Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Büker, O., Stolt, K., Lindström, K., Wennergren, P., Penttinen, O. & Mattiasson, K. (2021). A unique test facility for calibration of domestic flow meters under dynamic flow conditions. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 79, Article ID 101934.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A unique test facility for calibration of domestic flow meters under dynamic flow conditions
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 79, article id 101934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the early nineties a hot water test facility was planned and constructed for calibration and testing of volume and flow meters at the National Volume Measurement Laboratory at RISE (formerly SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden). The main feature of the test facility is the capability to measure flow in a wide temperature and flow range with very high accuracy. The objective of the project, which was initiated in 1989, was to design equipment for calibration of flow meters with stable flow and temperature conditions. After many years of international debate whether static testing is adequate to represent the later more dynamic application of domestic water meters, the EMPIR project 17IND13 Metrology for real-world domestic water metering (“Metrowamet”) was launched in 2018. The project investigates the influence of dynamic flow testing on the measurement accuracy of different types of domestic flow meters. One of the main objectives of the project is the development of infrastructure to carry out dynamic flow measurements. The existing test facility at RISE was at the time of construction one of the best hot and cold-water test facilities in the world. Due to the Metrowamet project the test facility has been upgraded to meet the needs of an infrastructure for dynamic flow investigations. The first findings from dynamic consumption profile measurements are reported in this paper. © 2021 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Calibration, Domestic water meters, Dynamic flow measurement, Flow meter accuracy, Test facility, Flow measurement, Testing, Volume measurement, Water meters, Design equipments, Dynamic applications, Dynamic flow conditions, International debate, Measurement accuracy, Profile measurement, Technical research, Temperature conditions, Test facilities
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-53013 (URN)10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2021.101934 (DOI)2-s2.0-85105016515 (Scopus ID)
Note

 Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: This project 17IND13 Metrowamet has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme .

Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Åkerlund, K., Nordin, T. & Penttinen, O. (2021). Dimensionering av servisledningar i distributionssystem.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensionering av servisledningar i distributionssystem
2021 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

En sedan länge vedertagen branschpraxis är att man håller sig under en flödeshastighet på 1 m/s och ett tryckfall på 100 Pa/m i servisledningar. Denna praxis börjar dock ifrågasättas och med ett mer dynamiskt förhållningssätt till systemdimensionering kan fjärrvärmens konkurrenskraft öka. I detta projekt har en litteraturstudie genomförts angående nuvarande branschpraxis samt fakta om dimensionering, ljud och invändiga skador. Relativt stor vikt har lagts vid relaterade begrepp som strömning/tryckfall, kavitation och korrosion för att förklara de bakomliggande orsakerna till att ljud och inre skador uppstår. Nätägare har besvarat en enkät angående ljud och invändiga skador. Material och tjänsteleverantörer har intervjuats i syfte att få en mer djupgående bild av sambandet mellan ljud och flödeshastighet/tryckfall och var i näten ljud uppstår. Leverantörerna har också delat med sig av erfarenheter kring inre skador. Vibrationsmätningar har utförts på sex olika medierör (olika material och dimension), samt två olika varmhållningsventiler i laboratoriemiljö. En guide för dimensionering av servisledningar har tagits fram. Det kan fastslås att dagens branschpraxis på 100 Pa/m inte är relaterat till risken för att oljud ska uppstå i systemet. Det är snarare en säkerhetsmarginal för att undvika alltför stora tryckfall i nätet, vilket kan påverka förmågan att upprätthålla differenstrycket. Vid 1 m/s är det inte heller servisledningarna själva som ger upphov till oljud även om tryckfallet är ganska stort för små ledningar. Ljud uppstår vanligtvis i komponenter i ledningsnätet som reducerar den effektiva tvärsnittsarean, i enkätundersökningen refereras det till styr- och varmhållningsventiler. Från mätningarna noteras en stor skillnad mellan varmhållningsventiler med olika design. Har man inte rådighet över dessa rekommenderas ett maximalt differenstryck på 2 bar. Vid mätningarna noterades inga störande ljudnivåer under en flödeshastighet på 1,5 m/s för de undersökta serviserna. Utifrån litteraturstudien har vi hittat rekommenderade maxhastigheter av 2 m/s för koppar- samt 3 m/s för stålrör, från andra tekniker, som används som en riktlinje för att reducera risken för erosion. Baserat på projektets slutsatser har ett digitalt verktyg slutligen implementerats för att underlätta val av dimension på servisledningar vid projektering. Klart är att ett mer dynamiskt sätt att dimensionera servisledningar är det mest optimala, jämfört med att använda branschpraxis, där dimension på servisledning anpassas och bestäms av den flödeshastighet och det tryckfall som nås genom viktning av de påverkande faktorerna i denna rapports guide för dimensionering av servisledningar. Ledningsdimensionen anpassas på så vis till ledningens lokala/aktuella förutsättningar.

Abstract [en]

A long-established industry practice is to stay below a flow rate of 1 m / s and a pressure drop of 100 Pa / m in service pipes. However, this practice is beginning to be questioned and with a more dynamic approach to system dimensioning, the competitiveness of district heating can increase. In this project, a literature study has been performed regarding current industry practice as well as facts about dimensioning, sound, and internal damage. A relatively great emphasis has been placed on related concepts such as flow/pressure drop, cavitation and corrosion to explain the underlying causes of noise and internal damage. District heating network owners have responded to a survey regarding noise and internal damage. Material- and service providers have been interviewed to get a more in-depth picture of the relationship between sound and flow velocity / pressure drop. The suppliers have also shared their experiences of sound sources and of internal damage within the district heating networks. Vibration measurements have been performed on six different service pipes (different materials and dimensions), as well as two different thermostatic bypass valves in a laboratory environment. A dimensioning guide for service pipes has been produced. It can be stated that current industry practice of 100 Pa/m is not related to the risk of noise in the system. Rather, it is a safety margin to avoid excessive pressure drops in the network, which can affect the ability to maintain the differential pressure. At 1 m/s, it is also not the service lines themselves that give rise to noise even though the pressure drop is rather large for small dimensions. Noise usually occurs in components in the pipe network that reduce the effective cross-sectional area. Network owners refer to control- and thermostatic bypass valves in the survey. From the measurements, a large difference is noted between different makes of thermostatic bypass valves. If the network owner doesn’t own the pypass valve, a maximum differential pressure of 2 bar is recommended. During the measurements, no disturbing noise levels were noted below a flow velocity of 1.5 m / s for the examined pipes. Based on the literature study, we have found recommended maximum speeds of 2 m/s for copper and 3 m/s for steel pipes, from other techniques, which are used as a guideline to reduce the risk of erosion. Based on the project's conclusions, a digital tool has finally been implemented to facilitate the choice of dimension on service lines during design. A more dynamic method of dimensioning service pipes is the most optimal, compared to using the industry practice. Dimensioning of service pipes should be adapted and determined by the flow rate and the pressure drop achieved by weighting the influencing factors listed in this report.

Publisher
p. 72
Series
Rapport från Energiforsk
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-57371 (URN)978-91-7673-813-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-12-21 Created: 2021-12-21 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Penttinen, O., Ulveström, M., Karlsson, K., Andersson, V., Andersson, H., Pettersson, J. & Büker, O. (2021). Towards flow measurement with passive accelerometers. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 80, Article ID 101992.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards flow measurement with passive accelerometers
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 80, article id 101992Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this project has been to find suitable methods for flow measurement and characterization with passive accelerometers. The objectives were twofold. Firstly, the process industry could make use of such a sensor for process surveillance. Secondly, the water utilities of today lack simple and cost-efficient alternatives to equip their ageing infrastructures with online flow meters. These kinds of efforts are necessary for the realization of smart maintenance and for the decrease of the currently increasing amount of maintenance needs water utilities of today are experiencing. Liquid flowing in a pipe generates vibrations, detectable with accelerometers fitted along the pipe exterior. The correlated sound from synchronized accelerometers experience a lag which is dependent on the flow rate. Also, if the acquired sound is further processed, there exist a possibility to extract enough features to estimate some additional characteristics, in this case temperature. Experiments were performed at two nominal temperatures, 20 °C and 40 °C. A deep neural network was constructed for non-linear regression purposes to predict flow velocities based on lag and mean frequencies of the vibrations. Further, a proof of concept for this methodology was shown which reached a root mean square deviation from 100.8 L/min to 171.1 L/min for a nominal flow range of 0 to 1500 L/min. In addition, we train a k-nearest neighbour classifier to predict the nominal temperature of our validation dataset with 83 percent accuracy. The work was performed at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, serving as Sweden's national metrology institute for liquid flow and acoustics. © 2021 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2021
Keywords
Cross-correlation, Deep learning, k-nearest neighbour, Machine learning, Vibrations, Accelerometers, Classification (of information), Deep neural networks, Flow measurement, Nearest neighbor search, Ageing infrastructures, K-nearest neighbours, National metrology institutes, Non-linear regression, Process industries, Proof of concept, Research institutes, Root mean square deviations, Flowmeters
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-54483 (URN)10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2021.101992 (DOI)2-s2.0-85107790083 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: VINNOVA, 2019-04975; Funding details: VINNOVA; Funding text 1: The work was supported by Vinnova, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (No. 2019-04975 ).

Available from: 2021-06-21 Created: 2021-06-21 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Penttinen, O. & Nilsson, H. (2015). A fully synthetic turbulent boundary condition with a homogeneous vortex distribution (ed.). Computer Physics Communications, 190, 23-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A fully synthetic turbulent boundary condition with a homogeneous vortex distribution
2015 (English)In: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944, Vol. 190, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Temporally and spatially resolved simulations of turbulent flow need realistic inlet velocity fluctuations. The vortex method, described and implemented in this work, adds vortices to the inlet mean flow profile. The vortices are randomly distributed over the inlet and they move across the extent of the inlet with a finite life-time. The initial vortex sizes, strengths, as well as their developing motion and life-times, are determined by the inlet mean velocity and turbulence distributions. In contrast to previous studies of the vortex method, the inlet mean velocity and turbulence distributions are in the present work theoretically determined, and thus form an explicit part of the boundary condition. This makes the method independent of precursor RANS simulations. Special care has been taken to distribute the vortices evenly across the inlet. The tangential velocity of the vortices is randomly initialized and the spatial and temporal correlation is preserved. An edge bouncing mechanism is implemented at solid boundaries.

The boundary condition is applied to a DNS simulation of pipe flow at a Reynolds number of 5300, based on pipe diameter, aiming at reaching fully developed conditions at a short distance from the inlet. The results are compared with those using cyclic boundary conditions, and with two DNS results found in the literature. It is shown that a good agreement is reached for the mean velocity profiles five pipe diameters downstream from the inlet. Also the resolved velocity fluctuations at that location are reasonable. It is concluded that the present implementation of the vortex method boundary condition, based on theoretical mean velocity and turbulence profiles, gives an inlet flow that is sufficiently realistic to reach a well-resolved fully developed turbulent pipe flow at five pipe diameters downstream the inlet.

Keywords
Vortex, Synthetic turbulence, Direct numerical simulation, Pipe flow
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-6802 (URN)10.1016/j.cpc.2015.01.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-84924578803 (Scopus ID)23590 (Local ID)23590 (Archive number)23590 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Klason, P., Büker, O., Lau, P., Penttinen, O. & Mattiasson, K. (2013). Reynolds dependence of four different flow meters used for feed water flow measurements (ed.). In: 16th International Flow Measurement Conference 2013, FLOMEKO 2013: . Paper presented at 16th International Flow Measurement Conference 2013, FLOMEKO 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reynolds dependence of four different flow meters used for feed water flow measurements
Show others...
2013 (English)In: 16th International Flow Measurement Conference 2013, FLOMEKO 2013, 2013, , p. 610-613Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 610-613
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-12424 (URN)19216 (Local ID)19216 (Archive number)19216 (OAI)
Conference
16th International Flow Measurement Conference 2013, FLOMEKO 2013
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9445-9669

Search in DiVA

Show all publications