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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Shirin
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Rahmani, Amir
    National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Taiwan.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sahafi, Amir
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Internet of Vehicles: Architecture, services, and applications2021In: International Journal of Communication Systems, ISSN 1074-5351, E-ISSN 1099-1131, Vol. 34, no 10, article id e4793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between objects and information exchange has been possible in recent years, with the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) in different industries. We can meet different requirements in each industry utilizing this feature. Intelligent transportation uses the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) as a solution for communication among vehicles. It improves traffic management applications and services to guarantee safety on roads. We categorize services, applications, and architectures and propose a taxonomy for IoV. Then, we study open issues and challenges for future works. We highlighted applications and services due to drivers' requirements and nonfunctional requirements, considering the qualitative characteristic. This paper summarizes the current state of the IoV in architectures, services, and applications. It can be a start view to provide the solutions for challenges in traffic management in cities. The present study is beneficial for smart city developments and management. According to this paper's result, the services and applications evaluate performance with 34% frequency, safety and data accuracy, and security with a 13% frequency in selected papers. These measurements are essential due to the IoV characteristics such as real-time operation, accident avoidance in applications, and complicated user data management. 

  • 2.
    Aghaeinezhadfirouzja, Saeid
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Liu, Hui
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Practical 3-D beam pattern based channel modeling for multi-polarized massive MIMO systems2018In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a practical non-stationary three-dimensional (3-D) channel models for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, considering beam patterns for different antenna elements, is proposed. The beam patterns using dipole antenna elements with different phase excitation toward the different direction of travels (DoTs) contributes various correlation weights for rays related towards/from the cluster, thus providing different elevation angle of arrivals (EAoAs) and elevation angle of departures (EAoDs) for each antenna element. These include the movements of the user that makes our channel to be a non-stationary model of clusters at the receiver (RX) on both the time and array axes. In addition, their impacts on 3-D massive MIMO channels are investigated via statistical properties including received spatial correlation. Additionally, the impact of elevation/azimuth angles of arrival on received spatial correlation is discussed. Furthermore, experimental validation of the proposed 3-D channel models on azimuth and elevation angles of the polarized antenna are specifically evaluated and compared through simulations. The proposed 3-D generic models are verified using relevant measurement data.

  • 3.
    Bakhshi, Zeinab
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    An overview on security and privacy challenges and their solutions in fog-based vehicular application2019In: 2019 IEEE 30th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC Workshops 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing is an emerging computing paradigm that extends cloud services to the edge of the network by moving computation tasks from cloud to network edges to reduce response latency in a wireless network. Fog computing inherits the principle of peer-to-peer networking, decentralization, and geographical distribution from clouds. Hence, fog computing becomes an ideal platform for readily supporting vehicular applications due to its dynamic support for mobility of client-devices and low latent heterogeneous communication capabilities. Despite many advantages, a multitude of security and privacy issues affects the platforms and renders it as a target for unknown adversaries. This has significant implication in the development of safety critical applications, such as vehicular cloud and intelligent transportation system. This paper presents, an overview of existing security and privacy vulnerabilities in fog computing, particularly in vehicular networks. Moreover, state-of-the-art security and privacy solutions for fog based vehicular networks are analyzed. In conclusion, open challenges and future research directions are discussed. 

  • 4.
    Bakhshi, Zeinab
    et al.
    RighTel, Iran.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Mustafa, Jawad
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Industrial IoT security threats and concerns by considering Cisco and Microsoft IoT reference models2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates security concerns and issues for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The IIoT is an emerging transformation, bringing great values to every industry. Although this rapid alter in industries create values, but there are concerns about security issues, most of which would be still unknown due to the novelty of this platform. In order to provide a guideline for those who want to investigate IoT security and contribute to its improvement, this paper attempts to provide a list of security threats and issues on the cloud-side layer of IoT, which consists of data accumulation and abstraction levels. For this reason, we choose Cisco and Microsoft Azure IoT Architecture as reference models. Then, two layers of Cisco reference architecture model have been chosen to be investigated for their security issues. Finally, consideration of security issues has been briefly explained.

  • 5.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    A Token-Based MAC Protocol for Achieving High Reliability in VANET2016In: BMW Summer School 2016, 2016, 6Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Bai, C.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedighi, F.
    Niroo Research Institute, Iran.
    A Comparison of Decentralized Congestion Control Algorithms for Multiplatooning Communications2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), 2019, p. 674-680Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve traffic safety, many Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS) applications rely on exchange of periodic safety messages between vehicles. However, as the number of connected vehicles increases, control of channel congestion becomes a bottleneck for achieving high throughput. Without a suitable congestion control method, safety critical messages such as Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) may not be delivered on time in high vehicle density scenarios that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten people's health or even life. The Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) algorithm defined by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), becomes a vital component of C-ITS applications to keep channel load under control and below a predefined threshold level. In this paper, we aim to analyze and evaluate the performance of a number of DCC protocols including ETSI DCC by providing a comparison between them for the multiplatooning application by using several widely-used evaluation metrics.

  • 7.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Bazzi, Alessandro
    University of Bologna, Italy; CNIT-WiLab, Italy.
    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai
    University of Deusto, Spain.
    de la Iglesia, Idoia
    Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain.
    Ahmadvand, Hossein
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    A survey on vehicular communication for cooperative truck platooning application2022In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 35, article id 100460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is an application where a group of vehicles move one after each other in close proximity, acting jointly as a single physical system. The scope of platooning is to improve safety, reduce fuel consumption, and increase road use efficiency. Even if conceived several decades ago as a concept, based on the new progress in automation and vehicular networking platooning has attracted particular attention in the latest years and is expected to become of common implementation in the next future, at least for trucks. The platoon system is the result of a combination of multiple disciplines, from transportation, to automation, to electronics, to telecommunications. In this survey, we consider the platooning, and more specifically the platooning of trucks, from the point of view of wireless communications. Wireless communications are indeed a key element, since they allow the information to propagate within the convoy with an almost negligible delay and really making all vehicles acting as one. Scope of this paper is to present a comprehensive survey on connected vehicles for the platooning application, starting with an overview of the projects that are driving the development of this technology, followed by a brief overview of the current and upcoming vehicular networking architecture and standards, by a review of the main open issues related to wireless communications applied to platooning, and a discussion of security threats and privacy concerns. The survey will conclude with a discussion of the main areas that we consider still open and that can drive future research directions. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 8.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS. Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    Bohm, Annette
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable Token-Based MAC Protocol for V2V Communication in Urban VANET2016In: 2016 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2016, 5, article id 7794823Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety applications developed for vehicular environments require every vehicle to periodically broadcast its status information (beacon) to all other vehicles, thereby avoiding the risk of car accidents in the road. Due to the high requirements on timing and reliability posed by traffic safety applications, the current IEEE 802.11p standard, which uses a random access Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, faces difficulties to support timely and reliable data dissemination in vehicular environments where no acknowledgement or RTS/CTS (Request-to-Send/Clear-to-Send) mechanisms are adopted. In this paper, we propose the Dynamic Token-Based MAC (DTB-MAC) protocol. It implements a token passing approach on top of a random access MAC protocol to prevent channel contention as much as possible, thereby improving the reliability of safety message transmissions. Our proposed protocol selects one of the neighbouring nodes as the next transmitter; this selection accounts for the need to avoid beacon lifetime expiration. Therefore, it automatically offers retransmission opportunities to allow vehicles to successfully transmit their beacons before the next beacon is generated whenever time and bandwidth are available. Based on simulation experiments, we show that the DTB-MAC protocol can achieve better performance than IEEE 802.11p in terms of channel utilization and beacon delivery ratio for urban scenarios.

  • 9.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Böhm, Annette
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Halmstad University, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Calafate, Carlos T.
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    Cano, Juan-Carlos
    Technical University of Valencia, Spain.
    A Reliable and Efficient Token-Based MAC Protocol for Platooning Applications2016In: 12th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2016), 2016, 12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is both a challenging and rewarding application. Challenging since strict timing and reliability requirements are imposed by the distributed control system required to operate the platoon. Rewarding since considerable fuel reductions are possible. As platooning takes place in a vehicular ad hoc network, the use of IEEE 802.11p is close to mandatory. However, the 802.11p medium access method suffers from packet collisions and random delays. Most ongoing research suggests using TDMA on top of 802.11p as a potential remedy. However, TDMA requires synchronization and is not very flexible if the beacon frequency needs to be updated, the number of platoon members changes, or if retransmissions for increased reliability are required. We therefore suggest a token-passing medium access method where the next token holder is selected based on beacon data age. This has the advantage of allowing beacons to be re-broadcasted in each beacon interval whenever time and bandwidth are available. We show that our token-based method is able to reduce the data age and considerably increase reliability compared to pure 802.11p.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Cinque, Elena
    University of L'Aquila, Italy; Radiolabs Consortium, Italy.
    Pratesi, Marco
    University of L'Aquila, Italy.
    Valentini, Francesco
    University of L'Aquila, Italy; Radiolabs Consortium, Italy.
    Bai, Chumeng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gómez, Arrate Alonso
    Mondragon Unibertsitatea, Spain.
    Mohammadi, Mahboubeh
    Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Survey on decentralized congestion control methods for vehicular communication2022In: Vehicular Communications, ISSN 2214-2096, E-ISSN 2214-210X, Vol. 33, article id 100394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular communications have grown in interest over the years and are nowadays recognized as a pillar for the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) in order to ensure an efficient management of the road traffic and to achieve a reduction in the number of traffic accidents. To support the safety applications, both the ETSI ITS-G5 and IEEE 1609 standard families require each vehicle to deliver periodic awareness messages throughout the neighborhood. As the vehicles density grows, the scenario dynamics may require a high message exchange that can easily lead to a radio channel congestion issue and then to a degradation on safety critical services. ETSI has defined a Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism to mitigate the channel congestion acting on the transmission parameters (i.e., message rate, transmit power and data-rate) with performances that vary according to the specific algorithm. In this paper, a review of the DCC standardization activities is proposed as well as an analysis of the existing methods and algorithms for the congestion mitigation. Also, some applied machine learning techniques for DCC are addressed.

  • 11.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ericsson, Niclas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Bakhshi, Z.
    RighTel, Iran.
    Communication middleware technologies for industrial distributed control systems: A literature review2018In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2018, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is the German vision for the future of manufacturing, where smart factories use information and communication technologies to digitise their processes to achieve improved quality, lower costs, and increased efficiency. It is likely to bring a massive change to the way control systems function today. Future distributed control systems are expected to have an increased connectivity to the Internet, in order to capitalize on new offers and research findings related to digitalization, such as cloud, big data, and machine learning. A key technology in the realization of distributed control systems is middleware, which is usually described as a reusable software layer between operating system and distributed applications. Various middleware technologies have been proposed to facilitate communication in industrial control systems and hide the heterogeneity amongst the subsystems, such as OPC UA, DDS, and RTCORBA. These technologies can significantly simplify the system design and integration of devices despite their heterogeneity. However, each of these technologies has its own characteristics that may work better for particular applications. Selection of the best middleware for a specific application is a critical issue for system designers. In this paper, we conduct a survey on available standard middleware technologies, including OPC UA, DDS, and RT-CORBA, and show new trends for different industrial domains.

  • 12.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kouba, Anis
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal.
    Cassioli, Dajana
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Foukalas, Fotis T.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Severino, Ricardo
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal.
    Stepanova, Daria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Agosta, Giovanni
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Xie, Jing
    DNV GL, Norway.
    Pomante, Luigi
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mongelli, Maurizio
    CNR-IEIIT, Italy.
    Pierini, Pierluigi
    Intecs S.p.A, Italy.
    Petersen, Stig
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sukuvaara, Timo
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Wireless communication technologies for safe cooperative cyber physical systems2018In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 11, article id 4075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative Cyber-Physical Systems (Co-CPSs) can be enabled using wireless communication technologies, which in principle should address reliability and safety challenges. Safety for Co-CPS enabled by wireless communication technologies is a crucial aspect and requires new dedicated design approaches. In this paper, we provide an overview of five Co-CPS use cases, as introduced in our SafeCOP EU project, and analyze their safety design requirements. Next, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the main existing wireless communication technologies giving details about the protocols developed within particular standardization bodies. We also investigate to what extent they address the non-functional requirements in terms of safety, security and real time, in the different application domains of each use case. Finally, we discuss general recommendations about the use of different wireless communication technologies showing their potentials in the selected real-world use cases. The discussion is provided under consideration in the 5G standardization process within 3GPP, whose current efforts are inline to current gaps in wireless communications protocols for Co-CPSs including many future use cases.

  • 13.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sinaei, Sima
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Pettersson, M
    Artificial Intelligence Enabled Distributed Edge Computing for Internet of Things2022In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 129, p. 41-42Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Balador, Ali
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sinaei, Sima
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kaya, Ilhan
    Organize Sanayi Bolgesi, Turkey.
    DAIS Project - Distributed Artificial Intelligence Systems: Objectives and Challenges2023In: ACM SIGAda Ada Letters, ISSN 1094-3641, E-ISSN 1557-9476, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 96-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DAIS is a step forward in the area of artificial intelligence and edge computing. DAIS intends to create a complete framework for self-organizing, energy efficient and private-by-design distributed AI. DAIS is a European project with a consortium of 47 partners from 11 countries coordinated by RISE Research Institute of Sweden.

  • 15.
    Dehlaghi Ghadim, Alireza
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Conti, Mauro
    University of Padua, Italy.
    ICSSIM — A framework for building industrial control systems security testbeds2023In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 148, article id 103906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of the smart industry, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) moved from isolated environments to connected platforms to meet Industry 4.0 targets. The inherent connectivity in these services exposes such systems to increased cybersecurity risks. To protect ICSs against cyberattacks, intrusion detection systems (IDS) empowered by machine learning are used to detect abnormal behavior of the systems. Operational ICSs are not safe environments to research IDSs due to the possibility of catastrophic risks. Therefore, realistic ICS testbeds enable researchers to analyze and validate their IDSs in a controlled environment. Although various ICS testbeds have been developed, researchers’ access to a low-cost, extendable, and customizable testbed that can accurately simulate ICSs and suits security research is still an important issue. In this paper, we present ICSSIM, a framework for building customized virtual ICS security testbeds in which various cyber threats and network attacks can be effectively and efficiently investigated. This framework contains base classes to simulate control system components and communications. Simulated components are deployable on actual hardware such as Raspberry Pis, containerized environments like Docker, and simulation environments such as GNS-3. ICSSIM also offers physical process modeling using software and hardware in the loop simulation. This framework reduces the time for developing ICS components and aims to produce extendable, versatile, reproducible, low-cost, and comprehensive ICS testbeds with realistic details and high fidelity. We demonstrate ICSSIM by creating a testbed and validating its functionality by showing how different cyberattacks can be applied. © 2023 The Authors

  • 16.
    Dehlaghi Ghadim, Alireza
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalens University, Sweden.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    Mälardalens University, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalens University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalens University, Sweden.
    Anomaly Detection Dataset for Industrial Control Systems2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 107982-107996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, Industrial Control Systems (ICS) have been targeted by cyberattacks and are becoming increasingly vulnerable as more ICSs are connected to the internet. Using Machine Learning (ML) for Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) is a promising approach for ICS cyber protection, but the lack of suitable datasets for evaluating ML algorithms is a challenge. Although a few commonly used datasets may not reflect realistic ICS network data, lack necessary features for effective anomaly detection, or be outdated. This paper introduces the ’ICS-Flow’ dataset, which offers network data and process state variables logs for supervised and unsupervised ML-based IDS assessment. The network data includes normal and anomalous network packets and flows captured from simulated ICS components and emulated networks, where the anomalies were applied to the system through various cyberattacks. We also proposed an open-source tool, ’ICSFlowGenerator,’ for generating network flow parameters from Raw network packets. The final dataset comprises over 25,000,000 raw network packets, network flow records, and process variable logs. The paper describes the methodology used to collect and label the dataset and provides a detailed data analysis. Finally, we implement several ML models, including the decision tree, random forest, and artificial neural network to detect anomalies and attacks, demonstrating that our dataset can be used effectively for training intrusion detection ML models.

  • 17.
    Ebrahimiyan, Hamide
    et al.
    Urmia University, Iran.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nikoui, Tina
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    A Cost-Aware Resource Management Technique for Cloud and Edge Environment2022In: MELECON 2022 - IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 1165-1170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fog computing plays an important role to improve the efficiency of time-sensitive applications, cost reduction, and proper data management. In this paper, the above goals are made possible by processing some time-sensitive data and aggregating the rest of the data, by the modules in the fog data manager and associated storage servers, before sending it to the cloud servers. In this paper, we set the optimal workload allocation to the cloud and fog system by considering the compromise between costs of energy consumption of cloud and fog system, transfer bandwidth and revenue losses due to the WAN propagation delay, and time constraints in the Fog and Cloud system. The mixed linear programming obtained by IBM ILOG CPLEX software is solved to achieve the lowest possible cost by optimally allocating loads to fog devices and cloud servers. In addition, we show that using this approach, the total cost can be reduced by about 29%. 

  • 18. Masini, Barbara M.
    et al.
    Silva, Cristiano M.
    Balador, Ali
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    The Use of Meta-Surfaces in Vehicular Networks2020Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a service is becoming a new paradigm in the direction of travel planning on the basis of the best service offered by the travelled roads. Hence, the environment in which people move will become smarter and more and more connected to grant services along the whole path. This opens new challenges related not only to the on board connectivity and wireless access technologies, but also on the reliability and efficiency of the surrounding environment. In this context, reconfigurable meta-surfaces play a crucial role, since they can be used to coat buildings, vehicles or any other suitable surfaces and let the environment become an active part of the communication system by opportunistically redirecting (i.e., reflecting, without generating new waves) signals to the target receivers. The objective of this paper is to highlight the limits of current wireless access technologies for vehicular scenarios and to discuss the potential impact of a smart environment made of reconfigurable meta-surfaces on some next generation vehicular use cases, such as cooperative driving and vulnerable road users (VRUs) detection. In addition, a preliminary model is presented to derive, in a simplified way, the performance of an IEEE 802.11p network in terms of collision probability. Even if analytical and based on simplified assumptions, this model has been validated through simulations and allows to compare the performance of the network with and without reconfigurable meta-surfaces.

  • 19.
    Mohammadi, Samaneh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. University of Padua, Italy.
    Sinaei, Sima
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Nowroozi, Ehsan
    Queen’s University Belfast, UK.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Conti, Mauro
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Balancing Privacy and Accuracy in Federated Learning for Speech Emotion Recognition2023In: ACSIS Annals of Computer Science and Information Systems, Vol. 35, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) is a valuable technology that identifies human emotions from spoken language, enabling the development of context-aware and personalized intelligent systems. To protect user privacy, Federated Learning (FL) has been introduced, enabling local training of models on user devices. However, FL raises concerns about the potential exposure of sensitive information from local model parameters, which is especially critical in applications like SER that involve personal voice data. Local Differential Privacy (LDP) has prevented privacy leaks in image and video data. However, it encounters notable accuracy degradation when applied to speech data, especially in the presence of high noise levels. In this paper, we propose an approach called LDP-FL with CSS, which combines LDP with a novel client selection strategy (CSS). By leveraging CSS, we aim to improve the representatives of updates and mitigate the adverse effects of noise on SER accuracy while ensuring client privacy through LDP. Furthermore, we conducted model inversion attacks to evaluate the robustness of LDP-FL in preserving privacy. These attacks involved an adversary attempting to reconstruct individuals' voice samples using the output labels provided by the SER model. The evaluation results reveal that LDP-FL with CSS achieved an accuracy of 65-70%, which is 4% lower than the initial SER model accuracy. Furthermore, LDP-FL demonstrated exceptional resilience against model inversion attacks, outperforming the non-LDP method by a factor of 10. Overall, our analysis emphasizes the importance of achieving a balance between privacy and accuracy in accordance with the requirements of the SER application.

  • 20.
    Mohammadi, Samaneh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sinaei, Sima
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Optimized Paillier Homomorphic Encryption in Federated Learning for Speech Emotion Recognition2023In: 2023 IEEE 47th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 2023, p. 1021-1022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Federated Learning is an approach to distributed machine learning that enables collaborative model training on end devices. FL enhances privacy as devices only share local model parameters instead of raw data with a central server. However, the central server or eavesdroppers could extract sensitive information from these shared parameters. This issue is crucial in applications like speech emotion recognition (SER) that deal with personal voice data. To address this, we propose Optimized Paillier Homomorphic Encryption (OPHE) for SER applications in FL. Paillier homomorphic encryption enables computations on ciphertext, preserving privacy but with high computation and communication overhead. The proposed OPHE method can reduce this overhead by combing Paillier homomorphic encryption with pruning. So, we employ OPHE in one of the use cases of a large research project (DAIS) funded by the European Commission using a public SER dataset.

  • 21.
    Mohammadi, Samaneh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sinaei, Sima
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Secure and Efficient Federated Learning by Combining Homomorphic Encryption and Gradient Pruning in Speech Emotion Recognition2023In: ISPEC 2023: Information Security Practice and Experience: International Conference on Information Security Practice and Experience / [ed] Weizhi Meng, Zheng Yan & Vincenzo Piuri, Springer Nature Singapore , 2023, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) detects human emotions expressed in spoken language. SER is highly valuable in diverse fields; however, privacy concerns arise when analyzing speech data, as it reveals sensitive information like biometric identity. To address this, Federated Learning (FL) has been developed, allowing models to be trained locally and just sharing model parameters with servers. However, FL introduces new privacy concerns when transmitting local model parameters between clients and servers, as third parties could exploit these parameters and disclose sensitive information. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach called Secure and Efficient Federated Learning (SEFL) for SER applications. Our proposed method combines Paillier homomorphic encryption (PHE) with a novel gradient pruning technique. This approach enhances privacy and maintains confidentiality in FL setups for SER applications while minimizing communication and computation overhead and ensuring model accuracy. As far as we know, this is the first paper that implements PHE in FL setup for SER applications. Using a public SER dataset, we evaluated the SEFL method. Results show substantial efficiency gains with a key size of 1024, reducing computation time by up to 25% and communication traffic by up to 70%. Importantly, these improvements have minimal impact on accuracy, effectively meeting the requirements of SER applications.

  • 22.
    Nikoui, T. S.
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Rahmani, A. M.
    National Yunlin University of Science and Technology Douliou, Taiwan.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Tabarsaied, Hooman
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Container-Based Load Balancing and Monitoring Approach in Fog Computing System2022In: MELECON 2022 - IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 1159-1164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things has become a fast-growing area and has attracted considerable attention from the research communities. To provide satisfactory performance and efficiency in smart applications, it is inevitable to apply proper and efficient load balancing mechanisms. This paper presents a container-based load balancing and monitoring approach in fog-cloud environments. The presented architecture is composed of application services, message queuing system and online monitoring tools to address fault-detection, reliability, higher efficiency and scalability that are essential requirements of smart applications. In addition, an implementation of the proposed approach by using well-known technologies is presented, and the system is evaluated. Results indicate that using this model satisfies the requirements and can be considered as a practical solution to fog computing applications. 

  • 23.
    Nikoui, Tina
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Malardalen University,Sweden.
    Rahmani, Amir
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Bakhshi, Zeinab
    Malardalen University,Sweden.
    Cost-Aware Task Scheduling in Fog-Cloud Environment2020In: Proceedings of RTEST 2020 - 3rd CSI/CPSSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing provides computing and storage resources over the Internet to provide services for different industries. However, delay-sensitive applications like smart health and city applications now require computation over large amounts of data transferred to centralized cloud data centers which leads to drop in performance of such systems. The new paradigms of fog and edge computing provide new solutions by bringing resources closer to the user and provide low latency and energy efficiency compared to cloud services. It is important to find optimal placement of services and resources in the three-tier IoT to achieve improved cost and resource efficiency, higher QoS, and higher level of security and privacy. In this paper, we propose a cost-aware genetic-based (CAG) task scheduling algorithm for fog-cloud environments, which improves the cost efficiency in real-time applications with hard deadlines. iFogSim simulator, which is an extended version of CloudSim is used to deploy and test the performance of the proposed method in terms of latency, network congestion, and cost. The performance results show that the proposed algorithm provides better efficiency in terms of the cost and throughput compared to Round-Robin and Minimum Response Time algorithms.

  • 24.
    Nikoui, Tina
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Rahmani, Amir
    National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid
    Shahed University, Iran.
    Analytical model for task offloading in a fog computing system with batch-size-dependent service2022In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 190, p. 201-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task offloading is one of the main concepts in fog computing which improves the system efficiency and decreases latency. Previously proposed models, such as exponential queue models, addressed the offloading models in a simple model. This study proposes a novel analytical model that examines batch queuing systems and the influence of batch size-dependent service time on system performance. Some of the system's properties are indicated using this model, and the correctness of the suggested model via numerical evaluations and simulations is shown. The evaluation results show that our proposed model provides acceptable accuracy and enables efficient task offloading, applied to fog computing systems. 

  • 25.
    Rabet, Iliar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Selvaraju, S
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Alves, Mario
    Politécnico do Porto, portugal.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; ABB, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    SDMob: SDN-Based Mobility Management for IoT Networks2022In: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, E-ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications are envisaged to evolve to support mobility of devices while providing quality of service in the system. To keep the connectivity of the constrained nodes upon topological changes, it is of vital importance to enhance the standard protocol stack, including the Routing Protocol for Lossy Low-power Networks (RPL), with accurate and real-time control decisions. We argue that devising a centralized mobility management solution based on a lightweight Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller provides seamless handoff with reasonable communication overhead. A centralized controller can exploit its global view of the network, computation capacity, and flexibility, to predict and significantly improve the responsiveness of the network. This approach requires the controller to be fed with the required input and to get involved in the distributed operation of the standard RPL. We present SDMob, which is a lightweight SDN-based mobility management architecture that integrates an external controller within a constrained IoT network. SDMob lifts the burden of computation-intensive filtering algorithms away from the resource-constrained nodes to achieve seamless handoffs upon nodes’ mobility. The current work extends our previous work, by supporting multiple mobile nodes, networks with a high density of anchors, and varying hop-distance from the controller, as well as harsh and realistic mobility patterns. Through analytical modeling and simulations, we show that SDMob outperforms the baseline RPL and the state-of-the-art ARMOR in terms of packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay, with an adjustable and tolerable overhead. With SDMob, the network provides close to 100% packet delivery ratio (PDR) for a limited number of mobile nodes, and maintains sub-meter accuracy in localization under random mobility patterns and varying network topologies. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 26. Rabet, Iliar
    et al.
    Selvaraju, Shunmuga Priyan
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Adeli, Mohammad Hassan
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Balador, Ali
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Alves, Mário
    Pushing IoT Mobility Management to the Edge: Granting RPL Accurate Localization and Routing2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and timely mobility support in Internet of Things (IoT) applications is a challenging issue, considering the inherent scarce resources of IoT devices. However, the computational, memory and communication burden may be pushed into more ""muscled"" Software Defined Network (SDN) controllers. A centralised controller can exploit its global view of the network to predict and support seamless handovers. However, it requires the controller to be enhanced with extra link quality information. In this work, we present SDMob, an SDN-based mobility management solution that lifts the burden of computation intensive filtering algorithms from resource constrained nodes and achieves accurate and fast handovers upon nodes' mobility under Routing Protocol for Lossy Low-power Networks (RPL) and IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN). We show that SDMob improves the baseline RPL and the state-of-the-art mRPL in terms of packet delivery ratio leveraging more reliable routing and applying Particle filter and variations of Kalman filter on radio signal strength data enables more accurate localization for complex real world trajectories. 

  • 27.
    Samizadeh Nikoui, Tina
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Rahmani, Amir
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid
    Shahed University, Iran.
    Internet of Things architecture challenges: A systematic review2021In: International Journal of Communication Systems, ISSN 1074-5351, E-ISSN 1099-1131, Vol. 34, no 4, article id e4678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a rapidly growing trend within many domains, such as automotive, avionics, automation, energy, and health. IoT architecture is the system of numerous elements, including sensors, protocols, actuators, cloud services, and layers. IoT architecture plays an important role to provide desired services. Nowadays, tens of IoT architectures are provided by the research community. Many challenges have been identified by the research community, including interoperability, security and privacy, reliability, energy constraints, scalability, and lack of common standards. However, to provide suitable IoT architecture, the importance and priority of requirements in different scenarios may vary, and requirement analysis should be regarded. To this end, this paper presents a systematic mapping survey to give a review of IoT architecture and provide a structured overview of research trends. Moreover, a technical taxonomy is presented for these challenges according to reviewed studies. This classification model can be used as a guideline for future works.

  • 28.
    Selvaraju, Shunmuga Priyan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Vahabi, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Network Management in Heterogeneous IoT Networks2021In: 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC), 2021, p. 1581-1586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous networks (hetnets) is an interconnection of distinctive networking paradigms to enable wider reachability and greater collaborations. In large Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, many wireless networks are spatially co-located and intertwined forming hetnets; for instance, health monitoring devices utilising ZigBee or IEEE 802.15.4 co-exist in 2.4 GHz spectrum alongside Wi-Fi devices. Interoperability or non-obtrusive operations are required among the disjoint domains to achieve operational efficiency in overall IoT ecosystem. Specifically, network interoperability in hetnets assure desired reachability, resource orchestration and network quality. In this work, we have modelled and implemented a simulation environment for hetnets to support different schemes of network interoperability under distributed and centralised management of network. The implementation has been evaluated for network scalability and reliability to replicate large IoT hetnets. By evaluating against increasing number of nodes in the hetnet, the mean latency under distributed management is improved by 100-fold with the centralised management. Similar observations could also be made for throughput and packet loss rate.

  • 29.
    Varghese, Seba Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dehlaghi Ghadim, Alireza
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Alimadadi, Zahra
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papadimitratos, Panos
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Digital Twin-based Intrusion Detection for Industrial Control Systems2022In: 2022 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops and other Affiliated Events, PerCom Workshops 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 611-617Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital twins have recently gained significant interest in simulation, optimization, and predictive maintenance of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Recent studies discuss the possibility of using digital twins for intrusion detection in industrial systems. Accordingly, this study contributes to a digital twin-based security framework for industrial control systems, extending its capabilities for simulation of attacks and defense mechanisms. Four types of process-aware attack scenarios are implemented on a standalone open-source digital twin of an industrial filling plant: command injection, network Denial of Service (DoS), calculated measurement modification, and naive measurement modification. A stacked ensemble classifier is proposed as the real-time intrusion detection, based on the offline evaluation of eight supervised machine learning algorithms. The designed stacked model outperforms previous methods in terms of F1Score and accuracy, by combining the predictions of various algorithms, while it can detect and classify intrusions in near real-time (0.1 seconds). This study also discusses the practicality and benefits of the proposed digital twin-based security framework

1 - 29 of 29
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