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  • Sederholm, Bror
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB, Corrosion protection of building structures.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Luping, Tang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ny provningsmetodik för bestämning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar slutrapporteringen av forskningsprojektet - Ny provningsmetodik för bedömning av bindemedlets korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong – Underlag till LCA och livslängdsbedömning. I rapporten redovisas resultat från elektrokemiska undersökningar utförda på laboratorium och korrosionsprovningar i fält. Undersökningarna har genomförts av Swerea KIMAB, RISE CBI Betonginstitutet (väst och öst) samt Chalmers. Projektets mål har varit att genom en nationell samling av expertis ta fram en ny provningsmetodik som på ett enkelt och tillämpbart sätt ska utvärdera olika bindemedels korrosionsskyddande förmåga i betong. I denna undersökning har framför allt tiden till initiering av korrosion (gropfrätning) från det att kloriderna har nått stålytan och tills gropfrätning har initieras på stålytan undersökts. Tre olika accelererade elektrokemiska mätmetoder har använts och jämförts:

     Potentiostatisk mätmetod

     Potentiodynamisk mätmetod

     Galvanostatisk mätmetod

    Den framtagna provningsmetodiken med framställning av provkroppar har visat sig fungera väl. För att minska spridningen är det emellertid viktigt att använda en homogen och rengjord stålyta utan glödskal. Glödskalet avlägsnas lämpligast genom slipning eftersom betning kan bygga upp ett passivskikt på stålytan. För att undvika att betongrester fastnar på stålytan ska släta provstänger användas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att resultaten från laboratorie- och fältmätningarna samt analyser av bindemedlens korrosionskänslighet genom TG- och XRD-analyser visade att denna kombination av mätningar ger ett bra verktyg att bedöma den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos olika bindemedel. En sammanställning av rangordningen för bindemedlens korrosionsskyddande förmåga redovisas i tabellen nedan.

    Den korrosionsskyddande förmågan hos de undersökta bindemedlen rangordnas från en sammanvägning av de olika provningsmetoderna:

     bra < 1,5 och

     1,5 ≥mindre bra ≤2,5 och

     dåligt > 2,5.

    Som rangordningen visar i tabellen så har bindemedel med slagg och portlandcement med hög C 3A en bra korrosionsskyddande förmåga. Detta beror till största delen på kapaciteten att bilda Friedels salt från monosulfat under härdningsprocessen. Bindemedel som har en låg korrosionsskyddande förmåga har ett lågt C3A-innehåll och en inblandning av flygaska och/eller silika. Det medför dessutom en utspädningseffekt på förmågan att bilda Friedels salt.

  • Borthwick, Louisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar att det är möjligt att få fram tillförlitlig statistik över svensk sjömatskonsumtion för alla arter utom sill och skarpsill på en detaljgrad som tidigare saknats, trots de dataluckor som finns.Sjömatskonsumtionen i Sverige beräknas ligga på 25 kg per capita hel sjömat, vilket motsvarar 12,5 kg ätlig sjömat eller knappt två portioner i veckan. Vi äter mindre sjömat än för fem år sedan.Upp mot 80 olika sjömatsarter finns på den svenska marknaden, men de tio vanligaste står för 80 procent av konsumtionen. Mest äter svenskar av lax, sill, torsk och räkor.Knappt 30 procent av det som äts kommer från den inhemska produktionen av sjömat från yrkes- och fritidsfiske, samt odling. Den inhemska produktionen kan ses som Sveriges teoretiska självförsörjningsgrad av sjömat. Drygt 70 procent importeras alltså och då främst med Norge, Danmark och Kina som avsändarland. Från den svenska produktionen är det främst sill, skarpsill, regnbåge och den fisk som rapporteras under koden ”Fryst fisk i.a.n.” i tulltaxan, som exporteras. Figuren nedan visar fördelningen mellan import och inhemsk produktion.Siffran på sillkonsumtion är mycket osäker på grund av att den officiella statistiken håller låg kvalitet. Sill är den volymmässigt och ekonomiskt viktigaste arten i svenskt fiske och den är viktig för svensk konsumtion. Det är därmed anmärkningsvärt att data kring fisket och handeln är så bristfällig.Det är genomförbart att ta fram statistiken på årlig basis för att följa trenden för sjömatskonsumtion över tid, både totalt och utvecklingen av enskilda arter. Metoden som utvecklats här förenklar detta avsevärt, men det krävs fortfarande en del manuell justering och bearbetning av befintliga dataset, samt kunskap om branschen.

  • Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

  • Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stoltz, Anna-Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovationskapacitet för att leda och organisera hållbar samhällsutveckling - erfarenheter och rekommendationer från innovationsplattformarna2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Nationell samverkan mellan innovationsplattformar för hållbara attraktiva städer har sedan november 2016 arbetat med kunskapsutbyte och lärande mellan de sex städerna Borås, Göteborg, Kiruna, Lund, Malmö och Stockholm som ingår i Vinnovasatsningen “Utveckling av innovationsplattformar för hållbara attraktiva städer”. Alla städer har, på lite olika sätt, tagit sig an utmaningen att bygga innovationskapacitet och hitta vägar runt hinder för innovation för hållbar stadsutveckling.Tillsammans har städerna utvecklat unik kunskap om lokala samhällsutmaningars komplexitet och på vilket sätt innovationsarbete kan främja en hållbar utveckling. Fokus för arbetet har varit gränsöverskridande samarbete och på vilket sätt gränsgångare, ledarskap, organisationskultur och stödjande strukturer kan bygga kapacitet och mobilisera en omställning för hållbar utveckling. Med andra ord hur man kan utveckla innovationskapacitet och innovationsledning för hållbar samhällsutveckling i städer.Redan i halvtidsrapporten Leda och organisera innovation för hållbara städer och samhällen -erfarenheter från innovationsplattformarna 2017, redovisades viktiga erfarenheter med konkreta exempel från de olika städernas innovationsplattformar. I rapporten beskrivs också några av de samhällsomvälvande hållbarhetsutmaningar som gör behovet av radikalt nya lösningar ocharbetssätt akut. Rapporten argumenterade för att många av utmaningarna är så komplexa att det behövs ett helhetsperspektiv som inkluderar samverkande aktörer från både regionala instanser, den statliga nivån och nationella och internationella nätverk, för att möjliggöra innovation och förändring på det lokala planet. Den här rapporten bygger vidare på dessa erfarenheter, med en rad slutsatser och exempel som kan användas på kommunal nivå, men den innehåller också ett förslag på en agenda för nationella och regionala aktörer.Under det senaste året, med bland annat alarmerande klimatrapporter, fortsatt ökade sociala klyftor, en extrem värmebölja som stressade samhällssystemen och politisk turbulens både nationellt och internationellt har vår övertygelse stärkts än mer; innovationsplattformar är centrala för att utifrån sina unika lokala förutsättningar utforska och utveckla lösningar för hur vi ska klara av samhällets hållbarhetsutmaningar.

  • Lindström, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Appelquist, Karin
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Sjöqvist, Lovise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Kvantifiering av mikrostrukturer och dess inverkan på sprickbildning i berg2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology based on monitoring of crack propagation during small-scale mechanical tests on sawn rock prisms under tension has been developed. The methodology includes a combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels. Material testing is performed through a tensile stage. Crack monitoring is performed by means of Digital Image Correlation and Acoustic Emission. After the test, microcrack and fracture patterns are studied and quantified in thin-sections using fluorescent light under a petrographic microscope.

    By using Digital Image Correlation it is possible to follow crack propagation in relation to the microstructure on the surface of the specimen in a detailed way, whereas Acoustic Emission offers real-time measurement of the crack activity within the specimen. By combining these techniques, it is possible to relate the Acoustic Emission signal characteristics to different phases of the cracking process, such as crack initiation, propagation and bridging of microcracks into macrocracks as well as the creation and localization of the final fracture. After the tensile stage test, crack patterns and the final fractures are studied in detail using polarizing and fluorescence microscopy, establishing the relationship of these. The methodology is practiced to increase the knowledge of critical parameters affecting cracking processes in rock materials and to show how this is related to the material's microstructure as well as mesostructure.

  • Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brandt, Are W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet2019Report (Other academic)
  • Holmberg, Michaela
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    En inblick i forskning kring offentliga måltider - En rapport från Måltid Sverige med vetenskapligt stöd från Göteborgs universitet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Eftersom de flesta invånarna tar del av offentliga måltider flera gånger under olika delar av livet blir de offentliga måltiderna viktiga arenor där man kan arbeta med bland annat hållbarhet. Trots detta är området offentliga måltider inte beforskat i så stor utsträckning.

    Syftet och metod:

    För att erhålla en ökad insikt om genomförd, pågående och önskvärd forskning kring offentliga måltider har först en litteraturgenomgång genomförts, där olika forskningsprojekt kartlagts för att ge en bild av vad forskningen står idag (Delstudie 1). Måltidchefers och forskares tankar kring upplevda behov av forskning, men även utmaningar till att nås av forskning har utforskats i en intervjustudie. Forskarna har även berättat om pågående forskning som bedrivs på universiteten (Delstudie 2). Det primära målet har varit att göra en samlad beskrivning av forskning som genomförts och som pågår, samt identifiera behov av fortsatt forskning av representanter i branschen.

    Resultat:

    De områden som litteraturöversikten visar i denna kartläggning är främst inom förskola/ skola, äldrevård, särskilt boende för intellektuellt funktionshindrade, men även forskning som riktar sig allmänt till branschen. I stora drag är det forskning som handlar om hållbarhet med exempelvis svinnproblematik, nya webbverktyg utformade för storkök, men även om måltidskedjan rent organisatoriskt. Forskning inom särskilt boende för funktionsnedsättningar är mycket begränsad, och forskning inom sjukhusmat har nästan varit obefintlig i studiens litteratursökning. Inom förskola/skola forskar man främst kring hur man kan integrera måltiden i den pedagogiska verksamheten där koppling till folkhälsa är central, men även hållbarhet för vår miljö. Inom äldrevården handlar forskningen om organisationsstruktur och det långa ledet av personal som är inblandade i måltiden, samt problematiken med deras brist på kompetens inom mat och näring. Det behövs mer flexibla måltidslösningar som ger valmöjlighet och delaktighet.

    Den kvalitativa intervjustudien belyser vilka utmaningar de offentliga måltidsverksamheterna har, vilket beskriver deras önskan om framtida forskning. Utmaningarna som beskrivs är att det inte finns tillräckligt med bra utbildningar för personalen som arbetar med måltiden, att man önskar mer verktyg och utrustning för hållbar produktion hur man ska lyckas integrera måltiden som ett lärande verktyg, och vilka faktorer i måltidsmiljön som påverkar om barnen eller de äldre äter av maten eller ej. Måltidsverksamheterna önskar en gemensam portal som kan kanalisera ut ny forskning som berör offentliga måltider, och forskare behöver börja skriva mer populärvetenskapliga texter som fångar läsarens intresse och som direkt når berörd personal. Forskare behöver synas mer ute på branschdagar eller vid andra tillfällen då det ges möjlighet att möta personalen som ska omvandla deras forskning till praktik.

    Slutsats:

    Kartläggningen visar att den offentliga måltiden är en komplex verksamhet som kräver helhetssyn, och att samverkan mellan aktörer från olika områden är centralt för att uppnå innovation och utveckling. Organisationsstruktur, samverkan, helhetsperspektiv på maten, individuella måltidslösningar, flexibelt arbetssätt, högre status, mer utbildning och mer fokus på måltidsmiljö, framkommer som viktiga aspekter att fokusera på i framtida forskning. Framtida forskning bör visa mer hur man ska gå till väga, alltså mer praktisk inriktad forskning, vars resultat lättare kan implementeras i form av nya modeller för organisationer att följa.

  • Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. RISE.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut e.V., Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg, Germany.
    Overview of ERS concepts and complementary technologies2019Report (Other academic)
  • Englund, Maja
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner - en kunskapssammanställning2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems with different source-separated toilet fractions (blackwater, fecal sludge and urine) can reduce the number of pharmaceuticals to the aquatic environment and at the same time allow circulation of nutrients. However, knowledge of the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in source-separated toilet fractions is partly insufficient. There is also a lack of knowledge of how the different treatment processes effect the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues and if they are reduced or maintained thru different treatments. Knowledge of their faith in the environment is also limited, in terms of uptake in plants, degradation, transport and spreading.

    The purpose of this project was to gather current knowledge related to pharmaceutical residues in source-separated toilet fractions from both Sweden and internationally, to be able to identify prioritized research areas for the future. The project also aimed to describe how treatment of source-separated toilet fractions affects the levels of pharmaceutical residues in the final product.

    A review of literature was made, focusing on studies and research related to pharmaceutical residues in the different fractions. No analyzes have been carried out within this project. Data on the content of pharmaceutical residues in untreated and treated source-separated toilet fractions was collected from previous studies and summarized. The basis in the different studies varies a lot, which makes it difficult to compare the results of the content and reduction of pharmaceutical residues in the different source-separated toilet fractions.

    Most of the studies that was found treated pharmaceuticals residues in urine. Most of the treatment methods for urine are performed in lab scale while studies on blackwater are made on plants that are in operation today. For fecal sludge, only one study that treats pharmaceuticals residues has been found.

    Different treatment methods work differently on different types of pharmaceutical residues. For urine, there are studies with many different treatment techniques. Of those considered in this study, only ozone and UV-light have a broad effect and reduces most of the pharmaceutical residues that have been analyzed. Three treatment methods have been studied for blackwater. None of the methods reduced all pharmaceutical residues, but treatment with UASB reactor provided a good reduction as most pharmaceutical residues analyzed were reduced to about 60 %. For fecal sludge, most pharmaceutical residues were not affected by either mesophilic or thermophilic digestion.

    Most studies on pharmaceutical residues in the environment focus on aquatic systems and the information on how the pharmaceutical residues behave in the soil is limited - both in terms of degradation and content in growing crops. More research is needed in these areas.

    Pharmaceutical residues in source-separated toilet fractions are a complex area with several gaps of knowledge and more research is needed. Hopefully, this rapport contributes to an overview of some data and treatment processes and brings more knowledge into the area that simplifies decisions and prioritization of future research.

  • Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Heat flux in jet fires : Unified method for measuring the heat flux levels of jet fires2018In: Nordic Fire and Safety Days (NFSD2018) Conference proceedings (with peer-review),, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive fire protection materials are used to protect critical structures against the heat from fires. In process plants with pressurized combustible substances there may be a risk of jet fires. Through risk analysis the severity of these jet fires is determined and these result in fire resistance requirements with different heat flux levels for different segments. The relevant test standard for fire resistance against jet fires does not include any measurements or definitions of the heat flux in the test flame which the tested object is exposed to. This paper presents methods for reaching different heat flux levels and how to measure them in a jet fire with limited deviations from the established jet fire test standard.

  • Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Jet fires and cryogenic spills: How to document extreme industrial incidents2019In: Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial plants, such as oil platforms, refineries or onboard vessels carrying fuel, a rupture event of a pipeline could have dramatic consequences, as was demonstrated both in the Piper Alpha and Deepwater Horizon accidents. If surfaces are exposed to extreme conditions, both extreme cold (cryogenic spills) and extreme heat (jet fires), this can affect exposed surfaces, and can cause a domino effect of severe events.

  • Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    CFD-beräkningar vid brandteknisk dimensionering - En Round Robin studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien utförde nio deltagande aktörer samma beräkningsuppgifter utan att veta vad de andra kommit fram till. Resultatsammanställningen visar en relativt stor spridning som till största delen kan förklaras med att deltagarna gör olika ingenjörsmässiga val. Läs den och fundera på vilka ingenjörsmässiga val du gör i vardagen.

  • Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Hiller, Carolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote an efficient use of energyfor lighting, while putting the user's perception and light comfort in focus,this project has developed methods and tools to communicate light and lighting.To ensure that light environments are designed from a user perspective,existing definitions of light quality, which are mainly based on technicalterms, have been supplemented with concepts and definitions of visual and emotionalcharacter of light. The lighting industry and professional purchasers have beeninvolved in all phases of the project in order to develop methods and toolsthat are well-grounded and applicable by different actors involved in theprocess from light planning to the implementation of lighting environments. Lighting accounts for a significant part of the total energy use in buildings,about 20 per cent for households and 40 per cent for premises. The energysaving potential is thus high. Moreover, Europe is facing a shift towards moreenergy efficient lighting as a result of both regulations and technologydevelopment. Still, Swedish consumers tend to prefer incandescent light, as itis perceived to provide better comfort compared to modern light sources.Therefore, in order to motivate property owners and consumers to convert tomore energy-efficient products, it is necessary to focus more on the visual andemotional qualities of light. Today, however, knowledge, concepts and tools to communicateand measure visual light quality are lacking. This challenge has been the motivationand starting point for the development of methods for assessing objective andsubjective light qualities for light sources, luminaires and light environmentswithin this project and to translate the results into tools targeting theindustry. The project has developed a draft communication tool based on the humanperception of light quality. The tool aims to constitute a neutralcommunication point and to supports both the lighting industry and professionalpurchaser, and thus also the end user. By reducing misunderstandings andincreasing the consensus between actors in different parts of the process fromlight planning to implementation, the tool is expected to promote lightenvironments that are both energy-efficient and provide attractive perceptionand comfort.

  • Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    FODERDATABAS: DELUPPDRAG 6-UPPDATERADE KLIMATAVTRYCK AV FODERMEDE2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE har på uppdrag av Jordbruksverket tagit fram rekommendationer kring klimat-avtryck för ett urval av foderråvaror. Klimatavtryck för foderråvaror och foderbland-ningar är insatsvaror som står för en betydande andel av det sammanlagda klimat-avtrycket i animalieproduktionen. Siffrorna är viktiga indata vid beräkning av en hel

    gårds klimatavtryck som görs i rådgivningen "Klimatkollen" med hjälp av klimat-beräkningsdelen i beräkningsprogrammet Vera. RISE har genomfört litteraturstudie som kompletterats med beräkningar för några råvaror utifrån tillgänglig statistik.

    Uppdraget är ett av sex deluppdrag finansierat med medel från EU:s landsbygdsprogram 2014

    –2020 inom ramen för Jordbruksverkets projekt Minskad klimatpåverkan och förnybar energi (journalnummer 2015–776).

  • Börjesson, Conny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    User Perspectives on Electric Roads2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector. The success of ERS depends on acceptance from potential users and it is thus crucial to study the user perspective prior to a large-scale implementation. There seems to be a general positive opinion regarding electric roads among hauliers and forwarders, but it will be crucial that large goods owners and transport buyers order transports utilizing electric roads. Innovative technology and business models could provide opportunities for actors in the transport sector and influence their ability for competition.

  • Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Environmental impact of textile fibers – what we know and what we don't know: Fiber Bible part 22019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of cotton and synthetic fibres are known to cause negative environmental effects. For cotton, pesticide use and irrigation during cultivation contributes to emissions of toxic substances that cause damage to both human health and the ecosystem. Irrigation of cotton fields cause water stress due to large water needs. Synthetic fibres are questionable due to their (mostly) fossil resource origin and the release of microplastics. To mitigate the environmental effects of fibre production, there is an urgent need to improve the production of many of the established fibres and to find new, better fibre alternatives.

    For the first time ever, this reports compiles all currently publicly available data on the environmental impact of fibre production. By doing this, the report illuminates two things:

    • There is a glaring lack of data on the environmental impact of fibres – for several fibres just a few studies were found, and often only one or a few environmental impacts are covered. For new fibres associated with sustainability claims there is often no data available to support such claims.
    • There are no ”sustainable” or ”unsustainable” fibre types, it is the suppliers that differ. The span within each fibre type (different suppliers) is often too large, in relation to differences between fibre types, to draw strong conclusions about differences between fibre types.

    Further, it is essential to use the life cycle perspective when comparing, promoting or selecting (e.g. by designers or buyers) fibres. To achieve best environmental practice, apart from considering the impact of fibre production, one must consider the functional properties of a fibre and how it fits into an environmentally appropriate product life cycle, including the entire production chain, the use phase and the end-of-life management. Selecting the right fibre for the right application is key for optimising the environmental performance of the product life cycle.

    The report is intended to be useful for several purposes:

    • as input to broader studies including later life cycle stages of textile products,
    • as a map over data gaps in relation to supporting claims on the environmental preferability of certain fibres over others, and
    • as a basis for screening fibre alternatives, for example by designers and buyers (e.g. in public procurement).

    For the third use it is important to acknowledge that for a full understanding of the environmental consequences of the choice of fibre, a full cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is recommended.

  • Zackrisson, Mats
    Swerea IVF, Sweden.
    Product orientation of environmental work - barriers & incentives2009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The research behind this licentiate is spread out over a decade of intensive development of environmental work in industry. A 1998 survey of Swedish companies with newly installed environmental management systems (EMS) concluded that such systems need more product-orientation. Data collected by companies as part of the process of creating their EMS between 1996-2001 offered further evidence that it is environmentally justified to seek improvements in the materials selection, use and disposal phases of products, i.e., to make the environmental improvement work more product-orientated. In a EU-funded project carried out between 2004-2006 it was demonstrated that developing an environmental product declaration could be a cost-effective product-oriented environmental action even for smaller companies. This licentiate thesis relates to methods for companies to orientate their environmental work on their products. In particular, it examines experience and provides insights on the possibilities for companies, including small ones, to use life cycle assessment in product development in order to design products with an environmental performance well above legal compliance. It is difficult to give general recommendations to companies about their environmental work because each company has its own unique business idea, customers, work culture, stakeholders etc. Nevertheless, the main findings of the licentiate thesis can be summed up in the following recommendations for, say, a small company in Europe without much previous experience of environmental work: §  Focus your environmental work on your products because you will accomplish more environmentally and the chance of profiting economically will motivate your personnel; §  Consider doing a life cycle assessment, LCA, on a strategically chosen product in order to learn more about your products and how to improve their environmental performance; §  Do not expect to find a general market demand for green products; start a dialogue with your best customers in order to create the demand; §  Engage an LCA specialist to do the LCA and work together with your personnel to interpret the results and generate improvement ideas; §  If your customers demand that you install an environmental management system, ask them if they would not prefer to receive an environmental product declaration on the particular product they are interested in, and a chance to discuss how its environmental performance can be improved.

  • Berg, Helena
    et al.
    AB Libergreen, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Perspectives on environmental and cost assessment of lithium metal negative electrodes in electric vehicle traction batteries2019In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 415, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a lithium metal negative electrode may give lithium metal batteries (LMBs), higher specific energy density and an environmentally more benign chemistry than Li-ion batteries (LIBs). This study asses the environmental and cost impacts of in silico designed LMBs compared to existing LIB designs in a vehicle perspective. The life cycle climate and cost impacts of LMBs show a similar pattern: the use phase has more climate and cost impacts than the production phase. As compared to LIBs and with respect to the positive electrode, Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) is preferable to Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP). The cell cost is highly dependent on the cost of lithium metal; a cost reduction of 50% causes a cell cost reduction of 8–22% depending on the choice of positive electrode material and if the cell is optimised for power or energy. For electric vehicle usage, the total cost per km is mainly dependent on the energy consumption per km and the capacity of the positive electrode, representing cost saving potentials of about 10%. These generic results can be used as a base for investigations of other battery technology using lithium metal electrodes.

  • Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Larsson, Annika
    Solbruket: Batterilager för ökad solelproduktion i det moderna lantbruket2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for solar power production in the Swedish agriculture is significant but is highly limited by the capacity in the low-voltage grid. The use of battery storages may be a possibility to increase the self-consumption of solar power and reduce the power exchange to the grid, and thereby avoid expensive grid reinforcements.In order to build knowledge about both technical and user-related possibilities and challenges with grid-connected battery storages for Swedish farms with PV, RISE and Vattenfall have built a pilot plant on a farm in Hälsingland and conducted two sociotechnical studies with interviews and questionnaires concerning obstacles, drivers and benefits associated with battery storages, as they are perceived by Swedish farmers at present.The results point at a number of challenges for battery storages to become an attractive investment for farmers, which include:- Reliability: lifetime and performance of the battery technology is unclear.- Economy: profit versus investment costs.- Long-term storage: seasonal storage of energy is perceived as more attractive than short-term storage.- Supporting backup power: an added value that may motivate higher investment costs.- Climate and environmental benefits: important aspects that are unclear for the present battery technology.These challenges need to be addressed in technical system solutions, services and business models in order to motivate this particular group to invest in battery storages to complement their existing PV power plants.The results from the pilot plant also points at a number of practical benefits and possibilities associated with the system solution. Apart from creating value by cutting power peaks and enable increased self-consumption of solar power, the farmers appreciate the increased convenience provided by the batteries. Since the battery storage cuts the highest power peaks and thereby reduces the risk of local power failures, it is no longer crucial when in time power-consuming equipment is used. This offers a new flexibility in the daily routines. The main economic benefit raised by the farmers is the possibility of a lower fuse subscription.The results from Solbruket provide increased knowledge about farmers with PV and how battery storages can create value for the specific target group. This knowledge can be used by product and services developers to develop attractive technical solutions, services and business models targeting the specific market. However, it is crucial to keep in mind that the battery technology is perceived as immature, and that an investment is regarded as a significant risk. Only when there is balance between technical maturity and investment costs, it is reasonable for the consumer to consider different business models.

  • Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av krysslaminert massivtre i bygninger – en litteraturstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    © RISE Research Institutes of SwedenAbstractFire safety in cross laminated timber buildings; a reviewKey words: Cross laminated timber; CLT; fire safety; exposed CLT; auto-extinction; charring; delamination; detailingThis literature study presents recent research on fire safety in cross laminated timber (CLT) buildings. Results from large fire experiments and other studies in the period 2010 - 2018 are summarized, with focus on the following research questions:• How do constructions consisting of protected or exposed CLT contribute to the fire development in a room?• How can contribution to the fire development from detailing of CLT be avoided?There is an increasing desire to use wooden structures in tall buildings, as a substitute for more traditional construction materials. However, the use of combustible construc-tions in buildings in Norwegian Fire Class 3 (usually five floors or more) is not pre-accepted in the guideline to Regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17), and fire safety must therefore be documented by analysis in such structures. When designing tall and complex timber buildings, it must be taken into account that a fire involving a timber construction may have more severe consequences than in buildings with constructions of steel or concrete, if the fire design of the construction and detail solutions is insufficient. Several studies show that fire exposed CLT, or CLT with insufficient protection, can cause a fire to develop faster, be more intense and last longer than a fire where the only fuel is the furniture and fixtures in the fire room. It is shown that the amount of fire exposed timber in a room may have impact on the extent and duration of a fire, but the knowledge has not yet been sufficient enough to be used in fire modeling, design and analysis.Research on charring rates, delamination and auto-extinction, all of which are factors that can have major impact on fire development and the fire resistance of the construction, takes place in Europe, Australia and North America. Although extensive research has been carried out, it is based on few large fire experiments, and the literature is still pointing to several knowledge gaps. However, the research projects have increased the knowledge of fire in timber buildings, and have contributed to the design of detail solutions, guidelines and development of models for function-based design. Revision of EN 1995-1-2 is under preparation and expected to apply from 2022. A knowledge base for the audit can be found in the network COST Action FP1404 Fire Safety Use of Bio-Based Building Products (COST FP1404) Working Group 2 (WG2). They have published several guidelines relevant for the fire design of CLT, including e.g. calculation methods for the prediction of charring rates and depths, determination of reduced CLT cross-section, design of CLT detailing and a suggested test method for evaluating adhesive performance.Based on the literature review, the following conclusions and recommendations are given for CLT constructions:• The design phase must sufficiently consider protection of the construction and con-tribution of the construction to the fire energy, and to a greater extent include the assessment of detailing and ventilation conditions. It should be considered whether analytic fire engineering design also should be required for buildings in the Norwegian Fire Classes 1 and 2 where more than one CLT wall is exposed.• By protecting all CLT surfaces of the structure with cladding, the construction may retain the stability and the load bearing capacity during the required time of fire resistance.• In buildings with only one exposed CLT wall in each fire cell, it may also be appropriate to use solutions that satisfy the pre-accepted performances, but one must consider whether a somewhat longer and more intense heat radiation and flame exposure on the facade outside window openings will require measures beyond the pre-accepted performances given in the guideline to TEK17.• Rooms where two or more CLT walls in addition to the ceiling are exposed, are configurations that should be avoided.• The risk of delamination can be reduced by using heat-resistant glue.• There is generally a need for relevant documentation for fire-resistant solutions for joints between CLT walls and floors and service penetrations in CLT constructions.• Test methods for testing of joints and penetrations in CLT constructions should be standardized. For example, there exists no standardized test for corner joints. Tests of penetration seals for CLT constructions are scarce, although they can be tested according to EN 1366-3. However, CLT is not a standard supporting construction according to EN 1366-3, and this must be taken into consideration when the test results are evaluated. Joints in glulam constructions should also be tested because they are often used in conjunction with CLT elements.

  • Hildenbrand, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT TO STOCK AND FLOWMANAGEMENT: IMPLEMENTING CLOSING THE LOOPSTRATEGIES IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing project “Circular Economy Integration in the Nordic Industry for enhanced sustainability and competitiveness” (CIRCit) aims to identify for companies from five countries in Northern Europe suitable recirculation strategies among options such as reuse, repair, remanufacturing, refurbishment, and material  haracteristics. Moreover, guidance regarding the implementation shall be provided. As a requirement, conditions in the region need to be considered as well as properties of the products, components and materials that have reached the end of a utilization phase. To consider systems effects occurring on multiple levels and in multiple open and closed loops, a life cycle approach will be adopted. The approach will be further illustrated with cases from the CIRCit project. The ongoing project “Circular Economy Integration in the Nordic Industry for enhanced sustainability and competitiveness” (CIRCit) aims to identify for companies from five countries in Northern Europe suitable recirculation strategies among options such as reuse, repair, remanufacturing, refurbishment, and material recycling for products and systems. The strategy shall be selected based on technical, market and sustainability  characteristics. Moreover, guidance regarding the implementation shall be provided. As a requirement, conditions in the region need to be considered as well as properties of the products, components and materials that have reached the end of a utilization phase. To consider systems effects occurring on multiple levels and in multiple open and closed loops, a life cycle  approach will be adopted. The approach will be further illustrated with cases from the CIRCit project.

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