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  • 1. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Catalysis in micellar and liquid-crystalline phases : I. the system water-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide-hexanol1972In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 94, p. 5196-5199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, KM
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Density measurements of single granules using the atomic force microscope2005In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 88, p. 2322-2324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The density of single spray-dried granules has been determined with a new method based on the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Spherical granules with a well-defined diameter are attached to the AFM cantilever, which acts as a beam type spring, and the mass of a granule is estimated from the shift in the resonant frequency. The error of the measurements associated with the method was estimated to vary between 1-5% depending on the size and shape of the granule. Density measurements of spray-dried WC-Co granules are presented and the effect of a polymeric binder and dispersant on the consolidation during drying is discussed

  • 3.
    Andersson, KM
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Effect of cobalt ion and polyethyleneimine adsorption on the surface forces between tungsten oxide and cobalt oxide in aqueous media2002In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 85, p. 2404-2408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the colloidal probe technique with the atomic force microscope (AFM), to study the interactions between a tungsten oxide sphere, WO3, and flat oxidized tungsten and cobalt surfaces in aqueous electrolytes. We have investigated the effects of adsorption of cobalt ions to tungsten oxide surfaces and adsorption of polyethyleneimine (PEI). Low concentrations of cobalt ions to a WO3system resulted in extended hydration forces and lower absolute value of the surface potential. It was shown that PEI adsorbs to the WO3 surfaces and induces an electrosteric repulsion in both the symmetric (WO3-WO3) and asymmetric (WO3-CoOOH) system. The possible complexation of cobalt ions with PEI does not significantly influence the thickness of the adsorbed layer

  • 4. Andersson, L.
    et al.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Bergström, L.
    Evaluating pore space in macroporous ceramics with water-based porosimetry2013In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, no 6, p. 1916-1922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rheological properties of concentrated, nonaqueous silicon nitride suspensions1996In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 79, p. 3033-3040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of nonaqueous silicon nitride powder suspensions have been investigated using steady shear and viscoelastic measurements. The polymeric dispersant, Hypermer KD-3 adsorbed strongly on the powder surfaces and colloidally stable, fluid suspensions up to a volume fraction of Φ= 0.50 could be prepared. The concentrated suspensions all displayed a shear thinning behavior which could be modelled using the high shear form of the Cross equation. The viscoelastic response at high concentrations was dominated by particle interactions, probably due to interpenetration of the adsorbed polymer layers, and a thickness of the adsorbed Hypermer KD-3 layer, ∆≈10 nm, was estimated. The volume fraction dependence of the high shear viscosity of three different silicon nitride powders were compared and the differences, analysed by using a modified Krieger-Dougherty model, were related to effective volume effects and the physical characteristics of the powders. The significantly lower maximum volume fraction, Φm= 0.47, of the SN E-10 powder was referred to the narrow particle size distribution and the possibility of an unfavourable particle morphology.

  • 6.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blomberg, E
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Probing polymeric stabilization in nonaqueous media by direct measurements2000In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 83, p. 217-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steric repulsion induced by adsorbed layers of the commercial dispersant Hypermer KD3 has been probed by direct measurements in decalin. The forces are long range (commencing at 30-40 nm) and repulsive, and the distance dependence can be modeled with a simple scaling theory expression valid for polymer brushes. We obtain layer thicknesses on the order of L~9-15 nm for the compressed layers depending on KD3 concentration while the undisturbed layers have a thickness L~23-24 nm, independent of polymer concentration. Comparision of the measured interaction lengths of compressed and undisturbed polymer layers with previous layer thickness estimates based on rheological studies shows that the polymer layers are compressed in dense suspensions.

  • 7.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Meurk, A
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Arwin, H
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rowcliffe, DJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Estimation of Hamaker constants of ceramic materials from optical data using Lifshitz theory1996In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 79, p. 339-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hamaker constants of 8 different ceramic materials, 6H-SiC, tetragonal, partially stabilized-ZrO2 (3% Y2O3), b-Si3N4, a-Al2O3, Y2O3, sapphire (single crystal a-Al2O3), MgO, MgAl2O4, and fused silica, across air, water, and n-dodecane at room temperature and across silica at 2000 K have been calculated from optical data using Lifshitz theory. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to measure the photon energy dependence of the refractive index, n, and the extinction coefficient, k, in the visible and near-UV range on several important ceramic materials. This relatively simple, nondestructive technique has proved to yield reliable optical data on sintered, polycrystalline materials like Si3N4, SiC, ZrO2 and Al2O3. For the other materials, Y2O3, sapphire, MgO, MgAl2O4 and fused silica, optical data from the literature were used to calculate the Hamaker constants. The calculated Hamaker constants were estimated to be accurate within ± 10%.

  • 8.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Pugh, RJ
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Interfacial characterization of silicon nitride powders1989In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 72, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Schilling, CH
    Aksay, IA
    Consolidation behavior of flocculated alumina suspensions1992In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 75, p. 3305-3314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consolidation behavior of flocculated alumina suspensions was analyzed as a function of the interparticle energy. Consolidation was performed by a centrifugal force field or by gravity and both the time dependent and equilibrium density profiles were measured by a gamma ray absorption technique. The interparticle energy at contact was controlled by adsorbing fatty acids of varying molecular weight at the alumina/decalin interface. We found that strongly attractive interactions result in a particle network which resists consolidation and shows compressible behavior over a large stress range. The most weakly flocculated suspension showed an essentially incompressible, homogeneous density profile after consolidation at different centrifugal speeds. We also found a significant variation in the maximum volume fraction, m, obtained, with m 0.54 for the most strongly flocculated suspension to m 0.63 for the most weakly flocculated suspension. The compressive yield stresses show a behavior which can be fitted to a modified power law. In this paper, we discuss possible correlations between the fitting parameters and physical properties of the flocculated suspensions.

  • 10.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Shinozaki, K
    Tomiyama, H
    Mizutani, N
    Colloidal processing of a very fine BaTiO3 powder-effect of particle interactions on the suspension properties, consolidation and sintering behavior1997In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 80, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between the suspension state and the rheological properties, the consolidation, and packing of a very fine (nanosized) BaTiO3 powder has been investigated. The BaTiO3 powder was suspended in a non-aqueous medium by adsorbing fatty acids and a polymeric dispersant, poly(12-hydroxy stearic acid), (PHS), at the BaTiO3/decane interface. Calculated interparticle energies implies that the suspension with PHS adsorbed is colloidally stable while the suspensions with oleic and octanoic acid can be characterised as weakly and strongly flocculated, respectively. Analysis of settling experiments and rheological measurements at high concentrations confirmed this characteristics. Pressure filtration resulted in nearly identical green body densities in spite of the differences in colloidal properties, but the preliminary sintering experiments and microstructural characterisation showed that the strongly flocculated suspension displays a significantly retarded sinterability compared to the colloidally stable and the weakly flocculated suspensions. The absence of a correlation between green density and sintering behavior was explained by considering both the volume taken by the adsorbed fatty acids and the PHS polymer-which can be substantial for nanosized powders- and the state of the suspension. While a decrease in the thickness of adsorbed surfactant or polymer layer will enable a higher particle packing density, such a thin adsorbed layer result in a more strongly flocculated suspension which will resist dense packing. Hence, it is suggested that the green bodies of the colloidally stable and the weakly flocculated suspensions correspond to a relatively homogeneous, but loosely packed, green body microstructure. The strongly flocculated suspension results in a green body with a more inhomogeneous microstructure.

  • 11. Carlsson, F
    et al.
    Malmsten, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Linse, P
    Protein-polyelectrolyte cluster formation and redissolution: A Monte Carlo study2003In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 125, p. 3140-3149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous solutions of proteins and oppositely charged polyelectrolytes were studied at different polyelectrolyte chain length, ionic strength, and protein-protein interaction potential as a function of the polyelectrolyte concentration. One of the protein models used represented lysozyme in aqueous environment. The model systems were solved by Monte Carlo simulations, and their properties were analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions, structure factors, and cluster composition probabilities. In the system with the strongest electrostatic protein-polyelectrolyte interaction the largest clusters were formed near or at equivalent amount of net protein charge and polyelectrolyte charge, whereas in excess of polyelectrolyte a redissolution appeared. Shorter polyelectrolyte chains and increased ionic strength lead to weaker cluster formation. An inclusion of nonelectrostatic protein-protein attraction promoted the protein-polyelectrolyte cluster formation.

  • 12. Guldberg Pedersen, H
    et al.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Forces measured between zirconia surfaces in poly(acrylic acid) solutions1999In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 82, p. 1137-1145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the forces between a sphere and a plane surface of yttria-partially-stabilized tetragonal-zirconia immersed in aqueous solutions of low-molecular-weight (Mw = 10 000) poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are performed at high pH where the adsorbed, highly charged anionic polyelectrolyte extends far into the solution, resulting in a combination of polymeric (steric) and electrostatic interactions. Analysis of the experimental data using scaling theory shows that the polymeric contribution dominates and that the electrostatic contribution is small at relatively high ionic strength (0.01M NaCI). We find that the measured forces are highly dependent on time and interaction history of the absorbed PAA layer; consecutive compression-decompression cycles result in an increase of the surface coverage and the range of the repulsive polymeric interaction. This buildup of PAA at the inter-face is strongly related to attractive bridging interactions manifested as strong adhesion during decompression at less than full surface coverage. The force results are compared to rheological observations of zirconia suspensions stabilized by the same dispersant; the poor colloidal sta-bility and high viscosity at low surface coverage of PAA are related to the attractive bridging interactions.

  • 13. Halthur, TJ
    et al.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Elofsson, UM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Stability of polypeptide multilayers as studied by in situ ellipsometry: Effects of drying and post-buildup changes in temperature and pH2004In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 126, p. 17009-17015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (PEM) of poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGA) and poly(L-lysine) (PLL) with an initial layer of polyethyleneimine (PEI) were built on silica and titanium surfaces using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The stability of the film during drying/rewetting, temperature cycles and pH shifts was studied in situ by means of ellipsometry. The filmthickness was found to decrease significantly (approximately 70%) upon drying, but the original film-thickness was regained upon rewetting and the buildup could be continued. The thickness in dry state was found to be extremely sensitive to ambient humidity, needing several hours to equilibrate. Changes in temperature and pH was also found to influence the multilayer thickness, leading to swelling and de-swelling of as much as 8% and 10-20% respectively. The film does not necessarily regain its original thickness as the pH is shifted back, but instead shows clear signs of hysteresis.

  • 14. Kurihara, K
    et al.
    Kizling, J
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Stenius, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Fendler, J
    Laser and pulse radiolytically induced colloidal gold formation in water and in water-in-oil microemulsions1983In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 105, p. 2574-2579Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Laarz, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kauppi, A
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Andersson, KM
    Kjeldsen, AM
    Bergstrom, L
    Dispersing multi-component and unstable powders in aqueous media using comb-type anionic polymers2006In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 89, p. 1847-1852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effect of polymeric dispersants on the rheological properties and consolidation behavior of concentrated cemented carbide (WC-Co) and magnesia (MgO) suspensions. The relatively novel types of comb-type anionic polymers with grafted non-ionic side chains are effective dispersants also in multi-component powder mixtures with a complex solution and surface chemistry and result in more robust suspensions at significantly higher solids loading compared with e.g., a traditional cationic polyelectrolyte. Direct force measurements on comb-type dispersants with different lengths of the grafted ethylene oxide side chains showed that the dispersants adsorb onto a MgO surface and infer a repulsion where the range scales with the length of the poly ethylene oxide side chains. The compressibility and the consolidation behavior of MgO particle networks in response to a centrifugal force field could be related to the estimated thickness of the adsorbed comb-type dispersants.

  • 16.
    Laarz, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Meurk, A
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Yanez, JA
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Silicon nitride colloidal probe measurements: Interparticle forces and the role of surface-segment interactions in poly(acrylic acid) adsorption from aqueous solution2001In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 84, p. 1675-1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct measurements of forces between silicon nitride surfaces in the presence or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) are presented. The force-distance curves were obtained at pH > pH(iep) with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal-probe technique using a novel spherical silicon nitride probe attached to the AFM cantilever. We found that PAA adsorbs onto the negatively charged silicon nitride surface, which results in an increased repulsive surface potential. The steric contribution to the interparticle repulsion is small and the layer conformation remains flat even at high surface potentials or high ionic strength. The general features of the stabilization of ceramic powders with PAA are discussed; we suggest that PAA adsorbs onto silicon nitride by sequential adsorption of neighboring segments ("zipping"), which results in a flat conformation. In contrast, the long-range steric force found in the ZrO2/PAA system at pH > pH(iep) arises because the stretched equilibrium bulk conformation of the highly charged polymer is preserved via the formation of strong, irreversible surface-segment bonds on adsorption.

  • 17.
    Laarz, E
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Zhmud, BV
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Dissolution and deagglomeration of silicon nitride in aqueous medium2000In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 83, p. 2394-2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nitride undergoes hydrolysis and dissolution when subjected to an aqueous environment. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that hydrolysis proceeds through nucleophilic attack of water with the formation of an intermediate molecular complex involving a penta-coordinated silicon. We found that the dissolution of an oxidized silicon nitride powder resembles that of silica: the dissolution rate could be described using a simple kinetic equation with a dissolution activation energy of 52 kJ/mol. The deagglomeration of a fine silicon nitride powder under mild agitation was evaluated; we show that the peptization kinetics at room temperature is dominated by the break-up of particle-particle bonds due to hydrodynamic friction and cluster attrition. For break-up of hard agglomerates of small particles the dissolution of interparticle necks will play an important role

  • 18. Sigmund, WM
    et al.
    Bell, NS
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Novel powder-processing methods for advanced ceramics2000In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 83, p. 1557-1574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel approaches for optimized powder processing of advanced ceramics are reviewed with an emphasis on direct-casting methods and solid freeform fabrication techniques. The fundamental principles for green body formation are discussed; a distinction is made between physical and chemical gels based on the nature of the induced gelation. An overview of the properties of dense suspensions is presented, with a focus on the factors controlling the maximum solids loading. Recent work on direct measurements of interparticle forces in ceramic systems is presented and related to rheological properties.

  • 19. Sun, J
    et al.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Gao, L
    Effect of magnesium ions on the adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) onto alumina2001In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 84, p. 2710-2712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption isotherms of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) onto alumina powder have been determined as a function of pH, ionic strength, and magnesium-ion concentration. The adsorption of PAA is strongly enhanced by magnesium ions in alkaline media but less affected under acidic conditions. The adsorption isotherms display a maximum when PAA is fully complexed with magnesium ions in the solution, corresponding to a ratio of 0.25±0.05 [Mg2+]/[acrylic acid monomer]. The decrease in adsorbed amount with an increase in PAA concentration at constant magnesium-ion concentration is related to a decrease in the complexation ratio

  • 20. Tyrode, E
    et al.
    Johnson, MC
    Kumpulainen, A
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Claesson, PM
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hydration state of non-ionic surfactant monolayers at the liquid/vapor interface: Structure determination by vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy2005In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 127, p. 16848-16859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The OH stretching region of water molecules in the vicinity of nonionic surfactant monolayers has been investigated using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) under the polarization combinations ssp, ppp, and sps. The surface sensitivity of the VSFS technique has allowed targeting the few water molecules present at the surface with a net orientation and, in particular, the hydration shell around alcohol, sugar, and poly(ethylene oxide) headgroups. Dramatic differences in the hydration shell of the uncharged headgroups were observed, both in comparison to each another and in comparison to the pure water surface. The water molecules around the rigid glucoside and maltoside sugar rings were found to form strong hydrogen bonds, similar to those observed in tetrahedrally coordinated water in ice. In the case of the poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant monolayer a significant ordering of both strongly and weakly hydrogen bonded water was observed. Moreover, a band common to all the surfactants studied, clearly detected at relatively high frequencies in the polarization combinations ppp and sps, was assigned to water species located in proximity to the surfactant hydrocarbon tail phase, with both hydrogen atoms free from hydrogen bonds. An orientational analysis provided additional information on the water species responsible for this band.

  • 21. Tyrode, E
    et al.
    Rutland, MW
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bain, CD
    Adsorption of CTAB on hydrophilic silica studied by linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy2008In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 130, no 51, p. 17434–17445-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (SFS) and total internal reflection Raman scattering (TIR Raman) have been used to study the adsorption of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to hydrophilic silica. These two complementary techniques permit the determination of the adsorbed amount with a sensitivity of 1% of the maximum surface coverage, changes in the average tilt of the adsorbed molecules, the presence of asymmetric aggregates in the adsorbed film, and the structure and orientation of the water molecules in the interfacial region. The TIR Raman spectra show a monotonic increase with CTAB concentration with no measurable changes in the relative intensities of the different polarization combinations probed, implying that no significant changes occur in the conformational order of the hydrocarbon chain. In the sum-frequency (SF) spectra, no detectable peaks from the surfactant headgroup and hydrophobic chain were observed at any surface coverage. Major changes are observed in the water bands of the SF spectra, as the originally negatively charged silica surface becomes positively charged with an increase in the adsorbed amount, inducing a change in the polar orientation of the water molecules near the surface. The detection limits for hydrocarbons chains in the SF spectra were estimated by comparison with the SF spectrum of a disordered octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer. The simulations demonstrate that the asymmetry in the adsorbed CTAB layer at any concentration is less than 5% of a monolayer. The results obtained pose severe constraints on the possible structural models, in particular at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration where information is scarce. The formation of hemimicelles, monolayers and other asymmetric aggregates is ruled out, with centrosymmetric aggregates forming from early on in the adsorption process.

  • 22. Widegren, J
    et al.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Electrostatic stabilization of ultrafine titania in ethanol2002In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 85, p. 523-528Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 22 of 22
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