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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bergdoll, Marion
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Menzel, Carolin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of steaming and boiling of root vegetables for enhancing carbohydrate content and sensory profile2022In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 312, p. 110754-110754, article id 110754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Root vegetables have unique techno-functional and nutritional properties however, their use in processed foods is limited to a few species, partially due to a lack of knowledge related to the impact of thermal treatments on the sensory properties. This study investigated the effect of steaming and boiling on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and sensory profile of three model root vegetables with distinct carbohydrate composition: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), and beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Thermally treated Jerusalem artichoke and parsnip showed higher content of cell wall polysaccharides, particularly β-glucans (e.g. cellulose) and pectic components, compared to raw. Steaming produced more cell shrinkage and loss of cell-cell adhesion than boiling, leading to softer vegetables. Processed beetroot showed loss of cell turgor and drastic softening but not clear changes in overall carbohydrate content. The scores for several flavour and in-mouth attributes were higher for steamed vegetables compared to boiled. Our results give insights on the processability of root vegetables towards products with enhanced sensory and nutritional properties.

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  • 2.
    Archer, Nicholas
    et al.
    CSIRO, Australia; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Cochet-Broch, Maeva
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lundin, Leif
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Frank, Damian
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Sodium Reduction in Bouillon: Targeting a Food Staple to Reduce Hypertension in Sub-saharan Africa2022In: Frontiers in Nutrition, E-ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 9, article id 746018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bouillon cubes are a staple ingredient used in Sub-saharan African countries providing flavor enhancement to savory foods. Bouillon has been identified as a vehicle for fortification to overcome micronutrient deficiencies in Sub-saharan Africa. However, bouillon has a high sodium content (and in addition with other foods) contributes to dietary sodium intake above recommended guidelines. High dietary sodium intake is a key risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Africa has the highest rates of hypertension and CVD globally with nearly half the adult population above 25 years affected. This review presents current state of research on sodium reduction strategies in bouillon. The key challenge is to reduce sodium levels while maintaining optimal flavor at the lowest possible production cost to ensure bouillon continues to be affordable in Sub-saharan Africa. To produce lower sodium bouillon with acceptable flavor at low cost will likely involve multiple sodium reduction strategies; direct reduction in sodium, sodium replacement and saltiness boosting flavor technologies. Efforts to reduce the sodium content of bouillon in Sub-saharan Africa is a worthwhile strategy to: (i) lower the overall sodium consumption across the population, and (ii) deliver population-wide health benefits in a region with high rates of hypertension and CVD. Copyright © 2022 Archer, Cochet-Broch, Mihnea, Garrido-Bañuelos, Lopez-Sanchez, Lundin and Frank.

  • 3.
    Ben Tobin, Aarti
    et al.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Hildenbrand, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bolus rheology and ease of swallowing of particulated semi-solid foods as evaluated by an elderly panel2020In: Food & Function, ISSN 2042-6496, E-ISSN 2042-650X, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 8648-8658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preparation of a bolus is a complex process with both food comminution and degree of lubrication with saliva playing an important role in a safe swallow. Swallowing disorders i.e. dysphagia, are especially present among the elderly population and often lead to choking and further health complications. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the perception of ease of swallowing in the elderly and the rheological parameters of particulated foods, using broccoli purees as a model system. Particulated foods can be described as a concentrated dispersion of plant particles in a fluid phase. The effect of the fluid phase (Newtonian vs. shear thinning) and dispersed phase (plant particles with different size distribution and morphology) on the rheological properties of simulated boli was studied by characterising shear viscosity, viscoelasticity, yield stress, extensional viscosity and cohesiveness. Ease of swallowing and mouthfeel were evaluated by a semi trained healthy elderly panel (n = 19, aged 61 to 81). Ease of swallowing was correlated with the presence of yield stress and extensional viscosity in the bolus, characteristic of boli with xanthan gum as the fluid phase. Although the properties of the fluid phase played a dominant role in the ease of swallowing, compared to the dispersed phase, both components played a role in the rheological properties of the bolus and the perception of ease of swallowing by the elderly panel. These results provide insights into the design of personalised foods for populations with specific needs such as those suffering from swallowing disorders.

  • 4.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ballester, Jordi
    University Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Exploring the Typicality, Sensory Space, and Chemical Composition of Swedish Solaris Wines.2020In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish wine industry has exponentially grown in the last decade. However, Swedish wines remain largely unknown internationally. In this study, the typicality and sensory space of a set of twelve wines, including five Swedish Solaris wines, was evaluated blind by Swedish wine experts. The aim of the work was to evaluate whether the Swedish wine experts have a common concept of what a typical Solaris wines should smell and taste like or not and, also, to bring out more information about the sensory space and chemical composition of Solaris wines. The results showed a lack of agreement among the wine experts regarding the typicality of Solaris wines. This, together with the results from the sensory evaluation, could suggest the possibility of different wine styles for Solaris wines. From a chemical perspective, the global volatile profile showed a larger variability between individual wines than between Solaris and non-Solaris. However, 4MMP, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-Methyl propanoate, and diethyl succinate were significantly higher in Solaris wines. Concerning non-volatile compounds, the results showed a significant discrimination between Solaris and non-Solaris wines, the former being characterized by higher ethanol %, Mg, succinic acid, tartaric acid, and sucrose levels.

  • 5.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, A
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Is There a Link Between Coffee Aroma and the Level ofFuranmethanethiol (FMT) in Pinotage Wines?2020In: South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0253-939X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, Pinotage has found its way into the South African and international market. Producers have used the flavour potential of this "original" South African grape to produce different wine styles, one of them being the so-called "coffee-style Pinotage". The current study aims to explain the impact of furanmethanethiol (FMT) on the characteristic coffee aroma of these coffee-style wines. Chemical and sensory evaluation, as well as data mining of the technical information available, was performed. Not all wines marketed as "coffee Pinotage" showed a high "coffee" rating. However, the results showed a good correlation between the aroma perception and FMT concentrations (R2 = 0.81). However, RV coefficients were low when comparing the coffee rating with the information provided on both the front and the back label, which shows that, in some cases, the use of the "coffee Pinotage" term was rather part of the marketing strategy.

  • 6.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, A.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    du Toit, W. J.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Phenolic and sensorial evolution during bottle ageing of South African Shiraz wines with different initial phenolic profiles2020In: South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0253-939X, E-ISSN 2224-7904, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 17-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the colour and phenolic evolution of Shiraz red wines made from the same vineyard, but with different initial phenolic profiles. Several vineyard-related variables were initially evaluated in a first vintage (2014), but grape ripeness was shown to be the most determining factor on most of the phenolics and the taste and mouthfeel of the wines. In the second vintage (2015), wines made from four different ripeness levels were aged up to 18 months and periodically analysed during this period. The results show how Shiraz wines with different initial phenolic profiles might develop differently over time during bottle ageing. In the second vintage, some of the colour and phenolic parameters of the wines were similar after completing the alcoholic fermentation (AF). However, these small differences between the wines became more noticeable over time, especially when comparing the wines made from the highest sugar level with the rest. These differences were especially noticeable in the polymeric fraction (polymeric phenols and polymeric pigments), with a larger number of polymeric forms found in the wines made from the ripest berries, and subsequently a larger formation of polymeric pigments. Differences in the wines' phenolic composition, and the differences in the alcohol content of the wines, also influenced the taste and mouthfeel evaluation of the wines, and these were maintained over time.

  • 7.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, A.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Sharp, E.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    de Villiers, A.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    du Toit, W. J.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    The impact of different tannin to anthocyanin ratios and of oxygen on the phenolic polymerisation over time in a wine-like solution2019In: South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0253-939X, E-ISSN 2224-7904, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour and phenolic stability during ageing are influenced by the levels of distinct classes of phenolics in young red wines. The ratios between different classes of phenolic compounds also determine the colour and phenolic development of red wines. The present study evaluated the impact of forced oxidation on different anthocyanin/tannin (A/T) extracts and its consequent effect on the colour and phenolic evolution over time. The results showed that higher contents of seed tannins could enhance phenolic polymer formation, especially in the presence of oxygen. The addition of oxygen seemed to favour certain polymerisation reactions between tannins, leading to higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins in solution. A slower oxygen consumption was also observed as the phenolic composition of the wine-like extract evolved over time.

  • 8.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Sensory discrimination of single hop beers by using sorting combined with profiling and intensity rating2023In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory methodologies are continuously being optimized based on industry needs. Sorting is a widely used sensory method; however, it provides limited information about the uniqueness of individual products. The present work was performed on nine single-hop beers using a combination of sorting with profiling and intensity rating (SPIR) rating to highlight the intra-group variability and individual characteristics. Results have shown that SPIR can effectively highlight the intra-group differences. It has also shown that a higher frequency of citation did not always correspond to a higher attribute intensity. For the considered application, the results highlighted the role of hop varieties on the sensory profile of beers. Overall sensory similarities were found between Mosaic (MO), Citra (CI), and Celeia (CE) hops. However, the use of SPIR highlighted differences between CE and the other hops. Amarillo (AM) hops showed the most distinctive profile in all cases. Practical applications: The use of sorting in combination with profiling and intensity rating (SPIR) rating can be a valuable tool in new product development. It is not only important to understand the overall sensory similarities and differences between groups of samples, but also unique aspects compared to similar products. The present work has shown that adding intensity to sorting and profiling can highlight the inner characteristics of individual products in a group of samples with an overall similar sensory profile.

  • 9.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Relationship between anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and cell wall polysaccharides in grapes and red wines. A current state-of-art review2022In: Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, ISSN 1040-8398, E-ISSN 1549-7852, Vol. 62, no 28, p. 7743-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research studies have evaluated factors influencing the nature and levels of phenolics and polysaccharides in food matrices. However, in grape and wines most of these works have approach these classes of compounds individually. In recent years, the number of publications interconnecting classes have increased dramatically. The present review relates the last decade’s findings on the relationship between phenolics and polysaccharides from grapes, throughout the entire winemaking process up to evaluating the impact of their relationship on the red wine sensory perception. The combination and interconnection of the most recent research studies, from single interactions in model wines to the investigation of the formation of complex macromolecules, brings the perfect story line to relate the relationship between phenolics and polysaccharides from the vineyard to the glass. Grape pectin is highly reactive toward grape and grape derived phenolics. Differences between grape cultivars or changes during grape ripeness will affect the extractability of these compounds into the wines. Therefore, the nature of the grape components will be crucial to understand the subsequent reactions occurring between phenolics and polysaccharide of the corresponding wines. It has been demonstrated that they can form very complex macromolecules which affect wine color, stability and sensory properties. 

  • 10.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schückel, Julia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zietsman, Anscha
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Willats, William
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Newcastle University, UK.
    Moore, John
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Investigating the relationship between cell wall polysaccharide composition and the extractability of grape phenolic compounds into Shiraz wines. Part II: Extractability during fermentation into wines made from grapes of different ripeness levels2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 278, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the relationship between cell wall breakdown, from Shiraz grapes harvested at three different ripeness levels and the colour and phenolics extracted during alcoholic fermentation into wines. Phenolic differences between the ripeness treatments were minimal after ¼ of the fermentation was completed. However, colour and phenolic content were significantly higher in finished wines made from 25°Brix grapes compared to those from 21°Brix and 23°Brix. Levels of grape cell wall polysaccharide deconstruction during fermentation was a determining correlative factor in relation to phenolic extractability. In this context, the de-pectination observed during ripening was found to enhance this deconstruction or “opening-up” of the grape pomace during fermentation, thus increasing the differential extraction of specific polyphenols, especially polymeric polyphenols, into the wines. Additionally, the degree of cell wall deconstruction seemed to play a role in the possible retention and extraction of specific grape proanthocyanidins, depending on their nature and polymer length.

  • 11.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schückel, Julia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zietsman, Anscha
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Willats, William
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Newcastle University, UK.
    Moore, John
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Investigating the relationship between grape cell wall polysaccharide composition and the extractability of phenolic compounds into Shiraz wines. Part I: Vintage and ripeness effects2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 278, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in colour stability and sensory properties of red wine. This study evaluated berry skin cell wall composition and how this influences grape and wine phenolics at different ripeness levels (21°Brix, 23°Brix, and 25°Brix) over two consecutive vintages. The vintage effect was highly significant, especially in the pectin fraction of the grape cell walls and affected the concentrations of certain phenolics extracted. The climatic variance between the seasons might have influenced the differences observed in the grape cell wall compositions. Firstly, a higher grape and wine phenolic content, especially in polymeric phenols, was found in 2015 wines. Additionally, grape berry cell walls, especially at the earliest stages of ripening, were found to be more intact in 2015 than in 2016. Thus, a possible relationship was found between the degree of berry intactness, especially for pectin-rich components, and the corresponding phenolic extractability during the winemaking.

  • 12.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    de Barros Alves, Helia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mapping the sensory fingerprint of swedish beer market through text and data mining and multivariate strategies2021In: Beverages, ISSN 2306-5710, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous increase of online data with consumers’ and experts’ reviews and preferences is a potential tool for sensory characterization. The present work aims to overview the Swedish beer market and understand the sensory fingerprint of Swedish beers based on text data extracted from the Swedish alcohol retail monopoly (Systembolaget) website. Different multivariate strategies such as heatmaps, correspondence analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to understand the sensory space of the different beer styles. Additionally, sensory space for specific hop cultivars was also investigated. Results highlighted Gothenburg as the main producing area in Sweden. The style Indian Pale Ale (IPA) is the largest available at the retail monopoly. From a sensory perspective, commonalities and differences were found between beer types and styles. Based on the aroma description, different types of ale and lager can cluster together (such as Porter and Stout and Dark lagers). Additionally, an associative relationship between specific aromas and hop cultivars from text data information was successfully achieved. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 13.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Role of continuous phase and particle properties on the sensory perception of root vegetable purées evaluated by an expert panel and naïve consumers2023In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textural properties play an essential role in the development of food products. The complexity of textural attributes has been traditionally overcome with extensive panelist training and the use of generic descriptive analysis. A better understanding on the use of rapid methods with naïve consumers to evaluate texture attributes in complex food products is still needed. The present study aimed to investigate the (i) role of different continuous phases and particle properties (i.e., size and hardness) on the mouthfeel perception of root vegetable purées and (ii) the effect of panel expertise (sensory experts vs. naïve consumers) using Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA). The study included six purées made of two different continuous phase (based on Jerusalem artichoke which is rich in inulin and, parsnip which is rich in starch) and three types of beetroot particles (raw, cooked, and comminuted beetroot). Results showed that both panels were able to discriminate and profile in a similar manner. However, sensory experts showed higher ability to discriminate between samples regarding the particle's attributes whereas consumer's sample discrimination was influenced by attributes such as “ease of swallow” and “creaminess.” For the expert panel, the presence of hard particles was a clear factor driving the differences between samples. Our results highlighted the contribution of both continuous and dispersed phases to design the texture profile of particulate semisolid plant-based foods. © 2023 The Authors.

  • 14.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Morange, Clement
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing the volatile composition of seaweed (Laminaria digitata) suspensions as function of thermal and mechanical treatments2022In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 162, article id 113483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroalgae are a rich source of dietary fibre, protein, lipids and bioactives. However, more research is needed to understand how processing methods impact macroalgae techno-functional properties. In this work, aqueous suspensions of the fibre-rich brown algae Laminaria digitata were prepared by conventional food processing methods. The impact of sequence of processing steps (thermal and mechanical treatments), and heating time (15, 30 and 45 min), on volatile aroma composition were investigated. Changes in volatile composition were monitored with headspace GC-FID/MS analysis. Our results showed that both parameters impacted the volatiles profile of the suspensions. From an overall volatile perspective, short heating times (90 °C for 15 min) led to similar profiles, independently of the sequence of thermal and mechanical treatments. However, longer heating times induced a larger release of several aldehydes, specific for each processing method. Our results bring new insights on the volatile composition of suspensions of Laminaria digitata, which are related to flavour properties, and aid design of food products containing seaweed. © 2022 The Authors

  • 15.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Panzeri, Valeria
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Brand, Jeanne
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Evaluation of sensory effects of thiols in red wines by projective mapping using multifactorial analysis and correspondence analysis2020In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 35, no 4, article id e12576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to systematically evaluate effects of single thiols, of thiol interactions in a single red wine matrix, and of red wine matrix effects combined with thiol interactions using projective mapping (PM) with experienced assessors. All work was done in dearomatized red wine from various cultivars. A dual approach to the projective mapping data analysis (coordinates and multifactorial analysis or frequency of citations and correspondence analysis), coupled to regression vector (RV) coefficients allowed to test the hypothesis that the resulting maps should be similar, which was the case for single thiols (RV > 0.7) but not for the more complex thiol × thiol or thiol × thiol × matrix interactions tested (RV < 0.7). It was shown that 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) levels were relatively more important than the cultivar used, while the opposite was true for 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). No specific descriptors were associated with 3MH and 3MHA, but the wines had more “savory” notes. The interaction effects of 3MH × 4MMP and 3MHA × 4MMP were different both in the number and in the frequency of citation of the attributes. Practical Applications: Complex multilevel sensory interaction phenomena can be studied if a pragmatic and systematic practical methodology is used, as demonstrated by this work. As the method used does not require a trained panel, this type of approach can be used also outside an academic environment, to the benefit of the industry; however, the researchers must take into account the complexity of the matrix and the difficulty of the assessment. The outcome of the dual approach to the data analysis could help researchers decide which data handling option is better suited for their work.

  • 16.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tobin, Aarti B
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Impact of panelist's age on the ease of swallow and sensory perception of texture-modified broccoli purees2022In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 37, no 6, article id e12781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swallowing disorders affect approximately 8% of the global population. It is more prevalent in the elderly, leading to malnutrition and dehydration. Different strategies have been investigated to design new texture-modified food products that would reduce or mitigate the suffering from these swallowing disorders. Despite the recent interest and research in this area, there are, however, still a lot of unknowns regarding the specific sensory insights by this targeted group. The aim of this work was to understand if the ease of swallow and related sensory characteristics are perceived differently by “young” and “elderly” healthy individuals. Broccoli purees with different textural properties were created by changing the fluid component (water or xanthan solution) or processing conditions. Samples were evaluated by an elderly panel (n = 19, average age = 68.9 years) and a young panel (n = 16, average age = 25.4 years). Multivariate data analysis strategies were used to understand the intrapanel sample discrimination and to compare between panels. Results showed a similar overall discrimination between samples between young and elderly panels. The use of xanthan improved the ease of swallow in both age groups. In the absence of xanthan gum, processing conditions determined the ease of swallow, which was related to the particle size distribution. Nevertheless, small differences were found between panels. For example, the elderly panel was more sensitive when discriminating samples based on the ease of swallow (p =.005). Therefore, panelist age seems to be relevant when designing tailored foods enhancing the ease of swallow for the elderly populations. Practical Applications: The present study highlights new insights on the relevance of age and sensory capabilities when designing new texture-modified food products. It also provides new insights regarding the key sensory attributes to consider and how these are affected by the type of food processing. © 2022 The Authors.

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