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  • 1.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Anders Ole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sanfeliu Melia, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Erfaringer med mobile vanntåkeanlegg installert i boliger2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences regarding personal protection water mist systems installed in dwellings. Personal protection water mist systems can produce a water mist that can cool down and limit a fire in a small area in a dwelling. The system is equipped with sensitive detectors which can activate the system in the early stages of the fire and limit the fire spread, and in some cases extinguish the fire. This gives more time for evacuation, which can be especially important for vulnerable people with risk factors, like impaired cognitive and physical functioning. The goal of this study has been to map the experiences in Norway regarding personal protection water mist systems, considering how the municipalities have experienced the work related to the systems and whether the systems have activated and saved lives. This will shed light upon whether mobile water mist systems are appropriate measures for vulnerable people in the society, and the risk factors that determine whether the measure is appropriate or not. This study has used literature studies, questionnaires, and interviews to map the experiences of personal protection water mist systems in Norway. The results showed that personal protection water mist systems installed in Norwegian dwellings have been activated in connection with fire outbreaks, and thus limited or extinguished the fire. This has saved lives on several occasions and reduced the damage potential. There are many people who have risk factors that make it appropriate to install a mobile water mist system in their home, but there are also exceptions. The risk factors that indicate that it is beneficial to install mobile water mist systems in Norwegian dwellings are - Impaired cognitive abilities - Impaired physical abilities - Drug and alcohol problems - Smoking - Living alone The systems are particularly suitable when several of the risk factors are present at the same time. It was also shown that personal protection water mist systems are not suitable for mobile people who spend time in several places in the home and are therefore often outside the system's coverage area. Personal protection water mist systems are not recommended for people who may have the potential to sabotage the system. In questionnaires and interviews, it emerged that there are big differences between how Norwegian municipalities work with assigning, installing, operating, and maintaining personal protection water mist systems. In larger municipalities, there are more people who rely on routines and formal processes for the work, and there is therefore a greater proportion of the larger municipalities who distribute the facilities out to individuals than in the small municipalities where the work is more characterised by informal routines and personal relations. 3 Based on the results from this study, it is our opinion that the following aspects should be covered by future work: • Need for a new and updated cost-benefit analysis for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a better statistical basis for assessment of the personal protection water mist systems. • Need for a Norwegian test standard for personal protection water mist systems. • Need for clear guidelines for assignment, procurement, installing, operation, and maintenance of personal protection water mist systems.

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  • 2.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Rønning, Birger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sikkerhetsbehov for kullgriller i restauranter2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The RISE report 2019:04 «Charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants – Fire safety and documentation requirements» [1] investigated regulations and documental demands tied to charcoal and wood burning ovens in restaurants in Norway. A part of the conclusion in this report emphasized the need for, through physical testing, mapping whether existing test standards covers the safety requirements of charcoal ovens in restaurants. NS-EN 13240:2001 «Roomheaters fired with solid fuel. Requirements and test methods» [2] was chosen as a relevant test standard. Three test ovens (a closed test oven, a dummy oven and an open test oven) was produced at RISE Fire Research. Their construction with regard to insulation capabilities, materials and dimensions was based on existing charcoal ovens placed on the Norwegian marked. This was done to achieve an objective depiction of the issue, without the need for a specific brand of ovens. Restaurant oven charcoal was utilized to achieve as real heat development as possible in the test ovens. The test layout is based on NS-EN 12340:2001, with a test rigg constructed of two «safety walls», ceiling and floor attached with thermocouples. Temperatures from the test oven are registered in the safety walls at several positions according to a standardised grid, and in the ceiling and the floor each have one single measurement position measuring warmest point. Thermocouples in the chimney and exhaust duct measured the flue gas temperatures transported to the exhaust system. Four different tests were conducted, where the first one was a standardized safety test including the closed oven model. The second test was the same safety test setup with the dummy oven besides the closed oven. The dummy contained a built-in propane burner to simulate the heat load from a real oven. The purpose was to simulate two ovens placed next to each other. The third test was an overload test on the closed test oven with 150 % fuel load and higher refuelling frequency. The last test was a test of the open test oven. The safety test method described in NS-EN 13240:2001 is suitable to test the level of stable maximal temperature in the surrounding combustible materials, in the same way as for roomheaters, which the method is designed for. The method addresses safety aspects such as surface temperatures and handles on the oven. Tests show that the temperatures developed in the ovens have the potential to breech the temperature criterion given by the test standard, and therefore contribute to the ignition of surrounding combustible materials. Such situations pose a fire risk and safety measures regarding this aspect must be documented by the producer. NS-EN13240:2001 does not cover temperatures for exhaust duct and the production of sparks and their possible spread to combustible materials. These are important safety aspects which must be addressed when documenting the fire safety of restaurant grills. Tests show that sparks are created in the oven, including from restaurant charcoal fuel, and are transported into the exhaust duct, and out through the opening of the grill door. Together with high flue gas temperatures in the exhaust duct and deposits of soot and cooking oil this pose a fire risk. Documentation must therefore be presented, showing that the oven is equipped with measures (for instance spark screen) which guards the exhaust duct from sparks to a satisfactory degree. Operators of the oven must receive adequate training and must operate the closed oven with caution, as to avoid incidents with sparks being released though the door. The placement of ovens next to each other does not seem to increase the heat load on surrounding walls but may lead to increased temperatures in between the ovens. The consequences of temperature increases must be documented. Tests show that overloading with fuel and intensifying the refuelling intervals can lead to increased temperatures in the oven, which can affect materials and welding seams. Overloading can also affect the temperatures towards surrounding walls and exhaust ducts and therefore may affect fire safety negatively. NS-EN 13240:2001 requires the producer to documents how the oven is constructed and of what materials, and that the welding seams are dimensioned for the materials used. It is recommended that the producer documents the safety level of the oven materials with an overload test. It must also be documented that the exhaust ducts in which the flue gas are transported are constructed to handle the potential temperatures that can arise, including erroneous use.

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  • 3.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Potential profits from ancillary service markets2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable from the SeCoHeat project, profits that can be made with 1 MWh of electricity production capacity on existing ancillary service markets are evaluated in 2020 and 2021. Profits are evaluated for four different marginal production costs corresponding to the following fuels for a CHP power plant: waste (assumed fuel price: 0 kr/MWh), recycled wood (10 kr/MWh), wood chips (20 kr/MWh) and wood pellets (30 kr/MWh). The results show that except for wood chips and wood pellets in 2020, the most profitable ancillary service markets are FFR (fast-frequency response) and aFRR down (automatic frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reasons are that (1) producers don’t have to withhold capacity from the day-ahead market when their participate in these two markets and (2) producers get compensated for the capacity reserved for the ancillary service markets. For wood chips, the FFR market was the most profitable in 2020, followed by the mFRR down market (manual frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reason for the mFRR down market to be more profitable than the aFRR down market for this fuel is that the profits from mFRR down depend on the avoided fuel costs, which are higher for wood chips than for waste and recycled wood. In 2021, all prices started increasing significantly, which decreased the relative profitability of the mFRR down compared to other markets. For wood pellets, the mFRR down market was also the second most profitable market in 2020, for the same reasons. The most profitable one in 2020 was the mFRR up market (manual frequency restoration reserves for up-regulation). The reason is that the higher fuel price of these two fuels entails low participation in the day-ahead market. Therefore, withholding capacity from the day-ahead market to be able to participate on the mFRR up market brings additional profits. In 2021, however, day-ahead prices started increasing significantly (a trend that continued into 2022) and the mFRR up market became the least profitable market for these two fuels. The profit evaluation performed in this deliverable is purely economic. It does not include the sector coupling to the heat sector (which entails limitation of the available electricity production capacity but also a possibility to store heat if storage is available) nor does it include other technical limitations such as ramp rates. These aspects will be considered in follow-up work in this project. This report has been compiled within the scope of the project SeCoHeat - Sector coupling of district heating with the electricity system: profitability and operation. The project is financed by the Research and Development Foundation of Göteborg Energi.

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  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Edman, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wallman, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Berglund, Maria
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Laurentz, Martin
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Susanne
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Description of the Agrosfär model – a tool for climate impact assessment of crop and animal production systems in Sweden: Version 1: Crops, milk and beef2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector in Sweden needs to cut GHG emissions and contribute to the climate goal of net-zero emissions by 2045. The GHG reduction goal for agricultural emissions is not quantified, but the Swedish climate policy framework states that ‘the Swedish food production shall increase as much as possible with as little climate impact as possible’ and multiple key actors within the sector of food and agriculture have developed roadmaps or industry specific goals for reducing GHG emissions from the sector. Consequently, requirements of transparent GHG accounting and reporting are increasing within the agricultural sector, both at national and international level. The purpose of the Agrosfär tool is to establish an automatic data driven climate calculator used to calculate GHG emissions from agricultural products and on farm enterprise level. The automation and automatic data collection will save time, increase accuracy of the calculations, and simplify updates of the tool to keep it aligned with the most recent climate data and climate reporting methodology. It will make it possible to continuously carry out follow-ups on climate performance indicators and measure improvements from climate measures taken. A working group consisting of Swedish agricultural life cycle assessment experts have developed the framework of the tool, e.g. setting system boundaries, selecting methodologies and input data. A technical team has developed algorithms, a digital interface and coupled the tool to other existing agricultural databases providing farm specific information on crop and animal production data, soil characteristics, carbon footprints and amounts of purchased inputs etc. The tool and user interface have been developed based on input from farmers through prototyping and in-depth interviews. For general guidelines on methodology the calculation model follows the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR), the International Dairy Federation (IDF)’s approach for carbon footprint for the dairy sector and FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance guidelines (FAO LEAP). Where standards have diverged or where assumptions have been required the working group has made expert judgements on which method/guideline to follow or what assumptions to make. A first version of the tool, a so called minimal viable product (MVP) has been developed which will be the basis for further development. The MVP contains an animal and crop module and can calculate the carbon footprint of crops, milk and beef. Future development possibilities of the tool and calculation model is described in chapter 7, such as enabling climate calculations on enterprise level, develop modules for more animal production types, deepen the integration between the crop and animal modules, expand sources for automatic data collection, develop a carbon sequestration module and other technical and methodological improvements to ensure alignment with important climate reporting standards. The report will be repeatedly updated as the tool develops, and new versions of the tool are released.

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  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Edman, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wallman, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Laurentz, Martin
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Henryson, Kajsa
    Lantmännen, Sweden.
    Berglund, Maria
    Hushållningssällskapet Halland, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Vera
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Susanna
    Agronod, Sweden.
    Description of the Agrosfär model – a tool for the climate impact assessment of farms, crop and animal production systems in Sweden2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector in Sweden needs to cut GHG emissions and contribute to the climate goal of net-zero emissions by 2045. The GHG reduction goal for agricultural emissions is not quantified, but the Swedish climate policy framework states that ‘Swedish food production shall increase as much as possible with as little climate impact as possible’. Multiple key actors within the sector of food and agriculture have developed roadmaps or industry specific goals for reducing GHG emissions from the sector. Consequently, requirements for transparent GHG accounting and reporting are increasing within the agricultural sector, both on a national and international level. The purpose of the Agrosfär tool is to establish an automatic data driven climate calculator used to calculate GHG emissions from agricultural products and on a farm enterprise level. Automation and automatic data collection will save time, increase the accuracy of the calculations, and simplify updates of the tool to keep it aligned with the most recent climate data and climate reporting methodology. It will make it possible to continuously carry out follow-ups on climate performance indicators and measure improvements from climate measures taken. A working group consisting of agricultural life cycle assessment experts has developed the framework of the tool (e.g., setting system boundaries, selecting methodologies and input data). A technical team has developed algorithms, a digital interface and coupled the tool to other existing agricultural databases, providing farm specific information on crop and animal production data, soil characteristics, carbon footprints and amounts of purchased inputs etc. The tool and user interface have been developed based on input from farmers through prototyping and in-depth interviews. The priority guidelines on which the calculation model is based are the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR), the International Dairy Federation (IDF)’s approach for carbon footprint for the dairy sector, and FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance guidelines (FAO LEAP). From the farm perspective, the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) Corporate Standard, GHG Protocol Agricultural Guidance (Scope 1 & 2) and GHG Protocol Corporate value chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard are guiding standards. Where standards have diverged or where assumptions have been required, the working group has made expert judgements on which method/guideline to follow or what assumptions to make. A first version of the tool, first described in report version 1, was developed as the basis for further development. The first version contains an animal and a crop module, and can calculate the carbon footprint of crops, milk and beef. This report (version 1.1) has been updated to include the most recent developments of the tool. The main change is that the tool can now also be used to calculate farm climate impact on a yearly basis. Future possibilities to develop the tool and calculation model are described in chapter 7, including suggestions for developing modules for more animal production types, deepening the integration between the crop and animal modules, expanding sources for automatic data collection, developing a carbon sequestration module, and other technical and methodological improvements to ensure alignment with important climate reporting standards. The report will be repeatedly updated as the tool develops, and new versions of the tool are released.

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  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wirsenius, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Annelie
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Toräng, Per
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Seeman, Anett
    Gård & Djurhälsan, Sweden.
    den Braver, Theo
    Gård & Djurhälsan, Sweden.
    Kvarnbäck, Olle
    Naturvisaren, Sweden.
    Miljöpåverkan av svensk nöt- och lammköttsproduktion2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att beräkna miljöpåverkan från olika svenska uppfödningsmodeller för nöt- och lammkött i produktionsområdena Götalands norra slättbygder, Götalands skogsbygder, Nedre Norrland samt del av Götalands mellanbygd (Gotland). Inom nötköttsproduktion har mjölkrastjur, mjölkrasstut, köttrastjur, köttrasstut och köttraskviga studerats. För lammkött har vårlamm, höstlamm och vinterlamm undersökts. Miljöpåverkanskategorier som ingått i studien är klimatpåverkan, markanvändning, kväveutsläpp samt påverkan på biologisk mångfald.

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  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wirsenius, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Annelie
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Toräng, Per
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Seeman, Anett
    Gård & Djurhälsan, Sweden.
    den Braver, Theo
    Gård & Djurhälsan, Sweden.
    Kvarnbäck, Olle
    Naturvisaren, Sweden.
    Miljöpåverkan av svensk nöt- och lammköttsproduktion - en sammanfattning2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Att räkna med markkol i livscykelanalys av nötkött2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Markanvändning och förändringar i markkol kan ha en stor påverkan på klimatpåverkan från livsmedelsproduktion. En vanlig metod för att beräkna klimatpåverkan av livsmedel är livscykelanalys (LCA). Här räknar man ihop alla utsläpp från produktionskedjan till ett tal.

    Det finns idag dock ingen konsensus kring hur vi bör räkna med markkol i LCA vilket innebär att många studier helt enkelt inte tar med markkol eller gör väldigt olika val vilket försvårar tolkning av resultaten. Det finns också en begreppsförvirring som gör det svårt att kommunicera kring markkol och dess effekter.

    I denna rapport ger vi en bakgrund till problemen, varför det är så svårt att räkna med markkol. Vi gör ett försök att reda ut begreppen, och att ge några råd för hur markkol kan inkluderas i LCA. Rapporten vänder sig till utförare av LCA men även till dig som vill veta mer om markkol i LCA på ett generellt plan och för att kunna tolka resultat.

    I rapporten delar vi upp markkolsförändringar som kan ske på fyra principiellt olika nivåer:1. Ändring mellan olika kategorier av markanvändning, till exempel från skog till jordbruksmark.2. Odling av en mark som inte är i jämvikt, till exempel att bruka en torvmark eller mark som bytt kategori för länge sen men som fortfarande inte kommit i jämnvikt.3. Ändring i marknyttjande, till exempel byte av gröda från ettåriga till fleråriga grödor.4. Att ändra eller införa skötselåtgärder, till exempel tillförsel av organiskt material.

    För att inkludera markkolsförändringar i LCA, behövs tre steg (1) uppskatta ändringen i markkol (2) fördela påverkan över tid och (3) beräkna klimatpåverkan. I rapporten går vi systematiskt igenom dessa tre steg och pekar ut vilka svårigheter som finns.Det är svårt att ge specifika råd kring markkol, då alla val är tätt kopplade till syftet med studien som ska utföras. Vi tycker att det viktigaste är, att LCA-utövaren är medveten om de olika alternativen i varje steg och tydligt beskriver och motiverar sina val, så att det för slutanvändaren av resultaten är tydligt vad som ligger grund för resultaten.

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    RISE Rapport 2020:67
  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Einarsson, Rasmus
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Öhlund, Erika
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Växtnäring till jordbruket i osäkra tider – scenarier och dokumentation från en workshop2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mineralgödsel är en förutsättning för dagens konventionella jordbruk och utan mineralgödsel blir det problematiskt att få fram tillräckligt med foder och livsmedel. Sverige har ingen egen produktion av mineralgödsel och försörjningen är därför helt beroende av import. Denna rapport beskriver hur växtnäring hanteras ur beredskapssynpunkt i Sverige idag, och ger också en liten inblick i hur växtnäring har hanterats i tidigare kriser och pristoppar i andra länder. Rapporten beskriver också tre olika tänkbara krisscenarier där växtnäring behöver hanteras på olika sätt för att säkerställa livsmedelsförsörjningen i Sverige. Tidsperspektivet i scenarierna är relativt kort: ett fokuserar på hur växtnäringsförsörjningen kan lösas under den kommande växtodlingssäsongen medan de andra två scenarierna fokuserar på några år framåt i tiden. Scenarierna diskuterades på en workshop med deltagare från jordbruks- och växtnäringssektorn. I rapporten redovisas diskussionerna från workshopen. Under workshopen lyftes några brister i dagens system och förslag på vilket stöd och långsiktiga förändringar som behövs, för att säkra tillgången på växtnäring i Sverige under en kris: • I vardagen finns det ingen nationell eller regional planering av den svenska primärproduktionen och fördelningen av mineralgödsel eller andra insatsvaror till olika verksamheter, utan allt sköts av marknaden. Det finns därför ingen ansvarig offentlig aktör som har helhetsansvar för området. Vid en allvarlig brist på mineralgödsel kan det behövas någon som kliver in, säkrar leveranser och tar beslut om prioriteringar till olika verksamheter och eventuellt styrning av vem som odlar vad. Det kan även behövas någon som ansvarar för förebyggande arbete. • En trygg och resilient försörjning av växtnäring kommer att kräva en mångfald av lösningar. Dessa kräver i varierande grad samordning mellan marknadsaktörer och myndigheter. Vissa kan också kräva ny lagstiftning. Ett ”Gödselmedelskabinett” med ansvar att ta fram en strategi föreslogs. • Lagstiftning bör justeras alternativt införas för att utöka möjligheterna till miljö- och hälsomässigt säker återvinning av resurser från restflöden. Sådana ändringar skulle kunna förberedas redan nu, så att de snabbt kan träda i kraft i händelse av kris eller krig. • Sverige bör utveckla gemensamma strategier och avtal med andra länder, främst inom Norden, till exempel en nordisk strategi för växtnäringsfrågor.

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  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Återvinning av växtnäringsämnen ur avloppsvatten – hur gör vi hållbarhetsbedömningar på bästa sätt?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna producera tillräckligt med mat på ett hållbart sätt behöver vi hushålla med växtnäring, och se till att den näring som redan finns i omlopp används på ett klokt sätt. Nya direktiv kring slamanvändning, krav på återförsel av växtnäring och hårdare utsläppskrav på reningsverk innebär att nya system och tekniker behöver utvecklas. Det kan dock vara svårt att veta vilket system eller vilken teknik som ger den största nyttan. Systemanalytiska metoder kan hjälpa till att tydliggöra dessa komplexa frågor.

    Målet med denna studie är att på ett övergripande sätt ge en insikt i hur arbetet kring hållbarhetsbedömningar kopplat till kommunal avloppsvattenrening och återföring av näringsämnen, med fokus på fosfor och kväve kan genomföras. Vidare har fokus legat på metodfrågor inom livscykelanalys (LCA), men en utblick kring andra hållbarhetsbedömningsmetoder ges även i en mindre omfattning. Mycket av det som behandlas inom LCA har dock bäring även för andra metoder för hållbarhetsbedömning.

    Idag finns det olika typer av standarder och riktlinjer för hur LCA-studier bör utföras, dock saknas det specifika riktlinjer för LCA-studier kopplade till näringsåtervinning ur avlopp. Det finns flera skäl till att LCA-metodfrågor kopplade till näringsåterföring behöver utredas; LCA är en metod som framförallt inriktar sig på att bedöma miljöpåverkan av en produkt, medan avloppsvattenrening ofta sker i kommunal regi och i nuläget är inriktat på att rena avloppsvatten och inte fokuserar på att producera produkter. Avloppssystem är ofta integrerade med både vattenförsörjning, energisystemet och jordbruket på ett intrikat sätt. Avlopp är också en sektor som har utsläpp både till luft och vatten, och metoder för att korrekt kunna bedöma dessa utsläpps påverkan på miljö är viktiga att utreda. Användningsområdet för LCA är väldigt brett. LCA kan dock inte svara på om det system som utvärderas är hållbart, bara om systemet har mer eller mindre påverkan än ett annat. LCA kan alltså inte svara på frågeställningar som: Vad är en hållbar återvinningsgrad för växtnäringsämnen?

    Arbetet har resulterat i en diskussion kring när LCA eller systemanalys lämpar sig och vad man bör tänka på när man genomför en LCA och vilka delar som bör ingå. Inom ramen för detta arbete anordnades även en workshop där berörda intressenter deltog från forskning, myndigheter och branschen. Syftet med workshopen var att få in synpunkter kring hur en systemanalys eller LCA bör läggas upp för att ge användbara resultat i beslutsfattande.

    I första hand vänder sig rapporten till dem som arbetar med kommunal avloppsvattenrening, teknikutveckling och myndigheter inom detta område, som har en grundförståelse för systemanalys och vill veta mer.

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  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fosforprodukter av slam – energianvändning och klimatpåverkan2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare the energy use and climate impact of extracting phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge, compared with mineral phosphorus from mining. The two processes that are studied are struvite precipitation and extraction of phosphorus from sludge ash (AshDec). We also looked at the potential recycling rate of plant nutrients in the different systems.

    In the study, we have calculated the environmental impact of introducing the processes for P-recovery, related to a conventional sewage treatment plant with chemical precipitation. It is therefore only the differences that arise in comparison with the reference plant that are included in the calculations. You can think like this: there is an existing sewage treatment plant, where you introduce P recycling. All changes in environmental impact that arise in connection with the investment in this new process are burdens the new P-product.

    The results show that the AshDec scenario has the best recovery rate of phosphorus and energy balance, while the struvite scenario shows the best return rate of nitrogen and the lowest climate impact. However, the sensitivity analyzes show that the results are strongly influenced by different assumptions. For the AshDec scenario, assumption about nitrous oxide emissions from incineration of sludge as well as the handling of energy surplus is crucial. For the struvite scenario, assumptions around the reconstruction of the sewage treatment plant to biological phosphor cleaning is of great significance, especially if the biogas production is affected.

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  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mapping of biodiversity impacts and hotspot products in Nordic food consumption2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of food production has been lively debated over the last decades. It is e.g. well known that some products have a higher climate impact in comparison to other food products. The biodiversity impact of different food products is however less known. To steer the food production in a positive direction as well as to enable consumers, restaurants, public kitchens, and the food industry to make well-informed decisions, we need to address and measure this impact. The aim of this study has been to examine the biodiversity impact of Nordic and European food consumption. In this report we present (1) a brief summary of biodiversity indicators linked to food production and consumption, (2) different methods to evaluate biodiversity impact of food products and (3) a literature review of studies that assess biodiversity impacts of food products and diets. Based on the literature review, we identify food products suggested to have a higher respectively lower negative impact on biodiversity and discuss what changes that could promote a Nordic diet with lower negative impact on biodiversity. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps and possibilities for future work. There are different methods to examine the biodiversity impact on food products, such as life cycle assessment, input-output-model, and mapping tools. Biodiversity footprints are often based on the land use (area and intensity) in combination with parameters linked to where the production takes place and thus what biodiversity values can be affected. The consumed amount of food is also often considered – a product with a low impact per kg can get a high impact when consumed to a high degree and vice versa. Our literature review shows a variety of food products with high negative biodiversity impact. Particularly, products that are known drivers of deforestation in tropical regions, such as palm oil, coffee, and cacao – as well as meat and/or animal products that have been fed with soybeans derived from tropical regions have a high negative impact on biodiversity. On the other hand, consumption of foods as vegetables, starchy roots, and pulses – ideally with domestic origin – are examples of foods indicated to have lower biodiversity impact which would be beneficial to eat more of in the Nordic diet. There are also examples of agricultural systems where human interference is crucial for maintaining a high level of biodiversity, for example keeping grazing animals on high-naturevalue-grasslands. If these lands are abandoned or planted with forest, numerous of species will be extinct. Thus, meat linked to these grasslands can also support biodiversity, especially in the Nordic countries where there are relatively many of these landscapes left (in comparison to the rest of Europe). As the studies reviewed varied in their scope, methods, and results, they are difficult to compare. More research is needed to confirm our conclusions. Furthermore, none of the methods are flawless and there are obvious difficulties with finding a transferable and scalable unit – like CO2-equivalents – since biodiversity impacts are highly dynamic and sitespecific. Additionally, most of the reviewed studies do not consider transformation of natural areas driven by food production, e.g., deforestation, and may therefore be underestimating the impacts. In future studies, the reference systems may also be discussed and further developed, and more taxonomic groups (e.g., arthropods such as insects) should preferably be included.

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  • 13.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lundmark, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Landquist, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Biodiversitetsdatabas för livsmedel v1.0: metodrapport2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Lyne, Åsa Laurell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    During, Otto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Livslängden hos betongbroar: Erfarenheter och implementering med LCA/LCC2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifespan of construction works is crucial to achieve a low environmental impact for aprovided function. Supplementary cementitious materials are increasingly used in concrete production where the effect on the service life of structures needs to be assessed. In order to achieve a long service life, the design, flexibility in the design and workmanship also needs to be addressed.

    Today’s LCC and LCA analyses are based on statistics of service life of older bridges and are not material specific. There is still a lack of information about how the service life of concrete bridges is affected by different measures. The overall goal of this project was to close this information gap. The project aimed at describing key factors that affect the lifespan of concrete bridges. Key factors may reflect aspects of both durability and the utility of the design. The purpose was to investigate how the service life can be included in LCA and LCC analyses and to create a basis for future LCA and LCC analyses of concrete road bridges.

    Factors affecting the service life of concrete bridges have been identified through a literature survey and interviews. The studies comprised the service life of concretebridges, durability, service life models, requirements and guidelines, previous LCA and LCC studies as well as service life-extending measures throughout the whole lifecycle from material production to the end-of-life.

    The studies showed that reinforcement corrosion caused by chlorides is the most common cause of damage in concrete bridges where the service life of parts of theconstruction is usually shorter than the design service life. Even though frost resistance has historically been more restricting when choosing a concrete composition. The restrictions have, however, been reduced lately but there needs to be more focus on finding a design method that takes into account the impact of the concrete composition regarding reinforcement corrosion in order to find the most suitable solution for each individual case.

    The study shows the service life of concrete bridges depends not only on the expert’s knowledge of concrete but also on quality of execution. There is great potential to extend the service life of concrete bridges and to reduce their climate impact. However, it is important that the service life-extending measures also have a low embodied impact.

    The results of the survey show that technology and cost are the highest priority for mostrespondents, except for researchers where the focus is more on the environment and durability. Many also consider that contractors should set more demands towards environmentally friendly solutions.

    The results are compiled in the form of recommendations for reduced environmental impact and costs, as well as for how an LCA and LCC can be carried out with regard to service life.

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  • 15.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nyman, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Petit, Oliver
    LFV Luftfartsverket, Sweden.
    Infrastrukturmodellering för storskalig introduktion av elflyg och flygtrafikledning (MODELflyg)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A generic, flexible simulation model is developed with the aim of increasing our understanding as well as provide opportunities to easily test what the requirements for charging infrastructure at airports could become when transitioning to battery electric aviation. The model is developed in the programming language Python and contains several different approaches for testing electrification based on historical air traffic data, as well as the creation of new, non-existent air traffic schedules for electric aviation. Since there are currently no electric aircraft in commercial scheduled traffic, and thus no data or statistics regarding its performance or properties, a model is also developed for this, which allows simulation of desired flight connections, resulting in estimates for energy consumption and flight duration. The project is based on an electric aircraft model that is parameterized in accordance with certification level CS/FAR-23 (19 seats and maximum weight 8618 kg). The logic of the model is to follow the complete chain of movements for each aircraft individual during a given period (typically one day), where charging required for each aircraft at each airport in the chain is given by what energy level the battery held at the start of flight, how much energy was consumed during the flight, time of arrival at destination, and when the next departure is due. Taxi-in and taxi-out at the airports also affect how much time is available for charging. A built-in charge curve limits how fast it is practically convenient for the aircraft’s batteries to charge, which is defined as the ratio between C-rate (Charging-rate) and SoC (State-of-Charge). In addition, the charger itself can be limited to a certain maximum power and thus controls how fast energy can be delivered to the aircraft's batteries. To enable sufficient range, the electric aircrafts are expected to have relatively large batteries that are also likely to be charged within short time intervals at the airports (turnaround-times). Thus, the need to install power capacity may be expected to increase drastically at the airports if several aircraft’s need to charge simultaneously. The project therefore places extra emphasis on developing smart algorithms for controlling charger power output over time with the ambition to balance the load and lower power peaks at the airports. Finally, the project discusses what implications electric aviation can have from the perspective of air traffic control, existing and future airspace structures. Further, several case studies are conducted to exemplify the modeling process and the result that the user ultimately gets. The project does not aim to create a commercial tool, but rather a first version, and create the basis for further development of an analysis tool that is useful for airports and other stakeholders in the aviation industry now, and in future research and development collaborations.

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  • 16.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ruttbaserade simulerade trafikdata för högupplöst analys av tunga godstransporter på det svenska vägnätet2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Route-based simulated traffic data for high-resolution analysis of heavy goods transport on the Swedish road network In this report, a national database has been created regarding freight transport with heavy road vehicles. The primary purpose of the work is to serve as input for further analysis of what appropriate charging infrastructure planning and placement should look like given the knowledge of the transport work. It has thus been no ambition to give any recommendations in this report about, for example, expansion of charging infrastructure, but rather to collect and process information/data as well as develop methods and finally generate a data set that is useful and well representative of the traffic on the national road network. By the time of this publication, a dataset is available based on data from the Swedish Transport Administration’s Samgods-model with its simulations of transport connections based on transport demand between producer and consumer zones. In addition, all transport connections have been translated into routes (how trucks drive from A to B) on the road network, to enable analysis of electrification of/at specific road segments. Finally, the dataset has also been calibrated in various ways to better match statistics and actual measurements, as some major differences/deviations compared to some of them were identified. What the data set now consists of can be summarized as the number of truck movements and tons of goods that annually pass each road segment of the Swedish road network (and on some foreign roads). Furthermore, these totals can be easily divided into subsets and linked to specific routes, types of trucks (weight classes), origin, etcetera. Some shortcomings/limitations have been noticed during the production of this data set, such as the fact that the Samgods-model seems to miss a lot of transport in metropolitan areas, that the routing carried out by all flows is not completely perfect (which has partly to do with requests from OpenStreetMap), that the methods for generating new routes based on population density within municipalities are unlikely to be fully representative of where the transport is going, or that the data itself is based on a simulation model that tries to optimize which type of transport should be used to meet which demand. A couple of additional things may be worth clarifying: (1) The data only tells the number of transports or shipped goods between start and end nodes. Thus, there is no way to determine what the movement pattern of individual vehicle individuals looks like between routes, nor when in time each transport is performed. (2) The data only includes freight transport, and thus "misses" for example all passenger car traffic, which should also be seen as potential users of the charging infrastructure and thus be included in the calculations in the future. It would therefore be interesting to include these in some way in the next step.

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  • 17.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Arby, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Verktygslåda för bättre mobilitet på mindre orter – Utvecklingsprojekt med fem stationssamhällen i Småland2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Stationssamhällen Småland: Verktygslåda för landsbygdsmobilitet" tog sikte på att möta utmaningar i relation till minskat bilresande i syfte att se till att Agenda 2030- målen kan uppnås samtidigt som tillgänglighet bibehålls. Fokus lades på mindre tätorter med tågstationer. Den övergripande målsättningen var att projektets resultat ska underlätta för kommuner att identifiera och implementera hållbara mobilitetslösningar som möter såväl invånares som näringslivets behov i den typen av samhällen. Projektet involverade fem småländska kommuner. Genom en fallstudiebaserad ansats, med metoder så som platsbesök, intervjuer och workshops med representanter för lokalsamhället och näringslivet kartlades behov, en färdplan för nya mobilitetstjänster togs fram och en verktygslåda som kommunerna kan använda för att själva planera och implementera dessa utvecklades. Projektet resulterade i en verktygslåda, presenterad som en Wiki-hemsida, som erbjuder en process för nulägesanalys, behovskartläggning, kunskapsuppbyggnad, idégenerering och implementering av mobilitetslösningar. Verktygslådan är avsedd att underlätta för andra kommuner att självständigt förbättra mobiliteten baserat på lokala behov. Insikter från projektet inkluderar betydelsen av brett stöd inom kommunen, näringslivets deltagande som en katalysator för förändring, och behovet av att utgå från specifika målgruppers behov. Projektet framhåller även vikten av mjuka åtgärder, kostnadseffektiva lösningar, och samarbete över kommungränser för att förbättra pendlingsresor. Genom att fokusera på marknadsföring av befintlig kollektivtrafik, optimering av kollektivtrafik, och olika former av samordnad mobilitet, inklusive cykling och samåkning, presenteras konkreta lösningar för ökad tillgänglighet och hållbar mobilitet på landsbygden.

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  • 18.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community2023Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

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  • 19.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Roadmap for measurable sustainability indicators for the fire safety community2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study aims to determine whether developing measurable sustainability indicators (MSI) to assess the sustainability of projects, ideas, and decisions related to fire safety would be useful for fire safety engineers, researchers, municipalities, authorities, policymakers, first responders and other stakeholders. A review of the literature, online sources, project reports and numerous interactions with representatives of several target groups within the fire safety community were conducted to assess their sustainability needs. The results show that the target groups included in this project had some overlapping and some unique sustainability needs. Fire service product suppliers are content at this time to self-declare their sustainability status. Fire and rescue services would like MSI to help them make tactical and strategic decision while responding to fires. They are also interested in MSI to help them convey their sustainability value to the communities they serve. Fire safety engineers would like MSI to support their suggestions for improvements in construction design. Researchers and educators will contribute to the development of MSI that serve the needs of the other target groups. Authorities could use MSI to evaluate progress toward improved sustainability in their jurisdictions and transfer data to other levels of government.

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  • 20.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

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  • 22.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Gard, Eric
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Investigating machine learning for fire sciences: literature review and examples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a review of current literature on artificial intelligence (AI) and more specifically machine learning (ML) is presented. ML is illustrated by two case studies where artificial neural networks are used for regression analysis of 110 spalling experiments and 81 Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) models of tunnel fires. Tunnel fires are often assessed by fire safety engineers using time-consuming simulation tools where a trained model has the potential to significantly reduce time and cost of these assessments.

    A regression model based on a neural net is used to study small scale spalling experiments and similar accuracy compared to least-square fits are obtained. The result is a function based on 14 determining experimental parameters of spalling and result in, spalling times and depths. It is a relatively small effort to get started and set up models, comparably to regular curve fitting. In this first case study the training times are short, it is thus possible to establish how the model performs on average.

    The 81 tunnel fire simulations are trained using a similar neural net however it takes considerable time to organize data, creating input, target data of the desired format and training. Here, it is also crucial to normalize the data in order to have it in a suitable format when training. 

    It should be noted that ML is often an iterative process in such a way that it may be difficult to know what settings will work before starting the process. It is equally important to illustrate and get to know the data, e.g., if there are large differences or orders of magnitude differences in the data. A normalization procedure is most often practical and will give better predictions.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Bio-CCS från biogasanläggningar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BECCS from biogas production

    Global CO₂ emissions amount to about 40 Gtonnes/year and they need to be rapidly reduced if we are to meet adopted climate targets. To achieve this, a variety of measures is needed, such as more electrification, reduced use of fossil energy, more renewable energy, energy efficiency improvements and CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). However, this will not be enough, but will also require so-called negative emissions, which means that CO₂ is removed from the atmosphere through, for example, increased afforestation, increased carbon storage in soil (e.g. biochar), or by capturing and storing CO₂ of biogenic origin in geological formations, also known as bio-CCS or BECCS. At global level, the need for negative emissions is estimated to be in the order of several billion tonnes of CO₂ per year if it shall be possible to reach the 1.5-degree target and net zero emissions by 2050. At national level, Sweden’s target is to achieve net zero emissions by 2045 and from then on to be climate positive. This means that territorial emissions from the 1990 level must be reduced by at least 85% by 2045 and that the remaining 15 % will be eliminated by means of so-called supplementary measures including bio-CCS as an important measure.

    The need for bio-CCS is significant and the actors who can deliver biogenic CO₂ at the right quality and at low cost will have good business opportunities in an expected future global marketplace for negative emissions. With this project, we have investigated the opportunities CO₂ from biogas production has to contribute to bio-CCS in Sweden. At biogas plants that produce vehicle gas, there is already equipment to separate CO₂ from biogas, so-called upgrading technologies. By modifying and extending this technology, pure liquid CO₂ can be generated. The CO₂ is then transported to terminals in Swedish ports while waiting for transport by ship to the place for permanent storage.

    The project has studied gas purification and liquefaction based on the four most common upgrading techniques: water scrubber, PSA (pressure swing adsorption), membrane separation and amine scrubber. The residual gas (the CO₂-rich gas leaving the upgrading equipment) differs between different upgrading technologies, which affects the need for subsequent purification steps. Results from modelling and simulation have led to two proposed technology chains. For amine scrubbers, a simple process of compression, drying and liquefaction is sufficient to achieve the CCS specification of the liquid CO₂. PSA, membranes and water scrubbers require more advanced gas purification including a two-phase separation and recirculation of gases with low dew point, such as O₂ and CH4. The recirculated gas is recycled to the inlet of the upgrading process, leading to the double benefit of increased amount of valuable CH₄ product and further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. A side effect is that the need for conventional residual gas management is eliminated.

    Cost calculations have been carried out for biogas plants with a production capacity of 20, 50 and 120 GWh/year. With an availability of 95% and a CO₂ content of 39% in raw biogas (gas before upgrading), this equates to a CO₂ production of 2,400, 5,900 and 14,200 tons/year, respectively. A starting point for the study has been that systems for large-scale bio-CCS/CCS will be established and that this will lead to the construction of several CO₂ terminals in Swedish ports. Furthermore, it is assumed that these terminals allow third-party access where a supplementary volume of biogenic CO₂ from biogas plants can constitute a portion of the total managed amount. Around each terminal, clusters of biogas plants are estimated to emerge, which each can deliver approximately 20,000–100,000 tons CO₂ per year. The distribution from biogas plants to port terminals may be done by truck transport where the loading capacity amounts to 34 tons of CO₂. After the terminal, CO₂ is transported by ship to the place for permanent storage.

    The cost of producing liquid CO₂ from biogas depends on local conditions such as CO₂ flow, O₂ content, upgrading technology, new or existing plant, transport distance to terminal, etc. In order to determine what the cost will be for each individual biogas plant, it is necessary to adapt the calculations to local conditions. Through the project, generic calculations have been carried out which show that large biogas plants have good opportunities to produce liquid CO₂ at competitive costs, but also that there is a strong scaling effect. For example, the cost is about SEK 200–300/tonne CO₂ for new plants with 120 GWh in annual biogas production. With investment support, the cost drops to about SEK 150–200/tonne. For new plants in the intermediate segment (50 GWh/year), the cost is slightly higher, SEK 300–450/tonne (without capital grants) and SEK 190–275/tonne (with capital grants). For smaller plants (20 GWh/year), the cost rises significantly, especially for water scrubbers.

    The transport cost up to the terminal is affected by the distance and amount of CO₂ handled. For example, the cost of truck transport from larger biogas plants is about SEK 200/tonne at 100 km one-way to terminal. The total cost of bio-CCS from biogas including terminal handling, ship transport and final storage is affected by many parameters and there are uncertainties in cost estimates along the entire chain. In a calculation example for a biogas plant with membrane upgrading, 100 km of truck transport one way to terminal in Gothenburg and transport and final storage according to Northern Light's concept, the total cost was estimated at SEK 830–1020/tonne CO₂ for larger biogas plants (120 GWh/year).

    When the bio-CCS from biogas is introduced, negative emissions arise from two sources, firstly from the final storage itself, which is the main part, and secondly by reducing CH₄ emissions from the upgrading plants, which is a smaller, but not negligible part. The total CO₂ efficiency of the value chain is determined by energy consumption, transport distance, selected storage solution and CH₄ slip before the introduction of bio-CCS. Emissions from truck transport are small in this context. In total, CO₂ efficiency in many cases amounts to close to 100%, i.e. net emissions in the value chain up to final storage are close to zero. For plants that initially had relatively high CH₄ emissions from the upgrading unit, the climate benefit is even greater, with CO₂ efficiency throughout the chain being well over 100%.

    A driving hypothesis in the project has been that CO₂ from biogas can be the CO₂ stream in society that is one of the lowest-hanging fruits and that the value chain is well placed to be more cost-effective than other concepts for bio-CCS. Based on the results of the project, we can conclude that the hypothesis is likely to hold. The cost up to the terminal will in many cases likely be lower compared to capture and liquefaction from large point sources. With efficient technology and distribution solutions, biogas producers should be able to contribute to bio-CCS to a fairly large extent, up to about 10% of Sweden's need for negative emissions. For biogas operators, this would mean a broadening of the business where CO₂ is seen as a valuable product which complements the revenues from the production of biomethane. 

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Autonoma leveransfordon – vad är de för sorts fordon och har det någon betydelse?2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous delivery vehicles – what kind of vehicles are they and does it matter? The project GLAD – Goods deliveries during the last mile of self-driving vehicles explores how tomorrow's small autonomous delivery vehicles (ADV) could operate in the transport system. The goal of the GLAD project is to develop knowledge about the needs and challenges of such vehicles in Sweden before they are in real operation. In the project, there are several work packages that work with different challenges in relation to ADV. To explore these issues, the project has developed a prototype of an ADV, which is based on a vehicle which today is classified as a three-wheeled moped. But designed as an ADV it could be a different kind of vehicle. One result from one of the work packages in the project is that ADVs driving on public roads should maintain the same speed as other traffic to avoid critical traffic situations. This means that ADVs should be able to drive at a maximum speed of 70 km/h. Another requirement is that the ADVs should be able of carrying a load of 500 kg. These requirements are a conclusion from interviews with drivers of small manually driven delivery vehicles about how they experience today's traffic situations, from which type of road they use and how they use their vehicles. The purpose of this report is to identify obstacles and opportunities from a regulatory perspective to implement ADVs in Sweden in a safe way. Rules that may affect the development of ADVs are, for example, whether they are covered by the Machinery Directive or whether they should be type approved. Other rules concern license plates, motor liability insurance, where the vehicles may be driven and driving license requirements. The aim of the legislations is to create a safe vehicle to use. After a review of existing regulations, it is closest at hand that future ADVs, based on the requirements set in the project, are classified as a 4-wheel heavy motorcycle for the transport of goods. The vehicle also needs a type-approval. It can be argued that an ADV with that weight and speed will have a lot to prove from a safety perspective in a type-approval process and that a market introduction is therefore further away in time. If the speed requirements are lowered instead i.e., maximum of 30 km/h, it could be classified as a motor tool. The advantage of motor tools is that these must be CE-marked by the manufacturer, which in turn means that they have a shorter time to market because the process does not involve a type-approval agency.

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  • 25.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Legala hinder och möjligheter för obemannade off-peak leveranser2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet Hållbara & Integrerade urbana Transport System - HITS2024 har det bl.a. arbetats med att testa och demonstrera off-peak leveranser. Med off-peak leveranser avses förenklat leveranser som sker under de timmar på dygnet då det råder lågtrafik t.ex. nattetid. I projektet har HAVI levererat varor till en restaurang nattetid i Stock-holm. Detta har även demonstrerats i ett tidigare projekt kallat Eccentric. Skillnaden mellan de olika projekten är att i det äldre projektet fanns personal på plats i restau-rangen och tog emot varorna. I HITS2024 projektet fanns det inte någon personal på plats i restaurangen för att ta emot varorna. Båda projekten visar att det är praktiskt genomförbart att leverera varor off-peak och att det bidrar till en ökad transport-effektivitet. Jämfört med att leverera varor i rusningstid var tidsbesparingen ca 30 % för transpor-tören med off-peak leveranser i Eccentric projektet. Eccentric projektet visade även att effektivitetsvinsterna var ojämnt fördelade. Mottagaren (köparen) av varorna gjorde marginella effektivitetsvinster. För avsändaren (säljaren) redovisades inga effektivitets-vinster alls. I HITS2024 projektet ställde vi oss frågan - givet de stora effektivitets-vinster en transportör gör med off-peak leveranser - varför görs inte detta redan i stor skala? Kan det finnas något inom juridiken som hindrar utvecklingen av off-peak leve-ranser? Finns det rent av möjligheter inom juridiken som skulle kunna användas för att driva på utvecklingen mot fler off-peak leveranser? Syftet med den här rapporten är således att visa på legala hinder och möjligheter med (delvis) obemannade off-peak leveranser. Frågan kan bli än mer aktuell i en framtida värld med autonoma fordon som utför obemannade leveranser.

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  • 26.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Regelverk för datadelning inom citylogistik: nulägesanalys2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all data sharing regulations have origins from the EU. At EU level, three trends can be identified for data sharing. The first trend is that data sharing more and more is regulated by legislation. Current regulations are being amended and many new regulations are underway within the EU. Data sharing legislations are thus in an expansive phase. There are also many reasons why the EU believes that a certain regulatory framework is needed, such as: • Information security: Historically, information security has generated a large amount of activity in the field of regulatory framework. This includes, for example, cyber security and preventing data breaches. • Human health: Human health is also a reason to regulate data sharing. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and sharing of sensitive personal data. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection and ensuring that, for example, digital services are safe for consumers to share data in. • A free and efficient internal market: For the EU, it is important to create an internal market for data sharing. Many regulations are aimed at ensuring that SMEs can compete with large companies. Example of legislation in this area is the Platform Regulation. • Increased innovation power: For the EU, it is also important to increase innovation capacity in the internal market. One way is to protect innovations through, for example, copyright and trade secrets rules. • Increased transparency and trust: To create an internal market, people and companies also need to feel safe sharing data. Example of legislation within this area is the proposed Data Governance Act. • Fundamental rights and freedoms: Finally, the EU is reassessing in many regulatory frameworks in terms of respect of fundamental human rights and freedoms. Examples of regulations in this area are the GDPR and the e-Privacy regulation. The EU is also working on developing a code on this theme. The code shall guide the future work on the develop of new legislation. The second trend is for the EU to encourage industry organizations to develop voluntary rules on data sharing (code of conduct) to accelerate the creation of an internal market for data sharing. An example of this is the Code of Conduct for sharing agricultural data in agreements. The Free Flow of non-personal data regulation would also like to see industry organizations develop principles for data sharing. The third trend is that the EU would like to see us all make more data publicly available or that we donate data, both from authorities and individuals (open data and altruism). Examples of this are the Open Data Directive and the forthcoming Data Governance Act. In this lies a conflict of interest between information security and open data that is not easy to solve. The challenge lies in the fact that each individual dataset itself does not have to reveal anything sensitive. However, if many datasets are added together, aggregated data can reveal too much. The EU is also interested in data sharing for certain sectors, of which vehicles and mobility is an area that is becoming more and more regulated in terms of data sharing. Here, a lot of new regulations are expected that will have a major impact on the sector, both in terms of vehicle development but also in terms of the development of new business models. The trend is towards vehicle manufacturers being increasingly forced to share data with authorities. When it comes to logistics, the pressure from new legislation about data sharing is not as clear. The existing legislation is more about the safe distribution of goods in a crisis or regarding sharing data from certain goods e.g., tobacco. What problems does the EU address in its mobility and vehicle regulations? • Human health: Compared to the general regulatory framework, there is a clear emphasis on human health and data sharing in the regulations. It is both about data sharing related to air quality but also road safety. • Consumer protection: There are also regulations aimed at strengthening consumer protection, e.g., for manufacturers to inform consumers about how much exhaust fumes a particular vehicle emits so that the consumer can make an informed choice based on this aspect between different manufacturers. • A free functioning efficient internal market: Examples of legislation in this area are the access of independent branded workshops to data from connected vehicles to increase competition. At EU level, there are several regulatory frameworks in the pipeline that will have a major impact on what we want to explore in our project. In the HITS2024 project, we want to explore and test efficient city logistics based on different vehicle concepts and logistics solutions. At EU level, a forthcoming e-Privacy Regulation is being discussed. The regulation will dictate how data from vehicles is allowed to be transfer to a cloud solution i.e., the connection as such. The e-Privacy Regulation is closely related to the GDPR, but there are also differences between these regulations. The GDPR accepts consent and balancing of interests to collect personal data while the e-Privacy Regulation only accepts consent (at the time of writing). The challenge for the automotive industry, for example, is that an autonomous vehicle can only collect personal data based on balancing interests because it is not doable to work with consent. However, if the e-Privacy Regulation in its current state is approved, the data will not be allowed to leave the vehicle because there is no consent. Another challenge is the upcoming AI Act. The AI Act distinguishes between technologies that already have an international regulatory framework for, e.g., type approval of a truck and technology where only the EU regulates the issue, e.g., machines. But a vehicle consists of many different “parts” and not all parts are type approved. How do you fit different technologies and different legislation together in an autonomous truck? In the logistics area, the upcoming Data Act can be of great importance as it will be about data sharing between companies. Until now, coordination between different data regulations has not always been optimal. The same phenomenon has been regulated in different regulations. There is a risk that different regulations in the future will find it difficult to co-exist with each other. How will, for example, GDPR, e-Privacy regulation and Data Act work together in a vehicle and logistics context? Developments in this area need to be followed.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Transportdispenser: Analys av nutid och förslag på framtid2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some transports considered too wide, too heavy, or too long to be driven on public roads must nevertheless be allowed to take place because of their societal importance. Such transports are granted a formal exception to the traffic rules. In this project, together with industry and national and local authorities we have analysed this process and submitted several proposals for improvement measures for consideration. The focus has been on increased digitalisation and improved legal processes. The analysis is based on interviews with municipal administrators, transporters and clients and representatives from Sweden's municipalities and regions, the Swedish Transport Administration, the Swedish Transport Agency, and the Swedish Police Authority. The interviews show substantial differences between how the Swedish Transport Administration and municipalities work with exemptions. Based on our analysis, we propose several individual measures as well as three design scenarios suggesting future opportunities for an improved process.

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  • 28.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Fordonsdata till allmänhetens nytta - geofencing och affärsmodeller2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fordonsdata kan i framtiden vara till stor nytta för myndigheter på olika sätt. Än så länge samlar myndigheter in fordonsdata i begränsad omfattning. Det kan t.ex. handla om att genom offentlig upphandling pröva nya sätt för att kontrollera kvaliteten på utförd snöröjning. Trots att det finns ett intresse från både privata och offentliga aktörer att genomföra affärer kring fordonsdata är det ändå svårt för marknaden att ta fart. 

    Frågan om hur fordonsdata kan kommersialiseras med offentliga aktörer som köpare har därför undersökts inom Drive Sweden Policy Lab i samarbete med CeViss-projektet (Cloud enhanced cooperative traffic safety using vehicle sensor data). CeViss-projektet har undersökt smarta kameror och hur de bl.a. kan användas för att varna andra förare för vilda djur vid vägen eller informera SOS Alarm om hur det ser ut vid en olycksplats. 

    Förutsättningarna för lyckad kommersialisering kan sammanfattas under tre rubriker - affären, tekniken och juridiken. Vi ser att affären ligger i förmåga att erbjuda aggregerade data där olika datamängder korsbefruktas och därmed skapar ett större värde än de ingående datamängderna besitter var för sig. Kommersiella aktörer pekar på att rollen att aggregera data, eller förädla den, är mest intressant, eftersom det innebär en möjlighet att utveckla tjänster. En sådan tjänst förutsätter tillgång till en säker uppkoppling och överföring. Det är också resurskrävande att förädla data och styra rätt överföring, liksom att se över, anpassa och ta fram avtal som gör korsbefruktning av data och överföring av rätt data juridiskt möjlig. Här spelar individens integritet kontra samhällets behov av data en stor roll. Det är inte heller klart vilket behov aktörer inom olika samhällssektorer har av fordonsdata, samt hur dessa kommer att få tag i fordonsdata. 

    Utmaningen för industrin ligger i att våga lita på att det finns en hållbar affär med myndigheten i längden, dvs. att det finns en tillräckligt stor betalningsvilja från samhällets sida även när data anses samhällskritisk viktigt. För att främja kommersialisering är det bra att börja med ett specifikt utvalt område för att utarbeta processer, avtal, tekniklösningar, affärs-modeller och så vidare. 

    Geofencing hade kunnat vara en möjlighet att skapa de avgränsningar som behövs för en första affär, samtidigt som det skulle skapa tydlighet om var och när data samlas in från fordon. En sådan avgränsning hade också kunnat tjäna som en regulatorisk sandlåda för att utvärdera möjligheten till avtal som är hållbara över tid, det vill säga där det är rimligt att inom vissa gränser använda data på nya sätt eller för nya syften. 

    Rapporten avslutas med en sammanställning av geofencing och datadelning ur ett juridiskt perspektiv samt en beskrivning av Drive Sweden Policy Lab. 

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  • 29.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we have compiled our learnings and experiences of working with Policy Lab. Policy Labs have come about as an answer to the question "Can you work with policy and regulatory development in a better way than today?". Our answer to the question is a yes. Our hope with the report is that others will become interested and start their own Policy Lab. Abroad, there are many Policy Labs, but in Sweden there are only a few, which is why we believe there is room for more. There is not a given way to work with Policy Labs once and for all, but each Policy Lab is unique based on its context. Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova defines Policy Labs as follows: "Policy Labs can be explained as a group of actors with different competencies who want to develop a regulatory framework. In the Policy Lab, they use a set of user-centric methods and competencies to test, experiment, and learn in policy development."1 In our Policy Lab, we have worked in various research projects to: 1. analyse challenges/problems that arise between innovations, technology, market, and regulations, 2. develop one or more workable solutions and 3. interact with relevant actors to determine the next steps. What distinguishes our Policy Lab is that we never “own” the issue or solution. We must therefore always work with other actors who can take the results further. Our goal is to enable and skill people. This means that for us it is important to work concretely with real problems and needs owners and preferably test different solutions. We focus on the here and now perspective and not on what the future will look like in 10 years. It is about taking the next step forward towards the future, not creating the best rule, but instead creating the next rule. We also work consistently agile and use design as a method for problem solving. This means that the way we organize our work in the Policy Lab is circular and not linear. When it comes to using design as a method for problem solving, we use the concepts of "design thinking" and "double diamond". For us, it is also important that the members of the Policy Lab have different backgrounds and skills depending on what is needed in the individual project....

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  • 30.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Self-certification of Autonomous Buses2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It will still be a few years before we will have autonomous buses driving city streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to ensure more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in service, while at the same time learning how to be part of future operations. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5). During the span of a single day, the bus will therefore alternate between the regulations for enclosed (fenced depot) and non-enclosed (road) areas, between being autonomous and not autonomous.

    The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based on two regulations depending on the environment it is in at any given time and level of autonomy. This is a completely new situation: that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which has significance in terms of who shall decide whether the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that, in order to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot, the bus should be self-certified by means of CE marking according to the Machinery Directive1. This is the authors’ conclusion and not necessarily representative of the other parties involved in the project.

    We predict that we will see more self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working in this way, such as in North America, and partly because it enables faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With “dynamic vehicle concept” we mean vehicles that gain new areas of application by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and are thus converted from a bus to a truck or from a car to quadricycle. Maybe even several times a day.

    Self-certification, however, will also increase the need for standardisation, both for processes and products. Processes may involve how a vehicle can be certified, particularly how the risk analysis should be carried out. In terms of products, standardised descriptions of the technology’s function will facilitate proprietary self-certification since operators know how to describe their own products, including how their certification should be structured based on the constituent certified components. Current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machinery Directive.

    Lastly, we would like to communicate the method used to reach our conclusions. The project has been carried out as a Policy Lab where we have brought together various stakeholders around a common challenge. This has enabled us to concretise both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the enclosed area and our conclusions. The  method selected has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarise themselves with how they should relate to tomorrow’s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle. In this way, Swedish authorities will be ready to adopt technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

    This report is structured so that Section 2 describes the current regulatory framework, particularly in terms of the distinction between the Machinery Directive and vehicle type-approval. Section 3 uses specific examples to describe business operations pertaining to autonomous buses in a depot. Section 4 presents the authors’ conclusions based on how the regulations relate to the specific details obtained from the depot pilot. Section 5 presents the full picture by relating our conclusions to what is happening internationally and how the national ordinance on autonomous vehicle trials on roads corresponds to international trends. Lastly, in Section 6, we provide a summary of what we consider to be the most important issues for which further work should be carried out.

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  • 31.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Självcertifiering av autonoma bussar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It will be a few years before we have autonomous buses that drive around the city´s streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to have more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in services, while at the same time learning how to be part of the future operation. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5).During one and the same day, the bus will therefore transfer between the regulations forfenced (depot) and non-fenced (road) areas, between being autonomous and notautonomous.The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based ontwo regulations depending on its current environment and level of autonomy. This is acompletely new situation, that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which in turn has consequences for who is to decide that the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that the bus should be self-certified through CE marking according to the Machine Directive to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot. This is the authors´ conclusion and not necessarily representative for the other parties involved in the project.

    Our prediction is also that we will see more of self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working that  way, such as the North America one, and partly because it enables a faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With dynamic vehicle concept, we mean vehicles that gain new capacity by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and thus go from being a bus to a truck or from a car to a moped car. Maybe even several times a day.

    But with self-certification, the need for standardization will also increase, both forprocesses and products. When it comes to processes, it can be about how to certify a vehicle, especially how to do the risk analysis. For products, standardized descriptions of the technology´s function will facilitate your own self-certification as you know how to describe your product, but also how to build your certification based on the included certified components. The current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machine Directive.

    Finally, we want to highlight the method used behind the conclusions. The project has been carried out as a policy lab where we have gathered different actors around a common challenge. In this way, we have anchored both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the fenced area and on our conclusions in concrete details. The choice of method has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarize themselves withhow they should relate to tomorrow´s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle going forward. In this way, Swedish authorities are ready to take on technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

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    AutonomBussCE
  • 32.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Eriksson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Geostängslade BK4-transporter vid bropassager och på tjälade vägar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geofenced heavy trucks to protect bridges at crossings allowing higher weight on frozen roads Winter is our friend. When the road body is deep frozen it can handle more weight than during the rest of the year. However, the bridges are not affected by the cold weather, and they are therefore still vulnerable to increased loads. How can we allow increased loads on frozen roads while ensuring protection of the bridges? In this report, we share our insights from a project with the idea of using geofencing to protect the bridges. The geofencing technology ensures that the truck drives at a lower speed over the bridge and the bridge can withstand loads up to 74 tons since decreased speed reduces dynamic loads. If the road keeper can get guarantees that all heavy trucks drive at a low speed over the bridge, heavier traffic can be accommodated. This technology would of course also be beneficial to use across bridges in Europe regardless of the climate. ' The project “Frozen roads and 74 tons”, paid by the Swedish Transport Administration, consisted of three parts. One part was a pilot study during winter 22/23 demonstrating trucks from AB Volvo and Scania loaded with 74 tons using geofencing when the trucks passed over weak bridges. A speed limit, i.e. 50 km/h, was imposed in a zone around each bridge, whose coordinates were stored in the digital map accessible through the trucks’ Fleet Management System. Two different geofencing technologies were tested: on the one hand Scania’s system with “active” geofencing, where the truck was programmed to maintain the allowed speed over the bridge and calculated and implemented this itself (the driver could, however, override this by pushing the gas pedal to the floor); on the other hand AB Volvo’s system with “passive” geofencing, where the driver received a warning message when approaching the zone and would then slow down if necessary. The drivers were interviewed before and after the pilot about their experience. The results from the pilot showed that if the technology is verified, the truck will do the right thing and is on the right road network when the technology is activated. The drivers also liked geofencing. Geofences thus work in practice. The second part of the project was about quantifying the societal benefits of using geofencing. More efficient planning, control and follow-up can lower costs, reduce environmental impact, and increase traffic safety. Calculations in the project show that about 12 percent of timber transports in Norrland use frozen roads. They can benefit from the technology and if the technology is introduced, the industry would make savings of the equivalent of SEK 15 million / year and reduced energy use equivalent to 280 cubic meter diesel. At national level, this corresponds to an energy efficiency potential of 0.12 percent. The third part of the project was about policy and regulation. Can we use the current legislation, or do we need new legislation to scale the use of geofencing across bridges? How can we ensure compliance? How can we share data? How can we handle EU trade barriers? In the report, we have suggestions for policy and legislation to implement the geofencing technology to protect sensitive bridges. Our analysis shows that it is possible with today's regulations for an authority to introduce regulations on geofences. Such rules should preferably be based on functional requirements and a system of self-monitoring.

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  • 33.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Legal utredning för datadelning varor och transporter2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, the Swedish Transport Administration wanted to have two different tracks investigated from a legal perspective. We have chosen to call the first track a “matchmaking service for freight” to optimize the utilization of available cargo space. There is an assignment from the government to the Swedish Transport Administration to work with this issue based on horizontal collaborations and open data. The second track is about the development of new technology enabling new ways of collecting railway data based on RFID and the possibility of filming passing trains, which in turn raises legal questions about how the Swedish Transport Administration can use collected data.

    After analysing the two tracks based on current regulations, interviewing different actors, arranging workshops with different stakeholders, and meetings with experts in the fields, our conclusions are as follows:

    So far, it is unclear who will be appointed to be matchmaker and how the matchmaking service is intended to work as the Swedish Transport Administration´s assignment will last for another ten years. Our assessments at this early stage of the Swedish Transport Administration´s assignment aims more to provide advice on how the matchmaking service can be designed in the future. Above all, we foresee that competition law will be a challenge as it regulates horizontal collaborations. In the future, it needs to be investigated more what benefit consumers get from the matchmaking service and how such service can be designed without distorting competition on the market. The matchmaking service is aimed for product owners. The interviews show that they are prepared to share data provided that they get a benefit from this. The interviews also show that they are not used to sharing data in such a way that is required for a matchmaking service to function properly. We therefore believe that work will have to be put on making the product owners understand the benefit of data sharing to facilitate the introduction of a matchmaking service, e.g. by showing good examples to get product owners to think in new ways and dare to take the step. It is also unclear what is meant by open data and how it is compatible with copyright/trade secrets. That part of the assignment needs to be further elucidated.

    In our opinion, the Swedish Transport Administration has the copyright to RFID data, and it is also from a copyright perspective that the Swedish Transport Administration has so far shared RFID data (through contracts) with others. One hope with RFID is that the technology will make an impact on the entire European railway network, which in turn raises the question of how RFID data can legally be shared. Our assessments are that it would be possible to turn RFID data into open data to enable data sharing within the EU, but this is something that needs to be discussed further with all the actors involved.

    Data collection by filming passing trains is still at an early trial stage. Above all, we see that more work needs to be done to make data collection compatible with the GDPR and the Swedish Camera Surveillance Act. When trains are filmed, information is also collected about the load on the wagons. We see that this can lead to safety risk, which need to be addressed in the future work.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mapping and Evaluation of some Restricted Chemical Substances in Recycled Plastics Originating from ELV and WEEE Collected in Europe2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of plastics is a critical step toward the realisation of a sustainable society. Plastic is a fitting material to recycle, as it often can easily be melted and formed into new products. Plastic recycling is therefore an easy process with pure plastics, however, most of the plastics that are recycled today are not pure and contain additives and/or impurities. Some of these additives can be hazardous substances that could be harmful for both humans and the environment. It is therefore important that these hazardous substances are not recycled and transferred into new products. To ensure a safe use of plastics, these substances are today regulated in new products, but old products could still contain these substances (legacy chemicals). To comply with legislation it is therefore critical that these substances are removed during the recycling process. There are however many hazardous substances that are yet not regulated, which may also be present in products and therefore recycled material. 

    Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) and End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) are two of the materials streams that contains a high amount of legacy chemicals. These streams have been associated with spreading legacy chemicals after recycling. In several reports WEEE plastics have been identified as the source of brominated flame retardants (BRF) found in toys and everyday items. According to the EU regulation the use of certain BFRs is not permitted in new products or articles above a certain value. Recyclers and resellers of the recycled plastic often specified that the products should not be used in toys, medical equipment of food contact application, yet BFRs from WEEE can still be found in these products. This could mean that either producers that use recycled material in new products do not follow the recommendations from the recyclers, or that the recycled material does not fulfil the regulations. Another possibility for the findings of legacy chemicals in these items could be a meagre follow-up on imported plastics.

    In this study the Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) has, on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket), investigated the content of legacy chemicals in recycled plastics that have been processed in a recycling facility. The plastics originated from WEEE and ELV and have been gathered from recyclers across Europe. A number of different legacy chemicals were investigated, both inorganic (Cd, Pb, Hg) and organic substances (flame retardants and plasticisers). To simulate a real case scenario and to get better measurement accuracy, all samples were injection moulded. The analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and Gas chromatography with a Mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the processing and analysis (except for SCCP/MCCP)) were done by RISE which gives good control over the analysis process, which are important when interpreting the results. In total 54 samples of PE, PP, ABS and PS, were gathered and tested. It was found that all but two samples contained legacy chemicals below the regulated values. The two samples that did not meet the legal limit had a HBCDD content above 100 ppm. All the tested materials contained detectable amounts of bromine, and 15 samples contained detectable amounts of regulated BFRs. None of the detected regulated BRFs were above 186 ppm.  Most of the materials also contained detectable amounts of cadmium and lead.

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  • 35.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Aras, Silvia
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

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  • 36.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jandali, Mourhaf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

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  • 37.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

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  • 38.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, OlaRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Proceeding from 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2018: October 3-4, 2018, Borås Sweden2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2018, held in Borås, Sweden October 3-4, 2018. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, coaches, trucks and trains.

    Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced together with sophisticated new technology such as e.g. fuel cells and high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas.

    Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge.

    FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different vehicles. It is not confined to bus fires or train fires but includes them both, naturally since fire problems are often similar regardless of type of vehicle. This means that for example solutions for trains are useful for fire problems in buses and vice versa.

    In the proceedings you will find papers on the fire problem, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, fire investigations and case studies and finally fire mitigation. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

     

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  • 39.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Delreparation av tätskiktssystem: del 1    Pilotundersökningar i labb2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Pilot surveys in labs This project is the first part of an intended major project to verify methods for partial repairs and methods for quality assurance of these repairs. This part of the project is implemented in order to make the next part of the project (Part 2. Field study) credible and valid. The purpose is to investigate whether selected measurement systems are capable of warning of excess moisture where leakage occurs so that there is no consequential damage to the building. The aim of this part is to evaluate and build knowledge about how sensors should be used and the possibility to interpret results from these. The study of the function of the warning systems for moisture and water damage that will be used in the future field study has been carried out in a mock-up that has been developed within the project. The project has been carried out with five different moisture sensor systems. During the entire test period, RISE have carried out measurements of temperature and moisture level in the test set’s timber framework compartments. Measured values from the five moisture sensor systems have been compared to values from RISE's calibrated temperature and humidity sensors. The surveys carried out can be grouped as follows: • Function control of the moisture system's ability to detect elevated moisture levels in each mock-up’s framework. • Loading of undamaged floor and wall penetrations with water  • Loading of pre-damaged floor and wall penetrations with water  • Loading of partially repaired floor and wall penetrations with water  Function control Moisture sensor systems 2, 3, 4 and 5 show a relatively good compliance with RISE's calibrated moisture and temperature sensors, usually only a few percentage points deviation is noted. Note that the test procedure selected is not relevant for Invisense’s moisture sensor system (system 1) as these are located in different positions than the other moisture sensor systems. Loading of undamaged floor and wall penetrations with water  Floor When loading the floors with water, leakage was noted in test space 1 already after two hours of loading. This was recorded by the moisture sensors located in test compartment 1. Wall Already a few minutes after commencement of water spraying, a rising moisture level was observed and also recorded by the moisture sensors in test compartment 3. It is worth noting that this leakage was so small that no free water was detected. An increase in moisture level was recorded at the wall penetrations in test compartment 4 after about 10 hours. At the end of the spraying cycle the moisture sensor sample in compartment 1 also showed a raised value. Loading of pre-damaged floor and wall penetrations with water  Floor All of the floor drains were subjected to pre-test damage, which consisted in removal of the clamping ring, cutting of the collar in one place and splitting it open a few centimetres. All moisture sensor systems used in the floor wells in test compartments 1-4 indicated elevated values. Wall Pre-test damage to all wall penetrations was carried out using an awl that was pressed into the space between the tile and wall box and thus puncturing the sealing collar. All moisture sensor systems used in the wall penetrations in test compartments 1-4 indicated elevated values. Loading of partially repaired floor and wall penetrations with water  Floor After partial repair where all floor drains were replaced, water loading of the floor was again carried out with 100 mm water.  No leakage was detected during the 5-day water load. None of the moisture sensor systems indicated any leakage. Wall After the partial repair where all pipe collars were replaced, water spraying took place again with alternating cold and warm water (1500 times).  No leakage was detected. None of the moisture sensor systems indicated any leakage.

    Conclusion • All moisture sensor systems in the study have the capability to show that leakage has occurred • It is not the absolute measured value of the moisture level that determines whether the waterproofing system is leaking or not  

    It is the change in the moisture level in the construction itself that is crucial to the question as to whether it is to be opened up or not.

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  • 40.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Berntsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2022 This research project is a repetition of previously completed projects. These projects span a long period of time, 12 years. The projects were completed during the period 2010 to 2022. Functional testing The result is better than before. 2022 2019 (1) 2016 (2) 2014 (3) 2010 (4) Result Result Result Result Result Result No leakage 9 (47 %) 6 (32 %) 8 (40 %) 3 (15 %) 0 (0 %) Leakage 10 (53 %) 13 (68 %) 12 (60 %) 17 (85 %) 5 (100 %) In this investigation, most of the leaks are located to penetrations of large and small sewer pipes. In this investigation, we have on several occasions seen that the pipe sleeves have had substandard quality. This has manifested itself in the fact that the polymeric material which is to seal around the pipe during the test has lost its sealing ability. It is probable that the material has developed a residual deformation (settling) which means that the material has lost its ability to seal around the pipe. We have also noticed that pipe cuffs have delaminated, the layers in the cuff during the test have been divided into their components. Leakage has also occurred at inner corners, outer corners and at chafing. Only a few, two, leaks at connections to floor drains have been noted. Better yet, none of the examined waterproofing systems showed leaks that were so extensive that one can speak of a total damage. Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area The vast majority of investigated waterproofing foils have a water vapour resistance of between 2.5 and 4.5 million s m, which is a high or very high value. Results for five waterproofing foils fall below 2.5 million s / m. Based on the determinations of water vapor resistance and basis weight, it can be concluded that probably six of the waterproofing suppliers have developed new or changed foils since the last survey. The trend of wanting to make thinner foils seems to have been broken. Most of the waterproofing foils have a higher vapor passage resistance now than in the previous survey. It is also noteworthy that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor passage resistance. The waterproofing foil has basically the same basis weight now compared to the previous survey. Indication of long-term properties To obtain an indication of the amount of added antioxidants that improve the long-term properties of the materials, DSC analyses of the waterproofing foils have been performed. Compared with the previous study, the induction temperatures are at about the same level as before, only small differences occur. The average induction temperature for all polyethylene films is 216 ° C and, in summary, the materials appear to be stabilized at the same level as the previous study. In the same way as in the survey, 2016, most materials seem to be more stabilized for long-term use compared with the previous study, 2014. However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, a more comprehensive aging study is recommended

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  • 41.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Peltoperä, Janne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Bygg- och möbelskiva som tillverkas av återvunna mjölkförpackningar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden i samhället är att öka återvinningsgrad av produkter för att skapa ytterligare värden av förbrukade produkter. Detta projekt har initierats av möjligheten att återanvända mjölkkartonger till bygg- och möbelskivor i syfte att minska byggindustrins totala miljöpåverkan genom minskat uttag av primärmaterial och lägre CO2 belastning. Förpackningsmaterial för mat och dryck innehåller ofta ett skikt av plast, av typen PET med syfte att hålla livsmedlet färskt och fritt från atmosfären. Efter användning samlas förpackningar in till förbränning då det inte finns något annat sätt att återvinna/återbruka dessa material. Det är svårt att skilja pappkartong och plast åt vid dagens förbränningsanläggningar och därmed skapas stora förorenande utsläpp (bland annat CO2). Det är önskvärt att hitta ett område där kartonger för livsmedel kan återvinnas till ett annat högvärdigt material och då kan ersätta material med högre miljöbelastning. Att göra en skiva till bygg och möbelindustrin genom att sönderdela kartonger för livsmedel och utan tillsatser pressa dem till en produkt som därmed ersätter mer belastande skivor som gips och OSB ger industrin en möjlighet att ytterligare minska sin miljöpåverkan. Ett potentiellt område kan vara inom byggindustrin, och att då hitta en ersättning eller komplement till de skivmaterial som idag används i väggar och tak. Dagens skivor är tillverkade av blandade material, i form av OSB (träspån och lim) och gips (kalk och papp). Initiala prover, genomförda av tillverkaren ej RISE, av den framtagna skivan har visat på god teknisk prestanda, men byggindustrin är på goda grunder kritisk till nya material, varför det krävs en noggrann kontroll av prestanda på såväl lång som kort sikt för att säkerställa ett kontrollerat byte till mer hållbart material. Metoden att samla in och sönderdela kartonger på ett band för press under tryck och värme, och att skapa en bygg- och möbelskiva producerad av återvunnet material utan andra tillsatser i processen är lovande. Den ingående andelen PET agerar som bindemedel för att skapa skivan som är homogen och stark. Initiala tester har visat en funktionsprestanda mellan OSB och gips, varför målsättningen är att ersätta kombinationer av dessa i flera applikationer. Introduktion av material och produkter kräver en robusthet avseende tekniska egenskaper samt tester i faktiska miljöer för introduktion i byggindustrin. Men ett ökat intresse för och krav ur miljösynpunkt öppnar för möjligheter att skapa värde. För att realisera detta värde finns det ett behov av att testa och verifiera olika tekniska egenskaper av produkten mot de funktionella krav som finns på marknaden för denna typ av produktändamål. Tekniska egenskaper som bör verifieras är bland annat formstabilitet, tålighet mot fukt, akustik, brand och avslutningsvis de miljöegenskaper som uppstår.

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  • 42.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem förvåtutrymmen 20192018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2019

    Functional testing

    The result is worse than before.

    Six (32%) of the nineteen tested waterproofing systems passed the function test without leakage. Thirteen (68%) tests resulted in leakage.

    This result is worse than that obtained in the previous project in 2016, (1) when eight (40%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed the functional test without leakage. There has therefore been some deterioration in the as constructed systems.

    The result, however, is better than in the project performed in 2014 (2) when only three (15%) of twenty tested waterproofing systems passed without leakage.

    In this project, several leakages are localised around the penetrations of large and small drainpipes. This is an increase compared to previous studies. We have seen on several occasions that pipe collars have had poor quality. This has been noticed by that the polymer material used for sealing around the tube has lost its water tightness ability during the test. It is most probable that the material has a residual deformation (from setting) that causes the material to lose its ability to seal around the tube. We have also noted that the pipe collars have delaminated i.e. the layers in the collars have been divided into their individual constituents during the test.

    Leakages have also been caused by connections to gullies, inside corners, outside corners and in joints of foils.

    Fortunately, none of the investigative systems showed leakage that was so extensive that one could describe it as total damage.

    Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area

    Thirteen tested waterproofing on flexible sheet systems show a result between 2,5 and 4,5 million s/m, which is a high or very-high water vapour resistance. Six flexible sheet systems have a result below 2,5 million s/m.

    In the determination of water vapour resistance and mass per unit area, we can clearly see that some manufacturers have made changes in or replaced their flexible sheet with a new one, compared with the previous investigation (1).

    We further note that 10 out of 14 flexible sheets have a lower water vapor resistance than in the previous investigation (1). It is also notable that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor resistance.

    Indication of long-term properties

    In order to obtain an indication of the amount added antioxidants that improves the long-term properties of the materials, the DSC analysis of flexible sheets have been performed. In the same way as in the previous project, 2016, (1) it seems that the flexible sheets to be more stabilized for long-term use compared to the previous study in 2014, (2). However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, an accelerated ageing at moderate temperature is recommended.

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  • 43.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Mjuk digital infrastruktur: Utmaningar som finns inom offentlig sektor2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten riktar sig till dig som arbetar med digitaliseringsinitiativ inom den svenska offentliga sektorn och har ett intresse för mjuk digital infrastruktur. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur kommuner och offentliga organisationer genomför digitaliseringsinitiativ inom olika områden av sin verksamhet och vilka utmaningar som skapas av mjuk digital infrastruktur i denna process. Rapporten innehåller också möjliga vägar framåt och rekommendationer kring olika aspekter av mjuk digital infrastruktur till RISE, kommuner och myndigheter.

    I rapporten beskriver vi åtta fallstudier och identifierar skillnader och gemensamma drag mellan dem.

    Analysen bygger på intervjuer med forskare från olika avdelningar på RISE som har arbetat med mjuk digital infrastruktur inom smarta städer och IoT-data, öppna och delade data, eHälsa och omsorg, smarta fastigheter, mobilitet och transport, jordbruk samt vatten och avlopp.

    Analysen visade att kommuner och offentliga organisationer inom olika områden upplever precis samma tekniska, organisatoriska och affärsrelaterade utmaningar relaterade till mjuk digital infrastruktur. Den organisatoriska delen och brist på samordning kring ett gemensamt nationellt ramverk skapar de största utmaningarna. Dessutom visade analysen på behovet av nationell samordning och samverkan kring mjuk digital infrastruktur.

    Studien och rapporten är delar av ett internt RISE projekt med namnet ’TI Mjuk digital infrastruktur’. Författaren vill rikta ett speciellt tack till alla involverade och intervjuade RISE-forskare och experter.

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  • 44.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av öppna leverantörsreskontradata: Handledning2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Socio-economic effects of opening government accounts payable (Leverantörsreskontra) data2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to analyse: (i) efficiency gains that a municipality would gain by publishing accounts payable data as open data; and (ii) socio-economic effects with a major focus on democracy aspects. Summarising, we can state that potential efficiency gains related to opening accounts payable data can be significant, which was also confirmed by previous studies. Based on experience of Swedish municipalities publishing accounts payable as open data, we have made an estimation of potential efficiency gains due to reduced time to answer inquiries coming from citizens, journalists, and organisations. Based on these assessments, the potential efficiency gains may reach approximately 2 million kr per year for large municipalities. Additionally, availability of open data on accounts payable may result in further reduction of time needed to handle an inquiry due to opportunity to direct a person to thee open data file, a more exact and specific question formulation, and reduced number of inquiries. It was found that democratic aspects in publishing accounts payable were perceived as more important than potential time savings and efficiency gains. This is especially important for smaller municipalities, which do not get that many inquiries and cannot expect the same level of savings effect. Democracy aspects are closely related to transparency, openness, and opportunity to push procurement prices down. All this leads to even greater savings for municipalities. Another important aspect is finding mistakes and discovery of corruption cases. Elimination of such cases in the future would result in considerable savings at national level. One of the important findings of this research is the fact that municipalities already publishing open data do not see any related risks, while municipalities that are only preparing to publish open data see a number of risks related to open data publishing. The major concerns are related to confidentiality, privacy, and secrecy risks, unclear quality of data, and increased workload for some units. We also make a number of recommendations from different perspectives, which could accelerate the process of open data publishing. This analysis was carried out by Tatjana Apanasevic from RISE Research Institutes of Sweden as a part of Nationell Skalning Öppna Data (NSÖD) project, financed by Vinnova. The analysis is based on primary data collected through interviews with seven municipalities (the City of Gothenburg, the City of Lidingö, Skövde, Varberg, Karlskrona, Uppsala, and Skellefteå), a service provider, consultants working with open data, and three (data) journalists.

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  • 46.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Öppna data publicerings process : Leverantörsreskontra, Varberg kommun. Uppföljningsstudie2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nationell Skalning Öppna Data (NSÖD) projektet syftar till att utveckla specifikationer för öppna data och hjälpa kommuner att publicera vissa datamängder som öppna data. Inom projektet har vi analyserat samhällsekonomiska effekter av öppna data. Under år 2020 har vi genomfört studien inriktad mot samhällsekonomiska effekter av publicering av leverantörsreskontra som öppna data (Apanasevic, 2020). Under projektets gång har vi fått en unik möjlighet att följa arbetet med införandet av publiceringsprocessen för leverantörsreskontran i Varbergs kommun. Syftet med denna uppföljningsstudie är att beskriva hur Varbergs kommun införde en öppen datapubliceringsprocess och vilka lärdomar kommunen har dragit. Uppföljningsstudien genomfördes år 2021 och bestod av tre semistrukturerade intervjuer med ledaren för öppna data projekt (för leverantörsreskontra) i Varbergs kommun.

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  • 47.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    En not om att mäta kapacitet på järnväg2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport introducerar ett nytt kapacitetsmått för trafik på järnväg. Syftet med det föreslagna måttet är att det skall vara användbart vid förplanering av järnvägstrafik, innan järnvägsföretag och andra sökanden lämnar in sina ansökningar om trafik och kapacitetstilldelningen slutförs. Kapacitetsmåttet utgår från det gängse sättet att presentera en tågplan, den så kallade tidtabellsgrafen, eller i branschen refererad till som bara ”grafen”. För varje spårsträcka som tågläget belägger så utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen ytan som upptas i grafen. Denna yta är summan av varje individuell signalsträckas längd multiplicerat med tiden som tågläget belägger hela spårsträckan. Detta utgör kapacitetskonsumtionen för tågläget. Måttet blir intressant i de tidigare processtegen innan ansökan om kapacitet. Då ansökan ännu inte är genomförd så finns inga sökta avgångs- och ankomsttider, däremot en prognos vad som kommer sökas (t.ex. genom den i TTR angivna händelsen Capacity Needs Announcement). Genom att lägga på ett tidsfönster kan varje prognosticerat tågläge abstraheras att avgå/ankomma inom detta tidsfönster. Kapacitetskonsumtionen är dock konstant, och denna fördelas över tidsfönstret. Genom att för varje tidsögonblick ackumulera den fördelade kapacitetsåtgången fås en kapacitetsanvändningsplan. Denna är en abstraktion av det tänkta framtida schemat (tågplanen) och kräver således inte en konfliktfri tågplan som utgångspunkt. En kapacitetsanvändningsplan kan således realiseras av många olika scheman som realiserar den. Tanken är att kapacitetsanvändningsplanen, om prognosen för framtida trafik är rätt, på ett korrekt sätt lyckats abstraherat den framtida tågplanens konkreta schema. Hänsyn måste tas till de tidsmässiga kostnader som uppstår för att tåglägen har olika hastighet och på enkelspår går i olika riktning. Detta hanteras i analogi med andra industrisektorer med ställtid, vilket också är kapacitetskonsumtion och således ingår i kapacitetsanvändningsplanen. Utöver detta måste hänsyn i kapacitetsanvändnings-planen tas till tid som behövs för att reglera möten och förbigångar på omgivande driftplatser och ger upphov till ytor som inte längre kan nås i ett konkretiserat schema. Då denna kapacitetskonsumtion adderas till den övriga beskrivna kapacitets-konsumtionen har en kapacitetsbudget skapats vars syfte är att klargöra förutsättningarna för vilken trafik som kan bedrivas och som skall kunna realiseras i ett schema (tågplan) efter att ansökan om kapacitet skett. Det i denna rapport beskrivna måttet för kapacitetskonsumtion utgör en brygga mellan de tidigare processtegen i kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen och de senare.

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  • 48.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Reservkapacitet i tågplaneprocessen: Förstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för tilldelningsprocessen är att den mest samhällsnyttiga trafiken, tolkat som den mest samhällsekonomiska, är den som skall genomföras varje dygn. De sökande av tåglägen för nästkommande år lämnar in sina ansökningar i april året före, vilket sedan sammanställs och planeras av infrastrukturhållaren.  Såsom i all planering så är inte alla fakta kända i förväg då de sökande lämnar in sina ansökningar. Av det skälet har svensk järnvägslag ett moment om ”reservkapacitet”, kapacitet som avsätts för att möjliggöra även tilldelning av effektiva tåglägen under pågående genomförande av tågplanen. Målet för projektet Reservkapacitet i tågplanen, RIT, är att finna modeller, metoder och verktyg för hantering av reservkapacitet genom tilldelningsprocessen. Syftet är också att i allmänhet studera hur reservering av kapacitet kan göras då diskussioner förs internationellt om en utvecklad tilldelningsprocess där möjligheten till både långsiktigt stabil trafik och effektiva tåglägen med kort framförhållning skall kunna planeras och genomföras. Skillnad görs mellan tilldelad kapacitet, reserverad kapacitet och restkapacitet, där den senare enbart är sådan kapacitet som inte efterfrågades och således är ”över”. Rapporten presenterar resultaten från förstudien där olika aspekter av reserverad kapacitet belyses, en diskussion rörande hur stort behovet av reservkapacitet är samt innehåller en genomgång av vad som finns gjort inom området både nationellt och internationellt. En principiell ansats för hantering av reserverad kapacitet presenteras, där en bärande princip är att tåglägen måste ha jämförbara värden genom hela tilldelningsprocessen för att mängden och typen av reserverad kapacitet skall bli korrekt formulerad.

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  • 49.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RIT– Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen: Underlagsrapport 12020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapacitet på järnvägens infrastruktur tilldelas en gång per år till olika aktörer på järnvägen som har behov av järnvägskapacitet. Detta inkluderar järnvägsbolag såsom kommersiella person- och godstågsoperatörer, regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter, större bolag med transportbehov samt underhållsentreprenörer. Dessa har alla olika behov och värdesätter olika egenskaper för sina transporter, vissa har behov av långsiktigt stabil kapacitetstilldelning, andra har behov av större dynamik. Svensk järnvägslag ställer krav (kommande ur EU:s direktiv på området) att det finns reservkapacitet reserverat i den årliga tågplanen, som beskriver hur infrastrukturen skall användas. Reservkapacitet är kapacitet som medvetet och på goda grunder undanhållits i den årliga kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen då det finns behov av attraktiv kapacitet under innevarande tågplan. Reservkapacitet är således inte att likställa med restkapacitet vilket är den kapacitet som blir över efter att tågplanen är fastställd. Det är dock i dagsläget oklart hur reservkapacitet skall representeras i tågplaneprocessen, storleksmässigt avgöras och tidsmässigt placeras och planeras. Projektet RIT, Reservkapacitet i tilldelningsprocessen, söker svar på dessa frågor. Projektet RIT är också involverat i det av RNE (Rail Net Europe) initierade projektet TTR, Redesign of the international timetabling project (tidigare Timetable review) då det förslag till ändrad tilldelning av kapacitet som tagits fram i TTR innehåller avsevärt större krav på reservering av kapacitet i termer av en Capacity Portfolio, Capacity bands med reservering av kapacitet för upp till 3 års rullande planering (Rolling Planning) samt begreppet Safeguarding dvs att kapaciteten är reserverad och utlovad till aktör men inte nödvändigtvis detaljerat schemalagd. Samtliga dessa begrepp kräver förmåga att värdera nyttan av att reservera samt praktiskt hur reserveringen av kapacitet kan göras och slutligen realiseras som tågläge och operativt genomföras som en tågtransport eller underhållsarbete. Föreliggande statusrapport i projektet RIT beskriver inte ett färdigt resultat utan fokuseras på i huvudsak behovsanalys, formalisering av problemet, angreppssätt och tänkt modell.

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  • 50.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Transporttillgänglighet och tillgänglighetsnyckeltal för järnvägsnät och banunderhåll2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På infrastrukturförvaltaren Trafikverket åligger det att skapa en kapacitetstilldelning som både leder till punktligt genomförande av trafik och samtidigt bibehållen anläggningsstatus. Detta skall genomföras på ett sådant sätt att anläggningen används på ett optimalt samhällsnyttigt sätt. Den årliga tågplanen beskriver kapacitetsfördelningen av infrastrukturen mellan tåg och underhållsåtgärder för ett år i taget, men är slutresultatet av flera års förberedelser. Cirka 8 månader innan tågplanen börjar gälla söker järnvägsföretagen och underhållentreprenörerna kapacitet för tåglägen och banarbeten, men processen börjar avsevärt tidigare. Denna rapport beskriver hur ett transportutbud och produktions-estimat kan formuleras, beräknas och värderas som ett verktyg och underlag för dels ansökan av banarbeten, dels som ett underlag för kapacitetsfördelningsstrategier. Huvudresultatet är en frikoppling av tågläget med dess precist formulerade väg genom järnvägsnätet till ett nytt begrepp, transportläget, som definierar de huvudegenskaper som utgör viktiga leveranskvaliteter och leveransegenskaper hus transporttjänsten. Basen för ett transportläge utgör utgångsstation, slutstation samt eventuellt andra stationer med kommersiella aktiviteter såsom av/påstigande eller av/påkoppling av godsvagnar. Transportlägen med samma egenskaper formar Transporttjänsteklasser. Genom att använda prioriteringsklasserna från de i järnvägsnätsbeskrivningen beskrivna prioriteringskriterierna kan en värdering kopplas till transportlägena och transporttjänsteklasserna. Denna värdering gör det möjligt att jämföra olika transportjänsteklasser och låta transportlägen byta klass om det vid samordning och beräkning av produktions-estimatet visar sig nödvändigt på grund av exempelvis trängsel på infrastrukturen. Värderingen är också nyckeln för att värdera den påverkan trafikpåverkande åtgärder såsom banarbeten får på produktions-estimatet, dels enskilda trafikpåverkande åtgärder men kanske framför allt kombinatoriska effekter av dessa åtgärder.

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