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  • Trost, Thomas
    Packforsk, Sweden.
    Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)-Facts and Faults - A Review1995In: PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, p. 303-313Article, review/survey (Refereed)
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  • Trost, Thomas
    Packforsk, Sweden.
    Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)-Facts and Faults - A Review1995In: PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, Vol. 8, p. 231-247Article, review/survey (Refereed)
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  • Benison, K. C.
    et al.
    West Virginia University, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Yanchilina, A.
    California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Depositional and Diagenetic Sulfates of Hogwallow Flats and Yori Pass, Jezero Crater: Evaluating Preservation Potential of Environmental Indicators and Possible Biosignatures From Past Martian Surface Waters and Groundwaters2024In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 129, no 2, article id e2023JE008155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover has examined and sampled sulfate-rich clastic rocks from the Hogwallow Flats member at Hawksbill Gap and the Yori Pass member at Cape Nukshak. Both strata are located on the Jezero crater western fan front, are lithologically and stratigraphically similar, and have been assigned to the Shenandoah formation. In situ analyses demonstrate that these are fine-grained sandstones composed of phyllosilicates, hematite, Ca-sulfates, Fe-Mg-sulfates, ferric sulfates, and possibly chloride salts. Sulfate minerals are found both as depositional grains and diagenetic features, including intergranular cement and vein- and vug-cements. Here, we describe the possibility of various sulfate phases to preserve potential biosignatures and the record of paleoenvironmental conditions in fluid and solid inclusions, based on findings from analog sulfate-rich rocks on Earth. The samples collected from these outcrops, Hazeltop and Bearwallow from Hogwallow Flats, and Kukaklek from Yori Pass, should be examined for such potential biosignatures and environmental indicators upon return to Earth. 

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  • Zhang, X.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ràfols-Ribé, J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mindemark, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tang, S.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindh, E Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gracia-Espino, E.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Larsen, C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Edman, L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Efficiency Roll-Off in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2024In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding “efficiency roll-off” (i.e., the drop in emission efficiency with increasing current) is critical if efficient and bright emissive technologies are to be rationally designed. Emerging light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) can be cost- and energy-efficiently fabricated by ambient-air printing by virtue of the in situ formation of a p-n junction doping structure. However, this in situ doping transformation renders a meaningful efficiency analysis challenging. Herein, a method for separation and quantification of major LEC loss factors, notably the outcoupling efficiency and exciton quenching, is presented. Specifically, the position of the emissive p-n junction in common singlet-exciton emitting LECs is measured to shift markedly with increasing current, and the influence of this shift on the outcoupling efficiency is quantified. It is further verified that the LEC-characteristic high electrochemical-doping concentration renders singlet-polaron quenching (SPQ) significant already at low drive current density, but also that SPQ increases super-linearly with increasing current, because of increasing polaron density in the p-n junction region. This results in that SPQ dominates singlet-singlet quenching for relevant current densities, and significantly contributes to the efficiency roll-off. This method for deciphering the LEC efficiency roll-off can contribute to a rational realization of all-printed LEC devices that are efficient at highluminance.

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  • Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Zorzano, MP
    CAB Centro de Astrobiología, Spain.
    Evidence of Sulfate-Rich Fluid Alteration in Jezero Crater Floor, Mars2024In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 129, no 1, article id e2023JE007989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfur plays a major role in martian geochemistry and sulfate minerals are important repositories of water. However, their hydration states on Mars are poorly constrained. Therefore, understanding the hydration and distribution of sulfate minerals on Mars is important for understanding its geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric evolution as well as its habitability potential. NASA's Perseverance rover is currently exploring the Noachian-age Jezero crater, which hosts a fan-delta system associated with a paleolake. The crater floor includes two igneous units (the Séítah and Máaz formations), both of which contain evidence of later alteration by fluids including sulfate minerals. Results from the rover instruments Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemistry and Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry reveal the presence of a mix of crystalline and amorphous hydrated Mg-sulfate minerals (both MgSO4·[3–5]H2O and possible MgSO4·H2O), and anhydrous Ca-sulfate minerals. The sulfate phases within each outcrop may have formed from single or multiple episodes of water activity, although several depositional events seem likely for the different units in the crater floor. Textural and chemical evidence suggest that the sulfate minerals most likely precipitated from a low temperature sulfate-rich fluid of moderate pH. The identification of approximately four waters puts a lower constraint on the hydration state of sulfate minerals in the shallow subsurface, which has implications for the martian hydrological budget. These sulfate minerals are key samples for future Mars sample return.

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  • Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ghoreishi, S.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Hermundsgård, D. H.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Barth, T.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Moe, S. T.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Brusletto, R.
    Arbaflame AS, Norway.
    Steam explosion of lignocellulosic residues for co-production of value-added chemicals and high-quality pellets2024In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 181, article id 107037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand of pellets as energy carrier and the competitiveness of wood biomass are the drivers for finding alternative raw materials for production of pellets. The aim of this study was to investigate the steam explosion of lignocellulosic residues such as, straw, sawdust birch, sawdust spruce, GROT (mixture of 30 % bark and 70 % industrial chips), and their mix to co-production of value-added chemicals and high-quality pellets. The raw materials were first impregnated with water/acetic acid prior to steam explosion process, while leaching and washing of steam exploded biomass was used to reduce the ash content. The value-added chemicals were extracted with MIBK, and a gas chromatography was used to determine which value-added chemicals are present in the MIBK filtrates after extraction of the steam exploded biomass. Thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, calorific values, compression strength and density were used to assess and compare the quality of steam exploded biomass and pellets quality. The results from the extraction experiments shows that furfural, HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and coniferaldehyde are the most value-added chemicals extracted from lignocellulosic residues where higher yield of the valuable chemicals was obtained when the biomass was presoaked in acetic acid. The ash content was reduced by 83 % for straw material by washing and leaching of steam exploded straw material when the biomass was presoaked in acetic acid. High quality pellets with high calorific value (20 MJ/kg), high compression strength (228 kN/m), high density (1300 kg/m3) and low ash content (0,06 %) were produced from sawdust spruce and GROT:Spruce mix used in our study. Based on our results, we can therefore suggest that steam explosion process of lignocellulosic residues improves the quality of the biomass to pellets production and at the same time open for the possibility to produce value-added chemicals. 

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  • Yazdanpanah, A.
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Revilla, R. I.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Franceschi, M.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Fabrizi, A.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Khademzadeh, Saeed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Padova, Italy.
    Khodabakhshi, M.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    De Graeve, I.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Dabalà, M.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Unveiling the impact of laser power variations on microstructure, corrosion, and stress-assisted surface crack initiation in laser powder bed fusion-processed Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 7182024In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 476, article id 143723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion and stress-corrosion related failures often compromise the integrity of critical metallic components during their service, raising significant concerns. It is crucial to comprehend the crack initiation mechanism and the impact of alloy microstructure on this crack initiation process. It is known that the introduction of unique microstructures through metal additive manufacturing brings new challenges. This study aims to investigate, for the first time, the effects of microstructural alterations resulting from fluctuations in laser power during laser powder bed fusion on the surface cracking initiation mechanism and electrochemical behaviour of Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 718, which is widely used in applications that require exceptional strength and corrosion resistance. To carry out this investigation, microcapillary electrochemical methods were combined with high-resolution techniques (TEM, SEM, AFM). The findings emphasize the existence of an optimal range of process parameters that effectively mitigate corrosion and crack initiation susceptibility. This work demonstrated that slight deviations in laser power from this optimal value result in diverse alterations at the micro and submicron scales. These alterations include increased subgrain width, porosity, dislocation density, density of nanovoids, and distribution of carbides. Importantly, these changes, particularly in dislocation and nanovoid densities caused by minor variations in process parameters, significantly affect the material's susceptibility to corrosion initiation and stress-assisted surface cracking. 

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  • Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Success Factors and Barriers for Facility Management in Keeping Nearly-Zero-Energy Non-Residential Buildings Energy-Efficient over Time2024In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is a cornerstone of climate change mitigation. For buildings, facility management is an essential part of achieving efficient energy use while keeping tenants satisfied. This interview study explores success factors and barriers for facility management in maintaining energy efficiency over time in four approximately 10-year-old non-residential premises built as so-called nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) in Sweden. The study highlights the importance of functional digital tools, benchmarks, and building professionals’ involvement in ensuring energy efficiency. It also emphasizes the need for involvement communication and strategies to engage facility management in energy efficiency efforts. The study suggests that in-house and public policies can play a crucial role in sustaining high ambitions for energy efficiency. Access to professional support that is self-evident to use is identified as a critical success factor. Additionally, the research presents an analytic model that can be used in future studies to assess facility management organizations’ potential for maintaining energy performance in buildings over time. 

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  • Srivastava, Sumit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Moukannaa, S.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Isteri, V.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ramteke, D. D.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Perumal, P.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Adesanya, D.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kinnunen, P.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ohenoja, K.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Illikainen, M.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Utilization of calcite-rich Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) by-products from pulp and paper industry: Cement clinker production and life cycle analysis2024In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 20, article id e02870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry produces several calcite-rich by-products including Green Liquor Dregs (GLDs), lime mud, grits, sludges, etc. Presently, majority of these by-products are managed by landfilling. The GLD used in this study is mainly dominated by calcite (∼80 %) and Hydrotalcite like compounds (HTlc, ∼12 %). It is used to produced OPC clinkers by using them as 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, and 20 % replacement of limestone used for clinker production. TGA-DSC analysis of the clinker raw meals up to 1350 ℃ indicates that increase in GLD leads to slight reduction in the decomposition temperature for the raw meals, and a slight change in the formation temperatures for C2S and C3S. The mineral phase compositions of all the clinkers are comparable with a slightly decreasing C3S and C2S with increasing GLD. Compared to the Bogue calculated compositions, C3S and C2S are slightly lower, while the C3A is significantly lower and C4AF is significantly higher. The environmental leaching of GLD and the clinkers are all within the limits set by EN-12457-2. The environmental impact of clinker production and effect of GLD is analyzed for cradle-to-gate scenario with system boundaries. This analysis shows that by using GLD as replacement for limestone can lower the impact on diversity as well as CO2 related to transportation can also be reduced. 

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  • Marina, H.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ren, K.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, I.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fikse, F.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Peetz Nielsen, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Rönnegård, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Dalarna University, Sweden.
    New insight into social relationships in dairy cows and how time of birth, parity, and relatedness affect spatial interactions later in life2024In: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 1110-1123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interactions between cows play a fundamental role in the daily activities of dairy cattle. Real-time location systems provide on a continuous and automated basis information about the position of individual cows inside barns, offering a valuable opportunity to monitor dyadic social contacts. Understanding dyadic social interactions could be applied to enhance the stability of the social structure promoting animal welfare and to model disease transmission in dairy cattle. This study aimed to identify the effect of different cow characteristics on the likelihood of the formation and persistence of social contacts in dairy cattle. The individual position of the lactating cows was automatically collected once per second for 2 wk, using an ultra-wideband system on a Swedish commercial farm consisting of almost 200 dairy cows inside a freestall barn. Social networks were constructed using the position data of 149 cows with available information on all characteristics during the study period. Social contacts were considered as a binary variable indicating whether a cow pair was within 2.5 m of each other for at least 10 min per day. The role of cow characteristics in social networks was studied by applying separable temporal exponential random graph models. Our results revealed that cows of the same parity interacted more consistently, as well as those born within 7 d of each other or closely related by pedigree. The repeatability of the topological parameters indicated a consistent short-term stability of the individual animal roles within the social network structure. Additional research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing the long-term evolution of social contacts among dairy cattle and to investigate the relationship between these networks and the transmission of diseases in the dairy cattle population. .

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  • Karlsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Marques, Tatiana
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Castro-Alves, Victor
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Physico-chemical properties of pea fibre and pea protein blends and the implications for in vitro batch fermentation using human inoculum2024In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 150, article id 109732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incorporation of fibre into pea protein matrices influences their microstructure, yet our understanding of their gut fermentability remains unexplored. In this study, dietary fibres and protein from yellow pea were investigated for their physico-chemical properties and impact on in vitro colonic fermentation using human inoculum. Pea fibre and pea protein blends were studied at different pH and after thermal treatment at 95 °C for 30 min with oscillatory rheology, static light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect on in vitro colonic fermentation was evaluated measuring gas production, ammonia, and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Rheology indicated that during thermal treatment a firmer gel is formed close to the protein isoelectric point with a structure characterised by aggregation, but less particle swelling compared to other pH. Addition of fibre led to higher storage modulus (G′), with the fibre dominating the rheological properties. Fermentation of samples containing protein led to higher levels of ammonia and SCFA compared to only fibres. Blends produced higher amounts of valerate, i-valerate and caproate, and lower amounts of ammonia. Reduced fermentation of proteins in the presence of fibres was also reflected in a more intact microstructure of the protein particles in the digesta. Although thermal treatment of blends caused particle swelling and induced gelation, only small differences could be discerned in the in vitro colonic fermentation outcomes. Our results highlight that potentially harmful fermentation products from protein, such as ammonia, were reduced in the presence of pea hull fibre. 

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  • Osanlóo, Daniel Tristan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mahlin, Denny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Bjerregaard, Simon
    Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S, Denmark.
    Bergenståhl, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development. Lund University, Sweden.
    Formulation factors affecting foam properties during vacuum foam-drying2024In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 652, article id 123803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how vacuum foam-drying of a protein is influenced by formulation parameters by investigating the foam structure, physical properties of the foam, and the stability of the protein. Recombinant human bile salt-stimulated lipase was used as a model of a protein drug. The stability of the lipase was evaluated through activity measurements. Two disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), strongly tending to an amorphous form, were used as matrix formers, and the physical properties were assessed through residual water content, glass transition temperature, and crystalline state. Moreover, some formulations included surfactants with different sizes and structures of the head group. The alkyl chain length was kept constant to only investigate the impact of the surfactant head group, in the presence of the lipase, on the foamability and surface coverage of the lipase. The study demonstrated that the lipase allowed for a dry, solid foam with a foam overrun of up to 2600 %. The wall thickness of the dry, solid foam was estimated to be 20–50 µm. Clear differences between sucrose and trehalose as matrix former were identified. The lipase showed no tendency to lose activity because of the drying and rehydration, despite a proportion of the lipase covering the surfaces of the dry material. 

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  • Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Cheah, You Wayne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernlind, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Bernlind, Alexandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Olsson, Louise
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Creaser, Derek
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Öhrman, Olov GW
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oils to renewable hydrocarbons using slurry- and fixed bed hydroprocessing2024In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 253, article id 108009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass through fast pyrolysis, to yield fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO), is a technique that has been extensively researched in the quest for finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks to produce fuels, chemicals, etc. Properties such as high oxygen content, acidity, and poor storage stability greatly limit the direct use of this bio-oil. Furthermore, high coking tendencies make upgrading of the FPBO by hydrodeoxygenation in fixed-bed bed hydrotreaters challenging due to plugging and catalyst deactivation. This study investigates a novel two-step hydroprocessing concept; a continuous slurry-based process using a dispersed NiMo-catalyst, followed by a fixed bed process using a supported NiMo-catalyst. The oil product from the slurry-process, having a reduced oxygen content (15 wt%) compared to the FPBO and a comparatively low coking tendency (TGA residue of 1.4 wt%), was successfully processed in the downstream fixed bed process for 58 h without any noticeable decrease in catalyst activity, or increase in pressure drop. The overall process resulted in a 29 wt% yield of deoxygenated oil product (0.5 wt% oxygen) from FPBO with an overall carbon recovery of 68%.

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  • Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sepman, Alexey
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Fooladgar, Ehsan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Development and evaluation of a vision driven sensor for estimating fuel feeding rates in combustion and gasification processes2024In: Energy and AI, ISSN 2666-5468, Vol. 15, article id 100316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A machine vision driven sensor for estimating the instantaneous feeding rate of pelletized fuels was developed and tested experimentally in combustion and gasification processes. The feeding rate was determined from images of the pellets sliding on a transfer chute into the reactor. From the images the apparent area and velocity of the pellets were extracted. Area was determined by a segmentation model created using a machine learning framework and velocities by image registration of two subsequent images. The measured weight of the pelletized fuel passed through the feeding system was in good agreement with the weight estimated by the sensor. The observed variations in the fuel feeding correlated with the variations in the gaseous species concentrations measured in the reactor core and in the exhaust. Since the developed sensor measures the ingoing fuel feeding rate prior to the reactor, its signal could therefore help improve process control. 

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  • Wang, Tianxiang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Yue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringaby, Jonatan
    PE Teknik & Arkitektur AB, Sweden.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Glulam beams adhesively bonded by birch plywood plates in moment-resisting beam-to-beam connections2024In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 302, article id 117471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of timber connections is of vital importance in timber structures. Bonded connections exhibit the advantages of lower cost, higher load-bearing capacity, and higher stiffness compared to conventional mechanical connections. However, the potential of the bonded connections has yet to be fully exploited, not only due to their sensitivity to the adhesive types and process-related parameters but also due to the lack of studies regarding the structural performance of the bonded connection in various loading conditions. In this paper, birch plywood plates were utilized to adhesively connect two glulam beam halves to create a longer span. Plywood made of birch was chosen because birch is highly resourced on the Eurasian continent, with its mechanical properties better than most softwoods. Specifically, glulam beams were connected by birch plywood plates at mid-span and then loaded in four-point bending. Four test series with two different bonding areas and birch plywood face grain orientations were carried out. The bonded region was designed as the weakest part to investigate the failure modes, moment capacity, bending stiffness, and moment-rotation angle relationships. Furthermore, numerical models were developed to predict the structural behaviors in the linear elastic stage, while analytical models were proposed and subsequently modified to predict the moment-carrying capacities. Both numerical and analytical models displayed satisfactory agreement with the test results.

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  • Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Altuntas Vural, Ceren
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparing flexibility-based measures during different disruptions: evidence from maritime supply chains2024In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Severe disruptions to maritime supply chains, including port closures, congestion and shortages in shipping capacity, have occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper’s purpose is to explore flexibility-based countermeasures that enable actors in maritime supply chains to mitigate the effects of disruptions with different characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with shipping lines, shippers, forwarders and ports. Data on the COVID-19 pandemic's effects and countermeasures were collected and compared with data regarding the 2016–2017 Gothenburg port conflict. Findings: Spatial, capacity, service and temporal flexibility emerged as the primary countermeasures, whilst important characteristics of disruptions were geographical spread, duration, uncertainty, criticality, the element of surprise and intensity. Spatial flexibility was exercised in both disruptions by switching to alternative ports. During the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuring capacity flexibility included first removing and then adding vessels. Shipping lines exercising service flexibility prioritised certain cargo, which made the spot market uncertain and reduced flexibility for forwarders, importers and exporters that changed carriers or traffic modes. Experience with disruptions meant less surprise and better preparation for spatial flexibility. Practical implications: Understanding how actors in maritime supply chains exercise flexibility-based countermeasures amid disruptions with different characteristics can support preparedness for coming disruptions. Originality/value: Comparing flexibility-based measures in a pandemic versus port conflict provides insights into the important characteristics of disruptions and the relevance of mitigation strategies. The resilience of maritime supply chains, although underexamined compared with manufacturing supply chains, is essential for maintaining global supply chain flows.

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  • Altuntas Vural, Ceren
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gonzalez-Aregall, Marta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    International container shipping through the Covid-19 pandemic - Disruptions from a Swedish perspective2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the onset of the pandemic in spring 2020, the Swedish shipping sector was first affected by border closures preventing passengers to use RoPax shipping and cruise ferries. There were some blank sailings but in general they kept operating to foster intra-European trade by trucks despite the missing revenues from passengers. Shipping in general was affected by port disrup-tions and complicated crew changes. Eventually, however, it was clear that the most dramatic disruptions on a global scale where experienced in the container segment. General media reported on delayed goods, high freight rates and, however not related to the pandemic, the Ever Given blocking the Suez Canal for a week in March 2021. Currently, there are few reports of supply chains and shipping suffering from disruptions and capacity constraints related to the pandemic. The peak in freight rates was rather replaced by depressed rates and there is a certain risk that some logisticians and supply chain managers regard the pandemic as a once-in-a-lifetime event and just want to get back to a previous be-haviour seeing container shipping as a commodity with indefinite capacity at a reasonable price. Nevertheless, the war in Ukraine, the drought in the Panama Canal and the attacks by the Houthi rebels in the Red Sea create other problems for container shipping. Freight rates increase significantly, but from very low levels. The purpose of the report is to describe and analyse how international container shipping was affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and other disruptions. The analysis takes a Swedish perspective on disruptions and tries to go beyond the anecdotal reporting and capture what happened and why. Container shipping is put into a context of economy, consumption, world trade, supply chains and logistics. The pandemic and more current events affecting container shipping market are described together with how shipping lines responded. A series of interviews with Swedish actors revealed how they perceived the disruptions and what countermeasures the actors have applied to mitigate the effects, their organisational learning and how they prepare for future disruptions

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  • Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Edman, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wallman, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Laurentz, Martin
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Henryson, Kajsa
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Berglund, Maria
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Vera
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Susanna
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Description of the Agrosfär model – a tool for the climate impact assessment of farms, crop and animal production systems in Sweden2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector in Sweden needs to cut GHG emissions and contribute to the climate goal of net-zero emissions by 2045. The GHG reduction goal for agricultural emissions is not quantified, but the Swedish climate policy framework states that ‘Swedish food production shall increase as much as possible with as little climate impact as possible’. Multiple key actors within the sector of food and agriculture have developed roadmaps or industry specific goals for reducing GHG emissions from the sector. Consequently, requirements for transparent GHG accounting and reporting are increasing within the agricultural sector, both on a national and international level. The purpose of the Agrosfär tool is to establish an automatic data driven climate calculator used to calculate GHG emissions from agricultural products and on a farm enterprise level. Automation and automatic data collection will save time, increase the accuracy of the calculations, and simplify updates of the tool to keep it aligned with the most recent climate data and climate reporting methodology. It will make it possible to continuously carry out follow-ups on climate performance indicators and measure improvements from climate measures taken. A working group consisting of agricultural life cycle assessment experts has developed the framework of the tool (e.g., setting system boundaries, selecting methodologies and input data). A technical team has developed algorithms, a digital interface and coupled the tool to other existing agricultural databases, providing farm specific information on crop and animal production data, soil characteristics, carbon footprints and amounts of purchased inputs etc. The tool and user interface have been developed based on input from farmers through prototyping and in-depth interviews. The priority guidelines on which the calculation model is based are the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR), the International Dairy Federation (IDF)’s approach for carbon footprint for the dairy sector, and FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance guidelines (FAO LEAP). From the farm perspective, the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) Corporate Standard, GHG Protocol Agricultural Guidance (Scope 1 & 2) and GHG Protocol Corporate value chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard are guiding standards. Where standards have diverged or where assumptions have been required, the working group has made expert judgements on which method/guideline to follow or what assumptions to make. A first version of the tool, first described in report version 1, was developed as the basis for further development. The first version contains an animal and a crop module, and can calculate the carbon footprint of crops, milk and beef. This report (version 1.1) has been updated to include the most recent developments of the tool. The main change is that the tool can now also be used to calculate farm climate impact on a yearly basis. Future possibilities to develop the tool and calculation model are described in chapter 7, including suggestions for developing modules for more animal production types, deepening the integration between the crop and animal modules, expanding sources for automatic data collection, developing a carbon sequestration module, and other technical and methodological improvements to ensure alignment with important climate reporting standards. The report will be repeatedly updated as the tool develops, and new versions of the tool are released.

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  • Radermacher, Reinhard
    et al.
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Baxter, Van
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    IEA/HPT Annex 53 Advanced Cooling/Refrigeration Technologies Development– Final Report2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents work done under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pumping Technologies collaborative project IEA Annex 53, Advanced Cooling/Refrigeration Technologies Development. Research and development institutes in five Heat Pumping Technologies member countries—Germany, Italy, the People’s Republic of China, South Korea, and the United States of America—shared information on a range of advanced, lower-carbon heat pump/air-conditioning (AC) technologies. This annex was launched in response to the anticipated heavy growth in worldwide demand for AC and refrigeration by 2050. The technical scope of Annex 53 was very broad by design. It is unlikely that there will be only one or even a few so-called right solutions to the challenge. Therefore, the participants were free to investigate a wide range of possible technology solutions. Research, development, and demonstration efforts focused on advanced, higher-efficiency technology solutions for future AC and refrigeration systems. Technologies included those based on enhancements of the time-proven vapor compression cycle, electrochemical compression, absorption and adsorption (including compressor-assisted) systems, and others based on nontraditional cycles (including magnetocaloric, elastocaloric, electrocaloric, heat pipe–assisted caloric cycles, and more). Technology readiness levels for the investigated technology options ranged from approximately 2 to about 8 by the end of the annex.

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  • Radermacher, Reinhard
    et al.
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Baxter, Van
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    IEA/HPT Annex 53 Advanced Cooling/Refrigeration Technologies Development– Executive Summary Report2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents work done under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pumping Technologies collaborative project IEA Annex 53, Advanced Cooling/Refrigeration Technologies Development. Research and development institutes in five Heat Pumping Technologies member countries—Germany, Italy, the People’s Republic of China, South Korea, and the United States of America—shared information on a range of advanced, lower-carbon heat pump/air-conditioning (AC) technologies. This annex was launched in response to the anticipated heavy growth in worldwide demand for AC and refrigeration by 2050. The technical scope of Annex 53 was very broad by design. It is unlikely that there will be only one or even a few so-called right solutions to the challenge. Therefore, the participants were free to investigate a wide range of possible technology solutions. Research, development, and demonstration efforts focused on advanced, higher-efficiency technology solutions for future AC and refrigeration systems. Technologies included those based on enhancements of the time-proven vapor compression cycle, electrochemical compression, absorption and adsorption (including compressor-assisted) systems, and others based on nontraditional cycles (including magnetocaloric, elastocaloric, electrocaloric, heat pipe–assisted caloric cycles, and more). Technology readiness levels for the investigated technology options ranged from approximately 2 to about 8 by the end of the annex.

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  • Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Nevzorova, Tatiana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Vikingsson, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Digitalization and verifiability strategy for sustainability management of transports in the construction sector2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is under a strong transformation, partly due to accelerating digitalization, and partly due to an increase in sustainability requirements. The drivers of digitalization are increased productivity, efficiency, and quality, whereas the requirements on sustainability performance are related to many external forces impacting the sector, such as stricter regulations on the verifiability of claims concerning resource efficiency, emissions, and waste management. In particular, the transport actors within the construction sector need a strategy to digitalize all their sustainability information. This report approaches this issue by integrating the BEAst (PEPPOL) standard for the construction sector’s data exchange with the ISO standard ISO 14033 for controlling the verifiability of quantitative sustainability information. The report shows how standards-based requirements on data exchange to and from all construction transport actors and stakeholders enable digitalization and data flows in a cost-efficient way and with short lead time to reduce administration, facilitate follow-up, enable traceability and verifiability, efficiency, and goal fulfillment combining societal and environmental benefits.

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  • Pérez-Rey, Ignacio
    et al.
    Universidade de Vigo, Spain; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Muñiz-Menéndez, Mauro
    Laboratorio de Geotecnia, Spain.
    Frühwirt, Thomas
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Konietzky, Heinz
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Perras, Matthew A.
    York University, Canada.
    Atefi-Monfared, Kamelia
    York University, Canada.
    Mas Ivars, Diego
    SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sánchez Juncal, Abel
    SKB Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Alejano, Leandro R.
    Universidade de Vigo, Spain.
    Assessment of Direct Tensile Strength Tests in Rock Through a Multi-laboratory Benchmark Experiment2024In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to experimentally assess repeatability and reproducibility of direct tensile strength (DTS) tests with deformability measurements on two types of rocks: Blanco Mera granite (Spain) and Cotta sandstone (Germany). The tests were conducted in four rock mechanics laboratories located in different countries (Canada, Germany, Spain and Sweden). A total of 51 tests were performed on cylindrical specimens of the two rocks, using different test equipment and measuring devices. Mean and standard deviation DTS values were determined in the four laboratories for the granite (5.70 ± 0.32, 6.06 ± 0.11, 3.84 ± 0.50 and 6.76 ± 0.10 MPa) and for the sandstone (1.88 ± 0.07, 1.96 ± 0.06, 1.15 ± 0.32 and 1.74 ± 0.19 MPa), together with Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratios in tension, being statistically analysed to evaluate the variability and compare the main results obtained from the participating laboratories. The findings indicate that the DTS test with deformability measurements on cylindrical rock specimens is operationally feasible. However, certain shortcomings have been identified during the course of the experiments with the existing methodologies, such as the one suggested by the ISRM for DTS tests. The results have also shown to be sensitive to appropriate test and strain measurement configurations. The objective of this study was to shed light on these issues and provide new insights for potential future improvements of the existing testing methods.

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  • Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lyrberg, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Einarsson Lindvall, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Slutrapport inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ): Metodik för analys och införande av klimatneutrala mobilitets- och transportlösningar i städer2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett arbetsdokument som har efterfrågats i arbetet inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ), där det pågår en process för att ta fram en mer detaljerad planering för en övergång till helt fossilfria transporter i Göteborg. Rapporten resonerar först kring zonbegreppet, vilken forskning som tidigare gjorts, vilka slags zoner som redan finns och som implementerats i Sverige och Europa. Rapporten föreslår sedan en metodik för hur zoner kan definieras och hur en generell zonindelning skulle kunna upprättas som skulle kunna användas som mall för både Göteborg och andra städer. Arbetet är inte färdigt utan kommer att fortsätta under kommande år både inom RISE och tillsammans med övriga samarbetspartners. Det som kvarstår är att definiera i detalj vilka parametrar och egenskaper som gör en viss zon unik, exempelvis genom mätetal som stadsdelars täthet, demografi, socioekonomiska förhållanden, infrastruktur samt befintlig framkomlighet. Målet med arbetet har varit att utveckla och förbättra kunskapen om zonmetodiken, visa på dess möjliga fördelar och utveckla ett verktyg för att användas i omställningen och att hjälpa Göteborg och andra städer att lyckas med omställningen mot klimatneutrala transporter till år 2030.

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  • Green, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Vätgaselektrifiering av transporterbjudandet för tunga fordon (HydroHaul): En analys av praktisk och ekonomisk lämplighet för vätgasdrift hos ett åkeri2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vätgas har tidigare konstaterats vara ett fossilfritt, lågemissions, drivmedel som passar bra för långväga tunga transporter. Detta till följd av dess likheter med dieseldrift gällande främst räckvidd och tanktider. I Värmland och Västra Götaland finns det goda planer och medel beviljade för att etablera tankstationer för vätgas. Med infrastruktur på plats behöver nu åkerier överväga huruvida vätgas är lämpligt för att genomföra sina transportuppdrag.

    Stay Fresh Sweden är ett framgångsrikt åkeriföretag som kör livsmedelsgods och var tidigt ute att köra gasdrivna och batterielektriska lastbilar. För deras distribution i Värmland drivs lastbilarna på uteslutande Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Denna förstudie har således analyserat hur praktiskt och ekonomiskt möjligt det är att övergå från HVO-drift till vätgasdrift för Stay Fresh transportuppdrag i Värmland. Två beräkningsmodeller har tagits fram för att beräkna Stay Fresh vätgasbehov och vilken Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) det skulle innebära med vätgasdrift. Beräkningsmodellerna baseras på verksamhetsspecifika data från Stay Fresh och från tidigare genomförda forskningsstudier inom ämnesområdet.

    Resultatet pekar på att det är praktiskt genomförbart för Stay Fresh att driva lastbilar på vätgas. Endast mindre rutinförändringar rörande tankning kan behövas, exempelvis ett extra tankstopp per dag eller tankning på annan plats under transportrutten. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv förväntas övergången från HVO till vätgas ha en marginell påverkan, beroende på val av lastbilsmodell.

    Acceptansen och praktiskt utförande av nyckelaktörer såsom serviceföretag, chaufförer, teknikleverantörer och kund anses inte vara ett hinder för omställning till vätgasdrift. Snarare tvärtom, att det finns en entusiasm och få tendenser till oro kring denna typ av lastbilar.

    Däremot är inköpspriset för vätgaslastbilar osäkert och kan tänkas vara högre än vad denna studie initialt räknat på. Å andra sidan förväntas priset på vätgas minska över tid, vilket har en markant påverkan på den ekonomiska kalkylen. En känslighetsanalys har därför analyserat inköpspriset på fordon och vätgaspriset vid tankstationen. Slutsatsen är att Stay Fresh kommer vara betydligt mer beroende av priset på vätgas snarare än inköpspriset för en vätgasdriven lastbil.

    Med denna förstudie genomförd har nu Stay Fresh ett beslutsunderlag för att avgöra om ett nästa steg är intressant att gå vidare med, nämligen att satsa på ett pilotprojekt med vätgasdrivna lastbilar för deras transportuppdrag.

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  • Kim, Keunjae
    et al.
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Leer-Andersen, Michael
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF HULL SURFACE TREATMENTS on SHIP PERFORMANCES2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a numerical analysis on the induced relation between hull surface roughness and ship performance and discuss how to maintain hull-surface with cost and environmental impact in mind. The analysis is based on CFD simulation of the ship performance due to change of hull surface roughness condition before/after dry-docking and in-water hull cleaning. A typical tanker ship, KVLCC2 is investigated for 14 different partial cleaning cases. The attainable reduction of propulsive power by hull surface treatment is estimated as an index, Cleaning Efficiency Index (CEI). A clear understanding is obtained how hull geometry has profound implication for the effect of roughness on the change of power. Partial hull cleaning of fore-end and stern-aft part of the hull was found to give higher relative CEI than entire hull cleaning. The present study provides guidelines which part of the hull to treat during dry-docking and hull cleaning process with better quality or higher priority if necessary

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  • Kyrkander, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Processkartläggning och processdesign för hållbar dagvattenhantering – En metod för stärkt samverkan2024Other (Other academic)
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  • Kyrkander, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Policyguide - för att möjliggöra innovativ hållbar dagvattenhantering på kvartersmark2024Other (Other academic)
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  • Lind, Ann-Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Petters, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Peetz Nielsen, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strategisk samverkan mellan lantbrukare och teknikföretag inom mjölkproduktionen2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic collaborations between farmers and technology companies to extend the benefits of technical solutions for improved animal production Over the past 50 years, we have seen an increased use of technological solutions in agriculture to monitor animal health, welfare and productivity. The increase in milk production and herd size place great demands on animal health and regular monitoring of all individual animals, to ensure that production is optimal while maintaining good animal welfare. This is very time-consuming, so farmers' interest in digital technology solutions is increasing. This development should facilitate and streamline agriculture. However, many farmers feel that the companies that develop technology do not always have knowledge of the needs and requirements they have for a technical or digital tool. In addition, companies need to collaborate more on sharing data, to avoid, for example, parallel work in several technical solutions. Within the project, we have identified several areas where there is consensus, but also areas where the opinions between farmers and technology companies differ. There was a consensus between farmers and technology companies that personal relationships are a key factor in the industry, and affect, for example, investment decision-making. Furthermore, there was also a consensus that there is a need for actors to be able to meet in some forum to discuss issues such as technology development and data sharing on a regular basis. The parties were considered to have different views on what makes a technology successful and how user dialogue should be handled. One issue where the farmers' opinions differed was the availability outside of working hours, where some felt that it provided increased control and thus a sense of calm, while others considered it as a direct stress factor and a feeling of never leaving the workplace. Several of the technology suppliers expressed that they were interested in developing their collaboration with other technology companies, while others considered it a strength to only work with their own products to ensure the quality of their offering. The project has generated knowledge exchange between actors in the industry. Farmers and technology companies have been given the opportunity to give their views on how to create a dialogue about needs and opportunities for the development of new technical solutions. The results show that all participants see a benefit in increased collaboration, but that the path to get there is not clearly marked out and there is a need for an independent party that initiates collaboration and leads the dialogue.

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  • Costa, Nicole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Final and Complete Report of SSPA’s Tasks in FAMOS Odin2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports the methods used and results obtained for the tasks established between SSPA and the FAMOS Odin project, as follows:Baseline analysis of traffic in the Baltic Sea, using collected AlS dataa.Analysis of safe Under-Keel Clearance (UKC) used in today’s trafficb.Analysis to which extent transport capacity is currently limited by UKCc.Calculation of the added fuel consumption caused by the squat effectSimulation of traffic based on improved bathymetry and UKC controla.Present energy efficient routing options with regards to distance, UKC and squatb.Calculate the benefits of optimized UKC for increased cargo capacityc.Use and test S-102 data as a basis for these analyses.This document reports as well the active partner’s budget outcomes, milestones and gains accomplished within the project timeframe.Analyses based on bathymetric and Automatic Identification System (AIS) data evidenced, for a chosen area of interest in the Baltic Sea, that tankers may be limited by UKC and as a result carry less cargo, which could amount to 1% more of the total cargo transported through the Baltic Sea, according to the model used. The results also show the linear relationship between the increase of speed and squat effect with the subsequent increase of water resistance and need of energy to propel the ship, signifying a direct increase in fuel consumption. Finally, the results emphasize certain regions of the Baltic Sea where routes could especially benefit from optimization for reduced fuel consumption, yet optimization results may depend on different route parameters prioritized by the mariner (e.g, speed vs. Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)).Some recommendations for futures stages of this project include access to higher-fidelity depth data for Swedish waters to refine the studies described in this report, as well as the inclusion of a qualitative research component to investigate how UKC is perceived by the mariners or what reasons they may have for keeping a certain UKC or loading cargo to a certain weight.

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  • Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Tettey, Uniben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Gustavsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    FKG method for collecting data and calculation of climate footprint forcomponents supplied to the automotive industry2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Th is method is developed for the purpose of helping suppliers to the automotive industry present a potential climate footprint of their proposed products to their customers in a quotation stage. The supplier/producer company is responsible for making a complete inventory of all inputs and outputs of the proposed product in accordance with the D ata C o llection T emplate. The method is based on the modelling of a climate footprint for a fictive average product, that can be used to present an estimated potential climate footprint for future product offers. Th e method was developed as integral parts of a climate footprint project coordinated by FKG, representing Swedish automotive component suppliers. The project resulted in this method, including an inventory tool to be used by supplier s to collect data and an average product model and calculator to estimate a potential clim ate footprint of the suppliers products. The inventory data includes information on supplied materials (types and qualities), transportation ( volume , mode, and distance), and energy sources (types and suppliers) used in production during 2021 or 2022 . This data can be used in simulations for future products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) consultants utilize the inventory to construct a simplified cradle to gate model in software tools like SimaPro, LCA for Experts (formerly GaBi )), or other LCA modelling software tool . This model, which employs a “simple cut off for recycled input materials and recyclable materials from production (“simple cut off” according to Ekvall et al. 2020 as recommended by EPD International see further chapter 2 and 3 for scope and modelling )), either utilizes certified climate data (e. EPDs) from sub suppliers or, more commonly, relies on general Ecoinvent data for materials and energy. A simplified LCA model for the average product from the previous year is documented and serves as the baseline for the calculation . Subsequently, a calculator is developed that can simulate a climate footprint for production of a new product in the factory based on the production volume and material mix from the previous year. In the calculator, the climate footprint of the 'core' for each main process and subprocess is treated as fixed factors proportional to the weight of the product. The upstream part treats the raw material mix (bill of materials) as a variable that can be adjusted for each product, where each raw material has specific materials) as a variable that can be adjusted for each product, where each raw material has specific climate footprint factorsclimate footprint factors.. Validation of the Validation of the method method toto developdevelop an an averageaverage--productproduct--model and the calculator is carried out by model and the calculator is carried out by a a validation bodyvalidation body.. In this first version of the methodIn this first version of the method, , the validation body is the validation body is RISE. The validation proRISE. The validation programgram builds on builds on review of review of assumed dataassumed data andand confirms the use of reasonabconfirms the use of reasonable and le and sufficient sufficient data for thedata for the simplifiedsimplified LCALCA modelmodel. The validation program. The validation program does not verify does not verify thatthat the bill of materials the bill of materials andand bill of bill of processes processes are sufficient are sufficient to produce to produce the the product/product/component butcomponent but validates the reasonableness of thvalidates the reasonableness of this is datadata..

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  • Malmek, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Werner, Sofia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bensow, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rapid aerodynamic method for predicting the performance of interacting wing sails2024In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid performance prediction tools are required for the evaluation, optimization, and comparison of different wind propulsion systems (WPSs). These tools should capture viscous aerodynamic flow effects in 3D, particularly the maximum propulsion force, stall angles, and interaction effects between the lift-generating units. This paper presents a rapid aerodynamic calculation method for wing sails that combines a semi-empirical lifting line model with a potential flow-based interaction model to account for 3D interaction effects. The method was applied to a WPS that consisted of several wing sails with considerable interaction effects. The results were compared to CFD RANS simulations in 2D and in 3D. For the evaluated validation cases, the interaction model improved the prediction considerably compared to when the interaction was not accounted for. The method provided acceptable driving force, moments, and stall predictions, with negligible computational cost compared to 3D CFD simulations. 

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  • Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sustainable AI and Disruptive Policy – AI Regulatory Sandboxes2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid pace of digitalization and the new opportunities for value creation has raised a concern that regulation is lagging behind and becoming an obstacle. A number of tools have been proposed in order to facilitate innovation that is aligned with existing or upcoming policies.

    A specific case of both facilitating and regulating innovation is the EU’s proposed regulation of AI systems. The act not only poses legal requirements on providers and users of AI systems but also includes measures for facilitating innovation – the concept of regulatory sandboxes is defined with specific purposes together with legal exempts.

    At the time of releasing our paper, the trilogue has reached a political agreement. This means the proposed AI Act will be, even though we do not yet have the final wording. By mapping the negotiation mandates of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union against Swedish experiences of facilitating innovation and regulatory compliance in relation to AI, we still suggest launching pilots for regulatory sandboxes without delay.

    Based on our own experiences from conducting policy labs and those reported on by others from their regulatory trials, we conclude that it takes time to grow confidence in defining a research agenda with other stakeholders and then strike the balance between facilitation and surveillance of innovation. Something that will require institutional learning and capacity building.

    The mandate to foster and facilitate regulatory compliance as well as innovation, given to the public sector through the AI Act’s regulatory sandboxes, is disruptive. It changes the role and responsibilities for some national authorities, requiring the acquisition of new competences and resources, as well as for the private sector. When they team up with a competent authority the mandate to act becomes larger, as does the responsibility with regards to which kinds of innovation to drive.

    Conducting trials in the current window of opportunity, between now and when the AI Act is in force, will create experiences that policy makers and stakeholders can draw on when creating the detailed guidelines for organising regulatory sandboxes. Adopting an incremental and iterative process enables a transition from learning the basics of selecting a case and finding relevant partners to detailing how to process data and sharing responsibilities and rewards.

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  • Boss, Annika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Emanuelsson, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Venkatesh, Abhijit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sustainable Vehicles with Recycled Plastics2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of vehicles is one of the most resource-intensive industries. 10 % of the overall consumption of plastics, 6 million tonnes/year is used by the European vehicle industry1. Increase the use of recycled plastics in vehicles is one of the key challenges for sustainable transformation of the vehicle industry as it plays an important role in saving resources and reducing greenhouse emissions. The main goal of this project was to contribute to increased use of recycled plastic in the Swedish vehicle industry. Volvo Cars goal is that 25 % of the plastic used in cars should be recycled or biobased by 2025. The goal will most probably be reached according to Volvo Cars. Volvo group has the goal to be fossil neutral, which requires recycled material in the truck components. The recycled plastics evaluated in the project came from both post industrial waste (PIR) and post consumer waste (PCR). Rondo Plast, Polykemi, Albis, Mocom, Biesterfield, Borealis, Sabic, Total and LG Chem have supplied recycled and virgin plastics tested in the project. The plastics we have focusing on in this project were polypropylene (PP) plastics (homo- and copolymer) and PC/ABS plastic compounds. Thus, these plastics are most used in vehicle components and recycled PP plastics are more accessible than the other plastics that can be used in vehicles. Analysis and evaluation of recycled plastics have been performed by RISE. Also, long term ageing and recyclability studies have been performed. A study to upgrade PP plastic recycled from packaging (PCR) with additives from DOW and Rondo Plast were performed.

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  • Boss, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Innovativ återvinning av rör och profiler (REPIPE)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige installeras varje år stora mängder rör i nybyggnationer och vid underhåll av infrastruktur och byggnader. Dessa rör tillverkas till stor del inom landets gränser och tillverkningen i Sverige uppgår till ca 100 000 ton per år. Dessvärre skapas cirka 5000 ton installationsspill per år som idag nästan uteslutande går till energivinning. Om rören istället materialåtervinns kan plastens värde tillvaratas, 50 miljoner kronor per år och det skulle ge minskad klimatpåverkan motsvarande10 000 ton CO2-ekv. per år. Vidare finns också potential att återvinna rör vid rivning. Innovationsprojektets syfte har varit att ta fram nya kostnads- och resurseffektiva modeller för insamling, sortering och materialåtervinning av plaströr. I det här projektet har vi avgränsat oss till att fokusera på det rörspill som uppstår vid installationer. Projektet har haft deltagare som representerar flera viktiga steg i ett cirkulärt system: NPG, Renova, Swerec, Novoplast, Talent Plastics (nu A-Plast), Pipelife, Wavin, Uponor, Inovyn, Rapid Granulator, Du Pont samt forskningsutövarna Chalmers Industriteknik och Swerea IVF (RISE). Sammanfattningsvis är resultaten från innovationsprojektet positiva. Det är genomförbart att samla in, sortera och materialåtervinna rör i ett cirkulärt system i södra delen av Sverige.

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  • Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Corrigendum to “Viscosity of alumina doped soda lime silicate glasses – observation of anomaly in the linear increase as Al2O3 replaces SiO2” [Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Vol 573 (2021) start 121149]2024In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 627, p. 122828-122828, article id 122828Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors regret publication of Fig. 1 in [1], that clearly do not show the rheometer setup, it should be replaced with the following Fig. 1.

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  • Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bergentall, Martina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sensor-Based Hygiene Monitoring in Restrooms and Related Areas – A Review2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning, cleanliness, and hygiene are all undeniably central factors in human well-being, impacting both sensory experiences and the mitigation of infection spread. With the ongoing societal shift towards increased digitalization and automation, there is a growing interest in leveraging technology to rationalize and improve cleaning processes. Cleaning management systems utilizing connected sensors have emerged to optimize cleaning schedules in diverse settings such as restaurants, healthcare facilities, offices, shops, warehouses, and public spaces. This literature review report explores the vast landscape of publications addressing the topic of sensors that may provide viable data for decision-making algorithms in cleaning management systems. It also includes a few illustrating examples of commercially available sensors, as well as a list of some cleaning management systems on the market that employ sensors and data. Such systems may for instance exploit consumption data, detect visitor presence, and are often utilizing gas sensors. Gas sensors, being able to measure air quality, are maybe of particular interest for improving cleaning of restrooms. Some may be able to detect pure gases (like carbon dioxide), some react to several gases, and some are able to capture complex odours. Literature indicates that advancements in nano materials will likely lead to stable, energy-efficient gas sensors with increased sensitivity and selectivity. Electronic noses, arrays of gas sensors trained by algorithms, enable detection of complex odours and may enhance the selectivity of gas sensors. However, challenges persist, urging the need for continued improvement in gas sensor technology and smell sensing solutions, especially if to be integrated into Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. The review outlines various principles underlying gas sensors, emphasizing the preference for stable, low-energy technologies in IoT applications. While chemiresistive sensors exhibit promise, historical limitations in their sensitivity and selectivity have led to preferring other principles for certain applications, such as non-dispersive infrared and photoacoustic spectroscopy sensors. The review also describes technologies available for detecting other phenomena, including optical, ultrasound, and radar sensors. It is also underscored the potential in combining multiple sensor technologies to comprehensively assess soiling, tailored to specific environmental contexts. Despite significant progress, literature indicates that much work remains to fully exploit the capabilities of these integrated techniques for timely and efficient cleaning in diverse settings.

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  • Basse, Nils Tångefjord
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    The Chimera Revisited: Wall- and Magnetically-Bounded Turbulent Flows2024In: Fluids, E-ISSN 2311-5521, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is a first attempt at bringing together various concepts from research on wall- and magnetically-bounded turbulent flows. Brief reviews of both fields are provided: The main similarities identified are coherent (turbulent) structures, flow generation, and transport barriers. Examples are provided and discussed.

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  • Odhnoff, Carl
    et al.
    Göteborgs stad, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rasmus
    Göteborgs stad, Sweden.
    Preuter, Marit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Larsson, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Kostnad och nytta av föräldraskapsstödet ABC - Slutrapportering av uppdrag i Göteborgs Stads budget 20222024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Göteborgs Stads budget 2022 fick de fyra socialnämnderna i uppdrag att ta fram en modell för att göra samhällsekonomiska analyser av insatser mot rekrytering av unga till kriminella gäng. Vi fyra socialförvaltningar inledde därför ett samarbete med RISE och påbörjade en pilotstudie där vi kunde utveckla en sådan modell och pröva den i ett avgränsat sammanhang. Vi riktade in studien på det generella föräldraskapsstödsprogrammet Alla barn i centrum (ABC). Socialförvaltningarna och RISE tog tillsammans fram en teoretisk modell där vi med hjälp av tidigare forskning kopplade föräldrars deltagande i ABC till minskat utagerande beteende hos deras barn. Utagerande beteende kan medföra kostnader för skolan genom stödinsatser. Det är också en riskfaktor för kriminalitet, och gick därmed att koppla till insatser från socialtjänsten. På så sätt kunde vi jämföra de kostnader staden har för ABC med uppskattade framtida minskningar i kostnader för skolinsatser och socialtjänstinsatser. På grund av att det var få tjejer som fått insatser för kriminalitet var vi tvungna att avgränsa modellen till att endast inkludera pojkar. Dataunderlaget för tjejer var för litet för att det skulle bli säkert att räkna på. Det skulle dock vara möjligt att inkludera tjejerna i modellen med ett större dataunderlag i framtiden. Våra analyser med hjälp av modellen har visat att det sannolikt är ekonomiskt lönsamt för staden att tillhandahålla ABC för pojkar. Den uppskattade nyttan, i form av minskade kostnader för stödinsatser i skola och socialtjänstinsatser mot kriminalitet för pojkar under åldern 13–20 år, var ungefär dubbelt så stor som kostnaden för att tillhandahålla ABC till föräldrarna någon gång när pojkarna var 12 år eller yngre. Varje deltagare kostade staden 7684 kronor men innebar sedan nytta motsvarande 14 003 kronor. Uppdelat per verksamhet så var nyttan per deltagare 10 843 kronor för socialtjänsten och 3160 kronor för skolan.

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  • Jarnerö, Kirsi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Schirén, Whokko
    Linnéuniversity, Sweden.
    Bjälklagsvibrationer – Vad innebär den nya EK5?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Floor vibrations – Implications of the new EC5? This report presents the design methodology principles for the revised section for the control of vibrations in wooden floors, as well as the proposal for dividing timber floors into performance levels and quality selection, as found in Eurocode 5 With the aim of presenting how different floors commonly used in Sweden performs with respect to the new methodology, the results from a limited parameter study are presented. A total of eight different floor types were examined, including floor structures with load-bearing beams made of structural timber, glulam, LVL, and I-joists. The study also looked at rib joists with T-beams made of glulam combined with an LVL board, as well as floor structures with a load bearing CLT board. The following parameters were varied to study effect on the stiffness of the structures: • the centre distance between beams • the web height of the beam cross-section for rib-floor slabs, • thickness of load bearing CLT board. The maximum span for each floor structure was decided by finding the maximum span for each floor structure which meets the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state conditions, both with respect to deformations and vibrations for residential and office buildings set by the new EC5. The stiffness of each floor was then increased to study the effect of stiffness on the performance levels. Response factors were calculated for each case. Note! Direct comparison of the floor structures is not possible since the calculations are based on different span widths for each floor type. Since the calculations are based on each floor type’s unique conditions, it is not possible to compare the floor structures directly. Instead, comparisons must be made based on how a variation in stiffness affects the performance level of each individual floor type. The parameter study shows that for the light floor structures with discrete beams, spacing the beams closer changes the response factor slightly but it typically stays within the values for performance level V, i.e. between 24 and 36. For the other floor structures, rib floor and CLT, increasing the stiffness resulted in a larger change in performance and some floors changed floor performance level. The performance levels and quality choices introduced in the new methodology for checking vibrations in timber floors, makes it easier and clearer for clients and builders to achieve a consensus on what vibration comfort to expect in the finished building. This is an opportunity to reduce the risk of complaints and avoid having to take action to correct a perceived lack of quality. The current advice in the national annex for the Eurocode EKS12 specifies that the deflection for a 1 kN point load is limited to 1.5 mm, which corresponds to the upper deflection limit for performance level V. Performance level V is the worst performance level allowed for the quality choice ‘Economy’ for offices and homes in multi-family buildings. This means that the proposal on quality choice does not provide any tightening compared to the Swedish requirement in EKS12. However, the fact that performance level VI is allowed for dwellings in single-family houses with an upper limit value for deflection of 2.0 mm suggests that the proposal mitigates the requirement contained in EKS12.

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  • Karlsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Lundén, Paola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    AGILE EDUCATION IMAGINEDA - report from Cybercampus Sweden – Workshop on Agile Education2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybercampus Sweden is a national initiative to provide education, research, innovation and advice in cybersecurity and cyber-defense. This brochure addresses needs for cybersecurity training and education: There is a manifest imbalance between the cybersecurity workforce required in Sweden and the number of skilled graduates being produced by Swedish universities. There is also a gap between the needed cybersecurity skillset and the contents of existing education programs. For these reasons, Cybercampus Sweden aims at building capacity for work force training and to facilitate new cross-university cybersecurity programs, taking advantage of the specific teaching and research expertise from different universities. These comprise bachelor-level programs that provide a strong base with deep technical knowledge, and master-level and continuous education programs that train the cybersecurity workforce needed in Swedish organizations through applied and advanced courses with direct contact to ongoing research.

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  • Elman, Kim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Cyberhot mot Sverige - Rapporten ger en kunskapsöversikt om cyberhot mot Sverige och ger ett antal förslag på säkerhetsåtgärder.: SAMMANFATTNING TILL LEDARE OCH BESLUTSFATTARE2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Parallellt med den tilltagande digitaliseringen av samhället ökar antalet cyberangrepp, globalt och i Sverige. Kombinationen av relativt låg risk och potentiellt hög utdelning, i form av såväl effekt som ekonomisk vinning, gör det till ett effektivt verktyg för hotaktörer att gynna sina intressen. Cyberangrepp med ekonomiska motiv kan orsaka stor skada men det största hotet bedöms för närvarande komma från stater, särskilt i det rådande försämrade säkerhetsläget. Effekterna av statligt understödda angrepp kan få allvarliga konsekvenser på samhället, där utvecklingen av cybersäkerhet för närvarande inte håller jämna steg med digitaliseringstakten. Utöver faktiska störningar i exempelvis samhällsbärande infrastruktur kan cyberangrepp även orsaka negativa effekter på medborgarnas tilltro till samhällets institutioner. Robusta system och resiliens mot antagonistiska cyber- och påverkansoperationer är därför av största vikt. Denna rapport syftar till att skapa en kunskapsöversikt för ledare och beslutsfattare om cyberhot mot Sverige och ger ett antal förslag på säkerhetsåtgärder. Proaktiva åtgärder kan minska risken för att utsättas för angrepp och möjliggöra tidig upptäckt, och en god förmåga att verkställa reaktiva åtgärder kan dämpa dess effekter.

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  • Martín-Chivelet, Nuria
    et al.
    CIEMAT, Spain.
    García García, Lucas
    IES-UPM, Spain.
    Caamaño Martín, Estefanía
    IES-UPM, Spain.
    Analysis of the Technological Innovation System for BIPV in Spain 20222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the Technological Innovation System (TIS) of the Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) technology in Spain as it was in March 2022; the analysis aims to facilitate and support the implementation of BIPV and the innovation and industrial BIPV solutions development. It starts by identifying the actors, networks, and institutions to perform the structural analysis. Then, the functional analysis includes a review of the BIPV-related publications, projects, and patents. Interviews with relevant experts in the field and tailored surveys addressing each stakeholder group have completed the experimental basis for the eight defined TIS functions assessment. Results show that BIPV knowledge development in Spain has sufficient quality, although it is mainly limited to the scientific and academic fields; the innovation system needs further technological and market knowledge, more in BIPV roofing than in BIPV façade solutions. Also knowledge dissemination is weak, especially between the photovoltaic and the construction sectors. Entrepreneurial experimentation, also identified in the construction sector, is slowly increasing, and more companies’ competency is needed. When it comes to resources, there are funds for PV research, development, and innovation projects, but aids are not specific to BIPV. Besides, there is a lack of BIPV-qualified technicians; BIPV is directly competing with building added photovoltaics (BAPV), usually with lesser costs and faster growth due to the PV selfconsumption’s success. About the development of social capital, smooth communication and trust are essentially limited to just the known agents, so some initiatives are necessary to improve this market driver. Concerning legitimation, there is good acceptance and perception of BIPV from architects and general society; however, two main barriers increase the customers’ resistance to including BIPV: costs and lack of related regulations. Two major difficulties are that BIPV is not explicitly in the Technical Building Code, and there are no specific financial incentives or subsidies for BIPV. The BIPV market in Spain is still a niche market, slowly growing and with good future perception. The search guidance is not clear but starts from a general framework that, despite all, could be favourable to BIPV development; BIPV can benefit from the support addressed to PV self-consumption and buildings’ energy retrofit projects. To further develop BIPV towards a commercial market, it is recommended to include BIPV in building codes and get in place BIPV-specific incentives. Other suggestions to boost BIPV in Spain are at the end of the report. The annexes contain lists of BIPV projects, patents, publications, and relevant stakeholders.

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  • van Noord, Michiel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    Vroon, T
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Guide for Technological Innovation System Analysis for Building-Integrated Photovoltaics 20232023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Guide for Technological Innovation System (TIS) Analysis for Building-Integrated Photovoltaics offers hands-on support on theory and methods for those who want to analyse the innovation system for BIPV in their country. It describes the general process steps to perform a TIS analysis and the specific choices and methods used by Subtask A of IEA PVPS Task 15. In this way it allows for future TIS-analyses to be made in a comparable way to the national studies published by Task 15, either by covering new countries or by timely updates of the TIS in the same countries. Apart from being a guidebook for the analyser, this document can also be used as a template for a final TIS-analysis report – using the same (sub-)chapters, tables, and graphs. The initial definition of the common scope of the TIS studied consists of Building Integrated PV modules and systems as well as PV modules and systems for aesthetical integration. Where relevant, national studies can adjust or deepen the scope by separately analysing different market segments or by excluding certain sub-technologies or application types. The latter can be relevant for example due to cultural or historical reasons. Starting from the scope defined, this guide describes how to analyse and describe the structure of the TIS, through its actors, networks, and institutions (regulations, cultural norms, etc.). Based on that structure and the market situation, an assessment is to be made of the market development phase for BIPV in general or for different application types. Next, a development target should be defined so that the current TIS can be evaluated in relation to that target. The main part of the TIS-analysis is performed after defining the target, by analysing the performance of eight functions of the TIS: Knowledge development, Knowledge dissemination, Entrepreneurial experimentation, Resource mobilization, Development of social capital, Legitimation, Guidance of the search, and Market formation. The meaning of each function is explained and key indicators, as well as assessment questions, are listed. These indicators and questions assist the reader in her/his assessment of whether the function is sufficiently fulfilled for the TIS to achieve the set target. For those functions that are not fulfilling the target requirements, guidance is given on how to identify systemic problems that either relate to actors, institutions (hard and soft), interaction between actors, or to infrastructural deficits. Finally, the guide describes the need of, and some advice on how to arrive at recommendations for a possible overcoming of problems and weaknesses in order to reach the set target. Recommendations should address both industry actors and policy makers.

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  • Bergentall, Martina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Solid-state fermentation of side streams from Saccharina latissima2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation of brown macroalgae, such as Laminaria ssp. and Saccharina latissima, has increased extensively during the last decades; according to a report by Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations1 , the cultivation of brown seaweeds exceeded 16 M tons worldwide as per 2019. At the Swedish West coast, the most cultivated brown alga is S. latissima – Sugar kelp – and it is mainly produced for food purposes. The S. latissima body consists of a blade, a stipe and a holdfast. The holdfast and stipe are stiff and tough and not useful for food in its raw state; instead, they become a side stream in the production. Fermentation of the stipes and holdfasts could be a way of improving their food properties, but the traditionally used and food-safe microorganisms employed for fermentation of soybeans, cereals, and other plant-based substrates are adapted to grow on plant carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. This could be an obstacle when attempting to use algae as a substrate, since they are mainly constituted of other carbohydrates, such as alginate, laminarin, fucoidan and mannitol. For fungi to grow on algal biomass there should be a need for enzymes that can degrade the algal carbohydrates to release sugar units to be taken up by the fungal cells, but we did not find any reports on known food-safe fungi specialized on algae. Therefore, we wanted to test different pre-treatments, with the aim to make the algal carbohydrates accessible for established and safe fungi, traditionally used for fermentation of plant material, so that they would be able to ferment the algal biomass. Our project aimed at assessing the feasibility of using side streams (stipes and holdfasts) from S. latissima as a substrate for solid-state fermentation and to make initial total protein analyses of the product. The goal was to present a proof-of-concept – a model product – for future studies of e.g. amino acid composition, nutritional value, bioavailability, sensorics and environmental impact. The long-term impact target was to enable sustainable and profitable valorization of a presently unused side stream.

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  • Snersrud, Dag Olav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Østnor, Asbjørn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Feiing av ildsteder2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweeping of fireplaces The aim of the study is to obtain a data and knowledge base to provide an overview of how sweeping of fireplaces should be regulated, as well as mapping how chimney and fire place sweeping is regulated in other European countries, above all the Nordic and Baltic countries. Furthermore, it is desirable to look at existing research and investigate to which extent sweeping of fireplace will have a fire preventive effect. A literature review was carried out, searching for existing research that could be used to determine what should be viewed as best practice. In the literature review it became clear that sweeping of fireplaces is a topic with limited attention, and the literature was therefore insufficient, and no conclusion could be drawn based on this. Through contact with professional networks, a project carried out by the local sweeping service in Trondheim was found, which shed light on how sweeping of fireplaces affects the energy efficiency of a stove. If soot builds up on the inside of the fireplace, this will insulate the fireplace which in turn yields a lower energy output to the room. Another possible result of the insulating property of the soot is that the combustion takes place at a higher temperature, which makes the combustion cleaner and more complete, which in turn reduces the number of combustible particles in the smoke ducts. Without further testing, it is difficult to say whether the sum of these effects is positive or negative for the overall fire safety of the system. Through contact with professional personnel experience-based issues have been discussed from a fire technical point of view. This involves issues such as: - Incorrect handling of the fire place and user habits - Sweeping and energy efficiency A literature review has been carried out on combustion products produced under different combustion conditions. Furthermore, it has been identified that the part of the combustion products that pose the greatest risk of starting chimney fires is the organic carbon particles. These are produced at a low combustion temperature or during low-oxygen combustion. For obtaining optimal combustion from a fire technical perspective, correct handling of the fire place and good user habits are important. Based on the limited existing research, it is difficult to provide a conclusion on whether sweeping of fireplaces will have a fire preventive effect. In order to determine this, it is necessary to perform research focusing on this topic.

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