Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 319
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abella, J.
    et al.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain.
    Perez, J.
    BRTA Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Zonooz, B.
    Navinfo Europe, Netherlands.
    Giordana, G.
    AIKO Srl, Italy.
    Donzella, C.
    Exida Development Srl, Italy.
    Cazorla, F. J.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain.
    Mezzetti, E.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain.
    Serra, I.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain.
    Brando, A.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain.
    Agirre, I.
    BRTA Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain.
    Eizaguirre, F.
    BRTA Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain.
    Bui, Thanh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Arani, E.
    Navinfo Europe, Netherlands.
    Sarfraz, F.
    Navinfo Europe, Netherlands.
    Balasubramaniam, A.
    Navinfo Europe, Netherlands.
    Badar, A.
    Navinfo Europe, Netherlands.
    Bloise, I.
    AIKO Srl, Italy.
    Feruglio, L.
    AIKO Srl, Italy.
    Cinelli, I.
    AIKO Srl, Italy.
    Brighenti, D.
    Exida Engineering Srl, Italy.
    Cunial, D.
    Exida Engineering Srl, Italy.
    SAFEXPLAIN: Safe and Explainable Critical Embedded Systems Based on AI2023In: Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep Learning (DL) techniques are at the heart of most future advanced software functions in Critical Autonomous AI-based Systems (CAIS), where they also represent a major competitive factor. Hence, the economic success of CAIS industries (e.g., automotive, space, railway) depends on their ability to design, implement, qualify, and certify DL-based software products under bounded effort/cost. However, there is a fundamental gap between Functional Safety (FUSA) requirements on CAIS and the nature of DL solutions. This gap stems from the development process of DL libraries and affects high-level safety concepts such as (1) explainability and traceability, (2) suitability for varying safety requirements, (3) FUSA-compliant implementations, and (4) real-time constraints. As a matter of fact, the data-dependent and stochastic nature of DL algorithms clashes with current FUSA practice, which instead builds on deterministic, verifiable, and pass/fail test-based software. The SAFEXPLAIN project tackles these challenges and targets by providing a flexible approach to allow the certification - hence adoption - of DL-based solutions in CAIS building on: (1) DL solutions that provide end-to-end traceability, with specific approaches to explain whether predictions can be trusted and strategies to reach (and prove) correct operation, in accordance to certification standards; (2) alternative and increasingly sophisticated design safety patterns for DL with varying criticality and fault tolerance requirements; (3) DL library implementations that adhere to safety requirements; and (4) computing platform configurations, to regain determinism, and probabilistic timing analyses, to handle the remaining non-determinism.

  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nyman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petit, Oliver
    LFV Luftfartsverket, Sweden.
    Infrastrukturmodellering för storskalig introduktion av elflyg och flygtrafikledning (MODELflyg)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A generic, flexible simulation model is developed with the aim of increasing our understanding as well as provide opportunities to easily test what the requirements for charging infrastructure at airports could become when transitioning to battery electric aviation. The model is developed in the programming language Python and contains several different approaches for testing electrification based on historical air traffic data, as well as the creation of new, non-existent air traffic schedules for electric aviation. Since there are currently no electric aircraft in commercial scheduled traffic, and thus no data or statistics regarding its performance or properties, a model is also developed for this, which allows simulation of desired flight connections, resulting in estimates for energy consumption and flight duration. The project is based on an electric aircraft model that is parameterized in accordance with certification level CS/FAR-23 (19 seats and maximum weight 8618 kg). The logic of the model is to follow the complete chain of movements for each aircraft individual during a given period (typically one day), where charging required for each aircraft at each airport in the chain is given by what energy level the battery held at the start of flight, how much energy was consumed during the flight, time of arrival at destination, and when the next departure is due. Taxi-in and taxi-out at the airports also affect how much time is available for charging. A built-in charge curve limits how fast it is practically convenient for the aircraft’s batteries to charge, which is defined as the ratio between C-rate (Charging-rate) and SoC (State-of-Charge). In addition, the charger itself can be limited to a certain maximum power and thus controls how fast energy can be delivered to the aircraft's batteries. To enable sufficient range, the electric aircrafts are expected to have relatively large batteries that are also likely to be charged within short time intervals at the airports (turnaround-times). Thus, the need to install power capacity may be expected to increase drastically at the airports if several aircraft’s need to charge simultaneously. The project therefore places extra emphasis on developing smart algorithms for controlling charger power output over time with the ambition to balance the load and lower power peaks at the airports. Finally, the project discusses what implications electric aviation can have from the perspective of air traffic control, existing and future airspace structures. Further, several case studies are conducted to exemplify the modeling process and the result that the user ultimately gets. The project does not aim to create a commercial tool, but rather a first version, and create the basis for further development of an analysis tool that is useful for airports and other stakeholders in the aviation industry now, and in future research and development collaborations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nyman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nilsson, John
    Swedavia AB, Sweden.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Infrastructure modeling for large-scale introduction of electric aviation2022In: 35th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS35), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the MODELflyg research project funded by the Swedish Transport Administration to gain more knowledge about ground charging infrastructure demand for the electrification of air traffic. An integrated simulation model was developed including flight traffic data processing, modelling of battery electric aircraft performance, and charging simulations. Several different options are available to select specific air traffic flows of interest, including scheduling algorithms for electric aviation adapted timetables. Furthermore, a smart-charging algorithm was developed to lower peak power demand at each airport from simultaneous charging of multiple electric aircraft.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ruttbaserade simulerade trafikdata för högupplöst analys av tunga godstransporter på det svenska vägnätet2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Route-based simulated traffic data for high-resolution analysis of heavy goods transport on the Swedish road network In this report, a national database has been created regarding freight transport with heavy road vehicles. The primary purpose of the work is to serve as input for further analysis of what appropriate charging infrastructure planning and placement should look like given the knowledge of the transport work. It has thus been no ambition to give any recommendations in this report about, for example, expansion of charging infrastructure, but rather to collect and process information/data as well as develop methods and finally generate a data set that is useful and well representative of the traffic on the national road network. By the time of this publication, a dataset is available based on data from the Swedish Transport Administration’s Samgods-model with its simulations of transport connections based on transport demand between producer and consumer zones. In addition, all transport connections have been translated into routes (how trucks drive from A to B) on the road network, to enable analysis of electrification of/at specific road segments. Finally, the dataset has also been calibrated in various ways to better match statistics and actual measurements, as some major differences/deviations compared to some of them were identified. What the data set now consists of can be summarized as the number of truck movements and tons of goods that annually pass each road segment of the Swedish road network (and on some foreign roads). Furthermore, these totals can be easily divided into subsets and linked to specific routes, types of trucks (weight classes), origin, etcetera. Some shortcomings/limitations have been noticed during the production of this data set, such as the fact that the Samgods-model seems to miss a lot of transport in metropolitan areas, that the routing carried out by all flows is not completely perfect (which has partly to do with requests from OpenStreetMap), that the methods for generating new routes based on population density within municipalities are unlikely to be fully representative of where the transport is going, or that the data itself is based on a simulation model that tries to optimize which type of transport should be used to meet which demand. A couple of additional things may be worth clarifying: (1) The data only tells the number of transports or shipped goods between start and end nodes. Thus, there is no way to determine what the movement pattern of individual vehicle individuals looks like between routes, nor when in time each transport is performed. (2) The data only includes freight transport, and thus "misses" for example all passenger car traffic, which should also be seen as potential users of the charging infrastructure and thus be included in the calculations in the future. It would therefore be interesting to include these in some way in the next step.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Nalin, Kajsa
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Gising, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Guardian Angel: Using Lighting Drones to Improve Traffic Safety, Sense of Security, and Comfort for Cyclists2023In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)Volume 14057 LNCS, Pages 209 - 223, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2023, Vol. 14057 LNCS, p. 209-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active mobility, such as biking, faces a common challenge in Swedish municipalities due to the lack of adequate lighting during the dark winter months. Insufficient lighting infrastructure hinders individuals from choosing bicycles, despite the presence of well-maintained bike paths and a willingness to cycle. To address this issue, a project has been undertaken in the Swedish municipality of Skara for an alternative lighting solution using drones. A series of tests have been conducted based on drone prototypes developed for the selected bike paths. Participants were invited to cycle in darkness illuminated by drone lighting and share their mobility preferences and perception. This paper summarizes the users’ perception of drone lighting as an alternative to fixed lighting on bike paths, with a special focus on the impact on travel habits and the perceived sense of security and comfort. Most participants were regular cyclists who cited bad weather, time, and darkness as significant factors that deterred them from using bicycles more frequently, reducing their sense of security. With drone lighting, the participants appreciated the illumination’s moonlight-like quality and its ability to enhance their sense of security by illuminating the surroundings. On the technology side, they gave feedback on reducing the drone’s sound and addressing lighting stability issues. In summary, the test results showcase the potential of drone lighting as a viable alternative to traditional fixed lighting infrastructure, offering improved traffic safety, sense of security, and comfort. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of this innovative approach, supporting transformation towards active and sustainable mobility, particularly in regions facing lighting challenges.

  • 6.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Standardisation of Electric Road Systems: Report from workshop at FIRM192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road System (ERS) is a technology concept that has the potential to dramatically reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transport system. ERS is defined by electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion, and could be achieved through different power transfer technologies from the road to the vehicle, such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. The basic technologies for power transfer from the road to vehicles in motion have been developed through various international research projects. In recent years, ERS has moved from conceptual idea to real-world application in countries such as Sweden (2016 and 2018), the United States of America (California 2017), and Germany (2019). In addition, projects are being planned in Italy and China.

    National and international freight transports in Europe are usually determined by national and EU strategies and regulations. The success of ERS implementation, especially when it comes to a transnational roll-out, depends on using regulatory frameworks to identify areas where adaptation is needed.

    The work in the CollERS project has included a consideration of ERS in national and EU transport strategies. The present report relates to identification of areas where standards are missing or have to be adapted, as well a stakeholder dialogue (Germany, Sweden, Denmark and EU), e.g. by means of expert interviews at national and EU-level (industry, science, politics, and road administrations).

    Download full text (pdf)
    CollERS_Standardisation_ERS_FIRM19
  • 7.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Arby, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Verktygslåda för bättre mobilitet på mindre orter – Utvecklingsprojekt med fem stationssamhällen i Småland2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Stationssamhällen Småland: Verktygslåda för landsbygdsmobilitet" tog sikte på att möta utmaningar i relation till minskat bilresande i syfte att se till att Agenda 2030- målen kan uppnås samtidigt som tillgänglighet bibehålls. Fokus lades på mindre tätorter med tågstationer. Den övergripande målsättningen var att projektets resultat ska underlätta för kommuner att identifiera och implementera hållbara mobilitetslösningar som möter såväl invånares som näringslivets behov i den typen av samhällen. Projektet involverade fem småländska kommuner. Genom en fallstudiebaserad ansats, med metoder så som platsbesök, intervjuer och workshops med representanter för lokalsamhället och näringslivet kartlades behov, en färdplan för nya mobilitetstjänster togs fram och en verktygslåda som kommunerna kan använda för att själva planera och implementera dessa utvecklades. Projektet resulterade i en verktygslåda, presenterad som en Wiki-hemsida, som erbjuder en process för nulägesanalys, behovskartläggning, kunskapsuppbyggnad, idégenerering och implementering av mobilitetslösningar. Verktygslådan är avsedd att underlätta för andra kommuner att självständigt förbättra mobiliteten baserat på lokala behov. Insikter från projektet inkluderar betydelsen av brett stöd inom kommunen, näringslivets deltagande som en katalysator för förändring, och behovet av att utgå från specifika målgruppers behov. Projektet framhåller även vikten av mjuka åtgärder, kostnadseffektiva lösningar, och samarbete över kommungränser för att förbättra pendlingsresor. Genom att fokusera på marknadsföring av befintlig kollektivtrafik, optimering av kollektivtrafik, och olika former av samordnad mobilitet, inklusive cykling och samåkning, presenteras konkreta lösningar för ökad tillgänglighet och hållbar mobilitet på landsbygden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Elitfönster AB, Sweden.
    Jakonis, Darius
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Pantzare, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Sundin, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Daoud, Kaies
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Elitfönster AB, Sweden.
    Gregard, Greger
    ChromoGenics AB, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Integration of Screen Printed Piezoelectric Sensors for Force Impact Sensing in Smart Multifunctional Glass Applications2022In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 24, no 11, article id 2200399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screen printed piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride?trifluoro ethylene (PVDF?TrFE)-based sensors laminated between glass panes in the temperature range 80?110?°C are presented. No degradation of the piezoelectric signals is observed for the sensors laminated at 110?°C, despite approaching the Curie temperature of the piezoelectric material. The piezoelectric sensors, here monitoring force impact in smart glass applications, are characterized by using a calibrated impact hammer system and standardized impact situations. Stand-alone piezoelectric sensors and piezoelectric sensors integrated on poly(methyl methacrylate) are also evaluated. The piezoelectric constants obtained from the measurements of the nonintegrated piezoelectric sensors are in good agreement with the literature. The piezoelectric sensor response is measured by using either physical electrical contacts between the piezoelectric sensors and the readout electronics, or wirelessly via both noncontact capacitive coupling and Bluetooth low-energy radio link. The developed sensor concept is finally demonstrated in smart window prototypes, in which integrated piezoelectric sensors are used to detect break-in attempts. Additionally, each prototype includes an electrochromic film to control the light transmittance of the window, a screen printed electrochromic display for status indications and wireless communication with an external server, and a holistic approach of hybrid printed electronic systems targeting smart multifunctional glass applications.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    SEBRA Sensor based awareness for bicyclists: FINAL REPORT2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall trend in Sweden is that the number of fatalities and severely injured in traffic is constantly decreasing. However, bicyclists are the group of road-users that often suffer the most severe injuries when involved in accidents.

    In this project we want to investigate if a radar mounted on bicycles can help bicycle riders to get better situational awareness and thereby avoid getting into dangerous situations.

    For active safety in vehicles, the state of art integrates radar-, lidar-, and camera-based sensors to create awareness for the vehicle and driver. To apply this kind of system on a bicycle would be unfeasible, since the cost would in some cases be as much as the entire bicycle. In this project we study and propose a low-cost sensor solution that improves traffic safety for bicycles that consist of only one of these sensors - the radar - it is the cheapest and most robust solution.

    The project first identified the most relevant use-cases and in conjunction to this, identify a business model that can make the safety system attractive for end-users. 

     Secondly, a radarbased safety system for bicycles is developed with both sensor and human interface.

    Finally,the system is evaluated in relevant traffic situations.

    The SEBRA project aims for the following research questions:

    - RQ1: What safety issues can be addressed by a radar-based safety system mounted onbicycles?

    - RQ2: What performance requirements (field-of-view, computational capacity, power consumption, etc.) should such a system fulfil?

    - RQ3: How should the interaction with the bicyclists be designed to give a high level of safety and user experience?

    - RQ4: How can incentives and business models be developed to create a viable utility device for bicycles?

    Within the scope of Open Research at AstaZero, we plan to simulate the selected scenarios from literature in the test track environment to finalize the answer for RQ1 and build answerfor RQ2. The tests also contribute initial insights for RQ3 answer.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rizgary, Daban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    First encounter effects in testing of highly automated vehicles during two experimental occasions – The need for recurrent testing2021In: it - Information Technology, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rizgary, Daban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Söderman, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Vännström, Johanna
    Scania, Sweden.
    Exploring remote operation of heavy vehicles – findings from a simulator study2023In: IHSI 2023 Conference Proceedings, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully automated driving has posed more challenges than expected, and remote operation of heavy vehicles is increasingly getting attention. Therefore, human remote operators may have an essential role in compensating for the technological shortcomings in vehicle automation. This poses challenges in designing the work of human remote operators of automated heavy vehicles. This paper presents findings from a research project performed in collaboration between the RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and Scania. In the project, human-automation interaction requirements and challenges for remote operator work were explored through a simulator study. Before the study, three main operator tasks were defined: assessment, assistance, and remote driving. The simulation occurred in a transportation scenario where operators handled ten trucks driving on a public road and confined areas (transportation hub). Fifteen participants completed the study. The results provide examples and insights into classical automation-related challenges in a new context – the remote operation of heavy vehicles. Instances of challenges with situational awareness, out-of-the-loop, trust, and attention management were found and are discussed in relation to HMI design and requirements.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Autonoma leveransfordon – vad är de för sorts fordon och har det någon betydelse?2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous delivery vehicles – what kind of vehicles are they and does it matter? The project GLAD – Goods deliveries during the last mile of self-driving vehicles explores how tomorrow's small autonomous delivery vehicles (ADV) could operate in the transport system. The goal of the GLAD project is to develop knowledge about the needs and challenges of such vehicles in Sweden before they are in real operation. In the project, there are several work packages that work with different challenges in relation to ADV. To explore these issues, the project has developed a prototype of an ADV, which is based on a vehicle which today is classified as a three-wheeled moped. But designed as an ADV it could be a different kind of vehicle. One result from one of the work packages in the project is that ADVs driving on public roads should maintain the same speed as other traffic to avoid critical traffic situations. This means that ADVs should be able to drive at a maximum speed of 70 km/h. Another requirement is that the ADVs should be able of carrying a load of 500 kg. These requirements are a conclusion from interviews with drivers of small manually driven delivery vehicles about how they experience today's traffic situations, from which type of road they use and how they use their vehicles. The purpose of this report is to identify obstacles and opportunities from a regulatory perspective to implement ADVs in Sweden in a safe way. Rules that may affect the development of ADVs are, for example, whether they are covered by the Machinery Directive or whether they should be type approved. Other rules concern license plates, motor liability insurance, where the vehicles may be driven and driving license requirements. The aim of the legislations is to create a safe vehicle to use. After a review of existing regulations, it is closest at hand that future ADVs, based on the requirements set in the project, are classified as a 4-wheel heavy motorcycle for the transport of goods. The vehicle also needs a type-approval. It can be argued that an ADV with that weight and speed will have a lot to prove from a safety perspective in a type-approval process and that a market introduction is therefore further away in time. If the speed requirements are lowered instead i.e., maximum of 30 km/h, it could be classified as a motor tool. The advantage of motor tools is that these must be CE-marked by the manufacturer, which in turn means that they have a shorter time to market because the process does not involve a type-approval agency.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Legala hinder och möjligheter för obemannade off-peak leveranser2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet Hållbara & Integrerade urbana Transport System - HITS2024 har det bl.a. arbetats med att testa och demonstrera off-peak leveranser. Med off-peak leveranser avses förenklat leveranser som sker under de timmar på dygnet då det råder lågtrafik t.ex. nattetid. I projektet har HAVI levererat varor till en restaurang nattetid i Stock-holm. Detta har även demonstrerats i ett tidigare projekt kallat Eccentric. Skillnaden mellan de olika projekten är att i det äldre projektet fanns personal på plats i restau-rangen och tog emot varorna. I HITS2024 projektet fanns det inte någon personal på plats i restaurangen för att ta emot varorna. Båda projekten visar att det är praktiskt genomförbart att leverera varor off-peak och att det bidrar till en ökad transport-effektivitet. Jämfört med att leverera varor i rusningstid var tidsbesparingen ca 30 % för transpor-tören med off-peak leveranser i Eccentric projektet. Eccentric projektet visade även att effektivitetsvinsterna var ojämnt fördelade. Mottagaren (köparen) av varorna gjorde marginella effektivitetsvinster. För avsändaren (säljaren) redovisades inga effektivitets-vinster alls. I HITS2024 projektet ställde vi oss frågan - givet de stora effektivitets-vinster en transportör gör med off-peak leveranser - varför görs inte detta redan i stor skala? Kan det finnas något inom juridiken som hindrar utvecklingen av off-peak leve-ranser? Finns det rent av möjligheter inom juridiken som skulle kunna användas för att driva på utvecklingen mot fler off-peak leveranser? Syftet med den här rapporten är således att visa på legala hinder och möjligheter med (delvis) obemannade off-peak leveranser. Frågan kan bli än mer aktuell i en framtida värld med autonoma fordon som utför obemannade leveranser.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Regelverk för datadelning inom citylogistik: nulägesanalys2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all data sharing regulations have origins from the EU. At EU level, three trends can be identified for data sharing. The first trend is that data sharing more and more is regulated by legislation. Current regulations are being amended and many new regulations are underway within the EU. Data sharing legislations are thus in an expansive phase. There are also many reasons why the EU believes that a certain regulatory framework is needed, such as: • Information security: Historically, information security has generated a large amount of activity in the field of regulatory framework. This includes, for example, cyber security and preventing data breaches. • Human health: Human health is also a reason to regulate data sharing. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and sharing of sensitive personal data. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection and ensuring that, for example, digital services are safe for consumers to share data in. • A free and efficient internal market: For the EU, it is important to create an internal market for data sharing. Many regulations are aimed at ensuring that SMEs can compete with large companies. Example of legislation in this area is the Platform Regulation. • Increased innovation power: For the EU, it is also important to increase innovation capacity in the internal market. One way is to protect innovations through, for example, copyright and trade secrets rules. • Increased transparency and trust: To create an internal market, people and companies also need to feel safe sharing data. Example of legislation within this area is the proposed Data Governance Act. • Fundamental rights and freedoms: Finally, the EU is reassessing in many regulatory frameworks in terms of respect of fundamental human rights and freedoms. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and the e-Privacy regulation. The EU is also working on developing a code on this theme. The code shall guide the future work on the develop of new legislation. The second trend is for the EU to encourage industry organizations to develop voluntary rules on data sharing (code of conduct) to accelerate the creation of an internal market for data sharing. An example of this is the Code of Conduct for sharing agricultural data in agreements. The Free Flow of non-personal data regulation would also like to see industry organizations develop principles for data sharing. The third trend is that the EU would like to see us all make more data publicly available or that we donate data, both from authorities and individuals (open data and altruism). Examples of this are the Open Data Directive and the forthcoming Data Governance Act. In this lies a conflict of interest between information security and open data that is not easy to solve. The challenge lies in the fact that each individual dataset itself does not have to reveal anything sensitive. However, if many datasets are added together, aggregated data can reveal too much. The EU is also interested in data sharing for certain sectors, of which vehicles and mobility is an area that is becoming more and more regulated in terms of data sharing. Here, a lot of new regulations are expected that will have a major impact on the sector, both in terms of vehicle development but also in terms of the development of new business models. The trend is towards vehicle manufacturers being increasingly forced to share data with authorities. When it comes to logistics, the pressure from new legislation about data sharing is not as clear. The existing legislation is more about the safe distribution of goods in a crisis or regarding sharing data from certain goods e.g., tobacco. What problems does the EU address in its mobility and vehicle regulations? • Human health: Compared to the general regulatory framework, there is a clear emphasis on human health and data sharing in the regulations. It is both about data sharing related to air quality but also road safety. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection, e.g., for manufacturers to inform consumers about how much exhaust fumes a particular vehicle emits so that the consumer can make an informed choice based on this aspect between different manufacturers. • A free functioning efficient internal market: Examples of legislation in this area are the access of independent branded workshops to data from connected vehicles to increase competition. At EU level, there are several regulatory frameworks in the pipeline that will have a major impact on what we want to explore in our project. In the HITS2024 project, we want to explore and test efficient city logistics based on different vehicle concepts and logistics solutions. At EU level, a forthcoming e-Privacy Regulation is being discussed. The regulation will dictate how data from vehicles is allowed to be transfer to a cloud solution i.e., the connection as such. The e-Privacy Regulation is closely related to the GDPR, but there are also differences between these regulations. The GDPR accepts consent and balancing of interests to collect personal data while the e-Privacy Regulation only accepts consent (at the time of writing). The challenge for the automotive industry, for example, is that an autonomous vehicle can only collect personal data based on balancing interests because it is not doable to work with consent. However, if the e-Privacy Regulation in its current state is approved, the data will not be allowed to leave the vehicle because there is no consent. Another challenge is the upcoming AI Act. The AI Act distinguishes between technologies that already have an international regulatory framework for, e.g., type approval of a truck and technology where only the EU regulates the issue, e.g., machines. But a vehicle consists of many different “parts” and not all parts are type approved. How do you fit different technologies and different legislation together in an autonomous truck? In the logistics area, the upcoming Data Act can be of great importance as it will be about data sharing between companies. Until now, coordination between different data regulations has not always been optimal. The same phenomenon has been regulated in different regulations. There is a risk that different regulations in the future will find it difficult to co-exist with each other. How will, for example, GDPR, e-Privacy regulation and Data Act work together in a vehicle and logistics context? Developments in this area need to be followed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Transportdispenser: Analys av nutid och förslag på framtid2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some transports considered too wide, too heavy, or too long to be driven on public roads must nevertheless be allowed to take place because of their societal importance. Such transports are granted a formal exception to the traffic rules. In this project, together with industry and national and local authorities we have analysed this process and submitted several proposals for improvement measures for consideration. The focus has been on increased digitalisation and improved legal processes. The analysis is based on interviews with municipal administrators, transporters and clients and representatives from Sweden's municipalities and regions, the Swedish Transport Administration, the Swedish Transport Agency, and the Swedish Police Authority. The interviews show substantial differences between how the Swedish Transport Administration and municipalities work with exemptions. Based on our analysis, we propose several individual measures as well as three design scenarios suggesting future opportunities for an improved process.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Fordonsdata till allmänhetens nytta - geofencing och affärsmodeller2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fordonsdata kan i framtiden vara till stor nytta för myndigheter på olika sätt. Än så länge samlar myndigheter in fordonsdata i begränsad omfattning. Det kan t.ex. handla om att genom offentlig upphandling pröva nya sätt för att kontrollera kvaliteten på utförd snöröjning. Trots att det finns ett intresse från både privata och offentliga aktörer att genomföra affärer kring fordonsdata är det ändå svårt för marknaden att ta fart. 

    Frågan om hur fordonsdata kan kommersialiseras med offentliga aktörer som köpare har därför undersökts inom Drive Sweden Policy Lab i samarbete med CeViss-projektet (Cloud enhanced cooperative traffic safety using vehicle sensor data). CeViss-projektet har undersökt smarta kameror och hur de bl.a. kan användas för att varna andra förare för vilda djur vid vägen eller informera SOS Alarm om hur det ser ut vid en olycksplats. 

    Förutsättningarna för lyckad kommersialisering kan sammanfattas under tre rubriker - affären, tekniken och juridiken. Vi ser att affären ligger i förmåga att erbjuda aggregerade data där olika datamängder korsbefruktas och därmed skapar ett större värde än de ingående datamängderna besitter var för sig. Kommersiella aktörer pekar på att rollen att aggregera data, eller förädla den, är mest intressant, eftersom det innebär en möjlighet att utveckla tjänster. En sådan tjänst förutsätter tillgång till en säker uppkoppling och överföring. Det är också resurskrävande att förädla data och styra rätt överföring, liksom att se över, anpassa och ta fram avtal som gör korsbefruktning av data och överföring av rätt data juridiskt möjlig. Här spelar individens integritet kontra samhällets behov av data en stor roll. Det är inte heller klart vilket behov aktörer inom olika samhällssektorer har av fordonsdata, samt hur dessa kommer att få tag i fordonsdata. 

    Utmaningen för industrin ligger i att våga lita på att det finns en hållbar affär med myndigheten i längden, dvs. att det finns en tillräckligt stor betalningsvilja från samhällets sida även när data anses samhällskritisk viktigt. För att främja kommersialisering är det bra att börja med ett specifikt utvalt område för att utarbeta processer, avtal, tekniklösningar, affärs-modeller och så vidare. 

    Geofencing hade kunnat vara en möjlighet att skapa de avgränsningar som behövs för en första affär, samtidigt som det skulle skapa tydlighet om var och när data samlas in från fordon. En sådan avgränsning hade också kunnat tjäna som en regulatorisk sandlåda för att utvärdera möjligheten till avtal som är hållbara över tid, det vill säga där det är rimligt att inom vissa gränser använda data på nya sätt eller för nya syften. 

    Rapporten avslutas med en sammanställning av geofencing och datadelning ur ett juridiskt perspektiv samt en beskrivning av Drive Sweden Policy Lab. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we have compiled our learnings and experiences of working with Policy Lab. Policy Labs have come about as an answer to the question "Can you work with policy and regulatory development in a better way than today?". Our answer to the question is a yes. Our hope with the report is that others will become interested and start their own Policy Lab. Abroad, there are many Policy Labs, but in Sweden there are only a few, which is why we believe there is room for more. There is not a given way to work with Policy Labs once and for all, but each Policy Lab is unique based on its context. Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova defines Policy Labs as follows: "Policy Labs can be explained as a group of actors with different competencies who want to develop a regulatory framework. In the Policy Lab, they use a set of user-centric methods and competencies to test, experiment, and learn in policy development."1 In our Policy Lab, we have worked in various research projects to: 1. analyse challenges/problems that arise between innovations, technology, market, and regulations, 2. develop one or more workable solutions and 3. interact with relevant actors to determine the next steps. What distinguishes our Policy Lab is that we never “own” the issue or solution. We must therefore always work with other actors who can take the results further. Our goal is to enable and skill people. This means that for us it is important to work concretely with real problems and needs owners and preferably test different solutions. We focus on the here and now perspective and not on what the future will look like in 10 years. It is about taking the next step forward towards the future, not creating the best rule, but instead creating the next rule. We also work consistently agile and use design as a method for problem solving. This means that the way we organize our work in the Policy Lab is circular and not linear. When it comes to using design as a method for problem solving, we use the concepts of "design thinking" and "double diamond". For us, it is also important that the members of the Policy Lab have different backgrounds and skills depending on what is needed in the individual project....

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Self-certification of Autonomous Buses2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It will still be a few years before we will have autonomous buses driving city streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to ensure more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in service, while at the same time learning how to be part of future operations. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5). During the span of a single day, the bus will therefore alternate between the regulations for enclosed (fenced depot) and non-enclosed (road) areas, between being autonomous and not autonomous.

    The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based on two regulations depending on the environment it is in at any given time and level of autonomy. This is a completely new situation: that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which has significance in terms of who shall decide whether the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that, in order to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot, the bus should be self-certified by means of CE marking according to the Machinery Directive1. This is the authors’ conclusion and not necessarily representative of the other parties involved in the project.

    We predict that we will see more self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working in this way, such as in North America, and partly because it enables faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With “dynamic vehicle concept” we mean vehicles that gain new areas of application by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and are thus converted from a bus to a truck or from a car to quadricycle. Maybe even several times a day.

    Self-certification, however, will also increase the need for standardisation, both for processes and products. Processes may involve how a vehicle can be certified, particularly how the risk analysis should be carried out. In terms of products, standardised descriptions of the technology’s function will facilitate proprietary self-certification since operators know how to describe their own products, including how their certification should be structured based on the constituent certified components. Current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machinery Directive.

    Lastly, we would like to communicate the method used to reach our conclusions. The project has been carried out as a Policy Lab where we have brought together various stakeholders around a common challenge. This has enabled us to concretise both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the enclosed area and our conclusions. The  method selected has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarise themselves with how they should relate to tomorrow’s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle. In this way, Swedish authorities will be ready to adopt technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

    This report is structured so that Section 2 describes the current regulatory framework, particularly in terms of the distinction between the Machinery Directive and vehicle type-approval. Section 3 uses specific examples to describe business operations pertaining to autonomous buses in a depot. Section 4 presents the authors’ conclusions based on how the regulations relate to the specific details obtained from the depot pilot. Section 5 presents the full picture by relating our conclusions to what is happening internationally and how the national ordinance on autonomous vehicle trials on roads corresponds to international trends. Lastly, in Section 6, we provide a summary of what we consider to be the most important issues for which further work should be carried out.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Självcertifiering av autonoma bussar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It will be a few years before we have autonomous buses that drive around the city´s streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to have more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in services, while at the same time learning how to be part of the future operation. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5).During one and the same day, the bus will therefore transfer between the regulations forfenced (depot) and non-fenced (road) areas, between being autonomous and notautonomous.The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based ontwo regulations depending on its current environment and level of autonomy. This is acompletely new situation, that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which in turn has consequences for who is to decide that the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that the bus should be self-certified through CE marking according to the Machine Directive to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot. This is the authors´ conclusion and not necessarily representative for the other parties involved in the project.

    Our prediction is also that we will see more of self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working that  way, such as the North America one, and partly because it enables a faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With dynamic vehicle concept, we mean vehicles that gain new capacity by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and thus go from being a bus to a truck or from a car to a moped car. Maybe even several times a day.

    But with self-certification, the need for standardization will also increase, both forprocesses and products. When it comes to processes, it can be about how to certify a vehicle, especially how to do the risk analysis. For products, standardized descriptions of the technology´s function will facilitate your own self-certification as you know how to describe your product, but also how to build your certification based on the included certified components. The current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machine Directive.

    Finally, we want to highlight the method used behind the conclusions. The project has been carried out as a policy lab where we have gathered different actors around a common challenge. In this way, we have anchored both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the fenced area and on our conclusions in concrete details. The choice of method has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarize themselves withhow they should relate to tomorrow´s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle going forward. In this way, Swedish authorities are ready to take on technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

    Download full text (pdf)
    AutonomBussCE
  • 20.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Hellström, Anna-Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Challenges and opportunities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation– with focus on chemical safety and usage in complex products2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Policy Lab processes has been growing in Sweden and other countries to accelerate the adaptation of regulations to emerging technologies. Policy Lab facilitates active collaboration between relevant authorities, companies, and stakeholders through interactive and iterative methods based on Design Thinking principles. This approach bridges the gap between the legislative domain responsible for developing regulatory frameworks and the innovative companies that create solutions for emerging markets using new technologies and opportunities. In our study, we applied Policy Lab processes to the EU Taxonomy Regulation to identify challenges and opportunities related to chemical safety and usage for manufacturers of complex products. The EU Taxonomy Regulation, along with its delegated acts, represent a serious effort to establish standardized sustainability reporting within EU. However, it is still in its early stages and lacks maturity. Moreover, certain ambiguities within the regulation currently prevent a comprehensive comparison of companies due to the development of other legislations. Addressing these gaps depends on the future development of, for example, REACH. Our conclusion is that the EU Taxonomy Regulation is part of a larger “movement” that reflects the policymakers’ intentions. This intention also includes increased data sharing at a significantly different level compared to current practices. In the long run, the shift will enable authorities to access the data and develop new legislations. Our specific focus was on the objective of pollution prevention and control regarding the use and presence of hazardous substances listed in Appendix C of the EU Taxonomy Regulation. According to Appendix C, activities must not lead to the manufacture, placing on the market or use of listed substances, whether on their own, in mixture or in articles. Regarding listed substances, reference is made to existing EU legislation that regulates hazardous substances within the EU. The most challenging aspect in Appendix C is point (g), which aims to identify substances, whether alone, in mixtures, or in articles, that meet the criteria set out in Article 57 of REACH but are not yet included in the Candidate list. Our workshops, interviews, and literature review confirmed that the main challenge in meeting the criteria of Appendix C, specifically point (g) is the need to enhance transparency and traceability throughout supply chains. Overcoming these challenges requires addressing barriers, such as the lack of a harmonized regulatory framework across the value chain, the need for faster identification and restriction of hazardous substances, and the reinforcement of stronger enforcement measures. The enabling of full declaration of the hazardous properties and functions of the substances, while considering the balance between information disclosure and protecting trade secrets, would reduce the need for extensive tracking of substance of very high concern along the value chain. To improve communication along the value chain and identify data gaps while protecting trade secrets, workshop participants have proposed the use of a user-friendly interface based on traffic light scenario. This interface would serve as a filter mechanism, allowing product manufacturers to establish specific criteria for material suppliers to respond to. The objective is to enhance communication, establish criteria, and effectively identify data gaps. While the SCIP database ensures accessibility of information on articles containing substances from the Candidate List above 0.1 w/w%, it is limited to hazardous substances on that list. This means that hazardous substances not listed in the Candidate List may not be covered by the database. The EU Commission has proposed the implementation of a digital product passport to enhance information sharing about products and their supply chain, including substances of concern. Our study is conducted under the Mistra SafeChem program, where screening tools for hazard and exposure assessment of substances are currently being developed. These tools aim to provide screening data for direct decision-making based on the Defined Approach (DA). These screening tools have the potential to contribute to filling data gaps during the early design phases of complex products, particularly when screening for multiple material alternatives.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Eriksson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Geostängslade BK4-transporter vid bropassager och på tjälade vägar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geofenced heavy trucks to protect bridges at crossings allowing higher weight on frozen roads Winter is our friend. When the road body is deep frozen it can handle more weight than during the rest of the year. However, the bridges are not affected by the cold weather, and they are therefore still vulnerable to increased loads. How can we allow increased loads on frozen roads while ensuring protection of the bridges? In this report, we share our insights from a project with the idea of using geofencing to protect the bridges. The geofencing technology ensures that the truck drives at a lower speed over the bridge and the bridge can withstand loads up to 74 tons since decreased speed reduces dynamic loads. If the road keeper can get guarantees that all heavy trucks drive at a low speed over the bridge, heavier traffic can be accommodated. This technology would of course also be beneficial to use across bridges in Europe regardless of the climate. ' The project “Frozen roads and 74 tons”, paid by the Swedish Transport Administration, consisted of three parts. One part was a pilot study during winter 22/23 demonstrating trucks from AB Volvo and Scania loaded with 74 tons using geofencing when the trucks passed over weak bridges. A speed limit, i.e. 50 km/h, was imposed in a zone around each bridge, whose coordinates were stored in the digital map accessible through the trucks’ Fleet Management System. Two different geofencing technologies were tested: on the one hand Scania’s system with “active” geofencing, where the truck was programmed to maintain the allowed speed over the bridge and calculated and implemented this itself (the driver could, however, override this by pushing the gas pedal to the floor); on the other hand AB Volvo’s system with “passive” geofencing, where the driver received a warning message when approaching the zone and would then slow down if necessary. The drivers were interviewed before and after the pilot about their experience. The results from the pilot showed that if the technology is verified, the truck will do the right thing and is on the right road network when the technology is activated. The drivers also liked geofencing. Geofences thus work in practice. The second part of the project was about quantifying the societal benefits of using geofencing. More efficient planning, control and follow-up can lower costs, reduce environmental impact, and increase traffic safety. Calculations in the project show that about 12 percent of timber transports in Norrland use frozen roads. They can benefit from the technology and if the technology is introduced, the industry would make savings of the equivalent of SEK 15 million / year and reduced energy use equivalent to 280 cubic meter diesel. At national level, this corresponds to an energy efficiency potential of 0.12 percent. The third part of the project was about policy and regulation. Can we use the current legislation, or do we need new legislation to scale the use of geofencing across bridges? How can we ensure compliance? How can we share data? How can we handle EU trade barriers? In the report, we have suggestions for policy and legislation to implement the geofencing technology to protect sensitive bridges. Our analysis shows that it is possible with today's regulations for an authority to introduce regulations on geofences. Such rules should preferably be based on functional requirements and a system of self-monitoring.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Legal utredning för datadelning varor och transporter2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, the Swedish Transport Administration wanted to have two different tracks investigated from a legal perspective. We have chosen to call the first track a “matchmaking service for freight” to optimize the utilization of available cargo space. There is an assignment from the government to the Swedish Transport Administration to work with this issue based on horizontal collaborations and open data. The second track is about the development of new technology enabling new ways of collecting railway data based on RFID and the possibility of filming passing trains, which in turn raises legal questions about how the Swedish Transport Administration can use collected data.

    After analysing the two tracks based on current regulations, interviewing different actors, arranging workshops with different stakeholders, and meetings with experts in the fields, our conclusions are as follows:

    So far, it is unclear who will be appointed to be matchmaker and how the matchmaking service is intended to work as the Swedish Transport Administration´s assignment will last for another ten years. Our assessments at this early stage of the Swedish Transport Administration´s assignment aims more to provide advice on how the matchmaking service can be designed in the future. Above all, we foresee that competition law will be a challenge as it regulates horizontal collaborations. In the future, it needs to be investigated more what benefit consumers get from the matchmaking service and how such service can be designed without distorting competition on the market. The matchmaking service is aimed for product owners. The interviews show that they are prepared to share data provided that they get a benefit from this. The interviews also show that they are not used to sharing data in such a way that is required for a matchmaking service to function properly. We therefore believe that work will have to be put on making the product owners understand the benefit of data sharing to facilitate the introduction of a matchmaking service, e.g. by showing good examples to get product owners to think in new ways and dare to take the step. It is also unclear what is meant by open data and how it is compatible with copyright/trade secrets. That part of the assignment needs to be further elucidated.

    In our opinion, the Swedish Transport Administration has the copyright to RFID data, and it is also from a copyright perspective that the Swedish Transport Administration has so far shared RFID data (through contracts) with others. One hope with RFID is that the technology will make an impact on the entire European railway network, which in turn raises the question of how RFID data can legally be shared. Our assessments are that it would be possible to turn RFID data into open data to enable data sharing within the EU, but this is something that needs to be discussed further with all the actors involved.

    Data collection by filming passing trains is still at an early trial stage. Above all, we see that more work needs to be done to make data collection compatible with the GDPR and the Swedish Camera Surveillance Act. When trains are filmed, information is also collected about the load on the wagons. We see that this can lead to safety risk, which need to be addressed in the future work.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Digitalt förarstöd vid dispenstransporter2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital driver support for abnormal transports This report describes how the management of permits for abnormal transports could be improved through the development of a mobile digital support system. Insights have been gathered from several existing solutions in other countries as well as technology providers active in Sweden. Together with interviews and workshops with local and national government officials and industry representatives they form the basis of an analysis of digitalization and policy requirements for consideration in an ongoing mission to make abnormal transport permits more efficient led by the Swedish Transport Administration. The project was funded by the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Avital, Michel
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Peer-to-peer service sharing platforms: Driving share and share alike on a mass-scale2013In: International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2013): Reshaping Society Through Information Systems Design, 2013, Vol. 4, p. 2964-2978Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns that entail specific consequences for platform use as well as provide insights about their overall design imperative.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lindlöf, Ludvig
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    DUAL PERSPECTIVES ON MULTI-CONTEXTUALITY OF DATA IN DIGITAL PLATFORM ESTABLISHMENT2020In: Proc of 21st CINet Conference, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation in ecosystems becomes increasingly attractive for incumbents as the technical complexity increases and complementarities play an increasingly important role for global competition. Digital platforms are becoming one of the primary means to that end, where incumbents can gain scale effects and reap the benefits of the creative crowd while maintaining ownership of the core product. But a lion’s share of these platforms hinges on the accessibility of data, and the view of the value and ownership of this data differs among actors in the system. This paper accounts for a case study of two type actors in an innovation ecosystem; the keystone firm and the third-party service provider. From interviews with representatives of these actors, we formulate a tentative description of their perspective on the sharing of data in the ecosystem. We find that these perspectives differ in terms of data contextuality and customer value. We argue that these differing perspectives are at the crux of establishing innovation capabilities in ecosystems based on digital platforms.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lindlöf, Ludvig
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Your purpose or mine?: Perspectives on data in innovation ecosystems2023In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 91, no 3-4, p. 219-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation in ecosystems becomes increasingly attractive for incumbents as the technical complexity increases and complementarities play an increasingly important role for global competition. Digital platforms are becoming one of the primary means to that end, where incumbents can gain scale effects and reap the benefits of the creative crowd while maintaining ownership of the core product. But a lion’s share of these platforms hinges on the accessibility of data, and the view of the value of this data differs among actors in the system. This paper accounts for a case study of two type actors in an innovation ecosystem: the core actor (OEM) and the peripheral actor (third party service provider). From interviews with representatives of these actors, we find that their perspectives on the data and its usefulness outside its intended context differ. We label the perspectives purposive and multi-contextual; we formulate their descriptions and outline managerial implications. We argue that these differing perspectives are at the crux of establishing innovation capabilities in ecosystems based on digital platforms. 

  • 27.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rylander, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Wicked Cases and Late Binding in System of Systems2022In: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 354-359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of Systems is being applied in ever more complex contexts. This paper reports findings from a city logistics initiative. As many other environmental challenges, this setting can be characterized as 'wicked', e.g. the organizations that need to be involved solving the issues are contributing causes and there is no obvious single authority able to make decisions. Our findings suggest that such settings lead to vagueness and 'late binding' of key actors and incentives making the early modelling phases highly challenging. Supplementing the wave model of SoS development, we describe specific coping mechanisms for such settings including designing for multiple SoS archetypes and identifying and prioritizing archetype-generic capabilities. 

  • 28.
    Andreasson, Annika
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Artman, Henrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    A Census of Swedish Government Administrative Authority Employee Communications on Cybersecurity during the COVID-19 Pandemic2020In: 2020 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM), IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybersecurity is the backbone of a successful digitalization of society, and cyber situation awareness is an essential aspect of managing it. The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up an already ongoing digitalization of Swedish government agencies, but the cybersecurity maturity level varies across agencies. In this study, we conduct a census of Swedish government administrative authority communications on cybersecurity to employees at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The census shows that the employee communications in the beginning of the pandemic to a greater extent have focused on first-order risks, such as video meetings and telecommuting, rather than on second-order risks, such as invoice fraud or social engineering. We also find that almost two thirds of the administrative authorities have not yet implemented, but only initiated or documented, their cybersecurity policies.

  • 29.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Bru, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wästerlid, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lindh, E Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Cirkulärt omhändertagande av solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad för vindkraftverk: Lukas Hallquist, Niklas Thideval2024Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Crowdsourcing and Public Transportation: Barriers and Opportunities2021In: Proc of 23rd ITS Biennial Conference, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, private companies have successfully used crowdsourcing to revolutionise mobility, while public transport companies are still mostly failing to utilise the benefits of crowdsourcing. The application of crowdsourcing in public transport is a new area of academic research, and research on crowdsourcing en route in real-time is missing. This research aims to address this gap, explore opportunities and challenges of this type of crowdsourcing, and conceptualise this phenomenon. The research is based on empirical data collected in five Northern European countries. Our research findings help identify areas where crowdsourcing en route can add value to public transport: new forms of communication, opportunities to communicate with third parties, and improved transit planning and optimisation. Identified challenges are related to behavioural change for users, a need to develop infrastructure to enable crowdsourcing en route, and financial rationalities.

  • 31.
    Aramrattana, M.
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Larsson, T.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, J.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Nabo, A.
    VTI, Sweden.
    A Simulation Study on Effects of Platooning Gaps on Drivers of Conventional Vehicles in Highway Merging Situations2021In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning refers to a group of vehicles that--enabled by wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication and vehicle automation--drives with short inter-vehicular distances. Before its deployment on public roads, several challenging traffic situations need to be handled. Among the challenges are cut-in situations, where a conventional vehicle--a vehicle that has no automation or V2V communication--changes lane and ends up between vehicles in a platoon. This paper presents results from a simulation study of a scenario, where a conventional vehicle, approaching from an on-ramp, merges into a platoon of five cars on a highway. We created the scenario with four platooning gaps: 15, 22.5, 30, and 42.5 meters. During the study, the conventional vehicle was driven by 37 test persons, who experienced all the platooning gaps using a driving simulator. The participants' opinions towards safety, comfort, and ease of driving between the platoon in each gap setting were also collected through a questionnaire. The results suggest that a 15-meter gap prevents most participants from cutting in, while causing potentially dangerous maneuvers and collisions when cut-in occurs. A platooning gap of at least 30 meters yield positive opinions from the participants, and facilitating more smooth cut-in maneuvers while less collisions were observed. 

  • 32.
    Aramrattana, M.
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Larsson, T.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, J.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Nåbo, A.
    VTI, Sweden.
    A Novel Risk Indicator for Cut-In Situations2020In: 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cut-in situations occurs when a vehicle intentionally changes lane and ends up in front of another vehicle or in-between two vehicles. In such situations, having a method to indicate the collision risk prior to making the cut-in maneuver could potentially reduce the number of sideswipe and rear end collisions caused by the cut-in maneuvers. This paper propose a new risk indicator, namely cut-in risk indicator (CRI), as a way to indicate and potentially foresee collision risks in cut-in situations. As an example use case, we applied CRI on data from a driving simulation experiment involving a manually driven vehicle and an automated platoon in a highway merging situation. We then compared the results with time-to-collision (TTC), and suggest that CRI could correctly indicate collision risks in a more effective way. CRI can be computed on all vehicles involved in the cut-in situations, not only for the vehicle that is cutting in. Making it possible for other vehicles to estimate the collision risk, for example if a cut-in from another vehicle occurs, the surrounding vehicles could be warned and have the possibility to react in order to potentially avoid or mitigate accidents. 

  • 33.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Safety and experience of other drivers while interacting with automated vehicle platoons2021In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 10, article id 100381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently unknown how automated vehicle platoons will be perceived by other road users in their vicinity. This study explores how drivers of manually operated passenger cars interact with automated passenger car platoons while merging onto a highway, and how different inter-vehicular gaps between the platooning vehicles affect their experience and safety. The study was conducted in a driving simulator and involved 16 drivers of manually operated cars. Our results show that the drivers found the interactions mentally demanding, unsafe, and uncomfortable. They commonly expected that the platoon would adapt its behavior to accommodate a smooth merge. They also expressed a need for additional information about the platoon to easier anticipate its behavior and avoid cutting-in. This was, however, affected by the gap size; larger gaps (30 and 42.5 m) yielded better experience, more frequent cut-ins, and less crashes than the shorter gaps (15 and 22.5 m). A conclusion is that a short gap as well as external human–machine interfaces (eHMI) might be used to communicate the platoon's intent to “stay together”, which in turn might prevent drivers from cutting-in. On the contrary, if the goal is to facilitate frequent, safe, and pleasant cut-ins, gaps larger than 22.5 m may be suitable. To thoroughly inform such design trade-offs, we urge for more research on this topic. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 34.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Schrank, Andreas
    DLR German Aerospace Center, Germany.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Zhao, Lin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hermann, David
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Mharolkar, Sanat
    Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Vanzura, Marek
    George Mason University, USA.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Oehl, Michael
    DLR German Aerospace Center, Germany.
    A Roadmap Towards Remote Assistance: Outcomes from Multidisciplinary Workshop at the 2023 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote operation of highly automated vehicles (HAVs) may include occasional assistance from a human remote operator that is located outside the HAVs. Remote assistance typically delegates only highlevel guidance tasks to the remote operators such as authorizing a driving maneuver or specifying a new driving path. As remote assistance is fairly unexplored, there are still several research challenges. These challenges were discussed by experts from academia and industry in a multidisciplinary workshop at the 2023 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. As a result of the workshop, this paper presents a list of most pressing research questions in the following areas: human-machine interaction and human factors, design of the remote station, design of the HAVs. It also outlines a roadmap for future research on remote assistance of HAV, thereby informing interdisciplinary studies and facilitating the benefits of HAVs before full autonomy can be reached.

  • 35.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    En not om att mäta kapacitet på järnväg2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport introducerar ett nytt kapacitetsmått för trafik på järnväg. Syftet med det föreslagna måttet är att det skall vara användbart vid förplanering av järnvägstrafik, innan järnvägsföretag och andra sökanden lämnar in sina ansökningar om trafik och kapacitetstilldelningen slutförs. Kapacitetsmåttet utgår från det gängse sättet att presentera en tågplan, den så kallade tidtabellsgrafen, eller i branschen refererad till som bara ”grafen”. För varje spårsträcka som tågläget belägger så utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen ytan som upptas i grafen. Denna yta är summan av varje individuell signalsträckas längd multiplicerat med tiden som tågläget belägger hela spårsträckan. Detta utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen för tågläget. Måttet blir intressant i de tidigare processtegen innan ansökan om kapacitet. Då ansökan ännu inte är genomförd så finns inga sökta avgångs- och ankomsttider, däremot en prognos vad som kommer sökas (t.ex. genom den i TTR angivna händelsen Capacity Needs Announcement). Genom att lägga på ett tidsfönster kan varje prognosticerat tågläge abstraheras att avgå/ankomma inom detta tidsfönster. Kapacitetskonsumtionen är dock konstant, och denna fördelas över tidsfönstret. Genom att för varje tidsögonblick ackumulera den fördelade kapacitetsåtgången fås en kapacitetsanvändningsplan. Denna är en abstraktion av det tänkta framtida schemat (tågplanen) och kräver således inte en konfliktfri tågplan som utgångspunkt. En kapacitetsanvändningsplan kan således realiseras av många olika scheman som realiserar den. Tanken är att kapacitetsanvändningsplanen, om prognosen för framtida trafik är rätt, på ett korrekt sätt lyckats abstraherat den framtida tågplanens konkreta schema. Hänsyn måste tas till de tidsmässiga kostnader som uppstår för att tåglägen har olika hastighet och på enkelspår går i olika riktning. Detta hanteras i analogi med andra industrisektorer med ställtid, vilket också är kapacitetskonsumtion och således ingår i kapacitetsanvändningsplanen. Utöver detta måste hänsyn i kapacitetsanvändnings-planen tas till tid som behövs för att reglera möten och förbigångar på omgivande driftplatser och ger upphov till ytor som inte längre kan nås i ett konkretiserat schema. Då denna kapacitetskonsumtion adderas till den övriga beskrivna kapacitets-konsumtionen har en kapacitetsbudget skapats vars syfte är att klargöra förutsättningarna för vilken trafik som kan bedrivas och som skall kunna realiseras i ett schema (tågplan) efter att ansökan om kapacitet skett. Det i denna rapport beskrivna måttet för kapacitetskonsumtion utgör en brygga mellan de tidigare processtegen i kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen och de senare.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RIT– Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen: Underlagsrapport 12020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapacitet på järnvägens infrastruktur tilldelas en gång per år till olika aktörer på järnvägen som har behov av järnvägskapacitet. Detta inkluderar järnvägsbolag såsom kommersiella person- och godstågsoperatörer, regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter, större bolag med transportbehov samt underhållsentreprenörer. Dessa har alla olika behov och värdesätter olika egenskaper för sina transporter, vissa har behov av långsiktigt stabil kapacitetstilldelning, andra har behov av större dynamik. Svensk järnvägslag ställer krav (kommande ur EU:s direktiv på området) att det finns reservkapacitet reserverat i den årliga tågplanen, som beskriver hur infrastrukturen skall användas. Reservkapacitet är kapacitet som medvetet och på goda grunder undanhållits i den årliga kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen då det finns behov av attraktiv kapacitet under innevarande tågplan. Reservkapacitet är således inte att likställa med restkapacitet vilket är den kapacitet som blir över efter att tågplanen är fastställd. Det är dock i dagsläget oklart hur reservkapacitet skall representeras i tågplaneprocessen, storleksmässigt avgöras och tidsmässigt placeras och planeras. Projektet RIT, Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen, söker svar på dessa frågor. Projektet RIT är också involverat i det av RNE (Rail Net Europe) initierade projektet TTR, Redesign of the international timetabling project (tidigare Timetable review) då det förslag till ändrad tilldelning av kapacitet som tagits fram i TTR innehåller avsevärt större krav på reservering av kapacitet i termer av en Capacity Portfolio, Capacity bands med reservering av kapacitet för upp till 3 års rullande planering (Rolling Planning) samt begreppet Safeguarding dvs att kapaciteten är reserverad och utlovad till aktör men inte nödvändigtvis detaljerat schemalagd. Samtliga dessa begrepp kräver förmåga att värdera nyttan av att reservera samt praktiskt hur reserveringen av kapacitet kan göras och slutligen realiseras som tågläge och operativt genomföras som en tågtransport eller underhållsarbete. Föreliggande statusrapport i projektet RIT beskriver inte ett färdigt resultat utan fokuseras på i huvudsak behovsanalys, formalisering av problemet, angreppssätt och tänkt modell.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Värdering av tågtrafik i TTRs förhandsplanering - Slutrapport från projektet TOT, Tjänsteutbud Och Transportkapacitets-försörjning på järnväg2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of train traffic in TTR's Advance planning Europe's infrastructure authorities organized in RNE, Rail Net Europe, and Europe's railway undertakers organized in FTE, Forum Train Europe, have for several years been running an international development programme called "Redesign of the International Timetabling Process" (originally "TimeTable Review", abbreviated TTR) aiming at trans-forming the capacity allocation process on railways. The results from TTR have in turn largely influenced the European Commission's proposal for a new regulation in the area. An important component, at least for Swedish conditions, is an increased degree of pre-planning which results in a supply/offer of pre-planned train paths. Capacity will also be reserved during the preparation of the annual timetable for later allocation which can be up to 3 years ahead. This places great demands on the infrastructure manager’s ability to be able to reserve capacity, value capacity (even under uncertainty) and safeguard the capacity characteristics that have been reserved, as well as having tools to support that. This report summarizes the work carried out within the project “Service and Transport capacity supply on rail”, TOT. The goal of TOT has been to investigate the possibilities of using the already defined Priority categories, used in the conflict phase of today’s process, for valuation and prioritization of train transports in the Advance planning phase of the TTR process, i.e., before railway undertakers formally apply for capacity. To summarize TOT’s results, the Swedish prioritization criteria can be used for valuation train traffic in TTR's Advance planning phase. Someone, preferably the infrastructure manager based on own experience, needs to decide which priority category different pre-planned transports should be classified as. The assessment should be made based on the society's utility that a particular transport is being performed. The Priority categories are not suited to e.g., decide in a competitive situation between equal actors which one that should be allocated a pre-planned train path. For this, a complementary method is needed to determine who should be allocated the capacity. Ideally, the Swedish Priority category also needs further development to, among other things, valuate traffic regularity as well as marginal effects when there are several similar paths planned during a limited time frame. There is a large need for a valuation function for the infrastructure manager during the preplanning phase, to be able to prioritize among different foreseen needs. The valuation model needs to value the socio-economic utility of the intended use of the infrastructure in the coming timetable where capacity shortages can be foreseen due to conflicting demands. For this purpose, the Swedish prioritization categories can work as a basis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen (RIT) – Slutrapport2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reserve capacity in Railway capacity allocation. Each year railway undertakings (RUs) apply for capacity to run trains on the railway infrastructure. The infrastructure manager (IM) should make a complete timetable for all applications together with capacity restrictions when maintenance etc must be performed. In this process, referred to as the capacity allocation process, the IM should also schedule some reserve capacity for later use during the execution of the plan. The reserve capacity then competes with the applied capacity of the RUs, since it is only motivated to introduce reserve capacity where there is a capacity scarcity. If there is plenty of rest capacity (capacity that no one applied for in the yearly process), then there is no need for reserve capacity. Since reserve capacity competes with all other capacity applied for in the yearly capacity allocation process, the amount, location and lines where reserve capacity is introduced must be founded in fair and sound principles in order for the RUs in the yearly process to accept the costs taken to make room for the reserve capacity. This report addresses such models and methods for the Swedish capacity allocation process. The report in part summarizes in condensed form the two earlier reports that have been published, as well as reports some new material regarding process descriptions, data analyses of previous years’ timetables and interviews with three different RUs. The report also gives some recommendations to the Swedish IM Trafikverket about tools for representing reserve capacity, design of the process and how to allocate paths based on reserve capacity once capacity has been reserved. One key recommendation is that a new timetabling object should be introduced, called Capacity reservation, CR. A CR is a named (has identity) timetabling object that can be used in a train path in the future. If an RU wants to use such a CR in a train path, the RU must apply for it and exceed a valuation criterion to be able to get it. This valuation criterion is a connection to the costs that other yearly applied traffic has to take in order to make room for the reserve capacity. CRs are managed (not “allocated”) by the IM and are not allocated to an RU or entrepreneur until they have applied for it. CRs are available for allocation after the timetable is finalized and the short-term process (ad hoc) is started, including the process step Late path requests. The report also relates the models and methods to the upcoming new capacity allocation process called Timetabling and capacity redesign, TTR. TTR introduces Advance planning, i.e. planning in advance of the RU allocations. For this to work, it is crucial to be able to reserve capacity in various forms, both segmentation and reserve over time (safeguarding).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Aronsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RIT – Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen : Underlagsrapport 22022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk järnvägslagstiftning ställer krav på infrastrukturförvaltaren att denne skall reservera kapacitet under den årliga kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen för tilldelning under tågplanens genomförande. Sådan så kallad reservkapacitet, till skillnad mot restkapacitet som är kapacitet som blir över vid årlig tilldelning, skall möjliggöra en följsamhet för tillkommande behov men även hantering av uppkommande förändringar så att effektiv användning av infrastrukturen säkerställs. Forsknings- och innovationsprojektet RIT, Reservkapacitet i Tilldelningsprocessen, studerar hur reservkapacitet kan åstadkommas med beaktande av krav på transparens, och rättvisa för aktörerna samt nytta för samhället. Vägledande för resultaten i RIT är att järnvägens aktörer skall kunna ställa sig bakom de principer som projektet RIT tar fram. Denna underlagsrapport två fokuserar på om och hur ett underlag för avsättning av reservkapacitet skall kunna tas fram. Två metoder har identifierats, dels att undersöka tidigare tågplaner och mängden sökta tåglägen under tågplanernas genomförande, dels möjligheterna att genom intervjuer och årligt återkommande marknadsundersökningar från aktörerna kunna identifiera behovet av reservkapacitet. Denna rapport omfattar huvudsakligen den första av de två möjliga sätten att identifiera reservkapacitet. En process som på ett grovt plan beskriver en möjlig framtida hantering av reservkapacitet ges också i rapporten. Denna process är sammanvävd med den nuvarande kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen. Ett huvudresultat i rapporten är att det är svårt att förutse nästa tågplans behov av reservkapacitet baserat på data som finns tillgänglig idag. Tidigare ansökningar visar endast det som den sökande tror sig kunna få (eller har fått reda på att denna troligen kan få sig tilldelat) vilket inte avspeglar det faktiska behovet som den sökande egentligen skulle vilja söka. Saknas gör dessutom alla de ansökningar som den sökande inte finner någon mening att söka (då t.ex. kapaciteten på nyckelsträckor är fullbelagd). Vidare söks kapacitet som skulle kunna sökas på reservkapacitet (om den funnits) idag spekulativt i den årliga tilldelningen, dvs den sökande söker det denne tror att denne behöver. Sammantaget gör detta, tillsammans med alla tåglägen som söks under tågplanens genomförande i revisionsplaneringen på grund av banarbeten, att dagens data om tillkommande trafik under tågplanen inte utgör en bra grund för att undersöka behovet av nästkommande tågplans behov.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Arvidsson, Moa
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Sawirot, S.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Torstensson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Drone Navigation and License Place Detection for Vehicle Location in Indoor Spaces2024In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2024, p. 362-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of vehicles are transported every year, tightly parked in vessels or boats. To reduce the risks of associated safety issues like fires, knowing the location of vehicles is essential, since different vehicles may need different mitigation measures, e.g. electric cars. This work is aimed at creating a solution based on a nano-drone that navigates across rows of parked vehicles and detects their license plates. We do so via a wall-following algorithm, and a CNN trained to detect license plates. All computations are done in real-time on the drone, which just sends position and detected images that allow the creation of a 2D map with the position of the plates. Our solution is capable of reading all plates across eight test cases (with several rows of plates, different drone speeds, or low light) by aggregation of measurements across several drone journeys. 

  • 41.
    Autili, Marco
    et al.
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Pompilio, Claudio
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Tivoli, Massimo
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Choreography-Based Urban Traffic Coordination2021In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2088-2099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emerging connected automated vehicles, 5G and Internet of Things (IoT), vehicles and road infrastructure become connected and cooperative, enabling Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). C-ITS are transport system of systems that involves many stakeholders from different sectors. While running their own systems and providing services independently, stakeholders cooperate with each other for improving the overall transport performance such as safety, efficiency and sustainability. Massive information on road and traffic is already available and provided through standard services with different protocols. By reusing and composing the available heterogeneous services, novel value-added applications can be developed. This paper introduces a choreography-based service composition platform, i.e. the CHOReVOLUTION Integrated Development and Runtime Environment (IDRE), and it reports on how the IDRE has been successfully exploited to accelerate the reuse-based development of a choreography-based Urban Traffic Coordination (UTC) application. The UTC application takes the shape of eco-driving services that through real-time eco-route evaluation assist the drivers for the most eco-friendly and comfortable driving experience. The eco-driving services are realized through choreography and they are exploited through a mobile app for online navigation. From specification to deployment to execution, the CHOReVOLUTION IDRE has been exploited to support the realization of the UTC application by automatizing the generation of the distributed logic to properly bind, coordinate and adapt the interactions of the involved parties. The benefits brought by CHOReVOLUTION IDRE have been assessed through the evaluation of a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).

  • 42.
    Avital, Michel
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nickerson, Jeffrey V.
    Stevens Institute of Technology, USA.
    Sundararajan, Arun
    New York University, United States.
    Van Alstyne, Marshall W.
    Boston University, USA.
    Verhoeven, Deb
    Deakin University, Australia.
    The collaborative economy: A disruptive innovation or much ado about nothing?2014In: 35th International Conference on Information Systems: Building a Better World Through Information Systems, ICIS 2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy of "sharing" translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies enable it, and how the massive sociotechnical systems embodied in these new peer platforms may evolve in response to the market and social forces that drive this emerging ecosystem.

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Systems-of-Systems Design Patterns: A Systematic Literature Review and Synthesis2022In: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 171-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns are an established approach for reusing knowledge about good solutions to recurring problems. Patterns can be seen as a way of describing the best practices, and have been used in many different fields, ranging from building architecture and city planning to software development. There are also scattered results relating to patterns for systems-of-systems. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and review the literature on patterns for systems-of-systems and make a synthesis of a recommended approach for the field. Specifically, the novel contributions of the paper are to propose a consolidated structure for describing individual patterns and suggest the dimensions along which a pattern catalog can be organized. The paper also summarizes the concrete patterns suggested in the existing literature and classifies them according to the recommended structure. 

  • 44.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    What Systems Engineers Should Know About Emergence2022In: INCOSE International Symposium, 2022, Vol. 32:1, p. 1070-1084Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of emergence refers to phenomena that occur on a system level without being present at the level of elements in the system. Since a system is created to achieve certain emergent system-level behavior, while avoiding other emergent properties, a deeper understanding of emergence is crucial to further the field of systems engineering. It has also been identified as one of the key aspects of systems-of-systems. However, the concept has been the topic of much debate in philosophy, systems science, and complexity science for a long time, and there is yet no precise characterization on which there is general agreement. In this paper, a selection of the literature on emergence is reviewed to identify some key characteristics and disputes. The various philosophical points of view are analyzed from the perspective of systems engineering, to sort out what characteristics have practical implications, and which philosophical quiddities are merely of theoretical interest. The paper also relates emergence to systems engineering practices and suggests some tactics for dealing with emergence. Key results are that the inclusion of an explicit observer is essential for understanding and handling emergence, and that emergence is closely related to the amount of information required to describe the system which is also a defining characteristic of complexity.

  • 45.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Bergh, Torsten
    Swedish Transport Administration/Movea, Sweden.
    Johansson, Alexander
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mårdberg, Björn
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Svenson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Åkesson, Viktor
    DB Schenker, Sweden.
    Truck Platooning Business Case Analysis2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we describe results from the work on business case analysis of the Sweden for Platooning (S4P) project. Platooning has the potential to contribute to the on-going transformation of the transport sector by reducing environmental impact, saving fuel, as well as (to a lesser extent) by improving traffic flow and safety and in the long run reducing driver hours. In order to fulfil these promises, it must be shown that there are viable business cases for all involved actors. This report describes the analysis of truck platooning business cases performed in the S4P project.

    Some of the main findings are that there is a significant potential for reducing fuel consumption and hence CO2 exhaust through platooning; that waiting on the order of minutes for a platooning opportunity is reasonable but that taking another route is probably not; that it is necessary to have mediating services that help platoons to form and share the costs and benefits associated with platooning; and that there are different possible ways of implementing a system for sharing the benefits.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Blue Institute, Sweden.
    Higher-Level Capabilities of System-of-Systems Constituents: A Case of Industrial Ecosystems2023In: 2023 18th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSe 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a system-of-systems, independent constituent systems collaborate to achieve broader capabilities they cannot provide on their own. This paper investigates the nature of the constituent system capabilities beyond basic operational actions, to achieve a deeper understanding of what is required to participate in a system-of-systems. Through a case study of industrial ecosystems, the need is shown for planning how to use basic operational capabilities, for dynamic capabilities to achieve long-term evolution, and for resilience capabilities to deal with perturbations. This also affects the governance of the system. The findings are used to extend an existing conceptual model of constituent systems and to characterize collaboration in a system-of-systems that implements a value network. 

  • 47.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Svenson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    On the Concepts of Capability and Constituent System Independence in Systems-of-Systems2022In: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 247-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems-of-systems are designed to provide a capability that their constituent systems cannot achieve individually. A key property is that the constituent systems have some degree of operational and managerial independence. The concepts of capability and independence are thus central to the field of systems-of-systems. Yet the contemporary literature and standards only give vague definitions of these terms. This vagueness is a barrier to progress in the field, and this paper aims at contributing with a more detailed conceptualization. It describes a system capability as a state-transforming process that uses certain resources. Independence means that the system has a choice about when and how its capabilities should be activated. This requires that the system is an intelligent agent with a notion of utility, a perception of the world around it, and a decision-making capability. When given a mission, the system can complete that mission by activating appropriate combinations of capabilities. A system-of-systems can decompose its mission into parts that correspond to the capabilities of various constituent systems.

  • 48.
    Bach, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Forsström, Ellinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Piehl, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Raza, Zeeshan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rydbergh, Torbjörn
    Marine Benchmark, Sweden.
    HAMNEN SOM ENERGINOD : Ett koncept för hamnens roll i omställningen mot ett hållbart transportsystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsystemet står inför en enorm utmaning då trycket på genomförandet av hållbara operationer aldrig varit större. Enligt IEA står transportsektorn för 16% av det totala koldioxidutsläppet i världen som med nödvändighet måste minska för att vi ska kunna lämna efter oss en planet med resurser för framtida generationer. Utmaningen kräver att alla delar av transportsystemet gör sitt bidrag, oavsett om det handlar om transportoperatörer, transportnoder, myndigheter på såväl lokal, regional som global nivå och tvärs samtliga transportslag. Det slutar dock inte där, det är lika viktigt att de som konstruerar olika typer av lastbärare och fordon för både gods- och persontransporter också beaktar den energi som förväntas vara tillgänglig i rätt kvantitet och till rätt pris. Energiproducenter behöver också tillgodose att efterfrågade energibärare produceras och finns att tillgå vid rätt plats och i tillräcklig kvantitet då den behövs. Detta är i linje med de behov av insatser som Sveriges regering lyfter inom transporteffektivitet, hållbara förnybara drivmedel samt energieffektiva fordon och fartyg, för att reducera Sveriges territoriella CO2 utsläpp i linje med de globala målen. En viktig del av transportsystemet är hamnar som har fönster mot flera olika transportslag och utgör multimodala noder som förväntas ombesörja en så sömlös övergång mellan olika transportslag som möjligt, såsom till/från sjö, järnväg och väg. Svenska hamnar är inget undantag, utan i Sverige med sin längsta europeiska kustremsa behöver Sveriges hamnar också etablera tillräcklig kapabilitet för att hantera såväl inhemska transportbehov som förväntade transporter för import och export på ett hållbart sätt. Hamnar står inför utmaningen att både bedriva sina operationer på ett så hållbart sätt som möjligt genom nyttjande av fossilfri energi, att förse besökare med fossilfria energibärare, och att balansera sitt nyttjande och distribution av hållbar energi med de behov som omgivningen har. Organisationer med lastbilar, tåg, och fartyg som besöker en transportnod, däribland hamnar, förväntar sig att de kan försörjas med viss energi. Transportnoder kan således inte bara betraktas utifrån att vara en effektiv omlastningspunkt, utan behöver också betraktas utifrån den roll som transportnoden har och kan komma att ta i den del av energisystemet som relaterar till transportsystemet. Hamnar som transportnoder behöver således etablera en förmåga som energinod. I föreliggande projekt har trender beaktats för utvecklingen inom olika transportslag, intervjuer genomförts med svenska hamnar samt en enkätundersökning genomförts riktad till en majoritet av Sveriges hamnar. I projektet identifieras att de viktigaste drivkrafterna för hamnarnas hållbarhets- och omställningsarbete är kundkrav, kostnadsbesparingar, hamnens interna målsättning (ofta baserad på ägarnas krav och vision) samt regelverk. Slutsatsen är att Sveriges hamnar har en stark ambition att utveckla sin förmåga som energinod för olika roller. Samtidigt råder en villrådighet om vilka satsningar som skulle ge störst effekter för hamnens verksamhet. Viktigt att notera är också att olika hamnar har olika förutsättningar och roller i transportsystemet, beroende på dess geografiska placering, storlek och typ av gods / passagerare som hanteras. Samtidigt görs stora investeringar i Sveriges hamnsystem, för att proaktivt utveckla en kapabilitet att möta dagens och morgondagens transportbehov, särskilt i ljuset av den omflyttning som sker från vägbundna transporter till järnväg och sjö. Det är vanligt att hamnar etablerar inlandsterminalskapabilitet, d v s skapar förmåga för omlastning mellan tåg och väg där inte någon sjötransport behöver vara inblandad. Många av Sveriges järnvägsoperatörer ser hamnar som strategiska noder i järnvägssystemet. Dessutom det är tydligt från intervjuerna, vilket även styrks av enkätsvar, att respondenterna anser att otillräckliga finansiella medel, höga kostnader och skatt, omogen teknik, infrastruktur, effekt, standardisering, kompetens, och politisk otydlighet är de största utmaningar som påverkar svenska hamnars roll i hållbarhets- och omställningsarbete. Baserat på genomförd trend- och nulägesanalys föreslås en mognadsmodell som rådgivande för hamnens proaktiva utveckling av sin energinodskapacitet. Denna modell tar utgångspunkt i att hamnen etablerar en energistrategi som tar höjd för nödvändiga samarbeten och investeringar som de både blir tvingade till genom regelverk, påverkade av genom beslut och själva har rådighet över. Hamnarna är tydliga med att huvudverksamheten är att utgöra en transportnod, men att de, för att möjliggöra en omställning mot ett hållbart transportsystem, också behöver ge utrymme för andra aktörer, såsom energiproducenter och energidistributörer att bedriva sin verksamhet relaterat till hamnens geografiska område. Således behöver det kluster av aktörer som ingår i hamnen som nod expanderas till att också innefatta producenter och distributörer av energi. Hamnens energistrategi är rådgivande för att hamnen skall kunna etablera en förmåga som säkerställer att de krav som hamnens operationer, hamnens besökare och hamnens roll med sin geografiska placering, möts. Föreslagen mognadsmodell riktar uppmärksamhet just till dessa nivåer av förmåga och skapar grunder för formuleringen av en proaktiv strategi för den enskilda hamnens roll i transportsystemets energiomställning. En viktig grund blir då att simulera framtida energibehov, såsom inom elförsörjnings- och eldistributionsområdet, men även för andra energibärare, varför detta projekt föreslår ett fortsättningsprojekt där förväntade energibehov kan simuleras och bli rådgivande för strategi, samverkan och investering för Sveriges hamnar. En sådan simuleringsmodell bygger på hamnens digitala förmåga att fånga och använda data från operationer för att säkerställa att hamnen bidrar till transporteffektivitet, användning av hållbara förnybara drivmedel samt energieffektiva fordon och fartyg. Samspelet mellan hamnen som energinod och transportbärares kapabilitet att drivas på hållbar energi samt energiproducenters/energidistributörers förmåga att tillhandahålla fossilfri energi, utgör grunden till fossilfria transporter. Fossilfria väg-, järnvägs- och sjötransporter kan således inte etableras utan att ta hänsyn till alla ingående komponenter. I denna nödvändiga transformation har hamnar och andra transportnoder en nyckelroll.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Barreto, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reinert, Olof
    Umeå University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Wiesinger, Tobias
    Umeå University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Duopoly insurers’ incentives for data quality under a mandatory cyber data sharing regime2023In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 131, article id 103292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of data sharing policies on cyber insurance markets. These policies have been proposed to address the scarcity of data about cyber threats, which is essential to manage cyber risks. We propose a Cournot duopoly competition model in which two insurers choose the number of policies they offer (i.e., their production level) and also the resources they invest to ensure the quality of data regarding the cost of claims (i.e., the data quality of their production cost). We find that enacting mandatory data sharing sometimes creates situations in which at most one of the two insurers invests in data quality, whereas both insurers would invest when information sharing is not mandatory. This raises concerns about the merits of making data sharing mandatory. 

  • 50.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. University of Sydney, Australia: Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Shared mobility services in Swedish rural areas: Development and demonstration of the KomILand-concept2021In: 2021 International Transport Forum (ITF) Pre-Summit Research Day, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport accounts for a large share of global green-house gas emissions. Research efforts are being made to identify, develop, and test new types of resource efficient solutions that meet peoples’ mobility needs. A growing trend within this realm is so called shared mobility services – such as car-sharing, bicycle rental, and ride-sourcing – which is expected to have the potential to complement and strengthen public transport and support less car-centric lifestyles. Shared mobility has become an integral part of the dominant discourse around the future of transport (autonomous-connected-electric-shared), and although their modal shares still are minor, recent years have seen significant growth of shared mobility services.

    However, eforts to develop shared mobility services have predominantly been made in urban areas where the services are expected to have greater impact on green-house gas reduction. Further, most research on shared mobility has focused on urban areas . Consequently, there is a lack of empirical research on how shared mobility services can be organized in rural areas, and what effects they can have on aspects such as of car ownership, green-house gas emissions, and quality of life.

    The KomILand project set out to address these knowledge gaps by developing and testing the KomILand concept – a regional Mobility-as-a-Service platform that enable rural dwellers to put together shared mobility service offerings that are tailored to the specific needs of their communities. An initial pre-study (2017-2018) paved the way for a trial of the concept by identifying suitable rural towns, likely user groups and their demands, key service components, and possible business models. Subsequently, the ongoing trial phase of the project (2019-2021) aims to develop a functional prototype and to test it in collaboration with civic associations in three rural towns with 800-900 inhabitants in Västra Götaland in West Sweden.

    In the following, this extended abstract first presents key findings from the pre-study. Thereafter, a few insights from the ongoing trial are provided prior to a concluding discussion on possible pathways for the journey from a temporary, small-scale trial towards a region-wide and continuous operation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1234567 1 - 50 of 319
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf