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  • 1.
    Jönsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    The influence of the microstructure on the atmospheric corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM502010In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 1077-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though magnesium, as a structure metal, is most commonly used in an atmospheric environment, most investigations of magnesium are performed in solution. In the present work the atmospheric corrosion of two commonly used magnesium alloys, AZ91D and AM50, has been investigated from the initial stages up to the most severe forms of corrosion. A detailed investigation of the morphology of a corrosion attack and its development over time shows that the atmospheric corrosion mechanism is similar for the two alloys. Based on these findings a schematic model of the initial atmospheric corrosion attack on AZ91D is presented and discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Stoulil, J.
    VSCHT, Czech Republic.
    Atmospheric corrosion of zinc-aluminum alloyed coated steel in depleted carbon dioxide environments2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 7, p. C343-C353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NaCl induced corrosion of Zn-0.2Al, Zn-5Al and Zn-55Al coated steel was investigated at low and ambient CO2 levels.Weight loss measurements revealed an enhancement of the corrosion of Zn-0.2Al and particularly Zn-5Al in low CO2. This was connected to an increase of surface pH in a low CO2 atmosphere promoting the formation of ZnO and layered double hydroxide for Zn-5Al. For Zn-55Al, CO2 depletion did not affect the surface pH due to the acidification effect of Al3+. Preferential dissolution of zinc rich phase was observed on cross-sections, particularly in depleted CO2 experiments. Different sequences of corrosion product formation were proposed for the different Zn-Al coatings. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/),

  • 3.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Rohwerder, Michael
    Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH,Germany.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Luckeneder, Gerald
    Voestalpine, Austria.
    Luxem, Linda
    Thyssen Krupp Steel Europe, Germany.
    Effect of carbon dioxide on the atmospheric corrosion of Zn-Mg-Al coated steel2013In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 74, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric corrosion of line hot dip ZnMgAl coating was investigated at low and ambient concentration of CO2 as a function surface chloride concentration and temperature and compared to conventional hot dip galvanised (GI) and Galfan coatings. The corrosion of zinc coatings was enhanced in low CO2 conditions and ZnMgAl material was more affected than GI, and in the range of the Galfan coating. An obvious pH effect was underlined in low CO2 conditions. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) and simonkolleite were mainly formed on ZnMgAl coating in the absence of CO2 while hydroxycarbonate and simonkolleite were dominating in ambient air.

  • 4.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by acetic acid: A quantified in situ IRAS study2008In: 17th International Corrosion Congress 2008: Corrosion Control in the Service of Society, 2008, Vol. 3, p. 1569-1574Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a broader research program dealing with initial atmospheric corrosion of metals induced by organic acids, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) has been used to study the initial interaction of acetic acid with zinc in 90% relative humidity and 120 ppb acid concentration under in situ condition. Efforts were made to quantify the identified reaction product species, mainly zinc oxide and zinc acetate. The experimentally obtained results were quantified through calculations using a linear relationship between IRAS peak intensity and layer thickness, and assuming optical constants of zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH 3COO) 2•2H 2O). In all, the in situ studies performed by IRAS provide information on the identity and quantity of reaction products formed. © 2009 by NACE International.

  • 5.
    Persson, Dan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Prosek, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Luckeneder, Gerald H.
    Voestalpine, Austria.
    Initial SO2-induced atmospheric corrosion of ZnAlMg coated steel studied with in situ Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy2015In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 90, p. 276-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial atmospheric corrosion of ZnAl2Mg2 coated steel in humid air with 80ppb SO2 was studied using in situ Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy, XRD and SEM. Corrosion products formed in SO2- and SO2 and NaCl containing environments on ZnAl2Mg2 (ZM) were dominated by Mg-containing sulphite and sulphates with sulphite formed mainly initially. The sulphite formation is connected with dissolution of the Mg-containing oxide layer present initially. This is followed by a localised corrosion process where Mg rich phase in the binary eutectic microstructure is dissolved anodically while the Zn-rich phase is the site for the cathodic oxygen reduction.

  • 6.
    Persson, Dan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Spectroscopic imaging of the buried substrate / polymer interface upon exposure to corrosive environments2021In: Vibrational Spectroscopy, ISSN 0924-2031, E-ISSN 1873-3697, Vol. 113, article id 103217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic imaging of water at the substrate / polymer interface was demonstrated by a new experimental set-up based on FTIR-ATR focal plane array (FPA) imaging and simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The local distribution of water at the substrate / polymer interfacial region could be imaged with a lateral resolution in the micrometer range. The kinetics of local water uptake vs exposure time on polymer coated Ge as well as on polymer coated and NaCl pre-contaminated Ge surfaces was obtained. The set-up can also be used to study interfacial processes at polymer coated thin film metallic or metal oxide surfaces.

  • 7.
    Persson, Dan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    The Effect of Microstructure on Local Corrosion Product Formation during Initial SO2-Induced Atmospheric Corrosion of ZnAlMg Coating Studied by FTIR-ATR FPA Chemical Imaging2023In: Corrosion and Materials Degradation, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 503-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial atmospheric corrosion of ZM (ZnAlMg)-coated steel in humid air (85% RH) and humid argon (85% RH) containing 320 ppb SO2 was studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), FTIR-ATR focal plane array (FPA) imaging and SEM-EDS. The corrosion products formed in humid air containing SO2 are mainly composed of magnesium sulphites and sulphates, with sulphite-containing corrosion products formed initially while the contribution from sulphates increased with exposure time. The results from FTIR-FPA imaging and SEM-EDS showed that the magnesium sulphite and sulphate are formed mainly on eutectic phases with a higher quantity of corrosion products formed on the binary eutectic (Zn-MgZn2 ) phases. This is due to presence of microgalvanic elements with the zinc-rich phases as the main sites for the cathodic oxygen reduction while the anodic reactions take place on the eutectic areas. Sulphate content is the highest on the binary eutectic phases, due to the microgalvanic effects and the production of oxidants by the cathodic reaction, which increases the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate.

  • 8.
    Persson, Dan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Corrosion product formation on Zn55Al coated steel upon exposure in a marine atmosphere2011In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 720-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of corrosion products on Zn55Al coated steel has been investigated upon field exposures in a marine environment. The corrosion products consisted mainly of zinc aluminium hydroxy carbonate, Zn0.71Al0.29(OH)2(CO3)0.145·xH2O, zinc chloro sulfate (NaZn4(SO4)Cl(OH)6·6H2O), zinc hydroxy chloride, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O and zinc hydroxy carbonate, Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 were the first three phases were formed initially while zinc hydroxy carbonate Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 was formed after prolonged exposure in more corrosive conditions. The initial corrosion product formation was due to selective corrosion of the zinc rich interdendritic areas of the coating resulting in a mixture of zinc and zinc aluminium corrosion products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 9.
    Persson, Dan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Prosek, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    In situ infrared reflection spectroscopy studies of the initial atmospheric corrosion of Zn-Al-Mg coated steel2013In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 72, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NaCl induced atmospheric corrosion of ZnAl2Mg2 coated, electrogalvanised (EG) and hot dipped galvanised (HDG) steel was studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, XRD and SEM. Initial corrosion leads to the formation of Mg/Al and Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on ZnAl2Mg2, due to the anodic dissolution of Zn-MgZn2 phases and cathodic oxygen reduction on Zn-Al-MgZn2, Al-phases and on zinc dendrites. In contrast to EG and HDG, were no ZnO and Zn5(OH)8Cl2{dot operator}H2O detected. This is explained by the buffering effect of Mg and Al which inhibit the ZnO formation, reduce the cathodic reaction and corrosion rate on ZnAl2Mg2.

  • 10.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Hagström, Joacim
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Chocholatý, Ondrej
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Taxén, Claes
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Serak, Jan
    University of Chemistry and Technology, Czech Republic.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Effect of the microstructure of Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Mg model alloys on corrosion stability2016In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 110, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn-5Al and Zn-3Al-2Mg model alloys were cast and heat treated in order to obtain specimens with distinct microstructures and identical chemical compositions. The microstructure was characterised in detail to identify composition, size and distribution of present phases. Mass losses of samples with different microstructures and identical chemical compositions that were subjected to a cyclic corrosion test and a test under non-rinsing conditions differed by a factor of up to two. The mechanism is discussed based on measurements of corrosion stability of individual phases and chemical and phase compositions of corrosion products.

  • 11.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Stoulil, Jan
    Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Thierry, Domninique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Composition of corrosion products formed on Zn-Mg, Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Mg coatings in model atmospheric conditions2014In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 86, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of corrosion products on hot-dip galvanised steel. (HDG), Zn-5Al, Zn-11Al-3Mg-0.2Si, Zn-16Mg and Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg with pre-deposited NaCl was followed in humid air at 20. °C. The alloyed coatings showed an improvement in mass loss by a factor of 4-7 to HDG. Corrosion products on the alloyed coatings contained twice as much carbonates than those formed on HDG. Magnesium dissolved preferentially, and aluminium-enriched phases were the most stable. Magnesium buffered the pH at cathodic sites, thus hindering the formation of zinc oxide and inhibiting the oxygen reduction. Magnesium products at the metal/corrosion product interface might also have an inhibiting effect.

  • 12.
    Qiu, P.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by carboxylic acids: A quantitative in situ study2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 12, p. C441-C447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc induced by formic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid has been followed in situ with infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). An optical model was applied to quantify the IRAS data, which enabled the absolute amounts of the two main species detected, ZnO and zinc carboxylate (mainly hydrated or hydroxyl zinc carboxylate), to be derived. The formation rate of zinc carboxylate increases as propionic<acetic

  • 13.
    Qiu, P.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Leygraf, C.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Initial oxidation of zinc induced by humidified air: A quantified in situ study2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 3, p. C81-C86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multianalytical approach with in situ capability has been used to explore the initial oxidation of zinc in air with 90% relative humidity at 20°C. The only surface species identified were zinc oxide (ZnO) and reversibly adsorbed water. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed the homogeneous nucleation of ZnO grains. The kinetics of ZnO formation was followed quantitatively by in situ IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) integrated with a quartz crystal microbalance up to an average film thickness of 50 nm after 72 h of exposure. The quantitative results exhibit good agreement with ex situ cathodic reduction and with optical calculations of IRAS data and provide further evidence of IRAS as an in situ analytical tool with quantification capability. The ZnO growth followed the logarithmic rate law as predicted by Fehlner and Mott [Oxid. Met., 2, 59 (1970)]. © 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

  • 14.
    Tabeshian, Ali
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Arnberg, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Aune, Ragnhild
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparison of the electrochemical behavior of amorphous Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10, stainless steel (316LVM), and CoCrMo (F75) in simulated body fluid with and without addition of protein2019In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 652-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical behavior of, and metal ion release from the bulk amorphous (glassy) Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 alloy (Zr-MG) was evaluated in simulated body fluid (phosphate buffer saline [PBS]), with and without additions of protein (albumin Fraction V) at pH 7.4 and 5.2 and at body temperature 310 K (37 °C). The passivation behavior and susceptibility to pitting of the Zr-MG was compared with conventional load bearing implant materials, that is, the medical grade ASTM F75 cast CoCrMo alloy (CoCrMo) and AISI 316 LVM low carbon vacuum re-melted stainless steel alloy (SS). Furthermore, the metal ion release from the main constituent elements of each alloy was measured and compared. All materials showed passive behavior in the PBS solution with and without presence of albumin, though the passive region was smaller for the Zr-MG compared to the CoCrMo and SS. Moreover, all materials experienced pitting corrosion in the PBS solution while the Zr-MG was the most susceptible and the CoCrMo was the least one. Protein additions to the CoCrMo and SS prevented the formation of stable pits at pH 7.4 and 5.2. A decrease in passive region and pitting potential was seen in the case of albumin additions for the Zr-MG at pH 7.4, while the opposite was seen at pH 5.2. Furthermore, the total metal ion release from the Zr-MG was less than for the CoCrMo.

  • 15.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion of hot-dip-galvanised steel and zinc alloy-coated steel in ammonia and ammonium chloride2020In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 1118-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many potential causes of corrosion in animal buildings. Animals exhale large quantities of moisture into the air creating high relative humidity in the building if the moisture is not properly vented. High humidity increases the potential for condensation. In addition, ammonia may be found in large quantities in animal buildings. Ammonia is released from manure and urine. In addition, ammonium chloride is used as a nitrogen source in fertilisers. In this study, the atmospheric corrosion of hot-dip-galvanised steel and zinc alloy-coated steel such as zinc–aluminium and zinc–aluminium–magnesium has been studied in atmospheres containing different levels of ammonia. Investigations have also been conducted at different levels of ammonium chloride. The results are discussed in view of the mechanisms of corrosion of zinc and zinc alloy-coated steel in ammonia and ammonium chloride-containing environments.

  • 16.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    (Invited) Atmospheric Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys: Influence of Aluminium Content2020In: ECS Meeting Abstracts, Volume MA2020-02, C06: Atmospheric and Marine Corrosion 2, The Electrochemical Society , 2020, Vol. MA2020-02, no 13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium has gained considerable interest as a structural material for automotive and aerospace applications due to its low density and high specific strength. The use of magnesium alloys in engineering applications is, however, mainly limited by their unsatisfactory surface properties and their poor corrosion resistance. In recent years, significant improvements have been made in achieving a better corrosion resistance particularly by reducing the contents of impurities such as Fe, Cu, and Ni. Intermetallic phases, a result of the casting process, play an important role in the corrosion process. The role of these intermetallic phases has been addressed in a number of papers [1–3]. The role of aluminum in the atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloys has less addressed in the literature [4]. Esmaily et al have shown recently that the rate of corrosion of magnesium alloys decreased when increasing the Al content. However these experiments were performed on commercial magnesium alloys produced high pressure die casting under constant RH exposure at 90% RH. In our work the corrosion behavior of binary Mg-Al alloys as well as that of commercial magnesium alloys with different aluminum contents have studied both under cyclic corrosion exposure in the laboratory and in field exposures in France and in Vietnam. Analyses of corrosion products have also been conducted. Additional in-situ measurements have been performed in order to better understand the atmospheric corrosion mechanisms of Mg alloys. An important decrease in the maximum pit depth can be observed after different laboratory exposures when increasing the aluminum content in the material. Similar results have been obtained after 9 months exposure in Field. Hence, from these results it is obvious that an increase of the aluminum concentration in Mg-Al alloys decreased the corrosion rate of the alloy. This lead in lower mass loss and less deep corrosion attacks in the magnesium grains. The analyses of corrosion products formed after the cyclic corrosion tests and field exposures revealed the presence of Magnesium carbonate and MgCO3(OH)4,4H20, respectively. In both cases magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 was also found in the corrosion products. The results will be discussed in relation with the microstructure of the cast materials. 

  • 17.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    (Invited) FTIR Spectroscopical Imaging of the Substrate / Polymer Interface upon Exposure to Corrosive Environments2020In: ECS Meeting Abstracts, Volume MA2020-02, C05: High Resolution Characterization of Corrosion Processes 5: In Honor of Philippe Marcus, The Electrochemical Society , 2020, Vol. MA2020-02, no 12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic coating is an efficient method to protect metal surfaces from corrosive atmospheres but is dependent on the presence of a stable interface between the substrate and the polymer coating. However, coatings based on polymers have mostly only limited barrier properties for water and oxygen. Transport of water to the interfacial region is for most coatings inevitable upon prolonged exposure in aqueous environments. Ingress of water molecules can destabilize the substrate / polymer interface and lead to delamination of the polymer coating and initiation of corrosion processes. In this work was spectrochemical imaging of the substrate / polymer interfacial region using a FTIR-microscope with a focal plane array (FPA) detector is performed in order to follow the water up-take at the substrate / polymer interfacial region with micrometer sized lateral resolution. Chemical imaging of the interfacial region between substrates, such as Ge and Ge with thin Zn metallic layers, and organic coatings was performed during exposure to 0.1 M NaCl and humid air (95 %RH). The water uptake and water induced alterations in the substrate / polymer interfacial region on the microscale was followed. Simultaneous electrochemical impedance measurements allowed correlation of electrochemical information from the coated metal with the chemical imaging of the interfacial region.

  • 18.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Long-term atmospheric corrosion rates of Zn55Al-coated steel2024In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-dip Zn55Al-coated steel samples have been exposed for up to 6 years at 11 different weathering sites, including marine, marine-industrial, acid-rain and dry atmospheres. From the mass loss measurements, Zn55Al metallic coating showed globally long-term good corrosion resistance in all weathering conditions compared with hot-dip Zn-0.2Al-coated steel (Z). Yet, weaker performance was observed on Zn55Al in high SO2 polluted atmosphere, particularly when combined with seawater aerosols. This is explained by a more acidic surface condition linked to high SO2. Although the extent of corrosion in this phase was different at the different sites, the final corrosion products formed after 6 years were rather similar at all sites. This consists of hydrous aluminium sulphate or hydrous aluminium hydroxy sulphate and, probably also a smaller amount of sulphate-containing zinc corrosion products or Al/Zn products.

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  • 19.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Gac, A.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    LeBozec, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Peltola, A.
    SSAB Europe, Finland.
    Väisänen, P.
    SSAB Europe, Finland.
    Long-term atmospheric corrosion of Zn–5%Al-coated steel and HDG during outdoor worldwide exposures2020In: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 520-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-dipped galvanised (HDG) steel and Zn5Al-coated steel were exposed for 6 years at different atmospheric weathering sites worldwide. The mass loss of the coatings has been measured after 1, 2, 4 and 6 years of exposure. In addition, corrosion products have been determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. It is shown that Zn5Al is better than HDG-steel independently on the exposure duration and location. The mass loss of Zn5Al is also less dependent of the environmental parameters (such as chloride deposition, relative humidity and temperature) than HDG-steel. The ratio of performance after 6 years of exposure varied from 1.3 to 5.1 with the mean value of 3.1. The analyses of the corrosion products indicate the formation of protective Zn/Al - (Formula presented.) layered double hydroxide (LDH) and sulphate-containing corrosion products of Zn and Al after 6 years of exposure. A mechanism explaining the superior properties of Zn5Al is proposed. 

  • 20.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Luckeneder, Gerald
    voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Stellnberger, Karl Heinz
    voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Atmospheric corrosion of ZnAlMg coated steel during long term atmospheric weathering at different worldwide exposure sites2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 148, p. 338-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric corrosion of zinc aluminium magnesium (ZnAlMg) coated steel was studied in a worldwide exposure in Europe, East Asia and USA. The mass loss of ZnAlMg coated steel was about 2–3 times lower compared to hot dipped galvanised steel (HDG) after 4 years exposure. The corrosion of ZnAlMg coated steel was highly localised with selective corrosion attacks in the eutectic phases of the coating. Sulfate and chloride containing corrosion products were formed in the corrosion pits while zinc hydroxy carbonate and carbonate containing layered doubly hydroxides (LDH) formed mainly in the outer parts of corrosion attacks.

  • 21.
    Wärnheim, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Edvinsson, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Deltin, Tomas
    Nordic United Coatings, Sweden.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Depth-Resolved FTIR-ATR Imaging Studies of Coating Degradation during Accelerated and Natural Weathering─Influence of Biobased Reactive Diluents in Polyester Melamine Coil Coating2022In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 7, no 27, p. 23842-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved methods to assess the degradation of coil coatings to approximate lifetime have been an area of academic and industrial interest for decades. This work aims to elucidate the differences in the degradation behavior of two coil coating systems: one standard commercial formulation and one formulation with a significant addition of biorenewable reactive diluents. Depth-resolved degradation behavior of samples exposed to accelerated and natural field weathering is assessed. Focal plane array attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to acquire high-resolution chemical data from a sloping cross section. The results agreed with conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy. Degradation profiles for the two coatings were significantly different, with the biobased samples showing a more durable behavior. This study provides a method for detailed assessment of coating degradation, giving a good estimation of its durability. This is both a way to compare the performance of coating systems and to improve the understanding of the impact of exposure conditions, paving the way for the development of more sustainable coil coatings.

  • 22.
    Wärnheim, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kotov, Nikolay
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dobryden, Illia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Telaretti Leggieri, Rosella
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Edvinsson, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Deltin, Tomas
    Nordic United Coatings, Sweden.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanomechanical and nano-FTIR analysis of polyester coil coatings before and after artificial weathering experiments2024In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 190, article id 108355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local heterogeneities can have significant effects on the performance of anti-corrosion coatings. Even small features can act as initiation points for damage and result in corrosion of the substrate material. Analysis methods with high spatial resolution and the ability to collect information relevant to crosslinking and degradation behavior of these coatings are therefore highly relevant. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of nanomechanical AFM measurements and nano-FTIR in investigating the nanoscale mechanical and chemical properties of two polyester coil coating clearcoats before and after weathering. On the nanoscale, weathering led to a stiffer and less deformable coating with less variation in the nanomechanical properties. Chemical degradation was quantified using changes in band ratios in the IR-spectra. Macro and nano-scale measurements showed similar trends with the latter measurements showing larger heterogeneity. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the described analysis techniques and will pave the way for future studies of local properties in other coating systems and formulations. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 23.
    Zavalis, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ström, Mats
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Wendel, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Törne, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Taxén, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Rendahl, Bo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Voltaire, Joakim
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    Gestamp HardTech AB, Sweden.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Mechanistic Model with Empirical Pitting Onset Approach for Detailed and Efficient Virtual Analysis of Atmospheric Bimetallic Corrosion2023In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanistic model of atmospheric bimetallic corrosion with a simplified empirical approach to the onset of localized corrosion attacks is presented. The model was built for a typical bimetallic sample containing aluminum alloy 1050 and stainless steel 316L sheets. A strategy was developed that allowed the model to be calibrated against the measured galvanic current, geometrical corrosion attack properties, and corrosion products. The pitting-onset simplification sets all pits to be formed at a position near the nobler metal and treated all pits as being of the same shape and size. The position was based on the location of the highest pitting events and the pit attributes on an average of the deepest pits. For 5 h exposure at controlled RH (85%, 91%, and 97%) and salt load (86 μg NaCl/cm2), the model was shown to be promising: both for analysis of local bimetallic corrosion chemistry, such as pH and corrosion products, and for efficient assessment of pitting damage by computing a single largest pit depth. Parametric studies indicated that the pitting-onset approximation deviated the most at the beginning of exposure and when RH was below 91%. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 24.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sababi, Majid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brinck, Tore
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ investigations of Fe3+ induced complexation of adsorbed Mefp-1 protein film on iron substrate2013In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 404, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of in situ analytical techniques and theoretical calculations were applied to gain insights into the formation and properties of the Mefp-1 film on iron substrate, as well as the protein complexation with Fe3+ ions. Adsorption kinetics of Mefp-1 and the complexation were investigated using QCM-D. The results suggest an initially fast adsorption, with the molecules oriented preferentially parallel to the surface, followed by a structural change within the film leading to molecules extending toward solution. Exposure to a diluted FeCl3 solution results in enhanced complexation within the adsorbed protein film, leading to water removal and film compaction. In situ Peak Force Tapping AFM was employed for determining morphology and nano-mechanical properties of the surface layer. The results, in agreement with the QCM-D observations, demonstrate that addition of Fe3+ induces a transition from an extended and soft protein layer to a denser and stiffer one. Further, in situ ATR-FTIR and Confocal Raman Micro-spectroscopy (CRM) techniques were utilized to monitor compositional/structural changes in the surface layer due to addition of Fe3+ ions. The spectroscopic analyses assisted by DFT calculations provide evidence for formation of tri-Fe3+/catechol complexes in the surface film, which is enhanced by Fe3+ addition.

  • 25.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    ATR-FTIR Kretschmann spectroscopy for interfacial studies of a hidden aluminum surface coated with a silane film and epoxy I.: Characterization by IRRAS and ATR-FTIR2012In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 133-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacial analysis is essential in many areas of interest, for instance within the ongoing research on environmentally friendly pretreatments of metal surfaces. While studies of the hidden interface between a metal and polymer top-coat are of great importance, properties of a surface confined between two media are difficult to analyze in detail. Within the two parts of this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry is employed as the main analytical tool to study the interface between a thermo-cured epoxy and aluminum pretreated with a silane film. The technique requires model systems based on thin metal films, but in contrast to most analytical techniques it permits the analysis of a hidden interface. Initial characterization of the silane film formed from a pH-regulated γ-APS and BTSE solution was conducted by both ATR-FTIR Kretschmann and IRRAS spectroscopy. Absorption bands were obtained at 1250-900 cm -1, assigned to Si-O functionalities, and at ∼1570 and ∼1410 cm -1 assigned to acetate existing as a counter-ion to γ-APS. After application of the epoxy film, interfacial alterations were detected upon thermal curing including the densification of the epoxy film, the dehydration of aluminum and the formation of molecular epoxy reaction products. Few alterations could be assigned to the silane film. Calculated spectra derived from optical data can verify experimental results and aid data interpretation, and effects of metal oxidation of aluminum were confirmed by introducing gold as an additional substrate. The results showed that ATR-FTIR Kretschmann spectroscopy is clearly a valuable tool for the study of hidden interfaces of stratified media. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 26.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    ATR-FTIR Kretschmann spectroscopy for interfacial studies of a hidden aluminum surface coated with a silane film and epoxy II.: Analysis by integrated ATR-FTIR and EIS during exposure to electrolyte with complementary studies by in situ ATR-FTIR and in situ IRRAS2012In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The destabilization of the interface between a polymer and a metal surface is of considerable interest in several application areas, including the ongoing research on environmentally friendly pretreatments as a replacement for the Cr(VI)-containing systems where the understanding of mechanisms and performance of a confined metal/polymer interface is of utmost importance. Processes at hidden interfaces are, however, difficult to analyze in detail and at relevant climatic conditions. This study has been divided in two parts, where the subject of Part I is the surface characterization by ATR-FTIR Kretschmann and IRRAS spectroscopy of aluminum coated with an amino-functional silane, and the interfacial analysis by ATR-FTIR Kretschmann after further application of an epoxy film. This second part describes the interaction between the coated sample and an electrolyte. The analysis is performed by integrated in situ ATR-FTIR Kretschmann and EIS, which requires model systems with evaporated metal films on an internal reflection element. Complementary analyses were also conducted on substrates in the absence of the metal film, and or in the absence of an epoxy top-coat, respectively. Changes in the interfacial region were observed and assigned to the water uptake including swelling of the epoxy, and the formation of aluminium oxidation and hydration products. Complementary studies allowed the distinction between water uptake in the silane film and the epoxy, respectively, as well as reformations of the siloxane network. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 27.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Jacobsson, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    In situ studies of conversion coated zinc/polymer surfaces during exposure to corrosive conditions2011In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the hidden interface between a conversion-coated zinc surface and a polymer coating upon exposure to an electrolyte by simultaneous in situ ATR-FTIR and EIS. Various system properties were distinguished, such as the ingress of electrolyte constituents, and an active process of water-induced alterations of the conversion layer. The interface between a polymer film and a surface treated metal surface is of considerable fundamental and technical interest in many areas of application, and the results obtained open up the use of this method for a wide range of important applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1 - 27 of 27
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