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  • 1.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Potential profits from ancillary service markets2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable from the SeCoHeat project, profits that can be made with 1 MWh of electricity production capacity on existing ancillary service markets are evaluated in 2020 and 2021. Profits are evaluated for four different marginal production costs corresponding to the following fuels for a CHP power plant: waste (assumed fuel price: 0 kr/MWh), recycled wood (10 kr/MWh), wood chips (20 kr/MWh) and wood pellets (30 kr/MWh). The results show that except for wood chips and wood pellets in 2020, the most profitable ancillary service markets are FFR (fast-frequency response) and aFRR down (automatic frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reasons are that (1) producers don’t have to withhold capacity from the day-ahead market when their participate in these two markets and (2) producers get compensated for the capacity reserved for the ancillary service markets. For wood chips, the FFR market was the most profitable in 2020, followed by the mFRR down market (manual frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reason for the mFRR down market to be more profitable than the aFRR down market for this fuel is that the profits from mFRR down depend on the avoided fuel costs, which are higher for wood chips than for waste and recycled wood. In 2021, all prices started increasing significantly, which decreased the relative profitability of the mFRR down compared to other markets. For wood pellets, the mFRR down market was also the second most profitable market in 2020, for the same reasons. The most profitable one in 2020 was the mFRR up market (manual frequency restoration reserves for up-regulation). The reason is that the higher fuel price of these two fuels entails low participation in the day-ahead market. Therefore, withholding capacity from the day-ahead market to be able to participate on the mFRR up market brings additional profits. In 2021, however, day-ahead prices started increasing significantly (a trend that continued into 2022) and the mFRR up market became the least profitable market for these two fuels. The profit evaluation performed in this deliverable is purely economic. It does not include the sector coupling to the heat sector (which entails limitation of the available electricity production capacity but also a possibility to store heat if storage is available) nor does it include other technical limitations such as ramp rates. These aspects will be considered in follow-up work in this project. This report has been compiled within the scope of the project SeCoHeat - Sector coupling of district heating with the electricity system: profitability and operation. The project is financed by the Research and Development Foundation of Göteborg Energi.

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  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency2023In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, article id 103886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators. The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 3. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Landström, Anna
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems: - The Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community2023Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

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  • 5.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Challenges to transparency involving intellectual property and privacy concerns in life cycle assessment/costing: A case study of new flame retarded polymers2021In: Cleaner Environmental Systems, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 3, article id 100045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores the challenges of using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to provide easily accessible decision support for early product development in cases where intellectual property (IP) and privacy issues require special consideration. Innovation research projects with partners representing different links along the value chain are potential examples of such cases. A case study in which spreadsheet-based cradle to compounder's gate LCA and LCC screening tools were created for candidate flame retarded polymer formulations exemplifies the need for better solutions to overcome problems associated with lack of transparency due to IP/privacy concerns. These problems affect data quality, scaling up processes, and uncertainty of the results. The consortium in this case study had a common overall goal, although each of the partners had a unique perspective on the polymer development process and different IP/privacy needs. The measures used to overcome the challenges include aggregation, normalisation, and omission of costs and impacts common to all candidate compounds. The resulting LCA and LCC screening tools represent a compromise between providing the requested information at the level of detail required by the partners and reporting results that are as accurate and useful as possible. The findings are: in cases where absolute secrecy must be maintained, no one can learn which materials and processes provide the optimal results; appointing a trusted third party to handle sensitive inventory data can cause increased uncertainty of the results due to lack of peer review; the results of the work cannot be built upon by subsequent research.

  • 6.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response2017In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersen, Jacob
    et al.
    Aalborg University; Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Detached-Eddy Simulation of Normal Flow past Flat Plates: The Influence from Corner Curvature2023In: International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, ISSN 1053-5381, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Awais, Fawad
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flodén, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Logistic characteristics and requirements of Swedish wood biofuel heating plants2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 138, article id 110650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for wood biofuel for district heating plants and combined heat and power plants (CHPs) has increased, caused by an increase in both the number and size of CHPs. This places large demands on the logistics system supplying these plants with fuel, with a particular interest in the use of alternative modes of transport such as rail and sea. The aim of this paper is to identify the industry actors’ requirements, constraints, and preferences regarding the wood-biofuel supply chain and to identify the logistical challenges this entails, as well as how this impacts the opportunity for an increased use of alternative transport solutions. A survey was sent to all Swedish CHPs, combined with six interviews with transport companies, terminal operators, and forest companies. The study shows that the industry has a local focus that limits potential logistics and sourcing solutions. It is also challenged by urban sprawl, with expanding residential areas close to the CHPs putting further constraints on the operations. Significant variations in fuel demand, depending on unpredictable outside temperature and seasonal variation, is a further challenge. The low density of the fuel has a negative impact on transport costs and introduces a trade-off between chipping close to the forest to increase density versus more efficient chipping at the CHP. Intermodal transport only used by large plants, driven by a shortage of local fuel. © 2020 The Authors

  • 9.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Klimatavtryck från engångsförkläden i sjuk-vården2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Currently Swedish healthcare uses large amounts of disposable products, many of which are made from plastic. For example, Region Uppsala annually uses 3,2 million disposable plastic aprons. Currently these aprons are manufactured from fossil based polyethene plastic. This causes emissions of 270 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents over their life cycle from extraction of raw material to end of life through incineration. If substituting the fossil polyethene with plastic manufactured from renewable material, there is a potential to reduce the climate impact from disposable plastic aprons. Current study has compared disposable plastic aprons made from fossil polyethene with aprons made from renewable raw materials. Two renewable plastics were evaluated, disposable apron made of polyethene manufactured from bioethanol from Brazilian sugar cane and disposable aprons made of the renewable plastic polylactide (PLA) origination from sugar cane grown in Thailand. The result is that using biopolyethene reduces climate impact with 60 % and PLA aprons with 40 % compared to fossil polyethene. PLA has a component that currently is of fossil origin. If in the future this component is substituted with a renewable component there is a potential to reduce the PLA climate impact with as much as 20 % compared to current reduction in comparison to fossil polyethene.

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  • 10.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, Netherlands.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Assessing seafood nutritional diversity together with climate impacts informs more comprehensive dietary advice2022In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood holds promise for helping meet nutritional needs at a low climate impact. Here, we assess the nutrient density and greenhouse gas emissions, weighted by production method, that result from fishing and farming of globally important species. The highest nutrient benefit at the lowest emissions is achieved by consuming wild-caught small pelagic and salmonid species, and farmed bivalves like mussels and oysters. Many but not all seafood species provide more nutrition at lower emissions than land animal proteins, especially red meat, but large differences exist, even within species groups and species, depending on production method. Which nutrients contribute to nutrient density differs between seafoods, as do the nutrient needs of population groups within and between countries or regions. Based on the patterns found in nutritional attributes and climate impact, we recommend refocusing and tailoring production and consumption patterns towards species and production methods with improved nutrition and climate performance, taking into account specific nutritional needs and emission reduction goals. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 11.
    Björkman, Max Bekken
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Heyne, Stefan
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Hammar, Maria
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Egilsson, Nils Ólafur
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vendt, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Karlberg, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Förstudie om resurskartläggning i företag: Att förstå och förändra för en ökad fysisk resurseffektivitet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har syftat till att undersöka potentialen med fysisk resurskartläggning (RKL) inom företag. RKL kan dels höja den interna kunskapen om företagets resursanvändning, dels stödja extern kommunikation av företagets materialeffektivitet, samt fungera som ett underlag för policymakers som vill utreda styrmedel kopplade till resursanvändning.

    Initiativet till förstudien är delvis sprungen ur tanken att delar av det som idag görs inom energikartläggning (EKL) också skulle kunna appliceras på kartläggning av fysiska resursströmmar. I förstudien har därför EKL summerats översiktligt tillsammans med tidigare utvärderingar av EKL. Rapporten lyfter även fram viktiga lärdomar från EKL som kan användas i resurskartläggningssammahang.

    En viktig del av förstudien har bestått i att utforska vad ett koncept som RKL kan inkludera för att uppnå ökad resurseffektivitet. Begreppet RKL kan delas in i två huvudsakliga delar: Förstå och Förändra. Generellt handlar det om att först kartlägga fysiska resursflöden, och därefter agera på resultaten för att nå konkret handling och förändring. Förstudien ger förslag på ett antal befintliga metoder som kan användas för inledande kartläggning, exempelvis materialflödesanalys (MFA) och livscykelanalys (LCA). Kopplat till detta har förstudien undersökt verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta cirkularitet som företag kan använda för att skapa sig en bild av hur cirkulär företagets verksamhet, produkter och tjänster är.

    För att få en bättre förståelse för hur företag och aktörer i Sverige ser på en mer detaljerad kartläggning av fysiska resursflöden i sina verksamheter, genomfördes femton intervjuer och en enkätstudie. Den enskilt största nyttan som de intervjuade personerna uttryckte med RKL var att kunna visualisera och synliggöra fysiska resurser och hur de flödar genom verksamheten. Via kommande lagkrav inom EU i form av CSRD (Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive) och ESRS (European Sustainability Reporting Standards) skruvas kraven på företags hållbarhetsredovisning upp. Detta nya regelverk kräver bland annat redovisning av in- och utflöden av fysiska resurser, samt att företagen ska kunna visa på mål, strategier och planer för hur resursflödena kan effektiviseras.

    De nya EU-kraven kommer troligen vara en av de starkaste drivkrafterna för företag att utföra RKL, i tillägg till externa krav från kunder och samarbetsparter. I rapporten har översiktliga processer skisserats som stöd för genomförande av RKL med hjälp av befintliga metoder och verktyg. RKL i företag är ett brett begrepp och därför kan RKL utföras på olika sätt beroende på syftet med kartläggningen och typ av företag.

    En slutsats från projektet är att det inte är nödvändigt eller lämpligt med en RKL-lagstiftning på samma sätt som dagens lagstiftning för EKL. Detta beror på att RKL innebär en större komplexitet än EKL och är svår att generalisera för alla företag. Den generella metodiken kan dock utformas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL, och stöden gällande nätverkande och lathundar skulle kunna erbjudas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL för att stötta företag i att uppfylla kommande krav.

    I det fortsatta arbetet med resurskartläggningar i företag är det viktigt att beakta: (1) Fokusera på att använda redan existerande metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta resurser och cirkularitet; (2) Samarbeta med organisationer som tillhandahåller och utvecklar metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för en ökad cirkularitet för att tillsammans med dem öka kunskapen och förståelsen hos företag; (3) Utveckla den skisserade RKLprocessen, så att den bättre kan visa vilka typer av metoder och indikatorer som passar särskilt bra för olika syften; (4) Testa och utveckla processerna och guiderna tillsammans med ett antal pilotföretag; (5) Integrera RKL-processen och guiden med pågående utveckling av standarder för rapportering inom EU och ISO-samarbetet.

  • 12.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Khan, Jamil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Diffusion of biogas for freight transport in Sweden: A user perspective2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 312, article id 127738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current freight transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and there is a need for a transition to alternative fuels and technologies. Biogas is a type of biofuel that has the potential to reduce climate emissions from freight transport, while providing additional benefits such as recycling of nutrients and increased energy security. This paper uses theories on the diffusion of green technologies to analyse the barriers and drivers for the increased use and diffusion of biogas in freight transport. The empirical focus is on the region of Västra Götaland in Sweden, and qualitative interviews have been conducted with demand-side actors such as transport buyers, haulage companies and vehicle manufacturers. The results confirm the important barriers observed in previous research, such as the higher costs of biogas, financial uncertainties and lack of infrastructure, as well as the interplay between barriers. The main drivers are an increased focus on sustainability both within the sector and from wider society, as well as the environmental properties of biogas. Specific barriers have also been identified such as a fragmented freight market structure with a mix of large and small transport companies, tight profit margins and reduced capacity for investments. There is also a division of labour and responsibilities between transport companies and transport buyers, which makes it unclear who will drive the transition to alternative fuels. In general, the study shows that the different types of uncertainty are perceived by the actors as being a significant barrier that needs to be better conceptualised in diffusion theory. © 2021 The Authors

  • 13.
    Bohlin, I
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wahlberg, A
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Uddstål, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilbrink, F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bergström, E
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Axensten, P
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ekström, M
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mapping potential location for bilberry picking with remote sensing, local field data andphone application2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to create a practical method for identifying potential locations for bilberry picking with help of remote sensing, local field data and phone application to support the development of the local berry value chain. Local field data w as collected 2021 and 2022 and consisted 503 and 525 plots from a study area of circa 25x45km in Västerbotten, Sweden. The potential for bilberry production was evaluated by measuring the shrub cover and amount of raw berries. Wall to wall remote sensing d ata included a Sentinel 2 image from same summer, airborne laser scanning data from 2020 and other map products. We created classification models for bilberry shrub and yield using both logistic regression (2 classes) and ordinal regression (3 classes) mod els using 2021 data, and validated and calibrated models with 2022 data. Predictor variables consisted of spectral metrics from satellite data; structural metrics from laser data; existing raster maps of tree species, stand attributes, site index, soil moi sture and land use classes. The 2 class models performed better than three class models, delivering the AUC 0.73, overall accuracy 0.83 and kappa value 0.51 for best bilberry shrub model and 0.75, 0.77 and 0.50 respectively for best bilberry yield model. T he best models included both laser based structural metrics describing e.g canopy closure and spectral metrics, but also e.g. volume of pine, soil moisture and site index were found significant predictor variables. Calibration of the models improved annual predictions and the validation of the 2021 raster maps with 2022 data produced similar AUC, OA, and kappa values for bilberry yield (0.73, 0.74 and 0.46), but lower for bilberry shrub (0.61, 0.68 and 0.24). A dedicated phone application was developed duri ng the project, which was used both for collecting the field data and for presenting the potential locations of berry yields. Local berry maps can help berry pickers easier to find the berries in forest landscape and therefore support local berry value cha in. This study is part of the FAIRCHAIN project, which has received funding from the European Union’s funding programme H2020 research and innovation programme under grand agreement 101000723.

  • 14.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

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  • 15.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energyfor lighting, while putting the user's perception and light comfort in focus,this project has developed methods and tools to communicate light and lighting.To ensure that light environments are designed from a user perspective,existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based on technicalterms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual and emotionalcharacter of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers have beeninvolved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and toolsthat are well-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in theprocess from light planning to the implementation of lighting environments. Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings,about 20 per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energysaving potential is thus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards moreenergy efficient lighting as a result of both regulations and technologydevelopment. Still, Swedish consumers tend to prefer incandescent light, as itis perceived to provide better comfort compared to modern light sources.Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumers to convert tomore energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visual andemotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools to communicateand measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been the motivationand starting point for the development of methods for assessing objective andsubjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting theindustry. The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the humanperception of light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutralcommunication point and to supports both the lighting industry and professionalpurchaser, and thus also the end user. By reducing misunderstandings andincreasing the consensus between actors in different parts of the process fromlight planning to implementation, the tool is expected to promote lightenvironments that are both energy-efficient and provide attractive perceptionand comfort.

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  • 16.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

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  • 17.
    Bosi, Umberto
    et al.
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ricchiuto, Mario
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France.
    Solai, Elie
    Université de Toulon, France.
    A high-order spectral element unified Boussinesq model for floating point absorbers2018In: Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear wave-body problems are important in renewable energy, especially in case of wave energy converters operating in the near-shore region. In this paper we simulate nonlinear interaction between waves and truncated bodiesusing an efficient spectral/hp element depth-integrated unified Boussinesq model. The unified Boussinesq model treatsalso the fluid below the body in a depth-integrated approach. We illustrate the versatility of the model by predictingthe reflection and transmission of solitary waves passing truncated bodies. We also use the model to simulate themotion of a latched heaving box. In both cases the unified Boussinesq model show acceptable agreement with CFDresults – if applied within the underlying assumptions of dispersion and nonlinearity – but with a significant reductionin computational effort.

  • 18.
    Boss, Annika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Strid, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Elisabeth Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Andersson, Emelie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Brodin, Malin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Ämnen som hindrar eller försvårar återvinning av plast i prioriterade produktgrupper inom byggsektorn2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta uppdrag undersöker vi kemiska tillsatser i plaster som försvårar eller utgör hinder för återvinning av materialet. I denna rapport avser kemiska tillsatser additiv som medvetet introducerats i produkten eller materialet, och det är dessa kemiska ämnens natur som avgör problematiken ur återvinningssynpunkt. Vi fokuserar på byggsektorn eftersom denna sektor använder stora mängder plast av hög kvalité. Trots detta är återvinningsgraden för plast låg och potentialen att öka återvinningsgraden är därmed stor. Ett materials potential för återvinning bestäms av flera faktorer, varav kemikalieinnehåll är en. Det är viktigt att tänka på vilken eller vilka produkter plasten är lämplig att återvinnas till, och hänsyn måste alltid tas till gällande kemikalielagstiftning för just de produkttyperna. Kemiska ämnen som kan vara skadliga för människan och/eller miljön är särskilt viktiga att utreda, men det finns också andra tillsatser i material och produkter som försvårar återvinningsprocessen eller påverkar kvalitén på den återvunna plasten negativt så att marknaden för det återvunna materialet blir begränsad. Ytterligare en faktor att ta i beaktande är hur exponeringen för kemikalierna ser ut, om de är bundna i plasten eller kan emitteras och utsätta människor och miljön för direkta risker. De stora kategorierna i denna kartläggning har varit golv, rör och rördelar, kablar, profiler och lister, isoleringsmaterial, samt tätningsskikt. För dessa produktgrupper dominerar polymertyperna PVC, PE av olika densitetsgrad och comonomer-innehåll, PP (homo- och copolymer), PS och PUR. Då härdplaster, där även PUR ingår, förekommer i form av lacker, adhesiv och ytbeläggningar i byggprodukter behandlas dessa också övergripande. Många materialströmmar finns tillgängliga för återvinning inom kategorin byggplast generellt sett, men möjligheterna och incitamenten att sortera ut dessa i sina ursprungliga fraktioner är låg. Detta beror antingen på att efterfrågan på mekaniskt återvunnet material i dessa produktkategorier inte är stor nog, som för PEX och vissa typer av rör, eller på att volymerna är för låga för lönsamhet. Ett exempel på det sistnämnda är profiler och lister av PVC där etablerad cirkulär återvinning finns ute i Europa, men produktkategorin är för liten i Sverige för att drivkraften ska uppstå. Eftersom flera av de polymermaterial och produkter vi kartlagt i denna rapport har en historisk användning av idag reglerade, eller till och med förbjudna kemiska ämnen, kompliceras återvinningen av byggplast i att de inkommande avfallsströmmarna är av mycket varierande ålder. För att möjliggöra en högre återvinningsgrad och bättre kvalitet krävs därför utökad och mer noggrann sortering så att problematiska, och i vissa fall hälso- och miljöfarliga, innehållsämnen inte följer med i den mekaniska återvinningen, men inte heller så att kvalitativa fraktioner av en viss produkt- och polymertyp avvisas från återvinning av säkerhetsskäl. Ett axplock av problematiska tillsatser är tungmetallstabilisatorer och mjukgörare i produkter av PVC, flamskyddsmedel i isolering av EPS och XPS, samt silanförnätad PEX som innehåller tennkatalysator. Kontaminering i form av härdplastrester, felsorterad PEX i PE-recyklat, samt tejper och fogar på tätskikt utgör de mer oavsiktliga, fysiska hindren för kvalitetsmässig återvinning tillsammans med faktumet att en stor del av kablar och rör helt enkelt inte utvinns ur marken efter sin användningstid. Sammanfattningsvis skulle fler fraktioner av byggplast kunna återvinnas mekaniskt genom att stärka infrastrukturen kring insamling och sortering, men för detta krävs ökad efterfrågan och långsiktig lönsamhet. Kemiska återvinningsmetoder seglar upp som en möjlig lösning för flera av de hinder som identifieras i denna studie, till exempel tvärbundna material, material med hög andel fyllmedel, eller för avskiljning av oönskade tillsatser likt tungmetaller och ftalater. Kartläggningen av detta område får därför ses som en intressant frågeställning för ytterligare arbete.

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  • 19.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kustnära färjetrafiken är en tacksam miljö för att testa nya automationslösningar. Här finns många fartyg som trafikerar relativt lugna vatten och där bemanningen redan idag är begränsad till en eller två personer. Men förändringar i teknik och bemanning kommer också kräva nya perspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. I projektet SPECTRUM har besättningens roll vid en nödevakuering undersökts och jämförts med olika automationsscenarier för kustnära färjetrafik. Resultatet pekar ut områden där fortsatt forskning och utveckling är nödvändig för att säkerställa att en evakuering av ett fartyg kan genomföras med så goda förutsättningar som möjligt - om bemanningen reduceras, yrkesroller förändras eller om besättningen ersätts med automationslösningar.

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  • 20.
    Broberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lindahl, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Potentialstudie för biogassubstrat i Västra Götaland, Halland och Skåne2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of producing biogas by digestion from substrates in Västra Götaland, Halland and Skåne has in this study been estimated to approximately 5 900 GWh per year, of which 2 300 GWh are found in Västra Götaland, 650 GWh in Halland and 3 000 GWh in Skåne. The estimated potential is based on the current amounts of the substrate categories food waste, agricultural residues, manure, sludge from sewage treatment plants and industrial organic residues. For each of the three regions, the largest contributor to the current substrate potential is agricultural residues. This category contributes with approximately 3 900 GWh annually in total for the three regions. However, to be able to fully realize the potential of the agricultural residues there are logistic and technical challenges to be solved. Manure accounts for the second largest contribution to the potential, approximately 1 000 GWh per year for the three regions. The conditions to realize the manure potential are good with national production support in place for this substrate category.

    The study also includes a brief investigation of future substrate categories focused on marine substrates, grass and hay harvesting, industrial wastewater and biological methanation. From the future substrates, a contribution of a total of 3 600 GWh per year will be added to the estimated potential for the three regions. The largest addition is potential biological methanation of the carbon dioxide streams from the total substrate potential from the current categories, approximately 3 000 GWh annually. Thereafter, the largest contributing future substrate category is industrial wastewater. Including the future substrate flows, a total biogas potential of 9 500 GWh per year was estimated for Västra Götaland, Skåne and Halland together. To realize the potential, close cooperation between substrate owners, gas producers and municipalities are needed together as well as a long-term policy landscape.

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  • 21.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Session and committe: Informing and stimulating green lifestyle choices2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session (accepted): In order to reach sustainability goals in the future, green and social living must be considered. The interface between production and consumption set the frame for future sustainable lifestyles, including sharing consumption of transport and space in buildings, or the need of a circular production for clothing and electronics. Sustainable lifestyles imply a change of action. It implies new ways of consumption, including behavior change and nudging, as well as new ways of production, including business modeling and service design. This session encourages using visual examples and digital aids to present new ways of consumption and production for future sustainable lifestyles. We will discuss future lifestyles including their environmental and social effects from a life cycle perspective. Session (policy, reguklartion, targets) and scientific commitee (LCM 2023):

  • 22.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Social LCA for Buildings and Cities2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lundström, Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    The connected, sustainable and inclusive society – IoT implementation in a Swedish municipality2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, Vol. 349, article id 11006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT could thus be a game-changer for municipalities towards sustainability. The Swedish municipality of Södertälje strives to develop IoT concepts and use open data for a sustainable and inclusive society. The goal of this study was to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The goal was also to enhance the knowledge of the environmental and social benefits of IoT systems in the waste collection system in Södertälje. The analysis is based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and interviews. The results show a minor climate change impact for the IoT solutions in the overall smart waste collection system. The major climate impact contributor was instead associated with the trash bags used. Additionally, the study showed that the performance of the system relies on smart planning of the operations and the transportations.

  • 24.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Löwgren, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tjänstedesign, aktörsanalys och energisystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle analyses has traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, excluding the actors in the chain. However, how recycling should take place depends on who you ask and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. The purpose of the research project TJÅRVEN is to create scalable solutions that change the behaviour of recycling stations and increase knowledge about behaviours and recycling within an energy context. There are three concrete objectives within the project. 1. Practical objectives: (1) Reduce wrong sorting, (2) Sort more (3) Reduced cleaning needs. 2. Development goals: Method development combine service design and actor LCA. 3. Knowledge objectives: Literature in social factors and actor LCA. Conclusions for the different milestones: Practical goals: A radical system change could result in a 30% behavioural change and reduced energy and climate impact. A small change will only lead to a 10% behavioural change and reduced energy and climate impact. Development goals: The combined method provides added value by combining the qualitative design method with quantitative figures. It provides a better anchoring and understanding for users i.e. households, which cannot be obtained by individual methods. Knowledge objectives: A literature study within state-of-the-art in ways to encourage proper recycling has been carried out within the first phase of the project. The literature study can be found in a parallel RISE report. Recommendations (for each operator and the entire system): Recommendations (cities and transport companies): It can be profitable to compare different cities e.g. choice of station affect transport, type of vehicle /fuel affect energy and climate impact. Recommendations (cleaning companies): Each station does not need to be cleaned as often as is done now because it does not affect household. Recommendation (household): Distance of station affect the choice of transport. Rinsing with hot water affects, as well as more sorting reduces the incineration. Recommendations (whole system): The biggest impact has households due to sorting and residual management, which results in 10-30% reduced energy and climate impact. Future studies: For the development of a future packaging collection, the integration of households and cities is needed. This is to avoid sub-optimizations in energy systems. There is a need for cooperation with cities that want to develop a better collection system. There is a need for the development of information and stations. There is a need for further development of implemented interventions and further development of more radical interventions i.e. services closer to households.

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  • 25.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ordóñez, Isabel
    Elisava Barcelona School of Design and Engineering, Spain.
    Svahnström, Kristina
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Svärd, Lotta
    Semcon, Sweden.
    User centred design and energy efficient packaging collection infrastructure supporting circular future lifestyles2022In: E3S Web Conf., 2022, Vol. 349, article id 01012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle assessments have traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, not including the actors in the chain. How recycling should be done depends on who you ask, and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user perspective. FTI, the Packaging and Newspaper Collection organization is responsible for better circularity and collecting these fractions in Sweden’s municipalities. When recyclable materials end up in the wrong place, it causes problems leading to increased energy use in the life cycle. The ongoing project Tjårven, aims to reduce energy use in connection with packaging collection, as well as potential energy gains in the second stage of the packaging life cycle, by redesigning packaging collection from a user centred perspective. To do this, design interventions are developed based on observed and self-reported user behaviour, a literature review of state-of-the-art collection infrastructure and an understanding of the system developed using actor-based LCA methodology. The latter methodology is used to show the energy use in the lifecycle, including the actions of the actors in the chain. The interventions developed will be tested through a case study that will be evaluated to see if it helps to achieve more energy efficient collection infrastructure, allowing for better circularity and therefore more sustainable future lifestyles. The present article presents the first part of the project, summarizing the results from the user centred observations, literature review and initial actor-based LCA model.

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  • 26.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Lisa
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Tunlid, Johanna
    Malmö stad, Sweden.
    Green and circular procurement in public organizations – from single use to reuse and prolonged lifetime in the City of Malmö2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, article id 05003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procurement in public organisations has traditionally been performed in a linear way. Using circular solutions could help public organisations to save resources and tackle climate change. The Swedish City of Malmö strives to include circular solutions and become a circular municipality. The goal of the study was to explore activities for increased reuse and visualise how circular material flows can reduce environmental impacts. The goal was also to develop a method for mapping material flows that can be used in the City of Malmö and other public organisations. The studied activities included in this study are the reuse of furniture and replacement of single use plastic with reuse alternatives, as well as prolonged lifetime of IT products and textiles. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based methods were used to estimate the reduction in environmental impact from the studied activities. The perception of circular activities within the City of Malmö was analysed with a survey. The results showed that the purchasing agreements with increased lifetime for clothing and IT products, lead to reduced environmental impacts. The results also showed that most employees are interested in using a digital sharing platform. Additionally, the results pointed out the need for a circular manager.

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  • 27.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Norling, Malin
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Cirkulär ekonomi, offentlig upphandling och ökad resurseffektivitet: Miljömässiga och sociala effekter av resursflöden i Malmö Stad2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy, public procurement, and increased resource efficiency: Environmental and social effects of resource flows in the City of Malmö.

    The procurement practices in public organisations are traditionally performed in a linear way. Using circular economy solutions could help public organisations to save both natural and economic resources and tackle climate change. The Swedish City of Malmö strives to include circular economy solutions and become a circular municipality. The scope of the project named “SINA – Sluta med Ineffektiv Användning” SINUS (stop ineffective Use) was to increase the practical knowledge regarding circular procurement and circular user flow within public organisations. In practice, the project tried to increase the efficiency and circularity of material flows in the city of Malmö. The goal of the project was to explore activities for increased reuse and visualise how circular material flows can reduce environmental impacts. The goal was also to develop a method for mapping material flows that can be used in the City of Malmö and other public organisations. Within the project, the purchase and waste flows within the City of Malmö have been mapped and analysed to identify circular activities and product categories. The studied activities and product categories included in this study are the reuse of furniture and replacement of single use plastic with reuse alternatives, as well as prolonged lifetime of IT products and textiles. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based methods were used to estimate the reduction in environmental impact from the studied circular activities. The results showed that most reduction can be achieved though purchasing agreements with increased lifetime from 3 to 4 years, such as for IT products and clothing (25%). The reuse of furniture and the replacement of single use plastic also leads to reduced environmental impacts. Some methodological difficulties might be found in data collection, not for environmental data, but for procurement and waste data. The perception of circular activities within the City of Malmö were analysed with a survey. The results also showed that most employees value the function of the product rather the need of new products, and they are interested in using a digital sharing platform. Additionally, the results pointed out the need for a circular manager handling the material flows, handling storage and repairs and handling the values of employees. This research has been resulted in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö, as well as a description of the methodology developed within the project, to be shared with other public organisations through various networks and digital channels.

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  • 28.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Edoff, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Research institute strengthens its LCA capacity by internal collaboration and data infrastructure2021In: Abstract book of 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the research institutes that during the last years merged to create RISE Research Institutes of Sweden had previously developed unique ways of delivering LCA competence, services and data to Swedish industry and public sector. Thereby RISE holds a unique position to establish itself as a leader in the LCA field, in practical application areas such as lifestyle and sustainability analyses, scenario simulation and modeling, service innovation, and policy recommendations at different system levels. To put this in effect, the competence groups of the former separate institutes need to establish synergetic collaboration and operational infrastructure of knowledge, internal standards, and data sharing, as well as concerted LCA offerings. Recognizing the general explosion of interest for environmental assessments, such as carbon footprints, from industry, public sector and consumers, RISE now focuses its capacity to manage different types and formats of life cycle data for internal use as well as for customer offerings. The goal is to increase availability of the life cycle competence connected to RISE’s technical breadth, to provide synergized competence in support of sustainable transition to industry and society. During 2020 the first step towards this goal resulted in an internal shared view of RISE’s LCA offerings and common fundamental and flexible data documentation principles for all different life cycle data within RISE’s different life cycle competence groups. This is an achievement, considering that formats for data presentations within RISE ranges from aggregated carbon footprint results of per kg of products to ILCD European Product Environmental Footprints. During 2021 the RISE effort is dedicated to formation of a solid platform for generic life cycle data sharing, through common internal data exchange formats and interfaces towards customers, as well as a long-term governance, maintenance and competence supply for the synergetic collaboration.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Nevzorova, Tatiana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Testing metrics for measuring the circularity while metrics are being standardized - TRACE CERTAINTY TRAnsitioning to a Circular Economy via CERTificAtion in INdusTrY: PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reference Number 2020-044102022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results and the learnings of a project that had the aim to develop a protocol for measuring circularity for products. The project was centered around an assessment of the real-world example of a lubrication cleaning and recirculation system by SKF RecondOil. The process of assessment required that the team match circularity in principle (how circularity can be measured in theory) with circularity in practice (how circularity can be measured in a real system). In the process, the team identified different ways to measure circularity based on drafted circularity principles (from ongoing ISO work on circularity). In the end, these alternatives were to be practically verifiable and certifiable. Learnings are to be fed into ongoing work on developing international standards (ISO) for assessing circularity. In the progress of the work, a framework for understanding and measuring circularity for the system at hand was developed including: a heuristic (diagram) describing a system of interest and a list of chosen circular economy principles see Figure 3. It is thought that the heuristic and list of principles could be used to guide an entity in the process of first, creating their system model, and then, making sense of and applying principles.

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  • 30.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Warneryd, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    D2.1 Sociala hinder & drivkrafter i ett inledande skede av två svenska energigemenskaper: Rapport i projektet Systemförändring med lokalt delad energi2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Omställningen mot ett förnybart energisystem har inom EU gjort energigemenskaper högaktuella sedan två direktiv, Förnybarhetsdirektivet och Elmarknadsdirektivet, beskrivit dessa som ett sätt att dela och göra gemensamma investeringar i lokala energiresurser. Denna studie tittar på två svenska piloter av begynnande energigemenskaper, Tamarinden och Hammarby Sjöstad, och har ett särskilt fokus på sociala hinder och drivkrafter för bildandet av dessa, vilket exempelvis inkluderar hur samverkan sker mellan deltagande aktörer. Syftet med studien är såldes att undersöka aktörers syn på att medverka i, eller bidraga till, energigemenskaper i ett inledande skede. Tamarinden är ett nybyggnadsområde i Örebro som inkluderar fem olika byggaktörer och leds av Örebro kommun. Hammarby Sjöstad är ett befintligt bostadsområde i Stockholm som inkluderar bostadsrättsföreningar samt näringsidkare, där initiativet kommer från intresseorganisationen ElectriCITY. I studien har under 2022 byggaktörer, bostadsrättsföreningar och näringsidkare intervjuats, samt respektive energi- och nätbolag i de två områdena. Resultaten visar att det finns flera drivkrafter till att delta i en energigemenskap såsom att erhålla ekonomiska fördelar, minska energianvändning, ökad hållbarhet samt innovationskraft. Olika förutsättningar i piloterna och hos de medverkande aktörerna har dock stor betydelse för möjligheten till aktivt deltagande samt i vilken grad energigemenskapen upplevs möjliggöra olika nyttor. De inkluderar storlek och ekonomisk situation hos aktörerna, fysiska förutsättningar såsom yta för installationer, kunskaper och erfarenheter av energiprojekt, och i vilken utsträckning det finns erfarenheter och vilja till samskapande. Dessa olikheter kan också vara en tillgång just vid delandet av lokala resurser då enskilda aktörers olika förutsättningar kan komplettera varandra. Hinder inkluderar en ökad komplexitet då samverkan krävs mellan flera olika aktörer, vilket är särskilt utmärkande för det initiala skedet vid bildandet som kräver stort engagemang och förtroendeskapande processer. Andra hinder rör osäkra investeringar, framtida marknadsutveckling och hur kostnads- och intäktströmmarna ser ut, samt hur delning kommer te sig i praktiken med liknande brukarprofiler, liksom hur engagemanget upprätthålls på sikt i energigemenskapen. I det initiala skedet är det tydligt att en avgörande faktor har varit de koordinerande och drivande aktörerna i båda piloterna. I Hammarby Sjöstads fall är denna organisation ElectriCITY och viktiga beståndsdelar i detta ledarskap har varit kunskapsförmedling, leverantörsnätverk samt aktiviteter för att främja deltagande och engagemang hos de boende i området. För Tamarinden är det Örebro kommun tillsammans med ÖrebroBostäder som lett processen framåt där framtagande av kunskaper för beslutsunderlag samt en formell samverkansstruktur för de olika byggaktörerna har varit viktiga. De intervjuade energi- och nätbolagen följer utvecklingen av energigemenskaper med intresse och försöker hitta sin roll relaterat till dessa lokala organisationer. Dock lyfts ett antal utmaningar rörande kunskaps- och ansvarsfrågor kring investeringar, drift av det lokala energisystemet samt effekter på det kringliggande elnätet från energigemenskaperna. Slutligen finns det i denna studie en mängd insikter och en bredd i både förutsättningar och typer av aktörer som ingår i de båda piloterna vilket tillsammans med forskningsprojektets övriga resultat och uppföljande studier bereder väg för konkreta medskick till aktörer och organisationer som önskar bilda energigemenskaper i framtiden.

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  • 31.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

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  • 32.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lund, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A roadmap to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne Sweden - Case study grain milling industry2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and focuses on the development of a roadmap for the grain processing industry to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne. More information concerning the Swedish contribution can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).The Swedish partners of the AGROinLOG project have been interacting with different stakeholders from the grain processing industry in Skåne (South of Sweden) to investigate the existing hinders and drivers for the development of Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres (IBLC) in the region. This report focuses in particular into the milling industry in Skåne in regard to its potential, the utilization of the by-product bran and limitation for the implementation of IBLC. The objective of this reports is to propose a roadmap for the transformation of the current milling sector into an IBLC.The reader will first get a brief introduction to the IBLC concept and a detailed status of the cereal production and milling industry in Skåne. The process for data collection included many interactions with the industry and other relevant stakeholders. The results are then presented.The roadmap uses a backcasting approach starting with the development of a desired sustainable vision of the future. The vision foreseen that mills have developed into IBLCs and collaborate with many actors to produce a wider range of products and add values to other by-products than the mills’ own by-products. This new activity is profitable for the mills but also for other processing industries. The products developed are highly demanded by the consumers.The authors then mapped the current situation looking in particular at hinders, potential conflict of interest, and policy support. The hinders could be clustered into six categories: supply, communication, regulation, economy, market, and logistic. The conflict of interest for the valorisation of bran is low as it is used for human consumption to a low extent. It could however conflict with the animal feeding industry. Different kind of supports are needed at the different stage of the innovation development. Skåne, and Sweden in general have good access to supporting schemes. More technical data concerning the current status of the milling sector is included in the background chapter.Finally, concrete measures for moving from the current situation to the vision are discussed. The most important measure to implement would be to develop a market for the new bio-based products. To support this, a number of measures should be implemented in a joint effort. These measures include technical development, collaboration, and communication. Moreover, sustainability must be a red thread in this transformation, and new legislation should provide a supportive framework.

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  • 33.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of Internet of Things(IoT) solution in Södertälje municipality– A smart waste collection system2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of this study is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in the waste collection system in the city center of Södertälje. This life cycle assessment, LCA, will support the project by identifying environmental hotspots. The LCA study was performed in Jan-Sep 2021. The functional unit of the study has been set to 1 year of IoT system service for 160 litter bins in city center of Södertälje. The studied system is a cradle-to-grave system, including raw materials, sensors and gateways, use phase, and end of life the sensors and gateways, internet connection, as well as the cloud services. Inventory information have been collected mainly from Södertälje, suppliers, and the service providers. Generic data, such as electricity mix, and transports have been taken from the Ecoinvent database and literature. This study has evaluated the environmental impacts of IoT system in Södertälje for the case of smart waste collection system installed in the city center in a life cycle perspective. The objective of the study has been: 1. To estimate the environmental impact (with focus on climate change impact) of IoT system in Södertälje and find out the hotspots within the system in a life cycle perspective. The climate change impact of the IoT system solution in Södertälje is estimated about 120 kg CO2eq per year, which mainly contributes from the gateways (50%) and sensors (27%) and the use of internet (23%). 2. To estimate the environmental impact (focus on climate change impact) of the waste collection system (without IoT system) and find out the hotspots within the system. The climate change impact of the current waste collection system in the city centre of Södertälje contributes approximately 12t CO2eq per year, which mainly contributed from the use of fossil-based plastic trash bags (96%) and the HVO based transport (4%). 3. To compare the current with the future waste collection system (including IoT system for planning and service). To compare the current with the future waste collection system, we use scenarios (see Figure 20 for results). At the starting point of the study (scenario 1), we present results that are based on assumptions and have the same CO2 emissions for the transport and the trash bags. The results were based on diesel (50%) and recycled plastic trash bags (50%). The recycled plastic is made of 80% recycled LDPE and 20% virgin LDPE (Tingstad, 2021). The next step (scenario 2) of the study, we present results that are based on direct data of the current system. The results were based on HVO and fossil trash bags, which results into 11.5 t CO2 for fossil bags and 380 kg CO2eq per year for transport and 120 kg CO2eq extra for the IoT system. The last step (scenario 3) of the study, we present results that are based on future assumptions. The results were based on using no bags and no CO2 emission from bags, which results into 120 kg CO2eq for the IoT system and 380kg CO2eq for the transport and 0 kg CO2eq for the trash bags. The future waste collection system needs to be better than the current system. That means, the future waste collection system needs to reduce the CO2eq emissions by at least 120 kg CO2eq to break-even the extra IoT system. For the IoT system to have an effect, at least 32% of the transport (km) or the number of trash bags used need to be reduced (50 bins of 160 bins), in order to outweighs the extra CO2eq from the IoT system (Figure 21). - A reduction of trp km or trash bags by 32% reduce CO2eq by 120 kg. (=IoT system). - A reduction of trp km or trash bags by 64% reduce CO2eq by 240 kg. (> IoT system).

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  • 34.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of IoT system in Södertälje – The case of textile waste collection and the municipality’s recycling stations2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, The inclusive, sustainable, and connected society, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of these environmental studies is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in three parts of the waste collection systems and services provided in the municipality of Södertälje: Waste collection in the city centre (Telge Återvinning), Textile collection (Human Bridge) and Recycling stations (Telge Återvinning). The LCA results for waste collection in the city centre are documented in Chiew & Brunklaus (2021); while the main LCA results and conclusions for textile collection (part 2) and recycling stations (part 3) are summarized in this report. The results for all three types of waste collection system show that the implementation of the IoT system is quite low (<1%). In this study, the climate impacts of both textile waste collection and recycling stations services per year were identified with LCA. By using the actor analysis, we found that in both the textile waste collection and the recycling stations services, the major climate impacts come from citizens, e.g., in the case of the textile waste collection service. The climate impact of transportation of the citizens to the textile station is 36%, followed by the plastic or paper bags from the citizens is 22% of the total impact of the textile waste, while the transportation of citizens to the recycling stations is even higher, such as 70% of the total impact of the recycling station system. The textile collection and recycling stations showed that citizen’s choice has huge impact on the CO2 emission. Re-used and recycled textiles, instead of incinerating can save up to 23-44kg CO2 per kg of new textile produced. The recycling stations collects almost 9kt of waste, which are consumer products (e.g. bicycles, furniture, electronic devices and car decks). Re-used products can save between 100kg CO2 eq per bicycle up to 300kg CO2 eq per electronic devices, such as electric tools or laptop computers, as well as 28kg CO2 eq per car decks. On the other hand, the service provided by Södertälje has a huge influence on the citizens choice. The “rullande återvinning” (rolling service), in which Telge Återvinning arranged trucks to collect bulky waste closer to the citizen can reduce the emission that is caused by the citizen transportation. In addition, the IoT system installed in the recycling station can provide good information to the citizen to avoid congestion time and paying for an empty visit due to long queue in the recycling stations. The service provided by Human Bridge and Telge Återvinning can be improved. However, both have already started to implement green choices. The environmental choices already made by Human Bridge (part 2) include the choice of thinner and recycled plastic bags and the choice of green electricity. The environmental choices already made by Telge Återvinning (part 3) include the choice of transportation (HVO instead of diesel) and the choice of green electricity. The recommendations for the future could include better service for the citizens (rolling service) and setting requirements on the service provider, such as in the textile collection (fossil-free transport).

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  • 35.
    Cid Gomes, L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rana, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Wiklund, P.
    Biobase Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Ottosson, H.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Light-driven (cross-)dimerization of terpenes as a route to renewable C15-C30 crudes for fuel and lubricant oil applications2023In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 868-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-fossil hydrocarbons are desirable for transport fuels and lubricant oils to reach a fossil carbon neutral economy. Herein, we show the production of such end-products from crude raw materials via the photosensitized dimerization of terpenes. Terpenes are hydrocarbons originating from renewable sources, such as forestry, industrial bio-waste and photosynthetically active microorganisms. Under irradiation at 365 nm, we observed high conversions of terpenes with conjugated diene segments into their dimers (e.g. 96.1 wt%, 12 h for α-phellandrene), and remarkable results were obtained using simulated and natural sunlight (90.8 wt% and 46.6 wt%, respectively, for α-phellandrene). We show that the lower reactivities of some isomeric monoterpenes could be overcome by a cross-photodimerization with α-phellandrene. We also utilized the cross-photodimerization approach to obtain C15 and C30 products, combining mixtures of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Hydrogenation of the terpene dimers gave materials with physical properties suitable as high energy density fuels and lubricant oils. Finally, our preliminary analysis based on recent literature points to the commercial viability of this route to produce fuels and lubricant oils, as well as to a potential for reduction of the environmental impact compared to fossil-based routes. 

  • 36.
    Coslovich, Franciesco
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Östberg, Magnus
    Flowtech International AB, Sweden.
    Janson, Carl-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Added resistance, heave and pitch for the KVLCC2 tanker using a fully nonlinear unsteady potential flow boundary element method2021In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 229, article id 108935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a fully nonlinear unsteady potential flow method is used to predict added resistance, heave and pitch for the KVLCC2 hull in regular head waves at design speed. The method presents a nonlinear decomposition of the velocity potential and the wave field and an adaptive grid refinement. A formulation for the acceleration potential is used to obtain the pressure. To improve computational efficiency, a Barnes-Hut algorithm is introduced. A grid dependency study and a study on the impact of different time steps on the solution are performed. Numerical results have been compared with experimental data for the design speed. A general good agreement is found for added resistance, especially for longer waves. Heave and pitch are properly computed for all wave lengths in the range λ/Lpp=0.4 to 1.4. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 37.
    Cáceres, Cristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Törnroth, Suzanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Data-Center Farming: Exploring the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis in a Subarctic Region2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As our world becomes increasingly digitalized, data centers as operational bases for these technologies lead to a consequent increased release of excess heat into the surrounding environment. This paper studies the challenges and opportunities of industrial symbiosis between data centers’ excess heat and greenhouse farming, specifically utilizing the north of Sweden as a case study region. The region was selected in a bid to tackle the urgent urban issue of self-sufficiency in local food production. A synergetic approach towards engaging stakeholders from different sectors is presented through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to facilitate resilient data-center-enabled food production. The paper delivers on possible future solutions on implementing resource efficiency in subarctic regions. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 38.
    Dahlberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Kusoffsky, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Testbädd för prefabricerade dagvattenanläggningar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Test facility for prefabricated storm water treatment devices.

    In Sweden, stormwater management has usually implied release of stormwater into the nearest recipient with no concern for either the levels of contaminants in the water or to the sensitivity of the recipient. The demand for sustainable solutions has increased along with more knowledge concerning stormwater toxicity and the harmful effects it can have on the environment in the long term. New technical solutions for stormwater treatment are continuously being presented on the market, however, independent third-party tests have rarely been conducted to verify the function of these solutions. To choose the right technology for a specific application while ensuring the function over an extended period of time, can therefore be complex task for customers. Likewise, the variety of requirements on treatment efficiency makes in challenging for technology suppliers as there is currently no possibility of independent testing of stormwater treatment devices in Sweden to verify this. As a step towards a more sustainable stormwater management, RISE developed a proposal for a national standard for prefabricated treatment devices within a Vinnova-funded project in 2019. Subsequently, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has financed three follow-up projects where this is the latter of the three. The aim for this project has been to answer the remaining questions and create sufficient knowledge to be able to build the test bed in a next step. During the project, a lot of valuable information has been gathered through interviews, dialogues, a workshop and a survey with actors from both the customer side and the supplier side in Sweden and internationally. The design of the test bed has emerged and is based on the proposed standard and the input that has come along the project. A business model has been developed, where different alternatives have been studied. Based on this, ways forward have been discussed. The conclusions of the project can be summarized by the fact that the need for a clearer definition of requirements for stormwater quality and a national standard for third-party tests of stormwater treatment devices is great both from customers and technology suppliers. Based on the dialogues conducted with international actors, it has emerged that several countries (e.g., Germany and the UK) have come further than Sweden in this area and there is much to be gained from continuing the dialogue and cooperate further on these issues. The business model shows that a mobile facility is preferable, as the area of use can then be broadened and revenues for rent can supplement income from standardized tests. However, this means that only smaller facilities can be evaluated in the facility, which several technology providers have been critical of. One possibility that have been discussed within the project is that larger facilities could be evaluated according to a Swedish standard at an established test bed abroad. For standardized tests, the cost estimate is SEK 200,000 towards the customer, to also get coverage for inactive periods. If the investment cost of the test bed can be financed in another way, for example through national grants, depreciation costs are reduced by approximately SEK 10,000 / week, which contributes to reduced costs per test and rental period. This would give more technology providers the opportunity to perform tests, as well as enable an expanded knowledge building, which would benefit the industry as a whole.

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  • 39.
    Das, Atanu Kumar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Islam, Md Nazrul
    Khulna University, Bangladesh.
    Nanocomposites in energy storage applications2023In: Nanocomposites-Advanced Materials for Energy and Environmental Aspects / [ed] Mohammad Ehtisham Khan, Jeenat Aslam and Chandrabhan Verma, Elsevier BV , 2023, p. 175-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of energy storage devices for the growing energy demand is a prerequisite for modern society. Specific characteristics, i.e., thermal, electrochemical, and mechanical properties, of nanocomposites are essential for their application in energy storage appliances. Biobased nanocomposites are being considered environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose, lignin, and chitosan are obtained from an abundant source of natural renewable materials. Using them in developing batteries and supercapacitors has great potential for a sustainable supply of energy. Nanocellulose and the lignin-based electrode have shown excellent electrochemical properties for application in a battery. Nanocellulose, lignin, and chitosan-based electrode have also exhibited excellent electrochemical properties for their utilization in supercapacitors. In addition, their low-cost, high conductivity, and environment-friendly nature are being considered for the preparation of energy storage devices. In this chapter, the development strategy and performance of batteries and supercapacitors obtained from biobased nanocomposites have been discussed.

  • 40.
    de Jong, Annelise M.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    The potential of plastic reuse for manufacturing: A case study into circular business models for an on-line marketplace2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 2007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic industry is facing increasingly growing social and political demands on plastic recycling and reuse. The resource perspective is essential for plastic production companies. Circular economy is one perspective for how industries could deal with a lack of resources today and in the future. However, there are large challenges in the reuse of plastics waste, predominantly due to concern regarding the quality of the waste material. Our paper focuses on the potential of the exchange of plastic material waste between companies in the production process before it enters into the recycling loop. In this study our aim is to investigate if an on-line marketplace is relevant for the plastic industry for this exchange, the market potential and the potential business model and requirements of the marketplace. Through interviews and benchmarking with five platform providers and two plastic manufacturing companies, we collected information on the business models of international digital platforms and plastic manufacturers concerning the exchange of reusable materials between companies. We also collected data through a survey sent out to plastic manufacturers via two industry organizations in Sweden. This paper will present the results from the study and conclude with a description of draft requirements with particular focus on direct reuse of regrind material, and a potential business model for the on-line marketplace that should be run on a commercial basis. This study shows that there are opportunities for the plastic industry to be at the forefront of a circular initiative that could also be utilized by other industries with adjustments to reflect the specific requirements of each industry. © 2021 by the authors.

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  • 41.
    Eder, Gabriele
    et al.
    OFI, Austria.
    Peharz, Gerhard
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Trattnig, Roman
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Bonomo, Pierluigi
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Saretta, Erika
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Frontini, Francesco
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Polo López, Cristina S.
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Wilson, Helen Rose
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Eisenlohr, Johannes
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Chivelet, Nuria Martin
    CIEMAT, Spain.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jakica, Nebojsa
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Zanelli, Alessandra
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building sector, net-zero energy performance targets and reduction of CO2 emissions are the main drivers for building integrated photovoltaics. Recent market studies [10,18,19] show the history and perspective of the global market in the BIPV sector and calculate a global compound annual growth rate of ~ 40 % from 2009 up to 2020.

    In Europe, the BIPV market is in a transition. The past decades of a slowly emerging BIPV market have been characterized by the original dominant value of BIPV: a building that communicates an image of sustainability and innovation. Payback time or "return on investment" have not been the major parameters in the decision process for applying BIPV. This is changing now. In most European countries, the new regulations on energy performance in buildings (derived from the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and the Directive on energy efficiency) have been translated in national regulations/laws, stating that all new (and freshly refurbished) buildings of the EU member states should be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) by 2020. Thus, the time for the regulations to become mandatory is very near. It is expected that the energy performance regulations are now taking over as the main driving factor for the BIPV market and that should have huge consequences in removing the difference between a conventional building component and a BIPV component both in aesthetical and construction terms. This has led to intensified research and development aiming to create BIPV products that come in a variety of colours and sizes, while at the same time being as close as possible to existing building components, to its requirements and how it is considered by the construction industry.

    The given market overview of state-of-the-art coloured BIPV products clearly reveals that for all parts of a BIPV module (glass, polymers, PV-active layers), there are technical solutions available for colouring. Pilot projects utilizing coloured BIPV products have been built in numerous (mainly European) cities clearly demonstrating the maturity of these solutions.

    The key aspect that has been slowing down the progress of implementation of these aesthetically appealing and technically sophisticated new products into a wider market are the costs. In this respect, a lot of effort has been made to improve and optimize the relationship between colour and efficiency/power generation of BIPV elements. The results of the past and on-going innovative research and intensified fundamental considerations are also summarized in this report.

    Besides the colour perception of the coloured BIPV elements under solar irradiation which is essential for the acceptance of the exterior appearance of a building, also transparency and inside visual comfort of BIPV – windows and façade elements are essential for the users and inhabitants.

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  • 42.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This manual provides instructions on how to perform sorting analyses of combustible construction and demolition waste studied in the project Framtidens avfallsbränsle – Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.The sorting strategy described in this manual recommends sorting out the content of the waste sample based on its composition (referred to as main fractions) and functionality (referred to as subfractions). In this way, four material fractions are identified and sorted out (i.e. plastic, paper, wood and “others combustible and non-combustible materials”), and up to 48 different subfraction (i.e. plastic pipes, wooden furniture, packaging paper, cables, metal pieces etc.).It is important to mention that the subfractions listed in this report are indicative: not all of the subfractions listed are always found in the combustible construction and demolition waste. Additions or substitutions may be necessary to ensure the best outcomes from the sorting analyses depending on the aim and goals of the project.The way the waste sample is handled before a sorting analysis is performed is essential. For that reason, this manual also includes instructions about sample collection, identification and storage once the sample is received at the sorting waste plants; as well as brief recommendations about how to perform a pre-sorting of those materials with a potential for recycling and waste which can be easily removed.

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  • 43.
    Edvall, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Skärhem, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    HANDLINGSPLAN - Regional samverkan kring vätgas2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handlingsplan är framtagen inom projektet Regional samverkan kring vätgas som finansieras av Klimatledande Processindustri där Västsvenska Kemi- och Materialklustret ingår. Handlingsplanen utgår från det geografiska område i och i närheten av Göteborg, Stenungsund och Lysekil, det område där kemi- och raffinaderiindustrierna på västkusten är verksamma. Handlingsplanen innehåller prioriterade frågeställningar och aktiviteter att utföra i närtid och är framtagen av RISE i samarbete med Borealis, Chalmers, Göteborg Energi, Göteborgs Hamn, Inovyn, Linde Gas, Liquid Wind, Nordion Energi, Perstorp, Preem, St1, Uniper samt Vattenfall. Syftet med projektet är att skapa samverkan kring vätgasrelaterade frågor baserat på identifierade behov hos nyckelaktörer i regionen. Projektet ska även identifiera vilka former för samverkan som på bästa sätt kan underlätta och påskynda omställningen till ett klimatneutralt samhälle, givet regionens specifika utmaningar och möjligheter kopplat till vätgas.

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  • 44.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Emilsson, Tobias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Scandinavian Green Roof Institute, Sweden.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Quality-assured solutions for green roof gardens on concrete deck with zero tolerance for leaks2016In: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment: The Sustainable City XI / [ed] A. Galiano-Garrigos, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2016, Vol. 204, p. 363-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-neighborhoods with gardens on concrete decks are for several reasons increasingly being prescribed today in major Swedish cities. However, there is a lack of knowledge, experience, standards and guidelines as well as collaboration between parties and stakeholders when installing such systems. It is incredibly important to avoid any leakage during the lifetime of a green roof garden but this cannot be completely guaranteed with today’s installation practice and project management. At Sustainable City 2014 in Siena, we presented a paper about a new project aiming at bringing together researchers, government and industry to collaborative development of new and attractive solutions for green roof gardens with consideration to the environment and high requirements for durability, materials, construction and energy efficiency. This paper is a continuation of the paper presented in Siena and reports on the most recent results from the collaborative project which will finalize in November 2016. After that, the project will be further evaluated in a proposed continuation project for another couple of years.

  • 45.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gomez Barrio, Laura
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; Technological University Dublin, Ireland.
    Cabral, Eduarda
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; .
    Tiwari, Brijesh
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; .
    Life cycle assessment of a seaweed-based biorefinery concept for production of food, materials, and energy2022In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 65, article id 102725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue Economy is seen as an essential contributor to a sustainable development, and it is an important part of the EU Green Deal. Seaweed plays a key role in the Blue Economy as a source of food, feed, and feedstock for biorefineries. Today, the largest part of global seaweed production is based in Asia, but there is also a growing interest in seaweed production in Europe. However, more knowledge on the environmental impacts is needed to ensure sustainable growth of the sector. Seaweed can be used in biorefineries to produce a variety of products for food and non-food applications. The aim of this paper was to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a seaweed value-chain, including seaweed cultivation and production into sodium alginate, biodegradable materials, biogas, and fertilizer in a biorefinery setting. The LCA included 19 environmental impact categories but focused on climate change. The seaweed Saccharina latissima was cultivated and processed in Ireland. Sodium alginate was then extracted by means of ultrasound-assisted extraction, a novel extraction technology. Cellulosic residues produced after the extraction were used for the production of films used as a packaging material. Residues that remain after the production of the films were sent to anaerobic digestion to achieve a no-waste concept. For seaweed cultivation, fuel use and drying of seaweed biomass were the main environmental hot spots; and for the alginate extraction process, the yield and purification after extraction were the main hot spots. Overall, the results of this paper showed that the seaweed-based biorefinery has the potential to be sustainable, but several improvements are necessary before it is competitive with land-based systems. © 2022 The Authors

  • 46.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sohn, Joshua
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Vega, Giovanna
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Birkved, Morten
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsen, Stig
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Testing the no agricultural waste concept – an environmental comparison of biorefinery value chains in various regions2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 174, article id 105702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is great opportunity, the bioeconomy is not a silver bullet in the quest to solve various environmental problems. This assessment tests the no agricultural waste concept, an agricultural system where all residues are utilized within a value chain, to elucidate whether the concept does indeed improve environmental performance across various regions, and if so, explores how various biorefinery concepts might be organized into various value chains to attain environmental benefits. In order to valorize this, the study illustrates how to do a step-wise assessment in order to design biorefinery set-ups based on their feedstock compatibility and region of implementation. The results show that no agricultural waste systems do not always result in environmental benefits, especially when environmental impacts are measured via a holistic interpretation of environmental damages, namely monetizing environmental damages. Furthermore, disagreement is shown when comparing environmental impacts interpreted via a single impact category, here global warming potential (GWP) and monetized environmental damages (MED). The performance of the various biorefineries was highly affected by the degree of decarbonization present in the energy grid of each region. While energy intensive biorefineries are able to provide benefit in terms of global warming savings, tradeoffs are observed where impacts are shifted to other areas of environmental impact. Despite these tradeoffs, across multiple regions, there is great potential for large-scale implementation of biorefineries as a tool for ameliorating environmental damages.

  • 47.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Spectral element FNPF simulations of focused wave groups impacting a fixed FPSO2018In: Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth (2018) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineering , 2018, p. 1443-1450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For  the assessment of experimental measurements of focused wave groups impacting a surface-piecing fixed structure, we present a new Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow (FNPF) model for simulation of unsteady water waves. The FNPF model is discretized in three  spatial dimensions (3D) using high-order prismatic - possibly curvilinear - elements using a  spectral  element  method (SEM) that has support for adaptive unstructured meshes. This  SEM-FNPF model is based on an Eulerian formulation and deviates from past works in that a  direct discretization of the Laplace problem is used making it straightforward to handle  accurately floating structural bodies of arbitrary shape. Our objectives are; i) present detail of a new SEM modelling developments and ii) to consider its application to address a wave-body interaction problem for nonlinear design waves and their interaction with a model-scale fixed Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO).  We first reproduce  experimental measurements for focused design waves that represent a probably extreme  wave event for a sea state represented by a wave spectrum and seek to reproduce these measurements in a numerical wave tank. The validated input signal based on measurements is then generated in a NWT setup that includes the FPSO and differences in the signal caused by nonlinear diffraction is reported.

  • 48.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Monteserin, Carlos
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian spectral element method for nonlinear wave interaction with fixed structures2019In: Water Waves, ISSN 2523-367X, Vol. 1, p. 315-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a high-order nodal spectral element method for the two-dimensional simulationof nonlinearwaterwaves. The model is based on themixed Eulerian–Lagrangian(MEL) method. Wave interaction with fixed truncated structures is handled usingunstructured meshes consisting of high-order iso-parametric quadrilateral/triangularelements to represent the body surfaces as well as the free surface elevation. A numericaleigenvalue analysis highlights that using a thin top layer of quadrilateral elementscircumvents the general instability problem associated with the use of asymmetricmesh topology.We demonstrate howto obtain a robustMELscheme for highly nonlinearwavesusing an efficient combination of (i) global L2 projectionwithout quadratureerrors, (ii) mild modal filtering and (iii) a combination of local and global re-meshingtechniques. Numerical experiments for strongly nonlinear waves are presented. Theexperiments demonstrate that the spectral element model provides excellent accuracyin prediction of nonlinear and dispersive wave propagation. The model is also shownto accurately capture the interaction between solitary waves and fixed submerged andsurface-piercing bodies. The wave motion and the wave-induced loads compare wellto experimental and computational results from the literature.

  • 49.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Palm, Johannes
    Sigma Energy & Marine AB, Sweden.
    High-fidelity modelling of moored marine structures: multi-component simulations and fluid-mooring coupling2022In: Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy, ISSN 2198-6444, E-ISSN 2198-6452, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 513-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-fidelity viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models coupled to dynamic mooring models is becoming an established tool for marine wave-body-mooring (WBM) interaction problems. The CFD and the mooring solvers most often communicate by exchanging positions and mooring forces at the mooring fairleads. Mooring components such as submerged buoys and clump weights are usually not resolved in the CFD model, but are treated as Morison-type bodies. This paper presents two recent developments in high-fidelity WBM modelling: (i) a one-way fluid-mooring coupling that samples the CFD fluid kinematics to approximate drag and inertia forces in the mooring model; and (ii) support for inter-moored multibody simulations that can resolve fluid dynamics on a mooring component level. The developments are made in the high-order discontinuous Galerkin mooring solver MoodyCore, and in the two-phase incompressible Navier–Stokes finite volume solver OpenFOAM. The fluid-mooring coupling is verified with experimental tests of a mooring cable in steady current. It is also used to model the response of the slack-moored DeepCwind FOWT exposed to regular waves. Minor effects of fluid-mooring coupling were noted, as expected since this a mild wave case. The inter-mooring development is demonstrated on a point-absorbing WEC moored with a hybrid mooring system, fully resolved in CFD-MoodyCore. The WEC (including a quasi-linear PTO) and the submerged buoys are resolved in CFD, while the mooring dynamics include inter-mooring effects and the one-way sampling of the flow. The combined wave-body-mooring model is judged to be very complete and to cover most of the relevant effects for marine WBM problems. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 50.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Palm, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulations of floating wave energy devices using adaptive mesh refinement2019In: Advances in Renewable Energies Offshore / [ed] C. Guedes Soares, 2019, p. 431-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CFD simulations of floating wave energy converters are computationally very heavy. This paper deals with a straightforward attempt to cut down on the computational effort by using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We investigate the use of AMR for simulations involving floating bodies inside the open-source finite volume framework OpenFOAM. A simple error indicator based on the pressure jump over cell faces is used to drive the AMR. First the use of the error indicator is illustrated for propagation of a very steep stream function wave. Then the AMR technique is applied to two cases of floating bodies: (i) a floating box and (ii) a bottom reacting point-absorber. As expected the AMR significantly reduce the number of cells in the computational meshes and subsequently lower the  computational effort.

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