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  • 1. Brink, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Klasson, Mikael
    Lundgren, Urban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Introduktion till EMC2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    All elektronik stör eller störs av radiovågor och elektromagnetiska fält. EMC – elektromagnetisk kompatibilitet – handlar om förmågan hos en apparat eller utrustning att fungera i sin elektromagnetiska omgivning utan att orsaka oacceptabla störningar. EMC är ett komplext ämne som det råder stor okunskap om i vårt samhälle. Många gånger upptäcks brister i EMC sent i processen och medför då kostsamma förseningar och problem. Det är därför viktigt att man redan på ett tidigt stadium tar hänsyn till EMC-direktiv och följer de lagar och regler som finns. I Introduktion till EMC beskriver författarna ämnet på ett enkelt, övergripande och lättfattligt sätt. Innehållet är upplagt så att boken både kan användas som ett uppslagsverk och läsas i utbildnings­syfte. Introduktion till EMC är tänkt som en första introduktion till EMC-området och som läsare behöver du inte ha några speciella förkunskaper, endast en grundläggande förståelse för ellära.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Adam
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Hanquist, Carl-Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    E Garcia, Gabriel
    Zenseact AB, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Lönnberg, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Validation of Mapping and Localization for Autonomous Vehicles2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The VAMLAV project is a Vinnova FFI-funded project with the following partners: AstaZero, Zenseact, RISE and AI Sweden. The project set out to create a dataset that includes the computer vision sensors that many Advanced Driver-Assistance System (ADAS) and Automated Driving Systems (ADS) vehicles use and complement them with a high-definition (HD)-map over a known geographic area. The VAMLAV dataset includes sensors such as camera, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), and Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) sensors. This dataset, publicly available at AI Sweden, offers a corresponding HD-map in OpenDRIVE format covering the Rural Road at AstaZero. The dataset includes adverse weather, multiple maps and drives around the track with emulated traffic work scenarios that can occur. Beyond creating the dataset, the project aimed to validate HD-maps by comparing them to other measurement technologies. It delved deeper into localization for ADS vehicles by comparing various measurement campaigns and designing high-accuracy anchor points. This data was later used to validate and update the HD-map. By comparing different measurement systems and samples on the map, the project hopes to increase the trust in the HD-map over a longer time. This data also makes it possible to experiment more within the field of crowdsourced HD-maps from different systems while having an easier time measuring the accuracy of such maps. Another big part of the project was related to safety therefore some data was collected where the project emulates traffic work at AstaZero. This use case is otherwise difficult to test and evaluate due to the stochastic nature of traffic work in real life. Where the system detected the traffic work with the help of map and sensor data and then distributed the information to other cars in the area.

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  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Research & Innovation for Electric Roads2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research organizations, industry, and public authoritiesin Sweden and Norway have collaborated within the project “Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads” and investigated benefits of Electric Road Systems (ERS) to society, future business ecosystem, and how to support a large-scale deployment. The results cover electricity supply; environmental impact; construction, operations and maintenance; economic impact; business models; and standards. 

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  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kenani Dahlgren, Henrik
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Revenue Management for Electric Road Systems2019In: Proc. EVS32, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution, reduce noise in urban environments, and increase energy efficiency in the transport sector. ERS deployed in commercial operation will need to charge for the use of infrastructure, electric energy and potentially other services. An ERS revenue management solution need to handle use cases with multiple actors, roles and commercial relationships. In addition, the future revenue management solutions should be interoperable and independent of business models in order to flexibly meet the needs of new situations for emerging ERS.

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  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Harkjerr Halse, Askill
    Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalléen, Norway.
    Socioeconomic Analysis of Electric Road Systems2019In: Proc. of EVS32, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution, and increase energy efficiency in the transport sector. The implementation of ERS at national and international levels will however be associated with large investments and it is therefore important to study the economic impact and benefits for the society. The present work describes methodology for conducting socioeconomic analysis on electrification of an existing road infrastructure.

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  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Svenningstorp, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Olausson, Ellen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ljungberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Almqvist, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Miljanovic, Danijel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    SEEL – The New Test Centre for Research and Development on Electromobility2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SEEL Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory is being established as a new independent test centre for research and development in the field of electromobility including batteries. The aim is to enhance knowledge development and to improve collaboration between enterprises and researchers. Electrification of the transport sector is to be speeded up at SEEL’s facilities in Borås, Gothenburg and Nykvarn in Sweden. SEEL works together with companies from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and Poland in an important project of common European interest for batteries, IPCEI Batteries.

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  • 7.
    Hadj-Bachir, Mokrane
    et al.
    ESI Group, France.
    Bagheri, Toktam
    UniqueSec AB, Sweden.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    de Souza, Philippe
    ESI Group, France.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Over-the-Air Automotive Radars Hardware-in-Loop Test for Development and Validation of Active Safety Systems and Autonomous Cars2023In: 2023 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Automotive (MetroAutomotive), 2023, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the development of new radar technology for advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) and automated driving (AD) applications, testing radars for real world conditions is highly desirable. However, testing autonomous driving functions on public roads can be dangerous and the tests results are not always reproducible. In this paper, we present a novel Over-the-Air (OTA) Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) radar target simulator for testing radar systems. The complete simulation setup including hardware and software implementations will be presented in this article. We illustrate a test procedure by creating Euro NCAP scenarios, and explain the benefits and importance of realtime HIL testing of automotive radars.

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Andreas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simonsson, John
    Volvo Cars AB, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Urban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Ankarson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Cable Modeling for Accurate Estimation of Currentand Voltage Ripple in Electric Vehicles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electric vehicle is a complex system where multipleconverters are connected to a common DC-bus. In order todetermine the current and voltage harmonics on the DC-bus, allingoing components and subsystems needs to be modeled on adetailed level. In this paper, the focus lies on cable modelingwhere a high frequency cable model is incorporated in a drivesystem model. The resulting current and voltage ripple in thesystem is then compared to measurements in an experimentalsetup. Due to the improved cable model and an extensive systemparameter identification procedure, the usage of the systemmodel was found valid for harmonic frequencies up to 1 MHz.The main harmonic component at 20 kHz was simulated with~1.7 % accuracy and the components in the range 35 kHz to200 kHz with <6 % accuracy compared to measurements.

  • 9.
    Ji, Yilin
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Fan, Wei
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Hentila, Lassi
    Keysight Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Gert
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Virtual Drive Testing Over-the-Air for Vehicular Communications2020In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 1203-1213, article id 8917696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) over-the-air (OTA) testing is a standardized procedure to evaluate the performance of MIMO-capable devices such as mobile phones and laptops. With the growth of the vehicle-to-everything (V2X) service, the need for vehicular communication testing is expected to increase significantly. The so-called multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup is standardized for MIMO OTA testing. Typically, a test zone of 0.85 wavelength in diameter can be achieved with an 8-probe MPAC setup, which can encompass device-under-test (DUT) of small form factors. However, a test zone of this size may not be large enough to encompass DUTs such as cars. In this article, the sufficient number of OTA probes for the MPAC setup for car testing is investigated with respect to the emulation accuracy. Our investigation shows that the effective antenna distance of the DUT is more critical than its physical dimensions to determine the required number of OTA probes. In addition, throughput measurements are performed under the standard SCME UMa and UMi channel models with the 8-probe MPAC setup and the wireless cable setup, i.e. another standardized testing setup. The results show reasonably good agreement between the two setups for MIMO OTA testing with cars under the standard channel models. 

  • 10.
    Kalaran, Hans
    et al.
    Volvo Gtt, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Moestam, Robert
    CEVT China-Euro Vehicle Technology, Sweden.
    Bergqvist, Björn
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Rosdalen, Åsa
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Eigenmodes of a Loaded Reverberation Chamber2022In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Volume 2022-September, 2022, Pages 212-215, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 212-215Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analytical solution for a loaded reverberation chamber has been investigated. In consistence with earlier works, it is shown that adding a dielectric (non-absorbing) into the chamber will reduce the eigenfrequency of the chamber. This can be a step toward lowering usable frequency inside the Reverberation Chamber and representing the modes density similarly to an empty chamber.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Lundberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Arabäck, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Bergqvist, Björn
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Test Level in Reverberation Chamber EMC Immunity Assessment Based on the Quantile to Average Ratio2022In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Volume 2022-September, 2022, Pages 178-182, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 178-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more advanced electronics are incorporated into devices and vehicles, there is a need to improve and refine the test methods for performance assessment of electromagnetic compatibility. Traditional standards in reverberation chamber electromagnetic compatibility immunity assessment define the test level according to a calibration based on an average of maximum received electrical field probe readings. In this paper, we propose a converging approach based on the average, in combination with an additional offset to generate a quantile defined test level. 

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Moestam, Robert
    CEVT China-Euro Vehicle Technology, Sweden.
    Bergqvist, Björn
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Kalaran, Hans
    Volvo Gtt, Sweden.
    Rosdalen, Åsa
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Electrical Fields in Vehicular Cavities During Reverberation Chamber EMC Immunity Test2022In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Volume 2022-September, 2022, Pages 189-194, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 189-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we elaborate on EMC immunity tests in reverberation chambers of full-sized vehicles as well as these products' corresponding electromagnetic susceptibility. It is described how vehicles have regions or volumes (i.e., cavities), with sometimes installed hardware as well as software, which potentially is susceptible to electromagnetic interference, and how these cavities during test have properties (deterministic to ergodic) implying frequency-dependent properties of the electrical fields. Number of degrees of freedom for the electric fields is used to explain the behaviour of EMC, from deterministic coherent resonances and all the way to ergodic regions. 

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Wersäll, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Harrysson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Patane Lotback, C. S.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    On the Keyhole Effect in Over-The-Air Testing of Higher Order MIMO Systems2021In: 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the influence of a limited number of radio frequency connections between two Rayleigh fading environments, also known as the keyhole effect, is theoretically investigated for higher-order MIMO systems. It is shown that the effect of a limited number of keyholes is kept stable or is even reduced as the number of keyholes is equal to or larger than the MIMO system order. The results are relevant for over-the-air testing with connected Rayleigh fading systems, such as a channel emulator connected to a reverberation chamber, or a reverberation chamber connected to another reverberation chamber (nested reverberation chambers).

  • 14.
    Liorni, Ilaria
    et al.
    IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland.
    Bottauscio, Oriano
    INRiM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Guilizzoni, Roberta
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Ankarson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Bruna, Jorge
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Fallahi, Arya
    IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland.
    Harmon, Stuart
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Zucca, Mauro
    INRiM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Assessment of exposure to electric vehicle inductive power transfer systems: Experimental measurements and numerical dosimetry2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 4573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-power inductive power transfer (IPT) systems for charging light and heavy electric vehicles pose safety concerns if they are installed in uncontrolled environments. Within the framework of the European Project EMPIR-16ENG08 MICEV, a wide experimental and numerical study was conducted to assess the exposure of the general public to IPT stray magnetic fields for two different exposure scenarios: (1) for an IPT model system derived from the SAE J2954 standard operating at 85 kHz for a light electric vehicle coupled with the model of a realistic car-body model; and (2) for an IPT model system with a maximum rated power of 50 kW at 27.8 kHz for a real minibus that was reproduced with some simplifications in two different 3D finite element method (FEM) simulation tools (Opera 3D and CST software). An ad hoc measurement survey was carried out at the minibus charging station to validate the simulations of the real bus station for both aligned and misaligned IPT coils. Based on this preliminary study, a safety factor was chosen to ensure a conservative dosimetric analysis with respect to the model approximations. As highlighted in this study, the vehicle-body serves as an efficient screen to reduce the magnetic field by at least three orders of magnitude close to the coils. By applying FEM, computed spatial distribution to the Sim4Life software, the exposure of three Virtual Population human anatomical phantoms (one adult, one child, and a newborn) was assessed. The three phantoms were placed in different postures and locations for both exposure scenarios. The basic restriction limits, established by the current guidelines, were never exceeded within the vehicles; however, the basic restrictions were exceeded when an adult crouched outside the minibus, i.e., near the coils, or when a newborn was placed in the same location. Borderline values were observed in the light car. In the case of the bus, limits coming from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guidelines are never exceeded, while basic restrictions coming from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines are exceeded up to 12% for an adult and up to 38% for a newborn. This paper presents novel dosimetric data generated in an IPT system for heavy vehicles and confirms some of the literature data on light vehicles. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 15.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    RoBound – Ro-ro space boundary fire protection – Literature Study2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the report from the literature study of the RoBound (Ro-ro space Boundary fire protection) project. RoBound is carried out by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB.The ro-ro ships have a large longitudinal space where cars, trucks and other cargo can be rolled on and rolled off. Despite improved fire protection regulations, many fire accidents have occurred on ro-ro ships and there are no signs of them diminishing in number or magnitude. During a review of the fire safety regulations, the IMO correspondence group has particularly pinpointed the need for additional experimental data or results of scientific studies regarding:- The performance of A-60 boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire, especially to prevent fire spread to accommodation spaces; and- The performance of A-0 boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire, especially to prevent fire spread between ro-ro spaces.In this process, Sweden has moreover underlined the issue of the smoke tightness of A-class divisions with doors. While smoke tightness is a requirement for A-class divisions, the fire resistance test method in the Fire Test Procedures (FTP) Code is not designed to evaluate hazards associated with smoke spread. RoBound purpose is to clarify the performance of “state-of-the-art” fire boundaries between ro-ro spaces and accommodation spaces or other ro-ro spaces, and to give recommendations on how sufficient fire containment is ensured. RoBound aims to strengthen competence and influence regulation development regarding fire divisions of ro-ro ships.The main result from the literature study is that :- The concept of horizontal fire zones, allowing ro-ro spaces and special category spaces to be as long as the whole ship, was introduced in 1967 according to resolution A.122(V), but was made mandatory long time after. In SOLAS 1974, entered into force in 1980 the main vertical zones was included in the regulation.- The land based method will not be used in RoBound since some smoke tightness solutions are based on an intumescent sealing joint. In order to be activated, the joint needs high temperature which is not reach in the land based standard.- Hose ports, also denoted “Cat holes”, are used on board with different experiences. Some think it works fine, other that it more problem. Level of maintenance vary from almost nothing to a lot of hassle. It is concluded that they reduce the amount of smoke spreading through the door compared with have a wedge and doorway open.- Doors to the ro-ro space is not perceived as smoke tight, and so are not lift doors. Crew is aware of the importance of well closing fire doors, checks are made daily.- Fire insulation in ro-ro spaces can be damaged by loading of trailers or during maintenance work. There can also be water damage (testing of drenchers, cleaning or by rain) and general wear and tear. Damaged insulation happens but not too often so it is not experienced as a problem for the crew.

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  • 16.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ronstad, Torben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    RoBound – Ro-ro space boundary fire protection – Smoke spread through in A class divisions2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Maritime Organization, through its correspondence group on fire safety of ro-pax ships, has underlined the need for more scientific studies regarding the performance of boundaries in case of a ro-ro space fire, especially to prevent fire and smoke spread to accommodation spaces. Following these discussions, Swedish Flag State has underlined the issue of the smoke tightness of doors in A class divisions. While smoke tightness is a requirement for A class divisions, the fire resistance test method in the FTP Code is not designed to evaluate hazards associated with smoke spread.RISE has carried out the RoBound project to meet this need.To increase the understanding of this weakness in the FTP Code, RISE has performed experimental tests of two almost identical doors. The only difference between the two doors was the presence or not of an intumescent joint between the leaf and the frame of the door, intended to prevent the passage of smoke. The doors were exposed to the test for fire boundaries in Part 3 of the FTP Code, which exposes specimens to a simulated fire by a temperature increase according to the standard fire curve ISO 834.A modification of the standard experimental rig was added and consisted of the addition of a canopy above the tested doors to gather and measure the rate of carbon dioxide to quantify the amount of smoke leaking from the doors. This set up of canopy and measurement rig was taken from the standard EN 81-58 which is applied for elevator doors acting as fire barriers.The results of the tests showed that both doors marginally failed the A-60 integrity criteria since there was presence of a sustained flame at the unexposed side before 60 minutes of test. However, both doors satisfied to the insulation criteria by maintaining a rise of temperature lower than 140 °C in average at the unexposed side. The main difference between the doors was that the door with the intumescent joints presented a rate of smoke leakage which was almost half of that of the fire door without intumescent joints.This result clearly shows the importance of evaluating the smoke tightness of A class doors during testing and the need

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  • 17.
    Nord, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Tidd, James
    Waysure Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Alissa, Samieh
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Hanquist, Carl-Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Hammenstedt, Jimmy
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Hoxell, Fredrik
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christian
    Einride, Sweden.
    Chaisset, Camille
    Einride, Sweden.
    NPAD - Final Report D1.3: Network-RTK Positioning for Automated Driving2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future automated vehicles and advanced driver assistance systems are highly dependent on sensors to detect their environment as well as robust, accurate, and cost-effective sensor systems for positioning. 

    Global Navigation Satellite systems (GNSS) provide a key technology that enables an absolute position estimate and Network-RTK (Real Time Kinematic) has the potential to meet the requirements of cost, accuracy, and availability. This technology is based on correction data being received from a fixed reference station via e.g. mobile communication. Current implementations have been driven by requirements from applications which operate within a limited region for lengthy periods of time, such as surveying and precision agriculture. These applications can tolerate relatively long initialization times and can afford expensive equipment.

    The mass market wants to benefit from infrastructure in place for these applications, but the requirements are somewhat different. Problems occur when the device moves from the coverage area of one reference station to another and reinitialization must be made. Consumer devices must also deliver similar performance with inexpensive components. In addition to this, the existing public-sector system for distribution of correction data, in Sweden governed by Lantmäteriet/ SWEPOS, is not designed for handling a large number of clients and efficiently distributing correction data to these clients based on their location.The telecom industry in 3GPP (Third generation partnership project) is currently addressing the need for a scalable provisioning of network RTK corrections. Based on the 3GPP specification, the project aimed to develop, implement, test and demonstrate an efficient distribution system for Network-RTK correction data in order to enable cm-level accuracy GNSS positioning for a large number of mobile platforms e.g. automated vehicles.

    The NPAD project has:

    • Leveraged the existing Lantmäteriet/SWEPOS GNSS reference infrastructure to implement a virtual network of reference stations that provided coverage over selected test areas suitable for supporting a large number of simultaneous users.
    • Implemented a scalable GNSS correction data provisioning based on the ongoing work in 3GPP that provides correction data from the reference network to mobile devices;
    • Developed test cases for automated vehicle platforms related to positioning and implemented demonstrators;
    • Investigated tools and methods for validating the accuracy of integrated GNSS positioning and navigation systems.

    The project was coordinated by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and involved besides Lantmäteriet and AstaZero the following industrial partners: AB Volvo, Caliterra, Einride, Ericsson, Scania, and Waysure.

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    NPAD - D1.3 Final Report_v1.0
  • 18.
    Otxoterena Af Drake, Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Biswanger, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Physical characteristics of splash and spray clouds produced by heavy vehicles (trucks and lorries) driven on wet asphalt2021In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, ISSN 0167-6105, E-ISSN 1872-8197, Vol. 217, article id 104734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy vehicles rolling on wet roads produce splash and spray clouds. These aerosols reduce the visibility of other drivers, contribute to a small, but quantifiable proportion of road traffic accidents and affect the operational capabilities of autonomous vehicles travelling near them. Even though knowing the physical properties of these aerosols is essential for testing and validating sensors for environment perception and recognition of autonomous vehicles, there is little information about them. In this work the physical characteristics of spray clouds produced by heavy vehicles rolling on wet asphalt were measured by optical methods. Time resolved droplet size, mass concentration, number density, light extinction and contrast attenuation parallel and perpendicular to the travelling direction of the vehicle were measured. Vehicle velocity, vehicle configuration and water depth were varied during the tests. Results show that the average droplet diameter ranges between 100 and 400 μm with maximum diameters of almost 4 mm. Mass concentration gamuts between 0,2 and 0,7 kg/m3 with peaks surpassing 1 kg/m3 while number density spans between 20 and 40 cm−3 and occasionally exceeds 100 cm−3. Light extinction can reach levels as high as 0,2 m−1 and contrast, evaluated from images, can reach values under 0,1. 

  • 19.
    Patane Lotback, C. S.
    et al.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Kildal, M. S.
    RanLOS AB, Sweden.
    Haliti, A.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Nilsson, M.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Iustin, R.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Evaluation of Complete Vehicle Over-The-Air Verification Methods for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Communication Systems2021In: 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more advanced wireless technologies are incorporated into vehicles, there is a need to refine the test methods used for assessing the performance. Traditional test setups for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems have been developed for relatively small devices such as handsets and tablets. At the same time, there is a desire to replace vehicular field tests with lab testing, for more efficient and accurate testing. This paper evaluates over-the-air verification methods for MIMO communication systems, which may incorporate vehicle-sized antenna systems and that can be implemented in a lab. Different methods are compared by means of a round robin campaign. The results from the campaign indicate that performance assessment representative to real-world operation can be achieved.

  • 20.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Reconciliation of Electric Road System (ERS) Utilization Estimations from Two Seemingly Conflicting Reports2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data have been published stating that of all heavy trucks (>16 ton) that drive at least 5 days per year on the main Swedish road network (Malmö-Göteborg-Stockholm), only 15% drive more than 50% of their annual mileage on this road network . Intuitively, this gives the impression that charging infrastructure placed on the main road network cannot contribute greatly to electrification of heavy trucks. Meanwhile, route-based simulation of charging preferences on the Swedish road network has concluded that if Electric Road Systems (ERS) infrastructure is deployed on the main Swedish road network, >95% of heavy traffic on this road network would have sufficient financial incentive to becomes users of the ERS charging infrastructure.

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  • 21.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Skattning av vägtrafikens framtida energi- och effektbehov, per län, kommun och typ av laddinfrastruktur2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the future energy and power demand for charging of road traffic, per Swedish county, municipality and type of charging infrastructure The report forecasts future needs for electrical energy and power for charging electric vehicles throughout Sweden, with a particular focus on Västra Götaland. Annual energy demand and peak loads are forecast per Swedish county and municipality. Load curves divided into different categories of charging infrastructure are presented for scenarios with and without load balancing from evening to night, as well as where a share of the energy for road transport is transferred via hydrogen or electric roads. The uncertainty in the forecasts is substantial around 2035, due to uncertainty about how fast electrification of road traffic will proceed. Factors affecting the rate of electrification include taxes and subsidies that affect the cost difference between owning electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles, electricity market price stability, crude oil prices and interest rates. The rate of electrification is also strongly influenced by the rate of expansion and pricing of charging infrastructure, where permits for new grid connections are a bottleneck for expansion. The report emphasizes the importance of achieving load balancing that redistributes vehicle charging from late afternoons to late evenings and nights, particularly within larger residential areas. Solving this challenge has a higher priority for the successful electrification of road transport than getting public fast charging stations in place, as charging at homes and truck depots form the backbone of an electrified road transport system. Challenges and opportunities with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology are discussed. The report also highlights the uncertainty surrounding the future use of driverless vehicles and their potential impact on charging needs and traffic patterns. The forecasts indicate that the total electricity demand for road transport will be slightly lower in winter than in summer, due to reduced traffic work and despite increased energy consumption at low temperatures. Electric roads would only increase energy demand if contributing to a faster rate of electrification, while large-scale use of fuel cell trucks and locally produced hydrogen would increase energy demand in the long term by roughly 10% and in the short term more, if only replacing combustion engine vehicles. Large-scale use of synthetic gasoline and diesel produced from green hydrogen is considered unlikely, but would greatly increase energy demand as long as internal combustion engine vehicles are still in use.

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    Rapport
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    Bilaga 1: Kartor med andel elfordon per kommun i Västra Götaland
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    Bilaga 2: Kartor med effektbehov per kommun i Sverige
  • 22.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Alaküla, Mats
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plötz, Patrick
    Fraunhofer ISI, Germany.
    Márquez-Fernández, Francisco J.
    VTI, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lina
    VTI, Sweden.
    2035 Joint Impact Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Reducing Pathways for EU Road Transport2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the potential for decarbonizing EU road transport through several pathways, focusing on the feasibility of achieving impact by 2035. Through comprehensive literature review, we compare the distance-levelized cost, lifecycle GHG emissions, and scalability of combustion engine vehicles (three fuels), battery-electric vehicles (BEVs, three charging methods), and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. We consider projected transport growth and the current age composition and use of vehicles in Europe, segmented into four regions. Biofuels, hydrogen, and e-fuels are not found to have potential to significantly contribute to further GHG emissions before 2035 due to scalability and technological limitations. BEVs emerge as the only viable strategy for achieving zero tailpipe emissions at scale, with effective lifecycle GHG reductions constrained by the rate of decarbonization of steel production, battery production and EU electricity production. By 2035, embodied battery emissions are expected to be the dominant source of lifecycle emissions from electric vehicles. The environmental benefits of a BEV transition are primarily limited by the rate at which the vehicle stock can be electrified, with new electric vehicle sales contributing primarily to decarbonization in Northen and Western Europe. Combining the expected buildout of static charging infrastructure with a proposed pan-European Electric Road System (ERS) network is found to greatly accelerate the transition to electrified road transport, including in otherwise late-to-decarbonize segments, by removing cost, weight, and supply barriers to retrofitting older combustion engine cars with new electric powertrains. Other effects of an ERS network are found to be substantially reduced embodied emissions from BEV production, resulting from reduced battery capacity per vehicle, and reduced levelized freight costs. However, possibly insurmountable political and bureaucratic barriers must be overcome ERS to play any meaningful part in decarbonization of road transport within the coming decade. If the barriers can be overcome, the economic and ecological rewards are substantial. Despite identifying pathways for substantial emissions reductions, the study does not identify any technical pathway through which the EU road transport sector will not greatly exceed its fair share of global GHG emissions. In addition, our review of strategies to achieve modal shift and road transport demand reductions also fails to find indications that interventions in these areas will have GHG reduction effects of desired magnitude within the required timeframe, unless costs of vehicle ownership and use are raised substantially. Further policy research is urgently needed to find repeatable and socially just interventions through which total transport work, the size of the vehicle stock and embodied GHG emissions per vehicle can be reduced substantially across the entire EU before 2035.

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  • 23.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Charging Infrastructure Recommendations for Cities Targeting Full Passenger Car Electrification, Based on a Case Study of Stockholm County2022In: 35th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition: EVS35, Oslo, Norway, 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel methodology for calculating the density of charging infrastructure required to enable electrification of all passenger cars in a large geographic region. We combine this method with models of charging infrastructure cost, forecasts of levelized costs for operating combustion engine and battery electric cars and forecasts of market penetration, to calculate the socio-economic value of passenger car electrification over the 2020-2040 period. Recommendations for urban regions are derived based on application of the method to Stockholm County, Sweden. Electrification is shown to generate long-term savings of up to 1800 euro per car-year and the opportunity cost of delaying the transition by a single year is comparable to the full cost of deploying the infrastructure that enables the shift. Large-scale deployment of dynamic charging is a cost-viable alternative to static charging for full electrification of urban passenger car fleets.

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  • 24.
    Schott, Florian
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Lund University, Sweden.
    Marone, Frederica
    Swiss Light Source, Switzerland.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mokso, Rajmund
    Lund University, Sweden; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Structural formation during bread baking in a combined microwave-convective oven determined by sub-second in-situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography2023In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 173, article id 113283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new concept has been developed for characterizing the real-time evolution of the three-dimensional pore and lamella microstructure of bread during baking using synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SRµCT). A commercial, combined microwave-convective oven was modified and installed at the TOMCAT synchrotron tomography beamline at the Swiss Light Source (SLS), to capture the 3D dough-to-bread structural development in-situ at the micrometer scale with an acquisition time of 400 ms. This allowed characterization and quantitative comparison of three baking technologies: (1) convective heating, (2) microwave heating, and (3) a combination of convective and microwave heating. A workflow for automatic batchwise image processing and analysis of 3D bread structures (1530 analyzed volumes in total) was established for porosity, individual pore volume, elongation, coordination number and local wall thickness, which allowed for evaluation of the impact of baking technology on the bread structure evolution. The results showed that the porosity, mean pore volume and mean coordination number increase with time and that the mean local cell wall thickness decreases with time. Small and more isolated pores are connecting with larger and already more connected pores as function of time. Clear dependencies are established during the whole baking process between the mean pore volume and porosity, and between the mean local wall thickness and the mean coordination number. This technique opens new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms governing the structural changes during baking and discern the parameters controlling the final bread quality. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 25.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Benderius, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blanch, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rylander, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Swedish Maritime Administration, Sweden.
    Olsson, Rick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Lundman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    REEDS: Reference data and algorithms for research and development of smart ships2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration Research and Innovation fund for Maritime research funded the project "Reference data and algorithms to support research and development of smart ships". The project goes by the working name, and is communicated as, Reeds. It responds to a synthesis of a number of different needs identified in previous projects and studies. The background to the project is that in recent years the focus has been on developing algorithms to interpret and act on the physical environment around different types of craft. In order to be able to develop and evaluate these algorithms, it has become clear that open datasets and a fair benchmarking platform are required that allow various developers in industries and researchers to evaluate algorithms. In the road vehicle sector, Kitti, as of 2013, is the largest dataset used as a reference dataset. The dataset in this project contains sensor data from several data collection occasions within a maritime context, from high-precision sensors such as cameras, radar, lidar, and IMU. For marine applications, there has been no similar dataset with anywhere near the same amount of data and time synchronisation between sensors. The reference data and reference algorithms were available periodically during the project through an online service where researchers and developers could upload their algorithms to use the dataset.

    In addition to the dataset itself, Reeds adds additional strengths compared to other reference datasets:

    -        New approach to comparing algorithms fairly, where new algorithms are always compared on a centralised hardware in a cloud service and re-evaluated when new data is added, i.e. an unbiased algorithm evaluation service.

    -        Method that combines NTP and PTP time protocols for synchronisation between the sensors with microsecond accuracy

    -        More types and more modern sensors that can be used at a higher level of abstraction and can thus be applied in more areas.

    -        Sensor fusion of both onboard and land-side sensors

    -        Identify areas of application for navigation and surveillance on land based on the algorithms developed during the project and the use of new sensor types not established in shipping.

    -         

    The project built up a maritime reference data set that enables the creation of a digital description for the ship's surrounding environment and developed reference algorithms to demonstrate new navigation and monitoring methodology in the area of "enhanced navigation".

    "Enhanced navigation" is defined under the project as the use of new technology based on developments in digitisation and autonomous functions, where new navigation methods use sensors both on board and ashore to increase maritime safety and robustness. The project has built a web-based user interface referred to in the report as "Crowsnest" that handles these new sensors and visualises this data in a familiar interface similar to an overlay in ECDIS that is openly available for the public to build on. Which was used for the evaluation and concept development of new user interfaces based on feedback from pilots and VTS operators.

    By providing reference datasets and reference algorithms with demonstrations, researchers and companies now have the opportunity to develop algorithms for the intelligent and autonomous ships of the future.

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  • 26.
    Svenson, Pontus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    A design method for collaborative systems of systems applied to Metropolitan Multi-Mode Transport System2021In: 2021 16th International Conference of System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), 2021, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems arise when independently owned, operated and developed systems can achieve mutual benefits by working together. In collaborative systems of systems, there is no directing entity that instructs others how and when to collaborate. Instead, the collaboration relies on independent decisions by the constituent systems to form collaborating constellations, and the benefits are emergent properties of this. In this paper, we describe a design method for engineering collaborative systems of systems. We apply the method to the design of a collaborative system of systems for mobility in a rural setting close to an urban area and to truck platooning.

1 - 26 of 26
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