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Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av krysslaminert massivtre i bygninger: en litteraturstudie
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6436-0393
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0979-2369
2019 (Norwegian)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This literature study presents recent research on fire safety in cross laminated timber (CLT) buildings. Results from large fire experiments and other studies in the period 2010 - 2018 are summarized, with focus on the following research questions:• How do constructions consisting of protected or exposed CLT contribute to the fire development in a room?• How can contribution to the fire development from detailing of CLT be avoided?There is an increasing desire to use wooden structures in tall buildings, as a substitute for more traditional construction materials. However, the use of combustible construc-tions in buildings in Norwegian Fire Class 3 (usually five floors or more) is not pre-accepted in the guideline to Regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17), and fire safety must therefore be documented by analysis in such structures. When designing tall and complex timber buildings, it must be taken into account that a fire involving a timber construction may have more severe consequences than in buildings with constructions of steel or concrete, if the fire design of the construction and detail solutions is insufficient. Several studies show that fire exposed CLT, or CLT with insufficient protection, can cause a fire to develop faster, be more intense and last longer than a fire where the only fuel is the furniture and fixtures in the fire room. It is shown that the amount of fire exposed timber in a room may have impact on the extent and duration of a fire, but the knowledge has not yet been sufficient enough to be used in fire modeling, design and analysis.Research on charring rates, delamination and auto-extinction, all of which are factors that can have major impact on fire development and the fire resistance of the construction, takes place in Europe, Australia and North America. Although extensive research has been carried out, it is based on few large fire experiments, and the literature is still pointing to several knowledge gaps. However, the research projects have increased the knowledge of fire in timber buildings, and have contributed to the design of detail solutions, guidelines and development of models for function-based design. Revision of EN 1995-1-2 is under preparation and expected to apply from 2022. A knowledge base for the audit can be found in the network COST Action FP1404 Fire Safety Use of Bio-Based Building Products (COST FP1404) Working Group 2 (WG2). They have published several guidelines relevant for the fire design of CLT, including e.g. calculation methods for the prediction of charring rates and depths, determination of reduced CLT cross-section, design of CLT detailing and a suggested test method for evaluating adhesive performance.Based on the literature review, the following conclusions and recommendations are given for CLT constructions:

The design phase must sufficiently consider protection of the construction and con-tribution of the construction to the fire energy, and to a greater extent include the assessment of detailing and ventilation conditions. It should be considered whether analytic fire engineering design also should be required for buildings in the Norwegian Fire Classes 1 and 2 where more than one CLT wall is exposed.

• By protecting all CLT surfaces of the structure with cladding, the construction may retain the stability and the load bearing capacity during the required time of fire resistance.

• In buildings with only one exposed CLT wall in each fire cell, it may also be appropriate to use solutions that satisfy the pre-accepted performances, but one must consider whether a somewhat longer and more intense heat radiation and flame exposure on the facade outside window openings will require measures beyond the pre-accepted performances given in the guideline to TEK17.

• Rooms where two or more CLT walls in addition to the ceiling are exposed, are configurations that should be avoided.

• The risk of delamination can be reduced by using heat-resistant glue.

• There is generally a need for relevant documentation for fire-resistant solutions for joints between CLT walls and floors and service penetrations in CLT constructions.

• Test methods for testing of joints and penetrations in CLT constructions should be standardized. For example, there exists no standardized test for corner joints. Tests of penetration seals for CLT constructions are scarce, although they can be tested according to EN 1366-3. However, CLT is not a standard supporting construction according to EN 1366-3, and this must be taken into consideration when the test results are evaluated. Joints in glulam constructions should also be tested because they are often used in conjunction with CLT elements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 50
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:09
Keywords [en]
Cross laminated timber, CLT, fire safety, exposed CLT, auto-extinction, charring, delamination, detailing
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38186ISBN: 978-91-88907-36-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-38186DiVA, id: diva2:1297047
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-19

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Reitan, Nina KristineFjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni

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