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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Sandberg, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Galvanic corrosion properties of steel in water saturated concrete2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum-based sacrificial anodes were installed to reinforced concrete to stop ongoing corrosion in cooling water tunnels in a Swedish nuclear power plant. The steel rebars were also unintentionally connected to stainless steel water pumps. Therefore, the consumption rate of the sacrificial anodes was higher than predicted. An experimental and a field study were performed to assess if the steel rebar suffer from galvanic corrosion and if the stainless steel pumps are responsible alone for the high consumption rate. It was found from the experimental study that there is an increased risk of galvanic corrosion for steel rebar when the corrosion potential is raised to -200mV (SCE) for samples with 1% CL- by mass of cement and -500mV (SCE) for samples with 2% Cl- by mass of cement. The experimental results were compared with the corrosion potential measured in the cooling water tunnel where sacri ficial anodes were in use and not mounted at all. The cooling water tunnel without sacrificial anodes had generally more anodic corrosion potentials compared to the tunnel with anodes. The tunnel with anodes had also more anodic potentials closer to the stainless steel pumps than further away which means that the rebar is affected by the stainless steel pumps. However, the measured corrosion potentials in the tunnels were not as anodic as the potentials needed for high galvanic current measured in the experimental study.

  • 2.
    Elger, R.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Magnusson, H.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Frisk, K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Modelling internal nitridation in an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel2017In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An austenitic alumina forming stainless steel was exposed in a nitriding atmosphere comprising 5 vol% H2/N2 for 100 and 1000 h. After 100 h, the sample displayed aluminium nitrides down to 450 μm and chromium nitrides down to 200 μm. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and kinetic modelling of the system to simulate 100 h of exposure time were performed using the software ThermoCalc 4.1 including DICTRA. The order of appearance of nitrides in the sample starting from the surface can be understood from the thermodynamic equilibria as well as from results of kinetic modelling. However, the nitridation depth predicted by the kinetic modelling, was larger than experimentally observed, and the cubic chromium nitride predicted to be present on the surface was not detected in the exposed sample. One difference between model and experiment was a thin oxide layer present on the surface of the sample. As this oxide layer can decrease the inwards flux of nitrogen, attempts were made to describe the effects of this layer in the model. The model was also used for qualitative comparison of varying alloy compositions, temperatures and initial nitrogen contents of the matrix.

  • 3.
    Fuertes, N.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Bengtsson, V.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, R.
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Rohwerder, M.
    MPI, Germany.
    Use of SVET to evaluate corrosion resistance of heat tinted stainless steel welds and effect of post-weld cleaning2017In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 7-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of heat tints on the corrosion resistance of a 2507 duplex stainless steel tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded joint was assessed. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was used to study oxide dissolution, initiation and propagation of corrosion on the weld. Small spot X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the composition and thickness of the heat tints. Both heat tinted and post-weld cleaned conditions were tested. Post-weld cleaning methods investigated were brushing, brushing plus polishing and brushing plus pickling paste. It was seen that heat tints dissolve by electrochemical reactions that can be mapped with the SVET and correlated with the level of discolouration of the oxides, with the purple–brown oxide being the most active. The mechanical post-weld cleaning methods proved to be insufficient to remove the anodic activity in the heat tint. The most efficient process was brushing followed by pickling which resulted in a totally passive surface measured with SVET and a higher critical pitting temperature.

  • 4.
    Jönsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Rendahl, Bo
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Annergren, Ingegerd
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    The use of infrared thermography in the corrosion science area2010In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 961-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of infrared (IR) cameras has in recent years gained interest as a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique in a number of different research fields. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emits IR radiation, and the amount of radiation increases with temperature. Infrared thermography is a non-contact technique with high speed which allows inspection of large areas in a relatively short time. In the present work different aspects of IR thermography are described and discussed. Further, corrosion panels with defects, i.e. blisters and filiform corrosion, have been investigated with pulsed thermography. The area of the blisters and filaments, measured with pulsed thermography, have been evaluated, the result obtained have been compared with results from surface profile measurements of the same area. The differences between the results and the limitations of the pulsed thermography are discussed. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 5.
    Lindell, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Crystallographic effects in corrosion of austenitic stainless steel 316L2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 727-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron backscatter diffraction and confocal laser microscopy have been used to quantify the degree of crystallographic anisotropy during corrosion of AISI 316L in two test solutions. Corrosion in 30 vol% H2SO4 sulphuric acid shows pronounced crystallographic anisotropy in which the corrosion rate increases in the order {111} < {110} â‰2; {100}. The ratio between the slowest corroding {111} and the fasting corroding {100} surfaces is about 3. Pitting corrosion in a solution of FeCl3 and AlCl3 in ethanol/glycerol agrees with other reported observations that high-atomic density surfaces {111} and {100} are less prone to pit nucleation, however the effect was relative small.

  • 6.
    Sathirachinda, N.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Wessman, Sten
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, R.
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    Evaluation of corrosion behaviour in a 317L stainless steel strip welding using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy2011In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 1092-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy have been used in combination with SEM/EDS and immersion tests to study a 317L electroslag strip weld which contains austenite and interdendritic ferrite and sigma phase. The individual phases can easily be recognized from the compositional contrast, magnetic pattern and Volta potential variation. Austenite, which is paramagnetic, exhibits the highest Volta potential followed by non-magnetic sigma phase and ferromagnetic ferrite, respectively. Corrosion testing in acidic chloride solutions indicates that the Volta potential measured in air can be related to the tendency to uniform corrosion, while pitting corrosion shows different dependence. In both cases ferrite and sigma phase behaved in a similar manner, indicating that there was no specific detrimental effect of sigma phase on corrosion properties in this material. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 7.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Covercrete with hybrid functions - A novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures2012In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1119-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Sjögren, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Camitz, Göran
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Peultier, J.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD.
    Jacques, S.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD.
    Baudu, V.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD.
    Barrau, F.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD.
    Chareyre, B.
    Industeel and ArcelorMittal RandD.
    Bergquist, A.
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    Pourbaix, A.
    Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study.
    Carpentiers, P.
    Belgian Centre for Corrosion Study.
    Corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes in soil2011In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to give safe recommendations concerning the choice of suitable stainless steel grades for pipelines to be buried in various soil environments, a large research programme, including field exposures of test specimens buried in soil in Sweden and in France, has been performed. Resistance against external corrosion of austenitic, super austenitic, lean duplex, duplex and super duplex steel grades in soil has been investigated by laboratory tests and field exposures. The grades included have been screened according to their critical pitting-corrosion temperature and according to their time-to-re-passivation after the passive layer has been destroyed locally by scratching. The field exposures programme, being the core of the investigation, uses large specimens: 2 m pipes and plates, of different grades. The exposure has been performed to reveal effects of aeration cells, deposits or confined areas, welds and burial depth. Additionally, investigations of the tendency of stainless steel to corrode under the influence of alternating current (AC) have been performed, both in the laboratory and in the field. Recommendations for use of stainless steels under different soil conditions are given based on experimental results and on operating experiences of existing stainless steel pipelines in soil. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 9.
    Tabeshian, Ali
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Arnberg, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Aune, Ragnhild
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparison of the electrochemical behavior of amorphous Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10, stainless steel (316LVM), and CoCrMo (F75) in simulated body fluid with and without addition of protein2019In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 652-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical behavior of, and metal ion release from the bulk amorphous (glassy) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloy (Zr-MG) was evaluated in simulated body fluid (phosphate buffer saline [PBS]), with and without additions of protein (albumin Fraction V) at pH 7.4 and 5.2 and at body temperature 310 K (37 °C). The passivation behavior and susceptibility to pitting of the Zr-MG was compared with conventional load bearing implant materials, that is, the medical grade ASTM F75 cast CoCrMo alloy (CoCrMo) and AISI 316 LVM low carbon vacuum re-melted stainless steel alloy (SS). Furthermore, the metal ion release from the main constituent elements of each alloy was measured and compared. All materials showed passive behavior in the PBS solution with and without presence of albumin, though the passive region was smaller for the Zr-MG compared to the CoCrMo and SS. Moreover, all materials experienced pitting corrosion in the PBS solution while the Zr-MG was the most susceptible and the CoCrMo was the least one. Protein additions to the CoCrMo and SS prevented the formation of stable pits at pH 7.4 and 5.2. A decrease in passive region and pitting potential was seen in the case of albumin additions for the Zr-MG at pH 7.4, while the opposite was seen at pH 5.2. Furthermore, the total metal ion release from the Zr-MG was less than for the CoCrMo.

  • 10.
    Tang, Luping
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Zang, E Q
    Covercrete with hybrid functions: novel approach to durable reinforced concrete structures2012In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 1119-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures, the concrete with low water-cement ratio (w/c), high cement content, and large cover thickness is conventionally used for prolonging the passivation period of steel. Obviously, this conventional approach to durable concrete structures is at the sacrifice of more CO2 emission and natural resources through consuming higher amount of cement and more constituent materials, which is against sustainability. By placing an economically affordable conductive mesh made of carbon fiber or conductive polymer fiber in the near surface zone of concrete acting as anode we can build up a cathodic prevention system with intermittent low current density supplied by, e.g., the solar cells. In such a way, the aggressive negative ions such as Cl-, CO3 2-, and SO4 2- can be stopped near the cathodic (steel) zone. Thus the reinforcement steel is prevented from corrosion even in the concrete with relatively high w/c and small cover thickness. This conductive mesh functions not only as electrode, but also as surface reinforcement to prevent concrete surface from cracking. Therefore, this new type of covercrete has hybrid functions. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of feasibility of this approach and discusses the potential durability problems and possible solutions to the potential problems.

  • 11.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Long-term atmospheric corrosion rates of hot dip galvanised steel and zinc-aluminium-magnesium coated steel2019In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn coated steel (Z) and ZnAlMg coated steel (ZM3.7/3 = Zn–Al (3.7 wt.%)-Mg (3.0 wt.%)) have been exposed for 6 years at twelve different weathering sites world wide. The mass loss of the coatings have been measured after 1, 2, 4, and 6 years exposure. From the results, it is shown that ZM3.7/3 had always a better corrosion performance compared to Z. The ratio of performance after 6 years of exposure varied from about 1.4 to 4.4 with a mean value of 2.8. At temperate marine sites (e.g., temperature between 9–20°C) with low to moderate SO 2 pollution a good relationship was observed between the relative performance of ZM3.7/3 and the corrosion rate of Z. It was thus concluded that ZM3.7/3 has a better relative performance in harsh environments. The corrosion performance of ZM3.7/3 was shown to be connected to the formation of protective corrosion products.

  • 12.
    Tidblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Hicks, Kevin
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Kuylenstierna, Johan
    Stockholm Environment Institute, UK.
    Pradhan, Bidya Banmali
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Dangol, Pradeep
    ICIMOD, Nepal.
    Mylvakanam, Iyngararasan
    UNEP, Kenya.
    Feresu, Sara Baisai
    Insitute of Environmental Studies, Zimbabwe.
    Lungu, Chozi
    University of Zambia, Zambia.
    Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Kathmandu, Nepal2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon steel, zinc and limestone samples were exposed in Kathmandu for one year. Their corrosion was measured at ten locations and related to SO2, NO2, O3, HNO3 and PM concentrations and climatic factors. Corrosion rates vary considerably and are correlated mainly with the SO2 concentration. Estimated policy targets for SO2 are most stringent for limestone, in the range 3 to 6μgm-3. The Kathmandu carbon steel and limestone samples matched a general pattern from exposures at more than twenty sites in Asia and Africa. At these Asian/African sites corrosion of copper is generally higher than corrosion of zinc. This is in contrast to experiences from European conditions where corrosion of zinc is higher than corrosion of copper.

  • 13.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Kassman, Håkan
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Sweden.
    Åmand, Lars Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Deposit chemistry and initial corrosion during biomass combustion: The influence of excess O2 and sulphate injection2015In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of superheater tubes is a serious problem during combustion of fuels with a high content of chlorine, such as waste and certain biomasses. The alkali chlorides are released to the flue gas and may condense on the heat exchanger tubes forming corrosive, chloride-rich deposits. In this work the effect of ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) injection on gaseous alkali chlorides, deposit chemistry and initial corrosion attack of superheater tubes during biomass combustion have been investigated. The investigation was carried out at three different sulphate injection rates (reference, low and high) and at three air excess ratios (λ = 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4). Short-term exposures of Sanicro 28 specimens, using temperature controlled probes, were used for deposit collection and to study the initial corrosion attack. The results showed reduced concentrations of potassium chloride in the flue gas when injecting ammonium sulphate and in particular in combination with high air excess ratios. A decrease of chlorine was also observed in the deposit, but the concentrations did not always correlate to the flue gas measurements. In particular, it was evident that a subsequent sulphation occurred on the tube surface at low air excess ratios. Metallography revealed that sulphation reactions on the tube surface, rather than in the flue gas, had a detrimental effect on the initial corrosion attack. As a consequence, the corrosion attack correlated more clearly to the KCl(g) concentration in the flue gas than the chlorine content in the deposit.

  • 14.
    Viklund, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Cyclic long-term testing of gas turbine burner materials in reducing environments at 700 °c2014In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbines operating under fuel-rich conditions may suffer from material degradation and metal dusting.To evaluate this cyclic exposures have been done at 700 °C during 5000 h in two synthetic environments having a carbon activity of 0.26 and above unity. It was found that the common stainless steel 304L is incapable of withstanding either of the environments, while the stainless steel 253MA performs well because a protective silica layer is formed. The ferritic alumina formers Kanthal APM and Kanthal APMT perform well, together with several commercial chromia forming Ni-base alloys. As a general trend the material degradation is slower in the environment with the higher carbon activity, but pre-oxidised samples of chromia forming alloys did experience sudden and rapid carburisation after scale failure. Also a TBC system failed earlier in this environment, because graphite formation at the top coat/bond coat interface caused spalling of the top coat. Further the MCrAlY bond coat cracked and caused carburisation of the underlying Ni-based substrate. A silicon modified aluminide coating showed good degradation resistance, but stimulated excessive carbon deposition in the environment of high carbon activity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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