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  • 1.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Iyer, Venkatraman
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Low-Power Listening Goes Multi-Channel2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting multiple radio channels for communication has been long known as a practical way to mitigate interference in wireless settings. In Wireless Sensor Networks, however, multi-channel solutions have not reached their full potential: the MAC layers included in TinyOS or the Contiki OS for example are mostly single-channel. The literature offers a number of interesting solutions, but experimental results were often too few to build confidence. We propose a practical extension of low-power listening, MiCMAC, that performs channel hopping, operates in a distributed way, and is independent of upper layers of the protocol stack. The above properties make it easy to deploy in a variety of scenarios, without any extra configuration/scheduling/channel selection hassle. We implement our solution in Contiki and evaluate it in a 97-node testbed while running a complete, out-of-the-box low-power IPv6 communication stack (UDP/RPL/6LoWPAN). Our experimental results demonstrate increased resilience to emulated WiFi interference (e.g., data yield kept above 90% when ContikiMAC drops in the 40% range). In noiseless environments, MiCMAC keeps the overhead low in comparison to ContikiMAC, achieving performance as high as 99% data yield along with sub-percent duty cycle and sub-second latency for a 1-minute inter-packet interval data collection.

  • 2.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Network Bootstrapping and Leader Election in Low-power Wireless Networks2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, ACM Press, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many protocols in low-power wireless networks require a leader to bootstrap and maintain their operation. For example, Chaos and Glossy networks need an initiator to synchronize and initiate the communication rounds. Commonly, these protocols use a fixed, compile-time defined node as the leader. In this work, we tackle the challenge of dynamically bootstrapping the network and electing a leader in low-power wireless scenarios.

  • 3.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Network-wide Consensus Utilizing the Capture Eect in Low-power Wireless Networks2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many protocols in low-power wireless networks require a root nodeor a leader to bootstrap and maintain its operation. For example,Chaos and Glossy networks need an initiator to synchronize andinitiate the communications rounds. Commonly, these protocolsuse a xed, compile-time dened node as the leader. In this work,we tackle the challenge of dynamically bootstrapping the networkand electing a leader in low-power wireless scenarios, and we focuson Chaos-style networks

  • 4. Boano, Carlo Alberto
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    Forster, Anna
    Gnawali, Omprakash
    Jacob, Romain
    Kim, Hyung-Sin
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Marfievici, Ramona
    Picco, Gian Pietro
    Vilajosana, Xavier
    Watteyne, Thomas
    Zimmerling, Marco
    IoTBench: Towards a Benchmark for Low-power Wireless Networking2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike other fields of computing and communications, low-power wireless networking is plagued by one major issue: the absence of a well-defined, agreed-upon yardstick to compare the performance of systems, namely, a benchmark. We argue that this situation may eventually represent a hampering factor for a technology expected to be key in the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-physical Systems (CPS). This paper describes a recent initiative to remedy this situation, seeking to enlarge the participation from the community.

  • 5. Dawans, Sébastien
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Bonaventure, Olivier
    On Link Estimation in Dense RPL Deployments2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things vision foresees billions of devices to connect the physical world to the digital world. Sensing applications such as structural health monitoring, surveillance or smart buildings employ multi-hop wireless networks with high density to attain sufficient area coverage. Such applications need networking stacks and routing protocols that can scale with network size and density while remaining energy-efficient and lightweight. To this end, the IETF RoLL working group has designed the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). This paper discusses the problems of link quality estimation and neighbor management policies when it comes to handling high densities. We implement and evaluate different neighbor management policies and link probing techniques in Contiki’s RPL implementation. We report on our experience with a 100-node testbed with average 40-degree density. We show the sensitivity of high density routing with respect to cache sizes and routing metric initialization. Finally, we devise guidelines for design and implementation of density-scalable routing protocols.

  • 6.
    De Guglielmo, Domenico
    et al.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Anastasi, Guiseppe
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH CSMA-CA Algorithm2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 1573-1588, artikkel-id 7451274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) is one of the medium access control (MAC) behavior modes defined in the IEEE 802.15.4e standard. It combines time-slotted access and channel hopping, thus providing predictable latency, energy efficiency, communication reliability, and high network capacity. TSCH provides both dedicated and shared links. The latter is special slots assigned to more than one transmitter, whose concurrent access is regulated by a carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) algorithm. In this paper, we develop an analytical model of the TSCH CSMA-CA algorithm to predict the performance experienced by nodes when using shared links. The model allows for deriving a number of metrics, such as delivery probability, packet latency, and energy consumption of nodes. Moreover, it considers the capture effect (CE) that typically occurs in real wireless networks. We validate the model through simulation experiments and measurements in a real testbed. Our results show that the model is very accurate. Furthermore, we found that the CE plays a fundamental role as it can significantly improve the performance experienced by nodes.

  • 7. Dron, Wilfried
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Hachicha, Khalil
    Garda, Patrick
    An Emulation-based Method for Lifetime Estimation of Wireless Sensor Networks2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifetime estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is crucial to ensure that the network will last long enough (low maintenance cost) while not being over-dimensioned (low initial cost). Existing solutions have at least one of the two following limitations: (1) they are based on theoretical models or high-level protocol implementations, overlooking low-level (e.g., hardware, driver, etc.) constraints which we find have a significant impact on lifetime, and (2) they use an ideal battery model which over-estimates lifetime due to its constant voltage and its inability to model the non-linear properties of real batteries. We introduce a method for WSN lifetime estimation that operates on compiled firmware images and models the complex behavior of batteries. We use the MSPSim/Cooja node emulator and network simulator to run the application in a cycle-accurate manner and log all component states. We then feed the log into our lifetime estimation framework, which models the nodes and their batteries based on both technical and experimental specifications. In a case study of a Contiki RPL/6LoWPAN application, we identify and resolve several low-level implementation issues, thereby increasing the predicted network lifetime from 134 to 484 days. We compare our battery model to the ideal battery model and to the lifetime estimation based on the radio duty cycle, and find that there is an average over-estimation of 36% and 76% respectively.

  • 8.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. INRIA Lille, France.
    Elsts, Atis
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Oikonomou, George
    University of Bristol, UK.
    TSCH and 6TiSCH for Contiki: Challenges, Design and Evaluation2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Conference Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2017, IEEE, 2017, s. 11-18Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized communication has recently emerged as a prime option for low-power critical applications. Solutions such as Glossy or Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) have demonstrated end-to-end reliability upwards of 99.99%. In this context, the IETF Working Group 6TiSCH is currently standardizing the mechanisms to use TSCH in low-power IPv6 scenarios. This paper identifies a number of challenges when it comes to implementing the 6TiSCH stack. It shows how these challenges can be addressed with practical solutions for locking, queuing, scheduling and other aspects. With this implementation as an enabler, we present an experimental validation and comparison with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. We conduct fine-grained energy profiling, showing the impact of link-layer security on packet transmission. We evaluate distributed time synchronization in a 340-node testbed, and demonstrate that tight synchronization (hundreds of microseconds) can be achieved at very low cost (0.3% duty cycle, 0.008% channel utilization). We finally compare TSCH against traditional MAC layers: low-power listening (LPL) and CSMA, in terms of reliability, latency and energy. We show that with proper scheduling, TSCH achieves by far the highest reliability, and outperforms LPL in both energy and latency. Synchronized communication has recently emerged as a prime option for low-power critical applications. Solutions such as Glossy or Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) have demonstrated end-to-end reliability upwards of 99.99%. In this context, the IETF Working Group 6TiSCH is currently standardizing the mechanisms to use TSCH in low-power IPv6 scenarios. This paper identifies a number of challenges when it comes to implementing the 6TiSCH stack. It shows how these challenges can be addressed with practical solutions for locking, queuing, scheduling and other aspects. With this implementation as an enabler, we present an experimental validation and comparison with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. We conduct fine-grained energy profiling, showing the impact of link-layer security on packet transmission. We evaluate distributed time synchronization in a 340-node testbed, and demonstrate that tight synchronization (hundreds of microseconds) can be achieved at very low cost (0.3% duty cycle, 0.008% channel utilization). We finally compare TSCH against traditional MAC layers: low-power listening (LPL) and CSMA, in terms of reliability, latency and energy. We showthat with proper scheduling, TSCH achieves by far the highest reliability, and outperforms LPL in both energy and latency

  • 9.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria Lille, France.
    Elsts, Atis
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Nahas, Beshr A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Oikonomo, George
    University of Bristol, UK.
    TSCH and 6TiSCH for contiki: Challenges, design and evaluation2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2017, 2018, s. 11-18Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized communication has recently emerged as a prime option for low-power critical applications. Solutions such as Glossy or Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) have demonstrated end-to-end reliability upwards of 99.99%. In this context, the IETF Working Group 6TiSCH is currently standardizing the mechanisms to use TSCH in low-power IPv6 scenarios. This paper identifies a number of challenges when it comes to implementing the 6TiSCH stack. It shows how these challenges can be addressed with practical solutions for locking, queuing, scheduling and other aspects. With this implementation as an enabler, we present an experimental validation and comparison with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. We conduct fine-grained energy profiling, showing the impact of link-layer security on packet transmission. We evaluate distributed time synchronization in a 340-node testbed, and demonstrate that tight synchronization (hundreds of microseconds) can be achieved at very low cost (0.3% duty cycle, 0.008% channel utilization). We finally compare TSCH against traditional MAC layers: Low-power listening (LPL) and CSMA, in terms of reliability, latency and energy. We show that with proper scheduling, TSCH achieves by far the highest reliability, and outperforms LPL in both energy and latency.

  • 10.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Poster Abstract: Opportunistic RPL2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor nodes constituting Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are often battery- operated and have limited resources. To save energy, nodes sleep most of the time, and wake up periodically to handle communication. Such radio duty cycling poses a basic trade-off between energy and latency. In previous work, we have shown that opportunistic routing is an efficient way to achieve low-latency yet energy efficient data collection in WSN (ORW [3]). In this paper, we extend this approach to the context of low-power IP networks, where nodes need to be addressed individually and where traffic patterns are irregular. We present ORPL, an opportunistic extension of RPL, the stan- dard, state-of-the-art routing protocol for low-power IP networks. We discuss our preliminary results obtained with Contiki in a 137-node testbed.

  • 11.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Let the Tree Bloom: Scalable Opportunistic Routing with ORPL2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Demo: Snap – Rapid Sensornet Deployment with a Sensornet Appstore2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite ease of deployment being seen as a primary advantage of sensor networks, deployment remains difficult. We present Snap, a system for rapid sensornet deployment that allows sensor networks to be deployed, positioned, and reprogrammed through a sensornet appstore. Snap uses a smartphone interface that uses QR codes for node identification, a map interface for node positioning, and dynamic loading of applications on the nodes. Snap nodes run the Contiki operating system and its low-power IPv6 network stack that provides direct access from nodes to the smartphone application. We demonstrate rapid sensor node deployment, identification, positioning, and node reprogramming within seconds, over a multi-hop sensornet routing path with a WiFi-connected smartphone.

  • 13.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Leveraging IP for Sensor Network Deployment2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Österlind, Fredrik
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Lossy Links, Low Power, High Throughput2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As sensor networks move towards general-purpose low-power wireless networks, there is a need to support both traditional low-data rate traffic and high-throughput transfer. To attain high throughput, existing protocols monopolize the network resources and keep the radio on for all nodes involved in the transfer, leading to poor energy efficiency. This becomes progressively problematic in networks with packet loss, which inevitably occur in any real-world deployment. We present burst forwarding, a generic packet forwarding technique that combines low power consumption with high throughput for multi-purpose wireless networks. Burst forwarding uses radio duty cycling to maintain a low power consumption, recovers efficiently from interference, and inherently supports both single streams and cross-traffic. We experimentally evaluate our mechanism under heavy interference and compare it to PIP, a state-of-the-art sensornet bulk transfer protocol. Burst forwarding gracefully adapts radio duty cycle both to the level of interference and to traffic load, keeping a low and nearly constant energy cost per byte when carrying TCP traffic.

  • 15.
    Elsts, Atis
    et al.
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Competition: Adaptive Time-Slotted Channel Hopping2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, ACM Press, 2017, s. 274-275Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard uses channel hopping to combat interference and frequency-selective fading. It has attracted large attention from the research community due to its properties: high reliability in terms of packet delivery rates, and increased predictability in terms of energy consumption and latency, as compared to commonly used low-power CSMA MAC protocols.

    This work makes use of the Contiki OS implementation of the TSCH protocol. We extend the standardized TSCH protocol with adaptive channel selection, adaptive time synchronization, and adaptive guard time selection to improve its energy efficiency and reliability properties.

  • 16.
    Elsts, Atis
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS. University of Bristol, UK.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Inria, France.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Oikonomou, George
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Piechocki, Robert
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Craddock, Ian
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Microsecond-Accuracy Time Synchronization Using the IEEE 802.15.4 TSCH Protocol2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (IEEE SenseApp 2016), 2016, 8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-Slotted Channel Hopping from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard requires that network nodes are tightly time-synchronized. Existing implementations of TSCH on embedded hardware are characterized by tens-of-microseconds large synchronization errors; higher synchronization accuracy would enable reduction of idle listening time on receivers, in this way decreasing the energy required to run TSCH. For some applications, it would also allow to replace dedicated time synchronization mechanisms with TSCH. We show that time synchronization errors in the existing TSCH implementations on embedded hardware are caused primarily by imprecise clock drift estimations, rather than by real unpredictable drift variance. By estimating clock drift more precisely and by applying adaptive time compensation on each node in the network, we achieve microsecond accuracy time synchronization on point-to-point links and a < 2 µs end-to-end error in a 7- node line topology. Our solution is implemented in the Contiki operating system and tested on Texas Instruments CC2650- based nodes, equipped with common off-the-shelf hardware clock sources (±20 ppm drift). Our implementation uses only standard TSCH control messages and is able to keep radio duty cycle below 1 %.

  • 17.
    Elsts, Atis
    et al.
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria, France.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Oikonomou, George
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Piechocki, Robert
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Craddock, Ian James
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Microsecond-Accuracy Time Synchronization Using the IEEE 802.15.4 TSCH Protocol2017Inngår i: 2016 IEEE 41st Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshops (LCN Workshops), IEEE Computer Society , 2017, s. 156-164, artikkel-id 7856151Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-Slotted Channel Hopping from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard requires that network nodes are tightly time-synchronized. Existing implementations of TSCH on embedded hardware are characterized by tens-of-microseconds large synchronization errors; higher synchronization accuracy would enable reduction of idle listening time on receivers, in this way decreasing the energy required to run TSCH. For some applications, it would also allow to replace dedicated time synchronization mechanisms with TSCH. We show that time synchronization errors in the existing TSCH implementations on embedded hardware are caused primarily by imprecise clock drift estimations, rather than by real unpredictable drift variance. By estimating clock drift more precisely and by applying adaptive time compensation on each node in the network, we achieve microsecond accuracy time synchronization on point-to-point links and a < 2 μs end-to-end error in a 7-node line topology. Our solution is implemented in the Contiki operating system and tested on Texas Instruments CC2650-based nodes, equipped with common off-the-shelf hardware clock sources (±20 ppm drift). Our implementation uses only standard TSCH control messages and is able to keep radio duty cycle below 1 %.

  • 18.
    Elsts, Atis
    et al.
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Oikonomou, George
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Piechocki, Robert
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Craddock, Ian
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Temperature-resilient time synchronization for the internet of things2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 2241-2250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Networks deployed in real-world conditions have to cope with dynamic, unpredictable environmental temperature changes. These changes affect the clock rate on network nodes, and can cause faster clock de-synchronization compared to situations where devices are operating under stable temperature conditions. Wireless network protocols, such as time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) from the IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard, are affected by this problem, since they require tight clock synchronization among all nodes for the network to remain operational. This paper proposes a method for autonomously compensating temperature-dependent clock rate changes. After a calibration stage, nodes continuously perform temperature measurements to compensate for clock drifts at runtime. The method is implemented on low-power Internet of Things (IoT) nodes and evaluated through experiments in a temperature chamber, indoor and outdoor environments, as well as with numerical simulations. The results show that applying the method reduces the maximum synchronization error more than ten times. In this way, the method allows reduction in the total energy spent for time synchronization, which is practically relevant concern for low data rate, low energy budget TSCH networks, especially those exposed to environments with changing temperature. 

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Finne, Niclas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Scaling RPL to Dense and Large Networks with Constrained Memory2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, 2018, s. 126-134Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things poses new requirements for reliable, bi-directional communication in low-power and lossy networks, but these requirements are hard to fulfill since most existing protocols have been designed for data collection. In this paper, we propose standard-compliant mechanisms that make RPL meet these requirements while still scaling to large networks of IoT devices under significant resource constraints. Our aim is to scale far beyond what can be stored in RAM on the nodes of the network. The only node that needs to have storage for all the routing entries is the RPL root node. Based on experimentation with largescale commercial deployments, we suggest two mechanisms to make RPL scale under resource constraints: (1) end-to-end route registration with DAO and (2) a policy for managing the neighbor table. By employing these mechanisms, we show that the bi-directional packet reception rate of RPL networks increases significantly.

  • 20. Ghadimi, Euhanna
    et al.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Soldati, Pablo
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Opportunistic Routing in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks2014Inngår i: TOSN: ACM Transactions on Sensor NetworksArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic routing is widely known to have substantially better performance than unicast routing in wireless networks with lossy links. However, wireless sensor networks are heavily duty-cycled, i.e. they frequently enter sleep states to ensure long network life-time. This renders existing opportunistic routing schemes impractical, as they assume that nodes are always awake and can overhear other transmissions. In this paper we introduce ORW, a practical opportunistic routing scheme for wireless sensor networks. ORW uses a novel opportunistic routing metric, EDC, that reflects the expected number of duty-cycled wakeups that are required to successfully deliver a packet from source to destination. We devise distributed algorithms that find the EDC-optimal forwarding and demonstrate using analytical performance models and simulations that EDC-based opportunistic routing results in significantly reduced delay and improved energy efficiency compared to the traditional unicast routing. We compare the performance of the ORW protocol with other alternatives in both simulations and testbed-based experiments. Our results show that ORW reduces radio duty cycles on average by 50% (up to 90% on individual nodes) and delays by 30% to 90% when compared to the state of the art.

  • 21.
    Hazra, Saptarshi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH Royal Institut of Technology, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lu, Chenguang
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Daniel
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Handling inherent delays in virtual IoT gateways2019Inngår i: Proceedings - 15th Annual International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, DCOSS 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 58-65Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive deployment of diverse ultra-low power wireless devices in different application areas has given rise to a plethora of heterogeneous architectures and communication protocols. It is challenging to provide convergent access to these miscellaneous collections of communicating devices. In this paper, we propose VGATE, an edge-based virtualized IoT gateway for bringing these devices together in a single framework using SDRs as technology agnostic radioheads. SDR platforms, however, suffer from large unpredictable delays. We design a GNU Radio-based IEEE 802.15.4 experimental setup using LimeSDR, where the data path is time-stamped at various points of interest to get a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the delays. Our analysis shows that GNU Radio processing and LimeSDR buffering delays are the major delays. We decrease the LimeSDR buffering delay by decreasing the USB transfer size but show that this comes at the cost of increased processing overhead. We modify the USB transfer packet size to investigate which USB transfer size provides the best balance between buffering delay and processing overhead across two different host computers. Our experiments show that for the best measured configuration the mean and jitter of latency decreases by 37% and 40% respectively for the host computer with higher processing resources. We also show that the throughput is not affected by these modifications.

  • 22.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Iyer, Venkatraman
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Enabling TCP in Mobile Cyber-physical Systems2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, 2015, 7, s. 289-297, artikkel-id 7366943Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems consist of several wirelessly connected components such as sensors that monitor physical phenomena, computational entities that make decisions based on sensed information and actuators that interact with physical processes. Connecting cyber-physical systems to the Internet using IP protocols increases interoperability by avoiding the need for protocol translation gateways. Unfortunately, in this context TCP has been disregarded since it is known to perform poorly in wireless scenarios as it treats packet loss as an indicator for network congestion rather than poor link quality. In this paper, we use the Low-power Wireless Bus (LWB) as a link layer for TCP/IP, taking advantage of its reliability and its routing-free communication. We design a system that integrates LWB with a low-power IP stack and includes TCP-aware schedulers for LWB. We evaluate our system with experiments on real hardware using uIP, a popular embedded Internet protocol stack. Our results demonstrate high TCP throughput in mobile and static scenarios and, furthermore, show that mobility does not decrease TCP performance.

  • 23.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Li, Su
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Gross, James
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Poster Abstract: Cross-Layer Optimization for Low-power Wireless Coexistence2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '15), 2015, 10, s. 443-444Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a system that leverages physical layer features to combat Cross-Technology Interference (CTI) in low-power wireless networks. Our system incorporates: (i) a lightweight interference detection mechanism for low-power radios that recognizes the type of interference in the received signal, (ii) a lightweight error detection mechanism to estimate and characterize error patterns within interfered packets, and (iii) a CTI-aware protocol that dynamically adapts transmission and recovery mode to the current interference patterns. We implement a prototype of our system for the lowpower IEEE 802.15.4 in software defined radios (SDR). Our early results of the system components demonstrate that we can achieve a high accuracy in error detection and interference type identification. Moreover, we observed a significant performance improvement compared to the standard 802.15.4 systems without interference-awareness.

  • 24.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Li, Su
    EPFL Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gross, James
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Inria, France.
    CrossZig: Combating Cross-Technology Interference in Low-power Wireless Networks2016Inngår i: 2016 15th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, IPSN 2016 - Proceedings, 2016, artikkel-id 7460663Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power wireless devices suffer notoriously from Cross- Technology Interference (CTI). To enable co-existence, researchers have proposed a variety of interference mitigation strategies. Existing solutions, however, are designed to work with the limitations of currently available radio chips. In this paper, we investigate how to exploit physical layer properties of 802.15.4 signals to better address CTI. We present CrossZig, a cross-layer solution that takes advantage of physical layer information and processing to improve low-power communication under CTI. To this end, CrossZig utilizes physical layer information to detect presence of CTI in a corrupted packet and to apply an adaptive packet recovery which incorporates a novel cross-layer based packet merging and an adaptive FEC coding. We implement a prototype of CrossZig for the low-power IEEE 802.15.4 in a software-defined radio platform. We show the adaptability and the performance gain of CrossZig through experimental evaluation considering both micro-benchmarking and system performance under various interference patterns. Our results demonstrate that CrossZig can achieve a high accuracy in error localization (94.3% accuracy) and interference type identification (less than 5% error rate for SINR ranges below 3 dB). Moreover, our system shows consistent performance improvements under interference from various interfering technologies.

  • 25. Hithnawi, Anwar
    et al.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Poster Abstract: Low-Power Wireless Channel Quality Estimation in the Presence of RF Smog2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power wireless networks deployed in indoor environments inevitably encounter high-power Cross Technology Interference (CTI) from a wide range of wireless devices operating in the shared RF spectrum bands. This severely reduces the performance of such networks and possibly causes loss of connectivity, which affects their availability and drains their resources. In this work, to address the channel uncertainty, a consequence of CTI, we propose a novel channel metric that (i) harnesses the local knowledge of a node about the wireless channel to discern the presence of persistent high-power interferers, and (ii) assists the node in inferring its proximity to the dominant interference sources in the physical space. In order to motivate and validate the necessity of such a metric, we empirically characterize the impact of the interaction between high/low-power cross technology interferers and IEEE 802.15.4.

  • 26. Hithnawi, Anwar
    et al.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Understanding the Impact of Cross Technology Interference on IEEE 802.15.42014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, we witnessed notable progress in wireless communication. This has led to rapid emergence of heterogeneous wireless technologies that share the RF spectrum in an un-coordinated way. Such a coexistence introduces high uncertainty and complexity to the medium, affecting reliability and availability of wireless networks. This problem aggravates for technologies operating in the lightly regulated, yet crowded ISM bands. To address coexistence of different technologies in the scarce RF spectrum, provide proper interference-aware protocols, and mitigation schemes, we need to develop a good understanding of the interaction patterns of these technologies. In this paper, we provide a thorough study of the implications of Cross Technology Interference (CTI) on the particularly vulnerable low-power IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks. We identify the underlying vulnerabilities that hamper 802.15.4 to withstand CTI. We show that the uncertainty that CTI induces on the wireless channel is not completely stochastic; CTI exhibits distinct patterns that can be exploited by interference-aware protocols.

  • 27. Kovatsch, Matthias
    et al.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Dunkels, Adam
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    A Low-Power CoAP for Contiki2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things devices will by and large be battery-operated, but existing application protocols have typically not been designed with power-efficiency in mind. In low-power wireless systems, power-efficiency is determined by the ability to maintain a low radio duty cycle: keeping the radio off as much as possible. We present an implementation of the IETF Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) for the Contiki operating system that leverages the ContikiMAC low-power duty cycling mechanism to provide power efficiency. We experimentally evaluate our low-power CoAP, demonstrating that an existing application layer protocol can be made power-efficient through a generic radio duty cycling mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, our CoAP implementation is the first to provide power-efficient operation through radio duty cycling. Our results question the need for specialized low-power mechanisms at the application layer, instead providing low-power operation only at the radio duty cycling layer.

  • 28. Kovatsch, Matthias
    et al.
    Lanter, Martin
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that provides Web-like scripting for low-end devices through Cloud-based application servers and a consistent, RESTful programming model. Our novel runtime container Actinium (Ac) exposes scripts, their configuration, and their lifecycle management through a fully RESTful programming interface using the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). We endow the JavaScript language with an API for direct interaction with mote-class IoT devices, the CoapRequest object, and means to export script data as Web resources. With Actinium, applications can be created by simply mashing up resources provided by CoAP servers on devices, other scripts, and classic Web services. We also discuss security considerations and show the suitability of this architecture in terms of performance with our publicly available implementation.

  • 29.
    Kuo, Ping Heng
    et al.
    InterDigital Europe Ltd, UK.
    Mourad, Alain
    InterDigital Europe Ltd, UK.
    Lu, Chenguag
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Berg, Miguel
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chen, Ying Yu
    ITRI, Taiwan.
    Hsu, Yi Huai
    ITRI, Taiwan.
    Zabala, Aitor
    Telcaria SRL, Spain.
    Ferrari, Riccardo
    AZCOM, Italy.
    Gonzalez, Sergio
    University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain.
    Li, Chi Yu
    National Chiao Tung University, China.
    Chien, Hsu Tung
    National Chiao Tung University, China.
    An integrated edge and Fog system for future communication networks2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2018, s. 338-343Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Put together, the edge and fog form a large diverse pool of computing and networking resources from different owners that can be leveraged towards low latency applications as well as for alleviating high traffic volume in future networks including 5G and beyond. This paper sets out a framework for the integration of edge and fog computing and networking leveraging on ongoing specifications by ETSI MEC ISG and the OpenFog Consortium. It also presents the technological gaps that need to be addressed before such an integrated solution can be developed. These noticeably include challenges relating to the volatility of resources, heterogeneity of underlying technologies, virtualization of devices, and security issues. The framework presented is a Launchpad for a complete solution under development by the 5G-CORAL consortium.

  • 30. Landsiedel, Olaf
    et al.
    Ghadimi, Euhanna
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Low Power, Low Delay: Opportunistic Routing meets Duty Cycling2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, routing in wireless sensor networks consists of two steps: First, the routing protocol selects a next hop, and, second, the MAC protocol waits for the intended destination to wake up and receive the data. This design makes it difficult to adapt to link dynamics and introduces delays while waiting for the next hop to wake up. In this paper we introduce ORW, a practical opportunistic routing scheme for wireless sensor networks. In a dutycycled setting, packets are addressed to sets of potential receivers and forwarded by the neighbor that wakes up first and successfully receives the packet. This reduces delay and energy consumption by utilizing all neighbors as potential forwarders. Furthermore, this increases resilience to wireless link dynamics by exploiting spatial diversity. Our results show that ORW reduces radio duty-cycles on average by 50% (up to 90% on individual nodes) and delays by 30% to 90% when compared to the state of the art.

  • 31.
    Mangano, Frederic
    et al.
    CEA, France.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria Lille, France.
    Kosmatov, Nicolai
    CEA, France.
    Formal verification of a memory allocation module of Contiki with FRAMA-C: A case study2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal verification is still rarely applied to the IoT (Internet of Things) software, whereas IoT applications tend to become increasingly popular and critical. This short paper promotes the usage of formal verification to ensure safety and security of software in this domain. We present a successful case study on deductive verification of a memory allocation module of Contiki, a popular open-source operating system for IoT. We present the target module, describe how the code has been specified and proven using Frama-C, a software analysis platform for C code, and discuss lessons learned.

  • 32.
    McNamara, Liam
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Al Nahas, Beshr
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Demo Abstract: SicsthSense - Dispersing the Cloud2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    —This demo presents SicsthSense, our open cloud platform for the Internet of Things. SicsthSense enables low power devices such as sensor nodes and smartphones to easily store their generated data streams in the cloud. This allows the data streams, and their history, to be made permanently available to users for visualisation, processing and sharing. Moving sensor data computation and monitoring into the cloud is a promising avenue to enable centralisation of control and redistribution of collected data. We showcase SicsthSense running with real sensor nodes collecting environmental data and posting it to our datastore. This live data is then visualised and made available for sharing between users of the platform. Our Android App will also be distributed to enable participants to stream their phone sensors into the system, demonstrating how simple it can be to start machine-to-machine interactions with SicsthSense.

  • 33.
    Michel, Mathieu
    et al.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Quoitin, Bruno
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Load-Balanced Data Collection through Opportunistic Routing2015Inngår i: 2015 International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, 2015, 9, s. 62-70, artikkel-id 7165024Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks performing low-power data collection often suffer from uneven load distribution among nodes. Nodes close to the network root typically face a higher load, see their battery deplete first, and become prematurely unable to operate (both sensing and relaying other nodes' data). We argue that opportunistic routing, by making forwarding decision on a per-packet basis and at the receiver rather than the sender, has the potential to better balance the load across nodes. We extend ORPL, an opportunistic version of the standard routing protocol RPL, with support for load-balancing. In our protocol, ORPL-LB, nodes continuously adapt their wake-up interval in order to adjust their availability and attain a deployment-specific target duty cycle. We implement our protocol in Contikiand present our experimental validation in Indriya, a 93-nodestestbed. Our results show that ORPL-LB reduces significantly(by approximately 40%) the worst node's duty cycle, with little or no impact on packet delivery ratio and latency.

  • 34.
    Misra, Prasant
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Mottola, Luca
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Höglund, Joel
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Supporting Cyber-Physical Systems with Wireless Sensor Networks: An Outlook of Software and Services2013Inngår i: Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, ISSN 0970-4140, Vol. 93, s. 441-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensing, communication, computation and control technologies are the essential building blocks of a cyber-physical system (CPS). Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a way to support CPS as they provide fine-grained spatial-temporal sensing, communication and computation at a low premium of cost and power. In this article, we explore the fundamental concepts guiding the design and implementation of WSNs. We report the latest developments in WSN software and services for meeting existing requirements and newer demands; particularly in the areas of: operating system, simulator and emulator, programming abstraction, virtualization, IP-based communication and security, time and location, and network monitoring and management. We also reflect on the ongoing efforts in providing dependable assurances for WSN-driven CPS. Finally, we report on its applicability with a case-study on smart buildings.

  • 35.
    Nahas, Beshr Al
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. INRIA, France.
    Landsiedel, Olaf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Poster abstract: Network bootstrapping and leader election utilizing the capture effect in low-power wireless networks2017Inngår i: SenSys 2017 - Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many protocols in low-power wireless networks require a leader to bootstrap and maintain their operation. For example, Chaos and Glossy networks need an initiator to synchronize and initiate the communication rounds. Commonly, these protocols use a fixed, compile-time defined node as the leader. In this work, we tackle the challenge of dynamically bootstrapping the network and electing a leader in low-power wireless scenarios.

  • 36.
    Narendra, Prithvi Raj
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    BLE and IEEE 802.15.4 in the IoT: Evaluation and Interoperability Considerations2015Inngår i: Internet of Things: IoT Infrastructures / [ed] Benny Mandler, Johann Marque, Dagmar Cagáňová, Hakima Chaouchi, Sherali Zeadally, Mohamad Badra, Stefano Giordano, Maria Fazio, Andrey Somov, Radu-Laurentiu Vieriu, 2015, 9, Vol. 170, s. 427-438Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Internet of Things is gaining momentum, low-power communication technologies proliferate. In this paper, we focus on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and IEEE 802.15.4 (CSMA, Low-power listening, and TSCH), and advocate low-power IPv6 for interoperability between the two. We perform a thorough experimental comparison of their link-layer performance, both in idle radio environment and when facing heavy (controlled) external interference. Our results suggest that both technologies can achieve interesting and complementary latency-energy trade-offs. Based on our results, we discuss possible interoperability between BLE and IEEE 802.15.4 and present related open issues.

  • 37.
    Peyrard, Alexandre
    et al.
    IMT Lille Douai, France.
    Kosmatov, Nikolai
    CEA, France.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Lille, Inria
    Nord Europe, France.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards Formal Verification of Contiki: Analysis of the AES-CCM* Modules with Frama-C2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, 2018, s. 264-269Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of IoT (Internet of Things) applications is rapidly increasing and allows embedded devices today to be massively connected to the Internet. This raises software security questions. This paper demonstrates the usage of formal verification to increase the security of Contiki OS, a popular open-source operating system for IoT. We present a case study on deductive verification of encryption-decryption modules of Contiki (namely, AES--CCM*) using Frama-C, a software analysis platform for C code.

  • 38.
    Peyrard, Alexandre
    et al.
    IMT Lille Douai, France.
    Kosmatov, Nikolai
    CEA, France.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. nria Lille, France.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards Formal Verification of Contiki OS: Analysis of the AES-CCM* Modules with Frama-C2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the Workshop on Recent advances in secure management of data and resources in the IoT (RED-IOT), February 14-16, 2018, Madrid, Spain, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications israpidly increasing and allows embedded devices today tobe massively connected to the Internet. This raises softwaresecurity questions. This paper demonstrates the usageof formal verification to increase the security of Contiki,a popular open-source operating system for the IoT. Wepresent a case study on deductive verification of encryptiondecryptionmodules of Contiki (namely, AES–CCM*) usingFrama-C, a software analysis platform for C code.

  • 39.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Chung, Tony
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Yazar, Dogan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Roedig, Utz
    Securing Internet of Things with Lightweight IPsec2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world deployments of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require secure communication. It is important that a receiver is able to verify that sensor data was generated by trusted nodes. In some cases it may also be necessary to encrypt sensor data in transit. Recently, WSNs and traditional IP networks are more tightly integrated using IPv6 and 6LoWPAN. Available IPv6 protocol stacks can use IPsec to secure data exchange. Thus, it is desirable to extend 6LoWPAN such that IPsec communication with IPv6 nodes is possible. It is beneficial to use IPsec because the existing end-points on the Internet do not need to be modified to communicate securely with the WSN. Moreover, using IPsec, true end-to-end security is implemented and the need for a trustworthy gateway is removed. In this paper we provide End-to-End (E2E) secure communication between an IP enabled sensor nodes and a device on traditional Internet. This is the first compressed lightweight design, implementation, and evaluation of 6LoWPAN extension for IPsec on Contiki. Our extension supports both IPsec's Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP). Thus, communication endpoints are able to authenticate, encrypt and check the integrity of messages using standardized and established IPv6 mechanisms.

  • 40.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Chung, Tony
    Yazar, Dogan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Roedig, Utz
    Securing Communication in 6LoWPAN with Compressed IPsec2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world deployments of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require secure communication. It is important that a receiver is able to verify that sensor data was generated by trusted nodes. It may also be necessary to encrypt sensor data in transit. Recently, WSNs and traditional IP networks are more tightly integrated using IPv6 and 6LoWPAN. Available IPv6 protocol stacks can use IPsec to secure data exchange. Thus, it is desirable to extend 6LoWPAN such that IPsec communication with IPv6 nodes is possible. It is beneficial to use IPsec because the existing end-points on the Internet do not need to be modified to communicate securely with the WSN. Moreover, using IPsec, true end-to-end security is implemented and the need for a trustworthy gateway is removed. In this paper we provide End-to-End (E2E) secure communication between IP enabled sensor networks and the traditional Internet. This is the first compressed lightweight design, implementation, and evaluation of 6LoWPAN extension for IPsec. Our extension supports both IPsec’s Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP). Thus, communication endpoints are able to authenticate, encrypt and check the integrity of messages using standardized and established IPv6 mechanisms.

  • 41.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Höglund, Joel
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Roedig, Utz
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Secure Communication for the Internet of Things: A Comparison of Link-Layer Security and IPsec for 6LoWPAN2012Inngår i: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The future Internet is an IPv6 network interconnecting traditional computers and a large number of smart objects. This Internet of Things (IoT) will be the foundation of many services and our daily life will depend on its availability and reliable operation. Therefore, among many other issues, the challenge of implementing secure communication in the IoT must be addressed. In the traditional Internet, IPsec is the established and tested way of securing networks. It is therefore reasonable to explore the option of using IPsec as a security mechanism for the IoT. Smart objects are generally added to the Internet using IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN), which defines IP communication for resource-constrained networks. Thus, to provide security for the IoT based on the trusted and tested IPsec mechanism, it is necessary to define an IPsec extension of 6LoWPAN. In this paper, we present such a 6LoWPAN/IPsec extension and show the viability of this approach. We describe our 6LoWPAN/IPsec implementation, which we evaluate and compare with our implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 link-layer security. We also show that it is possible to reuse crypto hardware within existing IEEE 802.15.4 transceivers for 6LoWPAN/IPsec. The evaluation results show that IPsec is a feasible option for securing the IoT in terms of packet size, energy consumption, memory usage, and processing time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in contrast to common belief, IPsec scales better than link-layer security as the data size and the number of hops grow, resulting in time and energy savings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 42.
    Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Roedig, Utz
    Demo Abstract: Securing Communication in 6LoWPAN with Compressed IPsec2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the inception of IPv6 it is possible to assign a unique ID to each device on planet. Recently, wireless sensor networks and traditional IP networks are more tightly integrated using IPv6 and 6LoWPAN. Real-world deployments of WSN demand secure communication. The receiver should be able to verify that sensor data is generated by trusted nodes and/or it may also be necessary to encrypt sensor data in transit. Available IPv6 protocol stacks can use IPsec to secure data exchanges. Thus, it is desirable to extend 6LoWPAN such that IPsec communication with IPv6 nodes is possible. It is beneficial to use IPsec because the existing end-points on the Internet do not need to be modified to communicate securely with the WSN. Moreover, using IPsec, true end-to-end security is implemented and the need for a trustworthy gateway is removed. In this demo we will show the usage of our implemented lightweight IPsec. We will show how IPsec ensures end-to-end security between an IP enabled sensor networks and the traditional Internet. This is the first compressed lightweight design, implementation, and evaluation of a 6LoWPAN extension for IPsec. This demo complements the full paper that will appear in the parent conference, DCOSS’11.

  • 43.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Burkhalter, Lukas
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Ratnasamy, Sylvia
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Droplet: Decentralized Authorization for IoT Data Streams2018Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents Droplet, a decentralized data access control service, which operates without intermediate trust entities. Droplet enables data owners to securely and selectively share their data, while guaranteeing data confidentiality against unauthorized parties. Droplet handles time series data, and features a cryptographically-enforced fine-grained and scalable access control for encrypted data streams. In this paper, we present Droplet's design, the reference implementation of Droplet, and experimental results of three case-study apps atop of Droplet: Fitbit activity tracker, Ava health tracker, and ECOviz smart meter dashboard.

  • 44.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Burkhalter, Lukas
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria, France.
    Towards Blockchain-based Auditable Storage and Sharing of IoT Data2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Cloud Computing Security Workshop (ACM CCSW 2017), November 3, 2017, Dallas, Texas, USA, 2017, s. 45-50Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Burkhalter, Lukas
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fischli, Pascal
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria, Switzerland.
    Secure Sharing of Partially Homomorphic Encrypted IoT Data2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (ACM SenSys 2017), November 5-8, 2017, Delft, The Netherlands, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IoT applications often utilize the cloud to store and provide ubiquitousaccess to collected data. This naturally facilitates data sharingwith third-party services and other users, but bears privacy risks,due to data breaches or unauthorized trades with user data. Toaddress these concerns, we present Pilatus, a data protection platformwhere the cloud stores only encrypted data, yet is still ableto process certain queries (e.g., range, sum). More importantly,Pilatus features a novel encrypted data sharing scheme based on reencryption,with revocation capabilities and in situ key-update. Oursolution includes a suite of novel techniques that enable efficientpartially homomorphic encryption, decryption, and sharing. Wepresent performance optimizations that render these cryptographictools practical for mobile platforms. We implement a prototypeof Pilatus and evaluate it thoroughly. Our optimizations achieve aperformance gain within one order of magnitude compared to stateof-the-art realizations; mobile devices can decrypt hundreds of datapoints in a few hundred milliseconds. Moreover, we discuss practicalconsiderations through two example mobile applications (Fitbitand Ava) that run Pilatus on real-world data.

  • 46.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dröscher, Andreas
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Hu, Wen
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Poster: Towards Encrypted Query Processing for the Internet of Things2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom '15), 2015, 10, s. 251-253Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is envisioned to digitize the physical world, resulting in a digital representation of our proximate living space. The possibility of inferring privacy violating information from IoT data necessitates adequate security measures regarding data storage and communication. To address these privacy and security concerns, we introduce our system that stores IoT data securely in the Cloud database while still allowing query processing over the encrypted data. We enable this by encrypting IoT data with a set of cryptographic schemes such as order-preserving and partially homomorphic encryptions. To achieve this on resource-limited devices, our system relies on optimized algorithms that accelerate partial homomorphic and order preserving encryptions by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Our early results show the feasibility of our system on low-power devices. We envision our system as an enabler of secure IoT applications.

  • 47.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dröscher, Andreas
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Hu, Wen
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Talos: Encrypted Query Processing for the Internet of Things2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '15), 2015, 10, s. 197-210Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things, by digitizing the physical world, is envisioned to enable novel interaction paradigms with our surroundings. This creates new threats and leads to unprecedented security and privacy concerns. To tackle these concerns, we introduce Talos, a system that stores IoT data securely in a Cloud database while still allowing query processing over the encrypted data. We enable this by encrypting IoT data with a set of cryptographic schemes such as order-preserving and partially homomorphic encryption. In order to achieve this in constrained IoT devices, Talos relies on optimized algorithms that accelerate order-preserving and partially homomorphic encryption by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. We assess the feasibility of Talos on low-power devices with and without cryptographic accelerators and quantify its overhead in terms of energy, computation, and latency. With a thorough evaluation of our prototype implementation, we show that Talos is a practical system that can provide a high level of security with a reasonable overhead. We envision Talos as an enabler of secure IoT applications.

  • 48.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hithnawi, Anwar
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Inria, France.
    Towards Blockchain-based Auditable Storage and Sharing of IoT Data2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI'17), March 27-29, 2017, Boston, USA, 2017, s. 45-50Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today the cloud plays a central role in storing, processing, and distributing data. Despite contributing to the rapid development of IoT applications, the current IoT cloud-centric architecture has led into a myriad of isolated data silos that hinders the full potential of holistic data-driven analytics within the IoT. In this paper, we present a blockchain-based design for the IoT that brings a distributed access control and data management. We depart from the current trust model that delegates access control of our data to a centralized trusted authority and instead empower the users with data ownership. Our design is tailored for IoT data streams and enables secure data sharing.We enable a secure and resilient access control management, by utilizing the blockchain as an auditable and distributed access control layer to the storage layer. We facilitate the storage of time-series IoT data at the edge of the network via a locality-Aware decentralized storage system that is managed with the blockchain technology. Our system is agnostic of the physical storage nodes and supports as well utilization of cloud storage resources as storage nodes. © 2017 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  • 49.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Köckemann, Uwe
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    The E-Care@Home Infrastructure for IoT-Enabled Healthcare2016Inngår i: Internet of Things Technologies for HealthCare, Springer, 2016, 8, Vol. 187, s. 138-140Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The E-Care@Home Project aims at providing a comprehensive IoT-based healthcare system, including state-of-the-art communication protocols and high-level analysis of data from various types of sensors. With this poster, we present its novel technical infrastructure, consisting of low-power IPv6 networking, sensors for health monitoring, and resource-efficient software, that is used to gather data from elderly patients and their surrounding environment.

  • 50.
    Watteyne, Thomas
    et al.
    Inria, France.
    Handziski, Vlado
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Vilajosana, Xavier
    Open University of Catalonia, Spain; Worldsensing SL, Spain.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Inria, France.
    Hahm, Oliver
    Inria, France.
    Bacceli, Emmanuel
    Inria, France.
    Wolisz, Adam
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Industrial Wireless IP-based Cyber Physical Systems2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, Vol. 104, nr 5, s. 1025-1038, artikkel-id 7430267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial control systems have traditionally been built around dedicated wired solutions. The requirements of flexibility, mobility, and cost have created a strong push toward wireless solutions, preferably solutions requiring low power. Simultaneously, the increased need for interoperability and integration with the wider Internet made a transition to IP-based communication unavoidable. Following these trends, we survey 6TiSCH, the emerging family of standards for IP-based industrial communication over low-power and lossy networks. We describe the state of the standardization work, the major issues being discussed, and open questions recently identified. Based on extensive first-hand experience, we discuss challenges in implementation of this new wave of standards. Lessons learned are highlighted from four popular open-source implementations of these standards: OpenWSN, Contiki, RIOT, and TinyOS. We outline major requirements, present insights from early interoperability testing and performance evaluations, and provide guidelines for chip manufacturers and implementers.

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