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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik.
    Investigation of fire emissions from Li-ion batteries2013Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine toxic gases in fires with lithium-ion batteries2016In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 999-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries, in particular lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are seen as an alternative to fossil fuels in the automotive sector. Li-ion batteries, however, have some safety issues including possible emissions of toxic fluorine-containing compounds during fire and other abuse situations. This paper demonstrates the possibilities to use the Fourier transform infrared technique to assess some of the most important compounds, including hydrogen fluoride and the far less often measured POF3 and PF5. The study is conducted in the cone calorimeter with different solvents used in Li-ion batteries. The measurements show that, in addition to hydrogen fluoride, with a known high toxicity, POF3 is emitted and can be quantified using Fourier transform infrared.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 271, no Dec, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh -1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  • 4.
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Multivariate Methodology for Surface Enhanced Raman Chemical Imaging of Lymphocytes2005In: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Loren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Engelhart, Karin
    Bredberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Emanuelsson, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bestämning av biocidspridning vid sanering av bottenfärg från fritidsbåtar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Spridning av biocider från sanering av båtbottenfärg bestämdes experimentellt genom  att sanera båtar med sex olika metoder och mäta den spridda andelen bottenfärg.  Metoderna är vanligt förekommande i fritidsbåtshamnar och utförs vanligen av  båtägaren, dessutom utvärderades fackmannamässig blästring. Resultaten från de  olika  scenariona visar att det går att utföra sanering med många av de vanliga  metoderna slipning, skrapning, gelupplösning samt blästring och uppnå insamling av  mer än 98 % av färgen. Metoderna skiljer sig åt i andelen spridd färg men även i  svårighetsgrad i utförande samt hur robust de kan utföras med bibehållen låg spridning.  Faktorer som utförande, båt och färgtyp varierar stort vid implementering på det svenska båtbeståndet, vilket ger att det sannolikt är viktigare med rätt  riskminskningsmetoder än att rangordna saneringsmetoderna. Metoder som bildar torra  små partiklar vid borttagande av färgen är känsliga för att dessa färgpartiklar sprids  med vinden. Beräkningar av partiklars vindtransport visar att de partikelstorlekar som  bildas vid tex slipning och skrapning med lätthet kan spridas utanför en skyddande  marktäckning till den yttre miljön. Spridningen i ett sådant saneringsfall kan vara  mycket högt och kan i det närmaste bli fullständig om inte skyddsåtgärder vidtas.  Hantering av denna risk bör göras genom att, såsom i vissa av de utförda  experimenten, samla in partiklarna med sug, ha kontroll över vindhastigheten samt  kravställa utförandet, alternativt förbjuda metodiken.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Sauer, Christopher
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Schaefer, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per-Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    On-Line Composition Analysis of Complex Hydrocarbon Streams by Time-Resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Ion-Molecule Reaction Mass Spectrometry2021In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 93, no 39, p. 13187-13195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-line composition analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is highly desirable to determine the composition of process streams and to study chemical reactions in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we show how the combination of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ion-molecule-reaction mass spectrometry (IMR-MS) can be used for compositional analysis of processed plant biomass streams. The method is based on the biomass-derived model compound 2,5-dimethylfuran and its potential catalytic conversion to valuable green aromatics, for example, benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) over zeolite β. Numerous conversion products can be determined and quantified simultaneously in a temporal resolution of 4 min-1without separation of individual compounds. The realization of this method enables us to study activity, selectivity, and changes in composition under transient reaction conditions. For example, increasing isomerization of 2,5-dimethylfuran to 2,4-dimethylfuran, 2-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 2-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one is observed as the catalyst is exposed to the reactant, while BTX and olefin formation is decreasing. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 7.
    Sauer, Christopher
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Schaefer, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per-Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Valorisation of 2,5-dimethylfuran over zeolite catalysts studied by on-line FTIR-MS gas phase analysis2022In: Catalysis Science & Technology, ISSN 2044-4753, E-ISSN 2044-4761, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 750-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The valorisation of 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-dmf) by catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) was studied by on-line FTIR-MS gas phase analysis. Zeolite beta, H-ZSM-5 and Cu-ZSM-5 were characterised and used as catalysts. The on-line analysis enables sufficient time resolution to follow subminute transient phenomena, e.g., the impact of catalyst pretreatment and time on stream (TOS) on the reaction selectivity. The results show, that the initial selectivity towards benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) aromatics is high but decreases with TOS while the isomerisation rates of 2,5-dmf towards 2,4-dimethylfuran and cyclic ketones increase. This indicates the involvement of specific active sites for the different conversion processes. The formation of BTX compounds is linked to the availability of specific olefins, as supported by temperature programmed desorption experiments, which is indicative of aromatisation stemming directly from the olefin pool rather than via Diels-Alder reactions. 

1 - 7 of 7
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