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  • 1.
    Abi Nassif, L.
    et al.
    University Brest, France; University Saint Joseph, France.
    Rioual, S.
    University Brest, France.
    Farah, W.
    University Saint Joseph, France.
    Hellio, C.
    University Brest, France.
    Fauchon, M.
    University Brest, France.
    Trepos, R.
    University Brest, France.
    Abboud, M.
    University Saint Joseph, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lescop, B.
    University Brest, France.
    Reduction of potential ennoblement of stainless steel in natural seawater by an ecofriendly biopolymer2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 103609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of biofilm formation on passive stainless steel in seawater environments is of primary importance since it leads to potential ennoblement of surfaces and subsequently to localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. This study aims at developing an ecofriendly alginate biopolymer containing both non-toxic calcium and a limited amount of biocidal zinc ions which inhibits this effect. For this purpose, calcium alginate containing less than 1 % of zinc ions localized in the vicinity of the steel surface in natural and renewed seawater is demonstrated to reduce significantly the ennoblement process of steel. After 1 month of immersion, a mass loss of only 4 % of the active material is observed authorizing thereby long-term protection of steel in real environment. 

  • 2.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Larche, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Degres, Yves
    NKE, France.
    Biofilm sensor for deep sea2014In: 2014 IEEE Sensor Systems for a Changing Ocean, SSCO 2014, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural seawater, surfaces will be rapidly covered by microorganisms which form a thin film called biofilm. It is now generally admitted that biofilms may affect the electrochemical behavior of metals and alloys and thereby may accelerate the corrosion of the material. Biofilms formed in seawater around the World does not necessarily present the same aggressiveness in terms of corrosion risk, and recently some high alloy stainless steel corrosion failures were attributed to the particular aggressiveness of biofilms which form in tropical seawaters. In deep sea, the biofilm activity as well as the corrosion risk induced by these phenomena has to be assessed. The objective of the present study was to develop an autonomous sensor able to characterize seawater biofilms through their electrochemical effects on stainless steel surface. The sensor is able to in-situ detect the potential ennoblement and to quantify the cathodic reduction efficiency of biofilmed stainless steel, which is a major parameter to quantify the risk of corrosion propagation on these alloys, as well as the bacterial presence and activity. This sensor will be able to be deployed down to 3000 m depth for long term measurements.

  • 3.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Larché, Nicholas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Cathodic activity on passive materials in deep seawater2020In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the cathodic activity of biofilmed stainless steel surfaces was investigated at two exposure depths at the same location at 1,020 m and 2,020 m depth. For this purpose, a set of passive materials and sensors were exposed for 11 months in Azores, in the Atlantic Ocean. Characteristic cathodic depolarizations due to biological activity were observed in intermediary and deep water. However, a strong cathodic activity was only measured in deep water. Potential ennoblement appeared between 80 d and 200 d, depending on the exposure depth and the experimental setup used. In a given environment, the biological cathodic activity appears to be strongly related to the limiting parameter of the reaction, which can be anodic or cathodic. The biofilm sensors exposed for the first time in open, deep water appear relevant to discriminate cathodically “strongly-active” and “weakly-active” biological activity. Under cathodic control, a high current density was measured on stainless steel in deep seawater. The experimental setup used is particularly relevant as it allows determination in situ of the maximal cathodic current density.

  • 4.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Carbon steel and stainless-steel cathodic protection design data in Deepsea Water - Influence of the environment on the biofilm cathodic activity2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Article number 13124Corrosion Conference and Expo 2019; Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural seawater, many parameters might influence the cathodic protection current demand such as potential, temperature, dissolved oxygen content, biofilm and fouling activity, and calcareous deposit formation. The actual deepsea environment cannot be easily reproduced at laboratory scale. In this study, the influence of the depth on the cathodic protection criteria of carbon steel and stainless steel was investigated in intermediary (1020 m depth) and deep water (2020 m) at the same location. For this purpose, at set of corrosion and environmental sensors, as well as metallic coupons, were exposed during 11 months in Azores in the Atlantic Ocean. On stainless steel, a strong characteristic cathodic depolarization due to biofilm activity was observed in deep water and not in intermediary water. The biological-induced cathodic activity appears thus to be dependent on the environment, even in open seawater. In presence of an electroactive biofilm high and relatively stable current densities were measured. Under such conditions, an important structure depolarization appears, affecting thus the CP design and efficiency. For carbon steel, the cathodic protection data collected in-situ show that the initial and mean (after 11 months) current densities are higher than those recommended by the DNVGL RP B401 standard. Even if mean current densities are expected to continue to decrease slowly with further exposure time, so probably tending to the standard recommendations, the DNVGL RP B401 standard might not be conservative in terms of current densities criteria for these environments. 

  • 5.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leblanc, Vanessa
    Corrodys, France.
    Gueuné, Herve
    Corrodys, France.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Deydier, Valerie
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Linard, Yannick
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Potential influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of carbon steel in the French high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal context2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 218-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the high-level radioactive waste disposal CIGEO, the corrosion rate due to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has to be evaluated. In France, it is envisaged to dispose of high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste at a depth of 500 m in a deep geological disposal, drilled in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (Cox) formation. To do so, a carbon steel casing will be inserted inside disposal cells, which are horizontal tunnels drilled in the Cox. A specific cement grout will be injected between the carbon steel casing and the claystone. A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of MIC on carbon steel in the foreseeable high radioactive waste disposal. The corrosiveness of various environments was investigated at 50°C and 80°C with or without microorganisms enriched from samples of Andra's underground research laboratory. The monitoring of corrosion during the experiments was ensured using gravimetric method and real-time corrosion monitoring using sensors based on the measurements of the electrical resistance. The corrosion data were completed with microbiological analyses including cultural and molecular characterizations.

  • 6.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leblanc, Vanessa
    Corrodys, France.
    Gueuné, Herve
    Corrodys, France.
    Maillot, Valerie
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Linard, Yannick
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Charrier, Gaelle
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Potential influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of carbon steel in the French high-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal context at 80°C2023In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 74, no 11-12, p. 1795-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, experiments were carried out to assess the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) risk in the context of the French high-level radioactive waste disposal. The exposures were carried out at 80°C in different repository relevant conditions, including the presence of different cement-grout mixtures as filling material. Biotic conditions with nutrient and nonsterile conditions with indigenous microbes added from Callovo Oxfordian clayey rock and without nutrients were considered. For biotic conditions, specific preparations of microbial inoculum were carried out from samples collected at Andra's Underground Research Laboratory and microorganisms from microbial culture collection centers. Corrosion kinetics were determined using traditional coupons and completed with real-time corrosion sensors. Microbiological characterizations consisted of cultural approach, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing. The obtained results show no significant MIC and a reduced risk with the use of more alkaline filling material. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 7.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leblanc, Vanessa
    Corrodys, France.
    Gueuné, Herve
    Corrodys, France.
    Maillot, Valerie
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Linard, Yannick
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Charrier, Gaelle
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Crusset, Didier
    ANDRA Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs, France.
    Potential influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of the carbon steel in the French high-level long-lived nuclear waste disposal context at 50°C2023In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 74, p. 1177-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, short-term experiments were carried out to assess the microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) risk in the context of the French high-level radioactive waste disposal CIGEO (Centre Industriel de Stockage Géologique). The exposures were carried out in different representative media, including the presence of different cement-grout mixtures as filling material. Nonsterile and biotic conditions with nutrients were considered. For biotic conditions, specific preparations of microbial inoculum were carried out from samples collected at ANDRA's Underground Research Laboratory and microorganisms from the library. Corrosion kinetics were determined using both traditional coupons and completed with real-time electrical resistance sensors. Microbiological characterizations consisted of cultural approach, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing. The obtained results show no significant MIC, but a reduced risk was observed using more alkaline filling materials. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 8.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Ledan, Frédéric
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Real-time monitoring of the degradation of metallic and organic coatings using electrical resistance sensors2017In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 1365-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of new metallic coatings to protect steel, as well as the optimization of maintenance operations on site requires obtaining relevant corrosion data as function of the exposure conditions. In atmospheric and aggressive environments such as under accelerated corrosion tests or in coastal zones, electrical resistance (ER) sensors have demonstrated their ability to provide relevant real-time corrosion data. Among the sensors commercially available, only single material such as steel, zinc, copper are proposed. However, even if this allows obtaining interesting corrosion data for such reference materials, these data are not representative of industrial systems, such as galvanized steel. Indeed, zinc-based coatings can contain different alloying elements, e.g., aluminum and magnesium, which impact drastically their resistance to corrosion. In addition, with single material sensors, the influence of the galvanic coupling between the coating and the substrate, in the presence of a defect or a cut edge is not considered. In this study, hot dip galvanized, electrogalvanized, and painted steel ER sensors are exposed in accelerated corrosion tests. The results show that this method is very promising to (i) detect the red rust apparition; (ii) assess the corrosion resistance of industrial zinc and organic coatings; and (iii) obtain relevant data in real-time along the exposure time. 

  • 9.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Universite de Brest, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Universite de Brest, France.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Universite de Brest, France.
    Nguyen Vien, G.
    Universite de Brest, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rouvellou, B.
    Universite de Brest, France.
    Initial formation of corrosion products on pure zinc and MgZn2 examinated by XPS2014In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 79, p. 83-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A corrosion behaviour study of pure phases of zinc and zinc-magnesium (MgZn2) exposed to humid air at 35°C for 4days is presented. For zinc, hydroxide formation at the surface and zinc oxide in the first innerlayers is observed. The corrosion of the MgZn2 leads to the segregation of magnesium at the surface to mainly form magnesium hydroxycarbonate: the presence of magnesium modifies the corrosion products. At larger depths, metallic zinc coexists with magnesium oxide and hydrozincite. The higher reactivity of MgZn2 alloy can be attributed to the interaction with carbonate ions.

  • 10.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Peltier, Fabienne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Becker, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Real-time corrosion monitoring of aluminium alloys under chloride-contaminated atmospheric conditions2021In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1377-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the use of electrical resistance (ER) sensors to monitor the corrosion of Al94Cu6 alloy is assessed and compared with 2024-T3 coupons. Under uniform corrosion, a good correlation was found between the ER sensors and mass loss on coupons. Three different chloride depositions are studied: (i) pre-contamination with dry/wet cycles, (ii) Volvo standard accelerated corrosion test and (iii) neutral salt spray test. The obtained results show good reproducibility of the ER sensors under all tested conditions. This suggests that ER sensors more levelled the effect of localised corrosion through a large surface evaluation compared with cross-sections. The corrosion thickness obtained with the ER sensors does not correspond to the mean depth obtained by cross-sections. This can be explained by the distribution and size of the localised corrosion events according to a finite element model proposed. The ER method allows obtaining useful real-time corrosion data for the understanding of the corrosion mechanisms and the development of accelerated tests. The chloride concentration, the frequency of salt application and wet/dry cycles have a strong influence on the corrosion rate of aluminium alloys. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 11.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rouvellou, B.
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Chemistry of corrosion products of Zn and MgZn pure phases under atmospheric conditions2012In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 65, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a corrosion behaviour study of pure phases of zinc and zinc-magnesium contaminated with NaCl and exposed to humid air for 30days: Zn, Mg 2Zn 11 and MgZn 2. The composition of corrosion products is analysed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improved corrosion stability of MgZn 2 is found to be connected to changes in the surface pH and to the nature of the formed corrosion products. The presence of magnesium modifies the proportion of the OH and CO 3 bonds in the corroded products. This explains the improvement in corrosion resistance.

  • 12.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne, France.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rouvellou, B.
    Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne, France.
    Stability of ZnMgO oxide in a weak alkaline solution2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, no 7, p. 2819-2823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a chemical compound of great interest used, for example, as photocatalyst in the purification of wastewater or polluted air. However, neither dissolution, nor photo-dissolution of ZnO is negligible: indeed, both processes reduce significantly the efficiency of photocatalysis and then lead to a secondary pollution by free Zn 2 +. In the present study, the stability of ZnMgO thin films in weak alkaline solution is investigated. We demonstrate that the replacement of Zn 2 + ion with Mg 2 + ion results in the production of a Zn 0.84Mg 0.16O solid solution, whose stability is higher than that of the ZnO sample. This alloy, thus, constitutes an alternative to the use of ZnO in photocatalysis applications. To gain more insights into the higher resistance of such alloys to the dissolution process, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed. They highlighted the role of OH group adsorption in the experimentally observed enhancement of ZnMgO stability.

  • 13.
    Diler, Erwan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Rouvellou, B.
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Nguyen Vien, G.
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Characterization of corrosion products of Zn and Zn-Mg-Al coated steel in a marine atmosphere2014In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 87, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion behaviour of pure zinc and zinc-magnesium-aluminium alloy (ZMA) has been studied during 6months of exposure in marine environment (Brest, France). The composition of corrosion products is analysed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An improved corrosion resistance of ZMA is observed. This improvement is found to be connected to Mg2+ and Al3+ induced quenching of corrosion activity and to the enhancement of NaZn4Cl(OH)6SO4·6H2O in the formed corrosion product.

  • 14.
    Larche, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Vittonato, J.
    Total E and P, France.
    Shumovskiy, S.
    Yamal LNG, Russia.
    Cathodic Protection in Arctic Conditions Study Assesses Corrosivity of the Environment at the Yamal LNG Carrier Terminal in Siberia, Russian Federation2018In: Materials performance, ISSN 0094-1492, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yamal LNG, one of the largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in the world, processes natural gas from the giant onshore South Tambey gas and condensate field located on the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation. Yamal LNG will produce reserves of 4.6 billion bbl (731 billion L) of oil equivalent. The project includes an integrated gas treatment and liquefaction facility with three liquefaction trains (each with a capacity of 5.5 million tons per year), storage tanks, a port with 15 ARC 7 ice-class LNG carriers with a capacity of 170,000 m(3) each, and airport infrastructure.

  • 15.
    Larché, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Crevice and pitting corrosion of stainless-steel and nickel based alloys in deep sea water2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Article number 13337Corrosion Conference and Expo 2019; Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019;, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploration and exploitation of deep seawater present promising prospects for many industries. Hence, the use of reliable materials resistant to corrosion in deep seawater conditions is required. In natural seawater, many parameters can influence the kinetics of corrosion such as: temperature, oxygen content, biofilm and fouling activity, flow rates and hydrostatic pressure. For passive materials such as Cr Ni Mo stainless steels and nickel-based alloys, the specificity of the above parameters in deep sea environment might have an impact on both initiation and propagation phases of localized corrosion (e.g. pitting and crevice corrosion), and no or limited field data obtained in deep sea can be found in the literature. Currently, there are still many questions on the corrosion behavior of metallic materials in deep seawater since the results obtained in laboratory or from near-surface seawater cannot be extrapolated to deep seawater environments, especially in terms of bacterial activity which can significantly impact the localized corrosion resistance of passive alloys (cf. biofilm-induced ennoblement). In this study, 13-Cr Ferritic, Austenitic, Lean Duplex, Duplex, Super Duplex, Super Austenitic, Hyper Duplex Stainless Steels and Nickel based alloys were exposed during 11 months at 1020 and 2020 m water depth in the Atlantic Ocean to evaluate their corrosion behavior. Structural carbon steel S355 was also exposed under similar conditions. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) crevice gaskets according to ISO18070:2015 were used to assess the crevice corrosion at two different gasket pressures, namely 3 and 20 N/mm2. Potential monitoring was performed in-situ (at both 1020 m and 2020 m) in order to characterize the formation of electroactive biofilms at the surface of passive alloys in these environments. At each exposure depth, the environment was characterized using environmental sensors, e.g. temperature, flow velocity, dissolved oxygen, salinity. The obtained results allowed i) ranking the passive material in terms of resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in deep water at 4°C, ii) comparing biofilm electroactivity and corrosion rates at 1020 and 2020 m depth.

  • 16.
    Larché, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Crevice Corrosion of High-Grade Stainless Steels in Seawater: A Comparison Between Temperate and Tropical Locations2023In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 1106-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion risk for stainless steel components is not the same in all seawaters, with more failures generally reported in tropical seas. In this study, the influence of biofilm on electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of passive films of high-grade alloys was studied in different seawaters, including temperate seawater (France-Brest, North Atlantic Ocean), tropical seawater (Malaysia-Kelatan, Meridional China Sea), and intermediate conditions in terms of temperature (Brazil-Arraial do Cabo, South Atlantic Ocean). The stabilized open-circuit potentials and the polarization behavior of high-grade stainless steels were measured as a function of temperature in all of the tested field marine stations, providing quantified data and direct comparison of the biofilm-enhanced corrosion risks. Significant differences were measured in tropical and in temperate seawaters in heated conditions. Above 37°C, the biofilm activity was much more pronounced in tropical seawater compared to Atlantic Ocean sites, leading to much higher localized corrosion risk. Crevice corrosion of eight high-grades passive alloys was also studied with the use of crevice formers specifically developed for tube geometries. Duplex UNS S32205, superduplex UNS S32750, hyperduplex UNS S33207 and S32707, and 6Mo stainless steels UNS S31266 have been evaluated together with Ni-based alloys UNS N06845 and N06625. In the more severe conditions, the high-grade alloys UNS S32707 and the 6%Mo UNS S31266, both with pitting resistant equivalent number (PREN) around 50, showed better performance than commonly used superduplex UNS S32750 and UNS S39274 (PREN 40). The corrosion results are discussed regarding the monitored biofilm-induced depolarization measured in the different test conditions.

  • 17.
    Nazarov, Andrej P.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Persson, Daniel Pergament
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Electrochemical and corrosion properties of ZnO/Zn electrode in atmospheric environments2015In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 737, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO films of different thicknesses were prepared by thermal oxidation of zinc. The oxide covered surfaces were characterized by Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) and Scanning Kelvin Probe-Surface Photovoltage (SKP-SPV) techniques, Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), contact angle measurements, and dc voltammetry. The influence of the thickness of ZnO on the absorption of the light, water and oxygen was evaluated. SKP and dc electrochemistry were used to estimate the mechanism of electron exchange between the zinc surface and an aqueous solution containing a red-ox system [Fe(CN)6]2-/[Fe(CN)6]3-. It was shown that ZnO/Zn electrodes with a thick ZnO film nobled the Volta potential that enhanced the electron transfer from the bulk zinc to the molecule of the oxidizer- [Fe(CN)6]3-. Atmospheric corrosion of oxidized zinc surface was investigated after deposition of a single droplet of NaCl aqueous electrolyte. Thicker ZnO films promote the oxygen reduction and the spreading area of the cathodic reaction from the local NaCl contamination. It enlarged the area of metal surface participating in the cathodic reaction and consequently accelerated the atmospheric corrosion. The ability to enhance the oxygen reduction was discussed from the point of view of the band structure and the semiconducting properties of the ZnO layer.

  • 18.
    Prestat, Michel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Holzer, L.
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Rioual, Stéphane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Zaubitzer, Christian
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Microstructure and spatial distribution of corrosion products anodically grown on zinc in chloride solutions2017In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 81, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc substrates were electrochemically oxidized in NaCl solution to produce corrosion patinas. XRD, XPS and Raman analyses enabled the identification of simonkolleite and zinc oxide as the patina constituents. FIB-SEM imaging shows that the upper part of the patinas is a network of simonkolleite nanosheets with an open microstructure that is unlikely to act as a significant barrier for corrosion processes. STEM investigations and Raman mapping measurements reveal the presence of a ca. 20–400 nm thin nanoporous ZnO-rich film below the simonkolleite and covering the zinc substrate. Under potentiostatic conditions, the reduced cathodic activity of the patina-covered zinc electrodes is assigned to this nanoporous ZnO layer. 

  • 19.
    Pélissier, Krystel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Dossot, Manuel
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Carteret, Cédric
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Vittonato, Jean
    TotalEnergies OneTech, France.
    Castillon, François
    Téréga, France.
    Fontaine, Sylvain
    GRTgaz, France.
    Kerzerho, Thierry
    GRTgaz, France.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lucas, Patrice
    BS Coatings, France.
    Effects and Consequences of an Alkali-Induced Cathodic Environment on Coating Aging2023In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 13, no 11, article id 1949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of organic coatings in conjunction with cathodic protection (CP) for buried structures is the usual method for protecting steel against corrosion. When the organic coating loses its protective ability, regardless of the reason, the CP becomes the active protection, leading to a specific local environment. This environment can be characterized by high alkalinity, which can be detrimental for the coated structure, either by weakening the steel–coating interface or by the chemical aging of the coating. Thus, the coating must be compatible with CP and able to sustain aging under an alkaline environment. In this study, the susceptibility to alkaline aging and its consequences in regards to coating performance have been investigated for two commercial coatings used for buried structures—fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) and liquid epoxy (LE)—in free membrane and coated steel configurations. The results showed a clear impact of alkaline aging on the studied LE, leading to a significant reduction in coating resistance and ultimately, failure of the steel–coating interface, whereas the studied FBE remained stable. The presented results relate to a precise formulation of LE and FBE; however, the proposed chemical method appears to be relevant and shows the necessity of considering such specific aging results for coating specifications and improvements.

  • 20.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Recent advance in corrosion monitoring of atmospheric corrosion2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Article number 13124Corrosion Conference and Expo 2019; Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compact and autonomous corrosion sensor using the principle of electrical resistance variations of its metallic sensitive tracks has been used for different applications under atmospheric corrosion conditions. The measurements of the corrosion rate are performed in-situ both under laboratory and field exposures. From the results, it is possible to better understand the atmospheric corrosion of steel and zinc under various exposure conditions. The technique should also allow the design of reliable and realistic corrosion tests for different industrial applications. 

  • 21.
    Vittonato, J.
    et al.
    TOTAL, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Castillon, F.
    Terega, France.
    High sensitive sensors for collection of cathodic polarization data and determination of protection potential criteria of buried structures2019In: NACE - International Corrosion Conference SeriesVolume 2019-March, 2019, Article number 13337Corrosion Conference and Expo 2019; Nashville; United States; 24 March 2019 through 28 March 2019;, National Assoc. of Corrosion Engineers International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The installation of metallic coupons in the vicinity of buried pipes under cathodic protection (CP) allows theoretically to measure the potential and the current density through the simulated coating defect. Nevertheless, this type of monitored coupon does not provide direct information on the actual efficiency of the CP and corrosion rates that could be caused by a CP failure over time or not adapted CP design. According to the soil resistivity and the corrosion potential in absence of CP, a protection potential is generally targeted following the standard recommendations. However, the soil resistivity as well as the corrosion potential might depend on the seasonal fluctuations and the protection potential might vary as function of the considered standard. Moreover, all soils parameters cannot be considered in recommendations from standards and cathodic protection criteria can be sometimes debatable. In this study, very sensitive electrical resistance (ER) sensors, used for obtaining precise corrosion data in real-time, were adapted for soil applications. They were used in the selected soils and conditions to determine the off potential and current density corresponding to a corrosion rate of 10 µm/year, which corresponds to the maximal corrosion rate of buried structures considered as protected according the standard ISO 15589-1:2015. The adapted ER sensors appeared to be particularly suitable for determining the protection potential and CP criteria in a relatively short time. For the tested soils and conditions, the results showed that the cathodic protection criteria recommended in ISO 15589-1: 2015 are conservative compared to those measured experimentally. This method therefore seems particularly relevant for the determination of the protection potential in complex or polluted media, in the absence of data in the literature.

  • 22.
    Vucko, Flavien
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ootsuka, Shinji
    JFE Steel Corporation, Japan.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Univ Brest, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Hydrogen detection in high strength dual phase steel using scanning Kelvin probe technique and XPS analyses2022In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 197, article id 110072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen permeation through high strength DP1180 steel was studied by Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses showed that hydrogen desorption from the steel increased the ratio Fe(II)/Fe(III) related to oxide film reduction. In parallel, a drop of the electrochemical potential in the oxide film was measured by SKP. Analyses of the composition and potential of the surface were correlated based on Nernst red-ox thermodynamic equilibrium. From this approach, it was shown that the SKP potential can be a measure of hydrogen affecting the surface oxide, but additional contributions should be considered. © 2022 The Authors

  • 23.
    Yasri, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France; Telecom Bretagne, France.
    Lescop, B.
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Gallée, F.
    Telecom Bretagne, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rioual, S.
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Monitoring uniform and localised corrosion by a radiofrequency sensing method2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 257, p. 988-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for atmospheric corrosion monitoring based on the variation of radiofrequency (RF) wave propagation in a resonator during its corrosion is presented. The ability of the proposed sensor to differentiate between uniform and localized corrosion mechanisms is demonstrated by considering two identical open stub microstrip resonators produced in zinc and aluminum materials, respectively. For that purpose, experimental characterization of electromagnetic wave propagation in the resonators and simulations are compared. The proposed sensitive resonator should therefore be considered as the key element of new corrosion mimetic sensors.

  • 24.
    Yasri, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Gallée, Francois
    Technopôle Brest-Iroise, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Fundamental basis of electromagnetic wave propagation in a zinc microstrip lines during its corrosion2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 223, p. 352-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for corrosion monitoring based on the change of the radiofrequency (RF) wave propagation in a microstrip line during its corrosion is presented. For that purpose, the microstrip line is produced in the same metal as the mechanical structure under monitoring. Zinc material is considered in the study since it allows an investigation of uniform as well as localized corrosion when chloride is used. Experimental data and simulations results provide fundamental basis on the sensing mechanisms of the method and evidence the possibility to detect the created corrosion species and to distinguish between localized and uniform corrosion processes. As the consequence, the proposed method should be considered as promising and reliable tool for corrosion monitoring of several materials exposed to various environments

  • 25.
    Yasri, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB. Technopôle Brest-Iroise, France; Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Gallee, Francois
    Technopôle Brest-Iroise, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Microwave characterization of materials during corrosion: Application to wireless sensors2015In: European Microwave Week 2015: "Freedom Through Microwaves", EuMW 2015 - Conference Proceedings; 2015 45th European Microwave Conference Proceedings, EuMC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2015, p. 267-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for corrosion monitoring of metals and alloys is presented. It is based on the change of the radiofrequency (RF) wave propagation in a microstrip line during its corrosion. The microstrip line is produced in the same metal as the mechanical structure under monitoring. The studied frequencies correspond to the ISM bands. During the corrosion process, measured transmission decreases from 0 to 40 dB. This lost is clearly explained by simulations. Consequently, experimental data and simulations results provide fundamental basis on the sensing mechanisms of the method and evidence, in particular, the possibility to distinguish between localized and uniform corrosion. Due to the nature of the method, the sensitive microstrip can be very easily integrated through different architectures into RF wireless sensors. As the consequence, the proposed method should be considered as promising and reliable tool for corrosion monitoring of several materials exposed to various environments.

1 - 25 of 25
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