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  • Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Larsson, David
    Femenias, Paula
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technlogy, Sweden.
    Fahlen, Elsa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Solceller som solavskärmning: Forskning, utveckling och demonstration2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the implementation, results, discussion and conclusions of the project "Solar Shading in an Overall Perspective - From Energy Efficiency to Energy Production and from Product to Architecture". From 2015 to 2018, companies from the solar shading and solar PV industries, together with architects, researchers, contractors and property managers, have explored the area in order to increase interest, knowledge and acceptance for solar shading in various important target groups. A strong focus has been on the combination of solar cells and solar shadings in a product named electricity generating solar shading. Among the results is a literature summary and an experience feedback from eight installations, as well as a database of examples from about 70 solar-shading installations, most of which are built up of solar cells. A development effort in collaboration between solar shading- and solar PV companies has resulted in several new products that were evaluated in the project and now being demonstrated at RISE's office in Borås.

  • Jermer, Jöran
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Staafjord, Tomas
    Länsstyrelsen Västerbotten, Sweden.
    BESTÄNDIGHETSPROVNINGAR AV TRÄMATERIAL MED KOPPLING TILL BJÖRNLANDETS NATIONALPARK2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Durability tests of wood materials related to constructions in Björnlandet National Park

    The aim of the present study, primarily initiated by the Swedish Environmental Agency, is to study the durability of different wood materials related to and used in constructions in Björnlandet National Park in northern Sweden (63°97´N, 18°05´E), completed during 2014 and 2015. Of particular interest is to determine the durability properties in a scientific way of local materials used, such as mountain-grown Norway spruce and locally grown Scots pine and larch. The effect on the performance of charring and superficial wood-tar treatment is also studied.

    The study consists of a laboratory test according to ENV 807, a field trial according to EN 252 and a service trial on-site in the national park, including constructions such as load-bearing piles, ramps, foot-bridges and platforms. Results from the tests according to ENV 807 and EN 252 as well as the initial inspection of the constructions and components of different materials are presented in this report.

    During the initial inspection of the constructions on site, then in use for 1-2 years, no decay was found besides a small initial attack on one single pile of larch.

    The accelerated tests in laboratory and field have provided interesting information on the durability properties of the different materials and the ranking between them from a durability point of view which can be concluded as follows:

    • The local materials show moderate durability with marginal differences between the materials, with the exception of the spruce materials which show lower durability, comparable to the durability of pine sapwood.

    • Heartwood of locally grown pine and larch show basically equal durability properties.

    • Slow-grown wood will not enhance the durability properties.

    • Superficial treatment with wood-tar contributes so far to a somewhat increased durability. However, the primary positive effect is most certainly owing to the smell and appearance of wood treated with wood-tar, which in certain environments contributes to a positive perception. Charring does not add any value from a durability point of view.

    It is important that the results of the laboratory and field tests are interpreted with some care and common sense. The relatively extensive decay achieved with all materials but the preservative-treated wood does not necessarily mean that the constructions will be subject to early decay. With respect to the geographical location of Björnlandet National Park in the inland of northern Sweden, where the decay hazard in general is moderate, the local materials can thus be expected to have a reasonably long service.

    However, results from the tests indicate that efforts to select local materials/use "traditional" treatments most certainly will not result in longer service life than can be achieved with corresponding materials commercially available.

    Finally, it is pointed out that:

    • Avoiding moisture traps by correct design of components and constructions is vital for the service life when "traditional" local materials and treatments are used.

    • Preservative treatment will in general give critical wooden constructions a longer service life. The use of untreated wood involves more uncertainty with expected service life. Regular inspections and maintenance are therefore particularly important for constructions critical to personal safety (e.g. foot bridges, ramps) or infrastructure (e.g. bridges).

    Urgent future objectives to complete are the inspections of the field trial until remaining stakes have been exposed for five years, and to follow up the service trial in Björnlandet National Park with inspections in 4-5 years, i.e. in 2022 or 2023 in order to confirm or reassess the preliminary conclusions.

  • Falk, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Bozic, Katarina
    OBOS AB, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Josefin
    Tengbomgruppen AB, Sweden.
    Pereira, Joao
    Tengbomgruppen AB, Sweden.
    Janerö, Kirsi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hansén, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kartläggning av marknadens flexväggar för det anpassningsbara boendet2017Report (Other academic)
  • Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linneuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Low frequency sound pressure fields in small rooms in wooden buildings with dense and sparse joist floor spacings2015In: Proceedings of the Internoise 2015 conference: 44th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering / [ed] Maling G.,Burroughs C., The Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA , 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as the main construction material is a potential solution to achieve sustainable buildings. Previous research has shown that frequencies below 50 Hz are of significant importance for the perception of impact sound by residents living in multi-story buildings having light weight wooden frameworks. The standards used for impact sound measurements today are developed for diffuse fields above 50 Hz. For instance due to requirements concerning wall reflections, these methods are not applicable for low frequencies within small rooms. To improve measurement methods, it is important to know the nature of the full sound distribution in small rooms having wooden joist floors. Here, impact sound measurements with microphone arrays are made in two small office rooms having the same dimensions. The rooms represent two extremes in design of joist floors; one with closely spaced wood joists and the other with widely spaced joists. An impact ball is used for excitation the room being measured from the room above. The results show that there are significant variations in the sound pressure, especially in the vertical direction. Here, measurement techniques of impact sound in the low frequency range in small rooms in wooden buildings are evaluated and potential improvements are proposed.

  • Cornander, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Nilsson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Mörstam, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Persvik, Mats
    Göteborgs Stads Leasing AB, Sweden.
    Eriksen, Jon
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    The Blue Move for a Green Economy : Behovsstudie och teknikkartläggning av arbetsmaskiner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Blue Move project aims to generate an increased demand for hydrogen as a fuel and investigate the business potential of heavy machinery in the Öresund-Kattegatt- Skagerrak (ÖKS) region, contributing for renewable energy in the transport sector to increase. The use of heavy machinery generates significant carbon dioxide emissions and local air pollution. By using machines with batteries and/or fuel cells instead of combustion engines, local air pollution and climate impact from the machines can be reduced. Electrification also reduces noise and vibration problems, contributing to an improved local and working environment. Customers' requirements are changing and within the near future some clients will only buy zero-emission vehicles. For example, many municipalities have high environmental targets and aim to be climate neutral and fossil fuel-free by 2030. Setting the requirements for public procurement, municipalities and regions become very important players in the process of converting to fossil fuel-free working machines. Electrification is on the rise and the development is fast, which, in addition to the environmental benefits, allows many benefits such as increased service life and a reduced number of components. The cost and character of the service of the vehicles will also change. The choice between electrical operation with batteries or with fuel cells depends on the cost, weight and space requirement for the current energy need. When operating on fuel cells, the heavy machinery can be quickly fueled, and it has an unchanged performance from full to empty tank. The use of fuel cells is also space-saving compared with fullelectric machines since areas for charging or battery change are not required. Today there are both battery and fuel cell - electric heavy machinery available on the market. This report gives an overview of available equipment, but also prototype and demo machines. Both a continued technical development and an increased market share for emission-free vehicles are required to meet future environmental goals. In order to achieve success, it is important that customers and manufacturers meet.

  • Solér, Ola
    et al.
    Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Bye, Åse
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Björn
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Cornander, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Nilsson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Eriksen, Jon
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Gjerlöw, Jan Carsten
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Rambech, Eric Lyche
    Oslo kommune, Norway.
    Kalland, Liv-Elisif
    ZERO, Norway.
    Goldmann, Mattias
    Fores, Sweden.
    Pervik, Mats
    Göteborgs Stads Leasing AB, Sweden.
    Tibbelin, Anna
    Energikontoret Skåne, Sweden.
    Baden, Niels-Arne
    GreenHydrogen, Denmark.
    Rammevilkår og strategier for hydrogen i transportsektoren2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Interreg project Blue Move promotes increased use of renewable energy to replace fossil fuels in the Øresund-Kattagat-Skagerrak (ØKS) region. International, national, regional and local framework conditions, strategies and measures are crucial in making the transport sector emission-free. Such framework conditions and strategies providing examples of what can be done at local and regional level to promote emission-free transport are described including analysis of business models for the use of hydrogen for transport, as well as proposals for strategic roadmap bullet points and a concrete checklist for municipalities that wish to facilitate emission-free transport. The purpose of the report is to help both public and private stakeholders succeed in introducing hydrogen as a fuel. A tight interaction between the public and private sector is seen crucial to secure a successful outcome. Municipalities and counties/regions have important roles as facilitators and first movers including hydrogen vehicles in their own car fleet and for public transport. Through its purchasing power, public authorities can drive development in the right direction by demanding the use of emission-free fuels. At the same time, the private sector has important roles in building and operating infrastructure, as well as adopting hydrogen fuelled passenger cars and utility vehicle.The report describes framework conditions and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport at EU level and down to local level. There is a strong connection between these strategies; To achieve the EU goals, each country must set its own goals. Similar, to reach the national targets, measures must be taken at local and regional level. In Chapter 3, the EU goals and strategies are described. Chapter 4 addresses the national framework conditions and strategies in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. It appears that there are great variations in which instruments are used in the countries to promote emission-free transport. In Chapter 5, a range of insights into regional and local strategies, action plans and measures are provided. In an early phase, sustainable business models might be hard to find without financial support both for private and public stakeholders. In a Blue Move feasability study [BLUE MOVE WP3] the potential of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the ØKS region was illuminated through several case descriptions. In Chapter 6, a brief analysis of the business models described by these cases is provided. Then, a numerical example is presented illustrating the profitability of a small hydrogen station related to a fixed refuelling demand. Next, the possibility of infrastructure development in elucidation of construction machinery and coordinated initiatives in the field of heavy transport are described. At the very end of the chapter, a study of the potential for temporary hydrogen filling stations in Norway and Sweden is summarised. Finally, the report provides some practical advice on how to get more hydrogen on the road. Here, 10 roadmap bullet points at a slightly higher level for what and how to focus are given. Furthermore, a concrete 10-point checklist for municipalities is presented. The municipalities play an important role in transforming their own vehicle fleet and facilitating that private sector and its residents being able to run emissions-free. Our aim is that the report will inspire both public and private sector to plan and implement concrete measures to increase the use of hydrogen for transport and by these means achieve its goals of reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wind effect on internal and external compartment fire exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of buildings regulations regarding the allowable height of mass timber structures in North America have been proposed. The proposed changes are to a significant extent based on real scale fire experiments of compartments that have been performed in laboratories in which the influence of wind is negligible. It has, however, been questioned whether the proposed regulations are relevant for realistic scenarios with external wind loads acting on the building during a compartment fire.

    The study discussed in this report involves a review of previous literature, analysis of available test results and single zone modeling to study potential effects of external wind on the internal and external exposure of fires in compartments with exposed CLT.

  • Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jandali, Mourhaf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

  • Ylmén, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Livscykelstudie av kontor med kombinerad betong- och träkonstruktion2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vasakronan has produced an office building were seven of the floors are mainly made in concrete and two floors are mainly made of wooden materials.  As Vasakronan had little previous experience with wooden construction works they were interested in comparing the different production methods from an environmental and economic perspective.

    The main purpose of the project was to analyze the long-term environmental impact of different building methods with alternative design and production as well as material choice and on-site systems. A secondary purpose was to assess the economic consequences of different construction solutions. The goals were to:

    • provide advice and suggestions on how different material choice, construction solutions and assembly methods can be used from their environmental and economic properties.
    • find environmental hot-spots in the building process.
    • contribute with knowledge and experience to develop methods regarding life cycle assessment (LCA) and calculation of life cycle cost (LCC) for building projects. 
    • compare differences between constructions in concrete and wood.

    An LCA was carried out on the whole building and LCA and LCC calculation were conducted to compare the environmental impact and cost of concrete and wooden constructions.  The results include global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, stratospheric ozone depletion potential, photooxidants creation potential and present costs. The data were collected by the contractors during production to ensure that the results are based on the finished building and not assumptions made during the design stage.

    The report shows the difficulties that arise during life cycle studies of buildings but also provides guidance how to solve them in this particular case, which can be used as a base for continued development of methods.

  • Carlson, Eva-Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zakirov, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Utrymning uppåt i lutande tunnel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It’s getting more and more common to

    build infrastructures underground, which results in more people using underground facilities in their everyday life. The evacuation routes from this environment often involve long, ascending tunnels. In order to evaluate the evacuation time for these facilities, knowledge about people’s movement in this kind of environment is required. Today the knowledge within this area is limited, why new research within this field is needed.

    The current study included two essential parts; 1) initial literature review where the state of the art within the current research field was mapped and 2) an experiment. The purpose of the experiment was to study people

    ’s walking speed and behaviour during ascending evacuation in inclined tunnels. The aim of the study was to develop data that can be used as basis for guidelines regarding fire safety design in major infrastructure projects and risk and safety assessment of underground facilities.

    The experiment was carried out at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in March 2018. In total 32 persons participated and they were asked to individually walk upwards 907 m in a tunnel with an inclination of 14 %. When walking in the tunnel, the participants

    ’ walking speed, vertical walking speed, pulse and rating of perceived exertion were documented. In addition to the individual tests in the tunnel, the experiment included reference tests and a survey.

    When comparing the walking speeds collected in the current experiment with the walking speeds from previous experiments where people were asked to walk upwards long stairs, it can be seen that the walking speeds in the current experiment are higher. When comparing the vertical walking speeds, the result is reversed. A possible explanation for this is that climbing the stairs requires a larger vertical movement compared to moving in the tunnel where the movement is more horizontal.

    In the current experiment, 59 % of the participants used an identifiable strategy when moving upwards in the tunnel. The strategies have been categorized as follows:

    1) Adjust the walking speed to a pace the participant believe he/she can keep for a longer distance.

    2) Focus on breathing.

    3) Keep a lower walking speed in the beginning.

    4) Concentrate on the surroundings to avoid thinking about how tired he/she is.

    5) Focus on the goal.

    In general, when walking up the tunnel the walking speed was more or less the same during the whole climb, but the participants experienced a considerable increased perceived exertion. This can be the result of Strategy 1 presented above.

    The results of the current experiment show a tendency for walking speed to decrease with increased fatigue. A comparison between the rating of perceived exertion and the normalized walking speed indicates that the walking speed and fatigue stabilized during the movement in the tunnel.

  • Petersson, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pyrolysoljeproduktion i BOBIC:s värdekedja: en inledande förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förhoppningar finns om att processer, som omvandlar skogsbaserade restprodukter från den skogliga värdekedjan till flytande drivmedel, ska kunna utgöra ett betydande bidrag till omställningen från fossilt till förnybart. Bland dessa processer finns produktion av biobaserad pyrolysolja som en potentiell kommersialiseringsmöjlighet. Detta projekt syftar till att utvärdera kommersialiseringsmöjligheten för pyrolysoljeproduktion inom BOBIC:s skogliga värdekedja, som återfinns i Norrbottens län, samt de fyra nordligaste kommunerna i Västerbottens län. Slutsatserna från projektet kan sammanfattas i 5 huvudsakliga punkter. - Pyrolysoljeproduktion i vår förstudie bygger på att som råvara nyttja olika typer av sidoströmmar; sågspån från sågverken, sållspån från bruken samt grot1.o Tillgången på råvara i regionen, i form av sågspån, begränsas till stor del av den stora pelletsproduktionen vid kusten. Ändras marknaden för pellets och det sker produktionsneddragningar, kan stora mängder sågspån göras tillgänglig.o För att ha tillräckligt mycket råvara för en pyrolysoljeanläggning måste sågspånet idag kompletteras med grot, antingen som råvara direkt i pyrolysanläggningen eller för att byta ut kvarvarande sågspån som eldas på sågverken med annat bränsle, så att sågspånet kan bli råvara för pyrolysolja. Det finns för närvarande inget uttag av grot i regionen, utan den marknaden måste byggas upp igen efter en tid av obefintligt uttag för att en pyrolysoljeanläggning skall vara möjlig.- Integration med antingen ett kraftvärmeverk eller ett massabruk är nödvändig för att den ekonomiska kalkylen för pyrolysoljeproduktion skall gå ihop. Detta sänker såväl driftkostnaden som kapitalkostnaden.- Med dagens förutsättningar kan pyrolysolja produceras till en kostnad på mellan 560 kr/MWh och 949 kr/MWh. Den stora skillnaden i produktionskostnaden ligger framför allt i bidrag till investering, råvarupriser och pyrolysoljeutbyte. Dessa siffror har en uppskattad osäkerhetsfaktor på ca 25%.- De stora industrierna som idag använder sig av eldningsolja, slipper i många fall betala energi- och koldioxidskatt på den, eftersom de jobbar med en kemisk process. Om detta ändras kommer pyrolysolja kunna vara mer konkurrenskraftig mot fossila alternativ på marknaden för eldningsoljor.- Vid försäljning av pyrolysoljan till raffinaderier, för uppgradering till biodrivmedel, kommer oljan få ett högre marknadsvärde på omkring 5000 – 6000 kr/ton. Dock ställer raffinaderierna större krav på produkten än om den skulle användas som eldningsolja. Den ska vara i princip helt askfri, samt ha en syrehalt på maximalt ~15 %.

  • Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests on maximum ceiling gas temperature for structural protection2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale tests with varying materials as tunnel structure were carried out to further study the theoretical model of maximum gas temperature for structural protection. New correlation for calculation of air mass flow rate is introduced. Test results showed that the maximum ceiling gas temperatures increases with the increasing heat release rate and decreases with the increasing tunnel width and thermal inertia of the tunnel linings. Higher ventilation velocity may also result in slightly higher temperatures for large fires.

    Comparisons of model scale tests and theoretical models showed that the theoretical models predict the maximum ceiling gas temperature very well. A fire with a fixed heat release rate or a time-varying heat release rate, the effects of tunnel structure, tunnel ventilation, tunnel width and fire size have been well considered by the model. Comparisons of other model and full scale tests with theoretical models further verified this.

  • Lindahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wahlund, Lotten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Drivning av köttdjur till klövverkning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to contribute to more extensive knowledge and understanding of the specific risks related to beef cattle handling when moving cattle to hoof trimming. Results obtained can be used to identify measures to increase safety and decrease injuries when handling beef cattle in potentially stressful situations.

    The moving of cattle to hoof trimming were studied on eight Swedish farms with beef production. Behavioural observations of handlers and animals were conducted, and the data was used to identify the type of interactions used to move the animals, the behaviour of the animals, interruptions in animal flow and any potential injury risks to handlers or animals. The animal handling to hoof trimming were studied from three perspectives: the handler, the animals and the handling facilities. The design of the handling facilities was reviewed on e.g. adequacy and safety using a checklist. Interviews were conducted with the farmers and included questions about perceived risks when moving the animals to hoof trimming, factors that impact risks and safety, how the handling facility functioned and possible improvements to ease handling or decrease risks.

    The farms had similar handling system designs during hoof trimming, with the trimming chute placed in a feed alley in the free-stall and waiting pen and transfer alley built of gates. No system was optimally designed based on basic principles of cattle behaviour, e.g. that cattle want to follow each other and go with the herd, that they want to return the way they came and want to see the person who handles them. Shortcomings in the handling systems, observed on several farms, where that transfer alleys and gates were not properly secured, inadequate width of single-filed transfer alleys and that the width of the alleys was not fixed (thus eventually became too wide), and lack of well-functioning solutions to prevent animals from backing out of the single-filed alley. A common problem was also slippery floors, causing animals to frequently slip and even fall during handling.

    The results show that the moving of beef cattle to hoof trimming can involve significant risks of the handler being run over, crushed or kicked. The magnitude of the injury risk associated with the handling depends on the behaviour of the handler and animals as well as the design of the handling system. Calm handling, avoiding putting stress on the animals, is fundamental. By designing the handling facility based on basic principles of cattle behaviour, interruptions in animal flow can be reduced and ease of handling can thereby be promoted. Several of the hazards observed on the farms were possible to prevent with limited efforts, for example by properly securing gates and transfer alleys and reducing the risk of slipping by keeping the floors clean from manure and cover the concrete floors with bedding material (e.g. wood shavings or straw). Many hazardous situations occurred when the animals were moved from the waiting pen to the transfer alley, and solutions to improve the facility design are needed to increase safety. Furthermore, there is a need to increase the farmers’ knowledge on how to attain a safe handling during hoof trimming.

  • Lind, Ann-Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Moocall – en sensor med koll på kalvningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It may be a challenge for beef and dairy farmers to predict when a cow is close to calving, to move her to a calving pen in time and to properly monitor and assist the calving. The objective was to evaluate how a calving alert system, attached to the tail, affects the cow. The system monitors the tail’s movements, and the farmer is notified via a text message approximately one hour before calving. 

    A case-control and an interview study with farmers were carried out. In the case-control study, cow behaviour was observed during and after the procedure attaching the calving alert system on the tail. Controls were equally prepared, but the sensor was first attached and immediately removed again. The ethogram protocol contained for example back arching, tail lifting, fidgeting and kicking. 

    The case-control study had to be discontinued due to sensors causing damage on the tail. Results from the interview study shows that 80% of the interviewed farmers stated that the cows behaviour reaction was negative when the sensor was attached to the tail and that it lasted up to one hour. Almost all farmers had observed damages on the tails after using the sensor and 20% had observed such severe damage that amputation was necessary. 

    The studied sensor functioned well technically according to the interviews, but the observed tail damage indicates that the cows experienced discomfort by the sensor and that using the sensor is associated with welfare problems for the cows.

  • Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

  • Larsson, Emanuel
    Hamburg University of Technology,Germany.
    De Carlo, Francesco (Contributor)
    Lilleodden, Erica (Contributor)
    Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073, Germany.
    Storm, Malte (Contributor)
    Wilde, Fabian (Contributor)
    Kaixiong, Hu (Contributor)
    Müller, Martin (Contributor)
    Greving, Imke (Contributor)
    Nanoporous gold: a hierarchical and multiscale 3D test pattern for characterizing X-ray nano-tomography systems2019In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) is a well established technique, available at various synchrotron beamlines around the world as well as by laboratory benchtop devices. One of the major TXM challenges, due to its nanometre-scale resolution, is the overall instrument stability during the acquisition of the series of tomographic projections. The ability to correct for vertical and horizontal distortions of each projection image during acquisition is necessary in order to achieve the effective 3D spatial resolution. The effectiveness of such an image alignment is also heavily influenced by the absorption properties and strong contrast of specific features in the scanned sample. Here it is shown that nanoporous gold (NPG) can be used as an ideal 3D test pattern for evaluating and optimizing the performance of a TXM instrument for hard X-rays at a synchrotron beamline. Unique features of NPG, such as hierarchical structures at multiple length scales and high absorbing capabilities, makes it an ideal choice for characterization, which involves a combination of a rapid-alignment algorithm applied on the acquired projections followed by the extraction of a set of both 2D- and 3D-descriptive image parameters. This protocol can be used for comparing the efficiency of TXM instruments at different synchrotron beamlines in the world or benchtop devices, based on a reference library of scanned NPG samples, containing information about the estimated horizontal and vertical alignment values, 2D qualitative parameters and quantitative 3D parameters. The possibility to tailor the ligament sizes of NPG to match the achievable resolution in combination with the high electron density of gold makes NPG an ideal 3D test pattern for evaluating the status and performance of a given synchrotron-based or benchtop-based TXM setup.

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