance of IDS suited for lightweight and data-driven ML algorithms towards IoT. The dynamic user-level scheduler allows for more advanced computations, not intended to be executed on resource-limited IoT units, by enabling parallel model retraining locally on the IoT device without halting the IDS. It eliminates the need for any cloud resources as computations are kept locally at the edge. The experiments showed that the dynamic user-level scheduler provides several advantages compared to a previously developed baseline system. Mainly by substantially increasing the system’s throughput, which reduces the time until attacks are detected, as well as dynamically allocating resources based on attack suspicion.

  • 50.
    Mohamad, Mazen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    XITASO GmbH IT & Software Solutions, Germany.
    Knauss, Eric
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Scandariato, Riccardo
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    Managing security evidence in safety-critical organizations2024In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 214, article id 112082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing prevalence of open and connected products, cybersecurity has become a serious issue in safety-critical domains such as the automotive industry. As a result, regulatory bodies have become more stringent in their requirements for cybersecurity, necessitating security assurance for products developed in these domains. In response, companies have implemented new or modified processes to incorporate security into their product development lifecycle, resulting in a large amount of evidence being created to support claims about the achievement of a certain level of security. However, managing evidence is not a trivial task, particularly for complex products and systems. This paper presents a qualitative interview study conducted in six companies on the maturity of managing security evidence in safety-critical organizations. We find that the current maturity of managing security evidence is insufficient for the increasing requirements set by certification authorities and standardization bodies. Organizations currently fail to identify relevant artifacts as security evidence and manage this evidence on an organizational level. One part of the reason are educational gaps, the other a lack of processes. The impact of AI on the management of security evidence is still an open question. 

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