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  • 1.
    Barbosa, Raul
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Basagiannis, Stelios
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Giantamidis, Georgios
    United Technologies Research Centre, Ireland.
    Becker, Hauke
    NXP Semiconductor, Germany.
    Ferrari, Enrico
    Rulex Innovation Labs, Italy.
    Jahic, Jasmin
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Kanak, Alper
    ERARGE, Turkey.
    Labayen Esnaola, Mikel
    CAF SIGNALLING, Spain.
    Orani, Vanessa
    CNR-IEIIT, Italy.
    Pereira, David
    CISTER/ISEP Polytechnic Institute of Porto; Portugal.
    Pomante, Luigi
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Schlick, Rupert
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology; Austria.
    Smrcka, Ales
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Yazici, Ahmet
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    The VALU3S ECSEL Project: Verification and Validation of Automated Systems Safety and Security2020In: 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers of automated systems and their components have been allocating an enormous amount of time and effort in R&D activities. This effort translates into an overhead on the V&V (verification and validation) process making it timeconsuming and costly. In this paper, we present an ECSEL JU project (VALU3S) that aims to evaluate the state-of-the-art V&V methods and tools, and design a multi-domain framework to create a clear structure around the components and elements needed to conduct the V&V process. The main expected benefit of the framework is to reduce time and cost needed to verify and validate automated systems with respect to safety, cyber-security, and privacy requirements. This is done through identification and classification of evaluation methods, tools, environments and concepts for V&V of automated systems with respect to the mentioned requirements. To this end, VALU3S brings together a consortium with partners from 10 different countries, amounting to a mix of 25 industrial partners, 6 leading research institutes, and 10 universities to reach the project goal.

  • 2.
    Ferrari, Enrico
    et al.
    Rulex Innovation Labs, Italy.
    Schlick, Rupert
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    De la Vara, Jose Luis
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Criteria for the Analysis of Gaps and Limitations of V&V Methods for Safety- and Security-Critical Systems2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As society increasingly relies on safety- and security- critical systems, the need for confirming their dependability becomes essential. Adequate V&V (verification and validation) methods must be employed, e.g., for system testing. When selecting and using the methods, it is important to analyze their possible gaps and limitations, such as scalability issues. However, and as we have experienced, common, explicitly defined criteria are seldom used for such analyses. This results in analyses that consider different aspects and to a different extent, hindering their comparison and thus the comparison of the V&V methods. As a solution, we present a set of criteria for the analysis of gaps and limitations of V&V methods for safety- and security-critical systems. The criteria have been identified in the scope of the VALU3S project. Sixty-two people from 33 organizations agreed upon the use of nine criteria: functionality, accuracy, scalability, deployment, learning curve, automation, reference environment, cost, and standards. Their use led to more homogeneous and more detailed analyses when compared to similar previous efforts. We argue that the proposed criteria can be helpful to others when having to deal with similar activities.

  • 3.
    Folkesson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Ayatolahi, Fatemeh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Islam, Mafijul
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Back-to-Back Fault Injection Testing in Model-Based Development2015In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security / [ed] Floor Koornneef, Coen van Gulijk, 2015, Vol. 9337, p. 135-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, embedded systems across industrial domains (e.g., avionics,automotive) are representatives of software-intensive systems with increasingreliance on software and growing complexity. It has become critically importantto verify software in a time, resource and cost effective manner. Furthermore,industrial domains are striving to comply with the requirements of relevantsafety standards. This paper proposes a novel workflow along with tool supportto evaluate robustness of software in model-based development environment,assuming different abstraction levels of representing software. We then showthe effectiveness of our technique, on a brake-by-wire application, byperforming back-to-back fault injection testing between two differentabstraction levels using MODIFI for the Simulink model and GOOFI-2 for thegenerated code running on the target microcontroller. Our proposed method andtool support facilitates not only verifying software during early phases of thedevelopment lifecycle but also fulfilling back-to-back testing requirements of ISO 26262 [1] when using model-based development.

  • 4.
    Folkesson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Kleberger, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Nowdehi, Nasser
    Volvo AB, Sweden.
    On the Evaluation of Three Pre-Injection Analysis Techniques for Model-Implemented Fault- and Attack Injection2022In: IEEE 27th Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC 2022), 2022, p. 130-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault- and attack injection are techniques used to measure dependability attributes of computer systems. An important property of such injectors is their efficiency that deals with the time and effort needed to explore the target system’s fault- or attack space. As this space is generally very large, techniques such as pre-injection analyses are used to effectively explore the space. In this paper, we study two such techniques that have been proposed in the past, namely inject-on-read and inject-on-write. Moreover, we propose a new technique called error space pruning of signals and evaluate its efficiency in reducing the space needed to be explored by fault and attack injection experiments. We implemented and integrated these techniques into MODIFI, a model-implemented fault and attack injector, which has been effectively used in the past to evaluate Simulink models in the presence of faults and attacks. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to integrate these pre-injection analysis techniques into an injector that injects faults and attacks into Simulink models.The results of our evaluation on 11 vehicular Simulink models show that the error space pruning of signals reduce the attack space by about 30–43%, hence allowing the attack space to be exploited by fewer number of attack injection experiments. Using MODIFI, we then performed attack injection experiments on two of these vehicular Simulink models, a comfort control model and a brake-by-wire model, while elaborating on the results obtained

  • 5.
    Kleberger, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    An Integrated Safety and Cybersecurity Resilience Framework for the Automotive Domain2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become more and more connected with their surroundings and utilize an increasing number of services, they also become more exposed to threats as the attack surface increases. With increasing attack surfaces and continuing challenges of eliminating vulnerabilities, vehicles need to be designed to work even under malicious activities, i.e., under attacks. In this paper, we present a resilience framework that integrates analysis of safety and cybersecurity mechanisms. We also integrate resilience for safety and cybersecurity into the fault – error – failure chain. The framework is useful for analyzing the propagation of faults and attacks between different system layers. This facilitates identification of adequate resilience mechanisms at different system layers as well as deriving suitable test cases for verification and validation of system resilience using fault and attack injection.

  • 6.
    Lijun, Shan
    et al.
    Internet of Trust, France.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Schoitsch, Erwin
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Loiseaux, Claire
    Internet of Trust, France.
    A Survey on the Application of Safety, Security,and Privacy Standards for Dependable Systems2019In: Proceedings of the 15th European Dependable Computing Conference, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems are required to comply withsafety standards as well as security and privacy standards.In order to provide insights into how practitioners apply thestandards on safety, security or privacy (Sa/Se/Pr), as well ashow they employ Sa/Se/Pr analysis methodologies and softwaretools to meet such criteria, we conducted a questionnaire-basedsurvey. This paper summarizes our major analysis results of thereceived responses.

  • 7.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Malik, Mateen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modeling and Evaluating the Effects of Jamming Attacks on Connected Automated Road Vehicles2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we evaluate the safety of a platoon offour vehicles under jamming attacks. The platooning applicationis provided by Plexe-veins, which is a cooperative drivingframework, and the vehicles in the platoon are equipped withcooperative adaptive cruise control controllers to represent thevehicles’ behavior. The jamming attacks investigated are modeledby extending ComFASE (a Communication Fault and AttackSimulation Engine) and represent three real-world attacks,namely, destructive interference, barrage jamming, and deceptivejamming. The attacks are injected in the physical layer of theIEEE 802.11p communication protocol simulated in Veins (avehicular network simulator). To evaluate the safety implicationsof the injected attacks, the experimental results are classifiedby using the deceleration profiles and collision incidents of thevehicles. The results of our experiments show that jammingattacks on the communication can jeopardize vehicle safety,causing emergency braking and collision incidents. Moreover,we describe the impact of different attack injection parameters(such as, attack start time, attack duration and attack value) onthe behavior of the vehicles subjected to the attacks.

  • 8.
    Malik, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    VTI, Sweden.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks2023In: Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing, PRDC, IEEE Computer Society , 2023, p. 23-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification. 

  • 9.
    Malik, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    VTI, Sweden.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulation-based Evaluation of a Remotely Operated Road Vehicle under Transmission Delays and Denial-of-Service Attacks2023In: 28th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC 2023), IEEE conference proceedings, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A remotely operated road vehicle (RORV) refers to a vehicle operated wirelessly from a remote location. In this paper, we report results from an evaluation of two safety mechanisms: safe braking and disconnection. These safety mechanisms are included in the control software for RORV developed by Roboauto, an intelligent mobility solutions provider. The safety mechanisms monitor the communication system to detect packet transmission delays, lost messages, and outages caused by naturally occurring interference as well as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. When the delay in the communication channel exceeds certain threshold values, the safety mechanisms are to initiate control actions to reduce the vehicle speed or stop the affected vehicle safely as soon as possible. To evaluate the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms, we exposed the vehicle control software to various communication failures using a software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing environment developed specifically for this study. Our results show that the safety mechanisms behaved correctly for a vast majority of the simulated communication failures. However, in a few cases, we noted that the safety mechanisms were triggered incorrectly, either too early or too late, according to the system specification.

  • 10.
    Malik, Mateen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    ComFASE: A Tool for Evaluating the Effects of V2V Communication Faults and Attacks on Automated Vehicles2022In: 52nd annual IEEE/IFIP international conference on dependable systems and networks (DSN2022), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents ComFASE, a communication fault and attack simulation engine. ComFASE is used to identify and evaluate potentially dangerous behaviours of interconnected automated vehicles in the presence of faults and attacks in wireless vehicular networks. ComFASE is built on top of OMNET++ (a network simulator) and integrates SUMO (a traffic simulator) and Veins (a vehicular network simulator). The tool is flexible in modelling different types of faults and attacks and can be effectively used to study the interplay between safety and cybersecurity attributes by injecting cybersecurity attacks and evaluating their safety implications. To demonstrate the tool, we present results from a series of simulation experiments, where we injected delay and denial-of-service attacks on wireless messages exchanged between vehicles in a platooning application. The results show how different variants of attacks influence the platooning system in terms of collision incidents.

  • 11.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Kleberger, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Analysis of Cybersecurity Mechanisms with respectto Dependability and Security Attributes2020In: 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded electronic systems need to be equipped with different types of security mechanisms to protect themselves and to mitigate the effects of cybersecurity attacks. These mechanisms should be evaluated with respect to their impacts on dependability and security attributes such as availability, reliability, safety, etc. The evaluation is of great importance as, e.g., a security mechanism should never violate the system safety. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate a comprehensive set of security mechanisms consisting of 17 different types of mechanisms with respect to their impact on dependability and security attributes. The results show that, in general, the use of these mechanisms have positive effect on system dependability and security. However, there are at least three mechanisms that could have negative impacts on system dependability by violating safety and availability requirements. The results support our claim that the analyses such as the ones conducted in this paper are necessary when selecting and implementing an optimal set of safety and security mechanisms.

  • 12.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    A Study of the Interplay Between Safety and Security Using Model-Implemented Fault Injection2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of high mobility and wireless communication in many safety-critical systems have increased their exposure to malicious security threats. Consequently, many works in the past have proposed solutions to ensure safety and security of these systems. However, not much attention has been given to the interplay between these two groups of nonfunctional requirements. This is a concern as safety solutions may negatively impact system security and vice versa. This paper addresses the interplay between safety and security by proposing an attack injection framework, based on model-implemented fault injection, suitable for model-based design. The framework enables us to study and evaluate the impact of cybersecurity attacks on system safety early in the development process. To this end, we have implemented six attack injection models and conducted experiments on Simulink models of a CAN bus and a brake-by-wire controller. The results show that the security attacks modeled could successfully impact the system safety by violating our defined safety requirements.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Shan, Lijun
    et al.
    Internet of Trust, France.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Schoitsch, Erwin
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Loiseuax, Claire
    A Survey on the Applicability of Safety, Security and Privacy Standards in Developing Dependable Systems2019In: Computer Safety,Reliability, and Security / [ed] Alexander Romanovsky, Elena Troubitsyna, Ilir Gashi, Erwin Schoitsch, Friedemann Bitsch (Eds.), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-critical systems are required to comply with safety standards. These systems are increasingly digitized and networked to an extent where they need to also comply with security and privacy standards. This paper aims to pro-vide insights into how practitioners apply the standards on safety, security or pri-vacy (Sa/Se/Pr), as well as how they employ Sa/Se/Pr analysis methodologies and software tools to meet such criteria. To this end, we conducted a question-naire-based survey within the participants of an EU project SECREDAS and ob-tained 21 responses. The results of our survey indicate that safety standards are widely applied by product and service providers, driven by the requirements from clients or regulators/authorities. When it comes to security standards, practition-ers face a wider range of standards while few target specific industrial sectors. Some standards linking safety and security engineering are not widely used at the moment, or practitioners are not aware of this feature. For privacy engineering, the availability and usage of standards, analysis methodologies and software tools are relatively weaker than safety and security, reflecting the fact that privacy en-gineering is an emerging concern for practitioners.

  • 14.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Hedberg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Safety-related Machine Control Systems using standard EN ISO 13849-12018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine control systems shall be designed according to the European Machinery Directive and appropriate European standards. This report gives guidance when applying EN ISO 13849-1:2015 in projects, both for companies developing subsystems and for companies that are developing complete machines.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Thorsén, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Combined Safety and Cybersecurity Risk Assessment for Intelligent Distributed Grids2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more parts of the power grid become connected to the internet, the risk of cyberattacks increases. To identify the cybersecurity threats and subsequently reduce vulnerabilities, the common practice is to carry out a cybersecurity risk assessment. For safety classified systems and products, there is also a need for safety risk assessments in addition to the cybersecurity risk assessment in order to identify and reduce safety risks. These two risk assessments are usually done separately, but since cybersecurity and functional safety are often related, a more comprehensive method covering both aspects is needed. Some work addressing this has been done for specific domains like the automotive domain, but more general methods suitable for, e.g., Intelligent Distributed Grids, are still missing. One such method from the automotive domain is the Security-Aware Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment (SAHARA) method that combines safety and cybersecurity risk assessments. This paper presents an approach where the SAHARA method has been modified in order to be more suitable for larger distributed systems. The adapted SAHARA method has a more general risk assessment approach than the original SAHARA. The proposed method has been successfully applied on two use cases of an intelligent distributed grid.

  • 16.
    Thorsén, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Combined Safety and Cybersecurity Risk Assessment for Intelligent Distributed Grids2022In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 69-76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As more parts of the power grid become connected to the internet, the risk of cyberattacks increases. To identify the cybersecurity threats and subsequently reduce vulnerabilities, the common practice is to carry out a cybersecurity risk assessment. For safety classified systems and products, there is also a need for safety risk assessments in addition to the cybersecurity risk assessment to identify and reduce safety risks. These two risk assessments are usually done separately, but since cybersecurity and functional safety are often related, a more comprehensive method covering both aspects is needed. Some work addressing this has been done for specific domains like the automotive domain, but more general methods suitable for, e.g., Intelligent Distributed Grids, are still missing. One such method from the automotive domain is the Security-Aware Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment (SAHARA) method that combines safety and cybersecurity risk assessments. This paper presents an approach where the SAHARA method has been modified to be more suitable for larger distributed systems. The adapted SAHARA method has a more general risk assessment approach than the original SAHARA. The proposed method has been successfully applied on two use cases of an intelligent distributed grid.

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