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  • 1.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiaojan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning. Part 2: Techno-economic assessment2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning system comprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reduction with zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol production allowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantage derived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

  • 2.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning. Part 1: Gasifier performance2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production. Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

  • 3.
    Grim, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Malmros, Peter
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Comparison of pasteurization and integrated thermophilic sanitation at a full-scale biogas plant: Heat demand and biogas production2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 79, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sanitation is required for biogas plants handling slaughterhouse and food waste according to EU legislation. The standard method is pasteurization at 70 °C for 60 min, but integrated thermophilic sanitation (ITS), requiring 52 °C for 10 h in the digester, has been approved by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. This work compares pasteurization and ITS regarding heat demand and biogas production, using a full-scale plant in Uppsala, Sweden, as a case study. The plant currently uses pasteurization and thermophilic (52 °C) digestion. The impact of pasteurization on biogas production and process performance was examined at laboratory-scale. The heat demand for pasteurization was surveyed at the full-scale plant, while for ITS a process design was developed and the heat demand was theoretically calculated. The results showed that pasteurization had no significant effect on process performance or biogas production. The heat demand of pasteurization was measured to be 1.92 ± 0.29 MJ (kg VS)−1 (64.7 kWh t−1), while ITS was calculated to require 1.04 MJ (kg VS)−1 (35.1 kWh t−1). This represented 9% and 5% of biogas energy production, respectively. Changing sanitation method to ITS would hence reduce the heat demand at the plant by 46%, corresponding to annual savings of 4380 GJ (1.22 GWh).

  • 4.
    Haegermark, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic rooftop systems in a complex setting: A Swedish case study2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 127, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An economic feasibility study of solar photovoltaic rooftop (PV) systems in Swedish multifamily buildings was carried out to examine the effects of current market conditions, incentive programmes, and building-specific parameters. Economic analyses were conducted for 108 electricity supply points for scenarios including (1) a tax rebate, (2) an investment subsidy, and (3) both tax rebate and subsidy. First, PV systems were sized and oriented to give the highest net present values, considering actual fuse sizes and hourly demands matched to simulated PV generation. This resulted in shares of profitable systems as follows: 33% with a tax rebate, 51% with a subsidy, and 93% with both. It was shown that the tax rebate programme promotes relatively large systems compared to the subsidy, although with a much higher risk. Thereafter, the influences of main fuse size and existing roofs were investigated. Most of the roofs were large enough to fit the previously sized PV systems. However, taking into account the slopes and directions of available rooftops considerably reduced the number of profitable systems. Finally, the study showed that in addition to support measures and other economic conditions, the PV system feasibility was highly sensitive to roof characteristics, electricity demand and fuse size.

  • 5.
    Jafri, Awer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel productionpathways:: Part 2. economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity andproduction potentials2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 172, p. 1312-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting the deployment of forest-based drop-in and high blend biofuels is considered strategically important in Sweden but many aspects of the overall performance of the foremost production technologies are as yet unexamined. This paper evaluates the technology maturity, profitability, investment requirements, GHG performance and Swedish biofuel production potential of six commercially interesting forest-based biofuel production pathways.

    Significant heterogeneity in technology maturity was observed. Lack of technical demonstration in industrially representative scales renders the liquefaction-hydrotreatment route for drop-in biofuels less mature than its gasification-catalytic upgrading counterpart. It is a paradox that short-term priority being accorded to pathways with the lowest technology maturity. Nth-of-a-kind investments in (a) gasification-based methanol, (b) hydropyrolysis-based petrol/diesel, and (c) lignin depolymerization-based petrol/diesel were profitable for a range of plant sizes. The profitability of pulp mill-integrated small gasification units (<100 MW) goes against the common perception of gasification being economically feasible only in large scales. New low-cost options for debottlenecking production at recovery boiler-limited kraft mills appear worth investigating. GHG emission reductions ranged from 66 to 95%; a penalty was incurred for high consumption of natural gas-based hydrogen. Swedish biofuel production potentials ranged from 4 to 27 TWh/y but a more feasible upper limit is 12–15 TWh/y.

  • 6.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anheden, Marie
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 401-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis. While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

  • 7.
    Lo Cascio, Ermanno
    et al.
    Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy.
    Puig von Friesen, Marc
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Schenone, Corrado
    Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy.
    Optimal retrofitting of natural gas pressure reduction stations for energy recovery2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 153, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a structured retrofitting approach (SRA) to the near-optimal design of natural gas (NG) pressure reduction stations (PRSs) is presented. The SRA is designed by considering the waste energy recovery, system integration opportunities and long-term-based objectives to successfully address the entire PRS retrofitting process. The SRA is developed in four phases: pre-retrofit activities, preliminary and executive project design, implementation and commissioning and post-retrofit activities. For design optimization during the preliminary and executive project design phase, a novel mathematical model was developed based on the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The optimization model consists of a non-smooth constrained problem that has been solved by means of different solution methods and has been tested for different thermal peak loads, fuel purchase costs, and natural gas flow rates. Variations of the thermal design conditions from 2900 kW to 1300 kW for a constant annual heat demand, fluctuations of the percentage increase of the NG cost by 80-100-120-140%, and reductions of the NG user demand of 30% and 60% were considered. The results highlighted that the proposed optimization technique in PRS retrofitting identifies the best system configuration and turbo expander technology.

  • 8.
    Mardan, N.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Klahr, Roger
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 410-419Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Persson, H.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Xia, W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evangelopoulos, P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fractionation of liquid products from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by stepwise thermal treatment2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 154, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal properties of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin can be utilized to improve the characteristics of pyrolysis liquids. In this study, a concept of stepwise pyrolysis to fractionate the liquid based on the thermal properties of the biomass constituents was investigated. Lignocellulosic biomass was thermally treated in two steps: 200–300 °C followed by 550 °C. Derived liquids were studied for GC/MS analysis, water content, acid concentration and a solvent extraction method. Pyrolytic liquid derived from 550 °C after treatment at lower temperatures have a higher relative composition of phenolic compounds compared to one-step pyrolysis (increased from 58 to 90% of GC/MS peak area). Also, compounds known to promote aging, such as acids and carbonyl compounds, are derived at lower temperatures which may suppress aging in the liquid derived downstream at 550 °C. For liquids derived at 550 °C, the total acid number was reduced from 125 in one-step treatment to 14 in two-step treatment. Overall, no significant difference in the total liquid yield (sum of the liquids derived in separated treatments) nor any variations in their collective composition compared to one-step treatment at 550 °C was observed, i.e. stepwise pyrolysis can be utilized for direct fractionation of pyrolytic vapors.

  • 10.
    Wang, Guangwei
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Jianliang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Chang, Weiwei
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Li, Rongpeng
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Li, Yanjiang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Structural features and gasification reactivity of biomass chars pyrolyzed in different atmospheres at high temperature2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 147, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gasification properties of biomass chars obtained under different conditions by using non-isotherm thermogravimetric method. The physical and chemical structure features were also systematically studied. It shows that the gasification reactivities decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature, and the gasification reactivities for the chars obtained under different atmosphere conditions are in the order of N2 char &gt; CO2 char &gt; CO char &gt; H2 char. The gasification reactivities of the chars are mostly depend on the carbonaceous structure. Three nth-order represented gas-solid models, i.e. Random pore model (RPM), Unreaction core model (URCM) and Volumetric model (VM), were used to describe the reactive behaviors, and it indicates that the RPM is more suitable than the other two models.

  • 11.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass - Integration, feedstock, and product choice2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 144, p. 564-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass constitutes a promising technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The product, pyrolysis liquids, can either substitute heavy fuel oil directly, or be upgraded via e.g. hydroprocessing to diesel and petrol. This study presents a systematic evaluation of production costs and CO2 mitigation potentials of different fast pyrolysis value chain configurations. The evaluation considers types of localisations, emissions from electricity and hydrogen production, biomass feedstocks, and final products. The resulting production costs were found to be in the range of 36–60 EUR/MWh for crude pyrolysis liquids, and 61–90 EUR/MWh upgraded to diesel and petrol. Industrial integration was found to be favoured. The CO2 mitigation potential for the pyrolysis liquids was in the range of 187–282 t-CO2/GWh biomass. High variations were found when upgraded to diesel and petrol –best-case scenario resulted in a mitigation of 347 t-CO2/GWh biomass, while worst-case scenarios resulted in net CO2 emissions. Favourable policy support, continued technology development, and/or increased fossil fuel prices are required for the technology to be adapted on an industrial scale. It was concluded that integration with existing industrial infrastructure can contribute to cost reductions and thus help enable the transformation of traditional forest industry into biorefineries.

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