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Kroner, C., Warnecke, H., Büker, O., Stolt, K., Wennergren, P., Hagemann, G. & Werner, M. (2024). Metrology for reliable fuel consumption measurements in the maritime sector. Measurement, 226, Article ID 114161.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrology for reliable fuel consumption measurements in the maritime sector
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2024 (English)In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 226, article id 114161Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reliable fuel consumption measurements play an essential role in the maritime sector whether for emission determinations or the use of novel fuels. A verification of the performance of flow meters used for fuel consumption determination under realistic conditions is thus of interest. Apart from the influence of the pressure- and temperature-dependent transport properties of the fuels, a characterization of the measurement performance under dynamic fuel consumption is of relevance. Traceable metrological infrastructure and procedures, which will enable an evaluation of the measurement performance of flow meters in this regard, are being developed in the scope of the EMPIR project “Safest” (20IND13). A consumption profile of a ferry navigating in a harbour serves as basis. In addition to the measurement accuracy under dynamic conditions, first investigations of the performance of flow meters are carried out in terms of fluid temperature and fuel transport properties for the example of spindle screw meters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
Dynamic flows, Flow measurements, Fuel consumption, Measurement uncertainty, Transport properties, Flowmeters, Uncertainty analysis, Consumption measurement, Flow meter, Maritime sector, Novel fuels, Performance, Pressure and temperature, Pressure dependent, Realistic conditions, Flow measurement
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-71949 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114161 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182916299 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR)
Note

This project (EMPIR JRP 20IND13 SAFEST) has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Available from: 2024-02-27 Created: 2024-02-27 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Böckler, H. B., de Huu, M., Maury, R., Schmelter, S., Schakel, M. D., Büker, O., . . . Gugole, F. (2024). Metrology infrastructure for high-pressure gas and liquified hydrogen flows. A brief outline of the MetHyInfra project, measurement challenges, and first results. Measurement, 232, Article ID 114675.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrology infrastructure for high-pressure gas and liquified hydrogen flows. A brief outline of the MetHyInfra project, measurement challenges, and first results
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2024 (English)In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 232, article id 114675Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper gives an overview of the ongoing Joint Research Project (JRP) 20IND11 “Metrology infrastructure for high pressure gas and liquefied hydrogen flows” (MetHyInfra), which will ensure traceability in the hydrogen distribution chain. For this purpose, very precise nozzles with well-defined geometries have been produced. In this project, Critical Flow Venturi Nozzles (CFVNs) will be traceably calibrated for the first time with hydrogen and pressures up to 100 MPa using a Coriolis Flow Meter (CFM) as a secondary standard. A CFM has been successfully calibrated with hydrogen against a gravimetric primary standard. Equations of State (EoS) are important for the high-pressure calibration of the nozzles, but also for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. With regard to CFD, a numerical model has been developed to simulate high pressure hydrogen flow in the CFVN. In a parameter study, non-ideal nozzle shapes are investigated using a shape variation parameter. New Speed of Sound (SoS) measurements were conducted at temperatures from 273 to 323 K and pressures from 1 to 100 MPa. These new data were then used to develop a new EoS for normal hydrogen, optimized for gas phase calculations. In addition to gaseous hydrogen, the project has a strong focus on liquefied hydrogen. Here a three-pronged approach allows traceable measurements. Each of the approaches presented is based on a unique flow calibration principle and relies on independent traceability schemes. The results of the project will ensure traceable measurements and thus a higher level of confidence among end users. © 2024 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2024
Keywords
Calibration; Computational fluid dynamics; Equations of state; Flow measurement; Flowmeters; Liquefied gases; Nozzles; Coriolis flowmeters; Critical flow venturi nozzles; Distribution chains; Equation-of-state; High pressure gas; Hydrogen distribution; Hydrogen flow; Liquified hydrogen; Primary standards; Secondary standard; Hydrogen
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-72805 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114675 (DOI)2-s2.0-85189859748 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Joint Research Project (JRP) \u201CMetrology infrastructure for high-pressure gas and liquified hydrogen flows\u201D. This project (20IND11 MetHyInfra) has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. This project has received funding from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy of the Netherlands. 

Available from: 2024-05-15 Created: 2024-05-15 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
Niemann, A., Batista, E., Geršl, J., Bissig, H., Büker, O., Lee, S., . . . Knotek, S. (2023). Assessment of drug delivery devices working at microflow rates. Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), 68(1), 51-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of drug delivery devices working at microflow rates
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2023 (English)In: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Almost every medical department in hospitals around the world uses infusion devices to administer fluids, nutrition, and medications to patients to treat many different diseases and ailments. There have been several reports on adverse incidents caused by medication errors associated with infusion equipment. Such errors can result from malfunction or improper use, or even inaccuracy of the equipment, and can cause harm to patients' health. Depending on the intended use of the equipment, e.g. if it is used for anaesthesia of adults or for medical treatment of premature infants, the accuracy of the equipment may be more or less important. A well-defined metrological infrastructure can help to ensure that infusion devices function properly and are as accurate as needed for their use. However, establishing a metrological infrastructure requires adequate knowledge of the performance of infusion devices in use. This paper presents the results of various tests conducted with two types of devices. © 2022 the author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2023
Keywords
calibration, infusion device, metrological infrastructure, microflow, Drug delivery devices, Infusion devices, Medical treatment, Medication errors, Micro-flow, Micro-flow rates, Patient health, Performance, Premature infants, Drug delivery
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61596 (URN)10.1515/bmt-2022-0053 (DOI)2-s2.0-85143083194 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: Research funding: This work performed under the 18HLT08 MeDD II project has received funding from the EMPIR program co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program. For more information on the project refer to the website www.drugmetrology.com .

Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Mills, C., Batista, E., Bissig, H., Ogheard, F., Boudaoud, A., Büker, O., . . . Lötters, J. (2023). Calibration methods for flow rates down to 5 nL/min and validation methodology. Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), 68(1), 13-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration methods for flow rates down to 5 nL/min and validation methodology
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2023 (English)In: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Improving the accuracy and enabling traceable measurements of volume, flow, and pressure in existing drug delivery devices and in-line sensors operating at very low flow rates is essential in several fields of activities and specially in medical applications. This can only be achieved through the development of new calibration methods and by expanding the existing metrological infrastructure to perform micro-flow and nano-flow measurements. In this paper, we will investigate new traceable techniques for measuring flow rate, from 5 nL/min to 1,500 nL/min and present the results of an inter-comparison between nine laboratories for the calibration of two different flow meters and a syringe pump. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2023
Keywords
comparison, flow meter, measurement, micro-flow, nano-flow, traceability, uncertainty
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-60086 (URN)10.1515/bmt-2022-0049 (DOI)2-s2.0-85136550798 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: Research funding: EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Available from: 2022-09-09 Created: 2022-09-09 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Bissig, H., Büker, O., Stolt, K., Batista, E., Afonso, J., Zagnoni, M., . . . Schroeter, J. (2023). Calibration of insulin pumps based on discrete doses at given cycle times. Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), 68(1), 67-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration of insulin pumps based on discrete doses at given cycle times
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2023 (English)In: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One application in the medical treatment at very small flow rates is the usage of an Insulin pump that delivers doses of insulin at constant cycle times for a specific basal rate as quasi-continuous insulin delivery, which is an important cornerstone in diabetes management. The calibration of these basal rates are performed by either gravimetric or optical methods, which have been developed within the European Metrology Program for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Joint Research Project (JRP) 18HLT08 Metrology for drug delivery II (MeDDII). These measurement techniques are described in this paper, and an improved approach of the analytical procedure given in the standard IEC 60601-2-24:2012 for determining the discrete doses and the corresponding basal rates is discussed in detail. These improvements allow detailed follow up of dose cycle time and delivered doses as a function of time to identify some artefacts of the measurement method or malfunctioning of the insulin pump. Moreover, the calibration results of different basal rates and bolus deliveries for the gravimetric and the optical methods are also presented. Some analysis issues that should be addressed to prevent misinterpreting of the calibration results are discussed. One of the main issues is the average over a period of time which is an integer multiple of the cycle time to determine the basal rate with the analytical methods described in this paper. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2023
Keywords
calibration, dose accuracy, insulin pump, traceability, Controlled drug delivery, Insulin, Pumps, Targeted drug delivery, Cycle time, Diabetes management, Insulin delivery, Insulin pumps, Medical treatment, Optical methods, Pump-based, Small flow-rate
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61247 (URN)10.1515/bmt-2022-0040 (DOI)2-s2.0-85139486442 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: Research funding: This project 18HLT08 MEDDII has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Büker, O., Stolt, K., Kroner, C., Warnecke, H., Postrioti, L., Piano, A., . . . Werner, M. (2023). Characterisation of a Coriolis flow meter for fuel consumption measurements in realistic drive cycle tests. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 93, Article ID 102424.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of a Coriolis flow meter for fuel consumption measurements in realistic drive cycle tests
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2023 (English)In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 93, article id 102424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When testing light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles on chassis dynamometers, as in the WLTP, or engines on engine test benches, as in the WHDC, it is required to measure the fuel consumption. In the preferable case, the measurement of the fuel consumption is carried out with suitable flow meters. These require high measurement accuracy in a wide flow range, independent of the fuel type, as the flow rate range is often very large and depends on the power range of the vehicle engines. Moreover, the fuel flow rate in the test cycles is very dynamically related to the loads. In the scope of the ongoing EMPIR Joint Research Project 20IND13 SAFEST the dynamic flow behaviour as well as the measurement accuracy of flow meters for different types of fuels are investigated. This paper presents first results from the realisation of dynamic flow profiles, and flow measurements with a Coriolis Flow Meter with different representative fuels in a wide density and viscosity range and a wide flow rate range at different fuel temperatures. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Density, Dynamic flow, Fuel consumption, Viscosity, WHDC, WLTP, Dynamometers, Engines, Flow measurement, Flow rate, Flowmeters, Consumption measurement, Coriolis flowmeters, Cycle tests, Drive cycles, Dynamic flows, Flow meter, Measurement accuracy
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65970 (URN)10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2023.102424 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166283603 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: O. Büker, RISE, Sweden;  

The authors would like to thank Endress+Hauser (E+H) Flowtec AG in Switzerland for the Proline Promass A 500 Coriolis Flow Meter and the heating jacket, which were made available as in-kind contributions to the project. The authors are also grateful to Special Fuels Preem AB in Sweden for providing the biodiesel fuels. This project (20IND13 SAFEST) has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme

Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Arrhenius, K., Francini, L., Fischer, A., Büker, O. & Arques, L. (2023). Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams. Measurement science and technology, 34(9), Article ID 095011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams
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2023 (English)In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, no 9, article id 095011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we evaluated the performances of a custom-built optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) instrument for the determination of the composition of energy gases, focusing on methane and carbon dioxide as main components, and carbon monoxide as impurities, in comparison with the well-established, validated, and traceable gas chromatographic method. A total of 115 real sample gases collected in biogas plants or landfills were analyzed using with both techniques over a period of 12 months. The comparison of the techniques showed that the virtual model which allows the measurement, needs to be optimized using real samples of varied compositions. The OFCEAS measurement technique was found to be capable of measuring both the main components and a trace component in different matrices; to within a 2% measurement uncertainty (higher than the gas chromatograph/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD) method). The OFCEAS method exhibits a very fast response, does not require daily calibration, and can be implemented online. The agreements between the OFCEAS technique and the GC/TCD method show that the drift of the OFCEAS instruments remains acceptable in the long term as long as no change is made to the virtual model. Matrix effects were observed, and those need to be taken into consideration when analyzing different types of samples. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2023
Keywords
biogas, biomethane, OFCEAS, performance assessment, Absorption spectroscopy, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Chromatographic analysis, Gas chromatography, Gas plants, Gases, Light absorption, Optical feedback, Uncertainty analysis, Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Feedback cavity, Gas chromatographs, Impurities in, Optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, Real samples, Thermal conductivity detectors, Virtual models
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-65565 (URN)10.1088/1361-6501/acd94a (DOI)2-s2.0-85162116942 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: K. Arrhenius; Research Institutes of Sweden AB (RISE), Frans Perssons väg, Göteborg, 412 76, Sweden. The Joint Research Project «Metrology for decarbonizing the gas grid» is supported the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The EMPIR initiative is co-funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the EMPIR Participating States

Available from: 2023-06-29 Created: 2023-06-29 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Borchling, A., Kroner, C., Akselli, B., Benková, M., Büker, O., Christoffersen, N., . . . Warnecke, H. (2023). Die Welt der Wasserzähler im Wandel. GWF, Wasser - Abwasser, 2023(6), 89-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Die Welt der Wasserzähler im Wandel
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2023 (English)In: GWF, Wasser - Abwasser, ISSN 0016-3651, Vol. 2023, no 6, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Like everywhere else, time does not stand still for water meters. The requirements change, whether through technological progress, e.g., through the use of electronic meters, or changes in drinking water consumption. A revision of relevant normative documents is currently taking place at the international level. Against this background, various studies have been carried out in recent years and infrastructure has been built up with which the measurement behaviour of water meters can be examined more closely under real operating conditions, even at the laboratory level. This article presents the infrastructure. Furthermore, two current studies on the measurement behaviour of water meters are presented. In these studies, the effect of water quality and the effect of discrete measurements on the measurement accuracy of electronic water meters were investigated. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vulkan-Verlag GmbH, 2023
National Category
Water Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-68776 (URN)2-s2.0-85179943296 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-15 Created: 2024-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, G., Büker, O. & Stolt, K. (2023). Gas flow measurement of evaporated liquid nanoflows. Measurement, 216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas flow measurement of evaporated liquid nanoflows
2023 (English)In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following the miniaturisation of fluidic components, the demand for traceable measurements of micro and nanoflows is increasing in various technological fields such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and automotive industry. Gravimetric flow measurement methods are accurate at microflows and above, but have a lower limit of about 5nLmin−1. Several alternative approaches have been developed to circumvent this limit. Here a measurement setup and proof of principle is presented for a method measuring the gas flows generated by complete evaporation of liquid ethanol nanoflows. The gas flow measurement is based on the well-established method of determining the pressure drop across a geometrically precisely defined circular opening in the molecular flow regime. Liquid flow rates from a syringe pump in the range of 5nLmin−1 to 200nLmin−1 are measured with an expanded uncertainty as low as 340pLmin−1 at instantaneous flow rates. Strategies to further improve accuracy are discussed.

Keywords
Microflow, Nanoflow, Vacuum, Molecular flow, Ethanol
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-64420 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2023.112927 (DOI)S0263224123004918 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2020-04318
Note

The financial support by the Sweden’s Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) , grant number 2020-04318, is gratefully acknowledged.

Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
Bissig, H., Büker, O., Stolt, K., Graham, E., Wales, L., Furtado, A., . . . Lotters, J. C. (2023). In-line measurements of the physical and thermodynamic properties of single and multicomponent liquids. Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), 68(1), 39-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-line measurements of the physical and thermodynamic properties of single and multicomponent liquids
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2023 (English)In: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microfluidic devices are becoming increasingly important in various fields of pharmacy, flow chemistry and healthcare. In the embedded microchannel, the flow rates, the dynamic viscosity of the transported liquids and the fluid dynamic properties play an important role. Various functional auxiliary components of microfluidic devices such as flow restrictors, valves and flow meters need to be characterised with liquids used in several microfluidic applications. However, calibration with water does not always reflect the behaviour of the liquids used in the different applications. Therefore, several National Metrology Institutes (NMI) have developed micro-pipe viscometers for traceable inline measurement of the dynamic viscosity of liquids used in flow applications as part of the EMPIR 18HLT08 MeDDII project. These micro-pipe viscometers allow the calibration of any flow device at different flow rates and the calibration of the dynamic viscosity of the liquid or liquid mixture used under actual flow conditions. The validation of the micro-pipe viscometers has been performed either with traceable reference oils or with different liquids typically administered in hospitals, such as saline and/or glucose solutions or even glycerol-water mixtures for higher dynamic viscosities. Furthermore, measurement results of a commercially available device and a technology demonstrator for the inline measurement of dynamic viscosity and density are presented in this paper. © 2022 the author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2023
Keywords
calibration, dynamic viscosity, micro-pipe viscometer, traceability, Flow rate, Flowmeters, Fluidic devices, Liquids, Microfluidics, Saline water, Thermodynamic properties, Viscometers, Viscosity, Viscosity measurement, Dynamic viscosities, Embedded microchannels, Flow chemistry, In-line measurements, Measurements of, Microfluidics devices, Multicomponent liquids, Thermodynamics property
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-61423 (URN)10.1515/bmt-2022-0039 (DOI)2-s2.0-85142069917 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; Funding details: European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research, EMPIR; Funding text 1: Research funding: This project 18HLT08 MEDDII has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Available from: 2022-12-07 Created: 2022-12-07 Last updated: 2024-04-17Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5118-0150

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