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  • 1.
    Amaral, Andreia
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium; Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Gillot, Sylvie
    Irstea, France.
    Garrido-Baserba, Manel
    University of California, USA.
    Filali, Ahlem
    Irstea, France.
    Karpinska, Anna
    Southern Water, UK.
    Plósz, Benedek
    University of Bath, UK.
    De Groot, Christopher
    Western University, Canada.
    Bellandi, Giacomo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Nopens, Ingmar
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Takács, Imre
    Dynamita, France.
    Lizarralde, Izaro
    Universidad de Navarra, Spain; Ceit, Spain.
    Jimenez, Jose
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Fiat, Justine
    Irstea, France.
    Rieger, Leiv
    CTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mikkel
    DHI, Denmark.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rehman, Usman
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Fayolle, Yannick
    Irstea, France.
    Amerlinck, Youri
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rosso, Diego
    University of California, USA.
    Modelling gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment: when current knowledge needs to encounter engineering practice and vice versa2019In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 607-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas-liquid mass transfer in wastewater treatment processes has received considerable attention over the last decades from both academia and industry. Indeed, improvements in modelling gas-liquid mass transfer can bring huge benefits in terms of reaction rates, plant energy expenditure, acid-base equilibria and greenhouse gas emissions. Despite these efforts, there is still no universally valid correlation between the design and operating parameters of a wastewater treatment plant and the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients. That is why the current practice for oxygen mass transfer modelling is to apply overly simplified models, which come with multiple assumptions that are not valid for most applications. To deal with these complexities, correction factors were introduced over time. The most uncertain of them is the α-factor. To build fundamental gas-liquid mass transfer knowledge more advanced modelling paradigms have been applied more recently. Yet these come with a high level of complexity making them impractical for rapid process design and optimisation in an industrial setting. However, the knowledge gained from these more advanced models can help in improving the way the α-factor and thus gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient should be applied. That is why the presented work aims at clarifying the current state-of-the-art in gas-liquid mass transfer modelling of oxygen and other gases, but also to direct academic research efforts towards the needs of the industrial practitioners.

  • 2.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Implementation of the Bürger-Diehl settler model on the benchmark simulation platform2015Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Arnell, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Performance assessment of wastewater treatment plants: multi-objective analysis using plant-wide models2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the knowledge about anthropogenic impacts of climate change has grown, the awareness of the contributions from treatment of wastewater has widened the scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Not only shall ever stricter effluent constraints be met, but also energy efficiency be increased, greenhouse gases mitigated and resources recovered. All under a constant pressure on costs. The main objective of this research has been to develop a plant-wide modelling tool to evaluate the performance of operational strategies for multiple objectives at the plant and for off-site environmental impact.

    The plant-wide model platform Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been modified to improve the evaluation of energy efficiency and include greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, the plant-wide process model has been coupled to a life cycle analysis (LCA) model for evaluation of global environmental impact. For energy evaluation, a dynamic aeration system model has been adapted and implemented. The aeration model includes oxygen transfer efficiency, dynamic pressure in the distribution system and non-linear behaviour of blower performance. To allow for modelling of energy recovery via anaerobic co-digestion the digestion model of BSM2 was updated with a flexible co-digestion model allowing for dynamic co-substrate feeds. A feasible procedure for substrate characterisation was proposed. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O were considered. The bioprocess model in BSM2 was updated with two-step nitrification, four-step denitrification and nitrifier denitrification to capture N2O production. Fugitive emissions of the three gases were included from digestion, cogeneration and sludge storage. The models were tested in case studies for the three areas of development: aeration, co-digestion and greenhouse gas production. They failed to reject the hypothesis that dynamic process models are required to assess the highly variable operations of wastewater treatment plants. All parts were combined in a case study of the Käppala WWTP in Lidingö, Sweden, for comparison of operational strategies and evaluation of stricter effluent constraints. The averaged model outputs were exported to an LCA model to include off-site production of input goods and impact of discharged residues and wastes. The results reveal trade-offs between water quality, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and abiotic depletion of elemental and fossil resources.

    The developed tool is generally applicable for WWTPs and the simulation results from this type of combined models create a good basis for decision support.

  • 4.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Miltell, Maya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Vahidi, Arash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Digitalisering av den svenska VA-branschen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report provides a knowledge base on the digital transformation in the water industry, its visionand potential. Key success factors are pointed out and challenges with workforce competence,data management and cybersecurity is outlined. A catalogue with ten examples of successful digitalapplications is provided for inspiration.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Rapport
  • 5.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plant-wide modelling and analysis of WWTP temperature dynamics for sustainable heat recovery from wastewater2021In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 1023-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater heat recovery upstream of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) poses a risk to treatment performance, i.e. the biological processes. In order to perform a sustainability analysis, a detailed prediction of the temperature dynamics over the WWTP is needed. A comprehensive set of heat balance equations was included in a plant-wide process model and validated for the WWTP in Linköping, Sweden, to predict temperature variations over the whole year in a temperate climate. A detailed model for the excess heat generation of biological processes was developed. The annual average temperature change from influent to effluent was 0.78°C with clear seasonal variations, wherein 45% of the temperature change arose from processes other than the activated sludge unit. To address this, plant-wide energy modelling was necessary to predict in-tank temperature in the biological treatment steps. The energy processes with the largest energy gains were solar radiation and biological processes, while the largest losses were from conduction, convection, and atmospheric radiation. Tanks with large surface areas showed a significant impact on the heat balance regardless of biological processes. Simulating a 3°C lower influent temperature, the temperature in the activated sludge unit dropped by 2.8°C, which had a negative impact on nitrogen removal

  • 6.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul D.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2:parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 98, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identi fied through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances.

  • 7.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management. Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Substrate fractionation for modelling of anaerobic co-digestion with a plant-wide perspective2016In: 5th IWA/WEF Wastewater Treatment Modelling Seminar (WWTmod2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aeration system modelling - case studies from three full-scale wastewater treatment plants2015In: 9th IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment (Watermatex 2015), 2015, article id 10.4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water train of three WWTPs have been modelled following the procedures of the Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM) platform (Gernaey et al., 2014). Additionally the aeration system has been modelled to evaluate airflows and energy performance. The results for the airflow model are presented. The chosen airflow model is shown to be easy to apply and calibrate and robust for practical modelling cases. By simply adjusting the SOTE-polynomial, number of diffusors and airflow limitations the model replicates the real data at a level of detail suitable for most purposes where the evaluation is based on longer time averages. For peak demand evaluation the whole treatment model with influent characterization, model calibration and controllers need to be more detailed than done here. Modelling the airflow is important to allow for evaluation of air consumption, aeration energy performance and for communication of simulation results to plant staff and operators.

  • 9.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modellering av avloppsreningsverk för multikriteriebedömning av prestanda och miljöpåverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using detailed dynamic plant-wide models and combining results from one-year simulations of ’within-the-fence’ WWTPs (both water- and sludge lines) with life-cycle analysis, different operational strategies can be developed and evaluated based on the total environmental impact (including external activities) while maximizing resource recovery and energy efficiency, maintaining good effluent quality and keeping track of the operational costs. The methodology has been applied and tested in an extensive case study of Käppala WWTP.

  • 10.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Lopez, Manuela
    Palmgren, Torsten
    Förkommersiell innovationsupphandling av kvicksilverfri COD-analys2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Organiskt material analyseras traditionellt i avloppsvattenprover med analysmetoden kemisksyreförbrukning, CODCr. Analysmetoden baseras på oxidation av organisk materialmed dikromat varvid förbrukningen av oxidationsmedel blir ett indirekt mått på mängdenorganiskt material i provet. Standardmetoden för CODCr innehåller kvicksilver för att minimerainterferens av kloridjoner. Användning av kvicksilver är förbjudet i Sverige ochCODCr används idag under ett tidsbegränsat undantag. För att avloppsreningsverken skakunna uppfylla rapporteringskravet på COD under avloppsvattendirektivet och bedriva ettbra drifts- och utvecklingsarbete måste en alternativ kvicksilverfri COD-metod tas fram. Mot den bakgrunden startades denna förkommersiella upphandling med målet att identifiera, utveckla och validera en kommersialiserbar anlysmetod som skulle vara kvicksilverfri och jämförbar med CODCr samt gärna dikromatfri. Upphandlingsfasen, Fas 1, ledde till att tre metoder från två leverantörer valdes ut för utvärdering:

    1. COD-analys med kloridelimination från Tyska Macherey-Nagel (CE-COD)

    2. COD-analys med kloriddetektion från Tyska Macherey-Nagel (CD-COD)

    3. COD-analys med PeCOD® från Kanadensiska Mantech (PeCOD).

    De tre metoderna testades parallellt vid tre olika laboratorier. Utvärdering och validering delades in i två faser där alla tre metoderna utvärderades översiktligt i Fas 2a medan endastmetoder som bedömdes ha god potential att nå kommersialisering inom ramen för projekttiden validerades i Fas 2b. För Fas 2a gjordes kontrollprover och validering på verkliga prover. För Fas 2b gjordes, förutom fortsatt validering på verkliga prover, också analyser för repeterbarhet, reproducerbarhet och kloridinterferens samt provningsjämförelse och en hållbarhetsstudie. En rigorös statistisk utvärdering har utförts i enlighet med standardförfarandet för validering av kemiska analysmetoder; riktighet, repeterbarhet, reproducerbarhet, kloridinterferens och hållbarhet utvärderades. Som referensmetod vid valideringen användes ampullmetoden CODCr från Hach-Lange. Resultaten i Fas 2a visade att metoden CE-COD inte var praktiskt användbar, dels på grund av att provberedningen med fällning och filtrering av provet var praktiskt svår att genomföra samt att filtreringen i sig endast möjliggjorde analys av filtrerad COD och intetotal COD. Metoden PeCOD testades i Fas 2a endast på filtrerade prover eftersom mätprincipen inte kan analysera partikulärt organiskt material. Förutom att metoden visade på bristande korrelation mot referensmetoden så meddelade leverantören att de inte skulle kunna leverera den utlovade upplösningsenheten för partikulärt material som skulle möjliggöraanalys av total COD. Varken CE-COD eller PeCOD gick vidare till validering iFas 2b. CD-COD från Macherey-Nagel var den metod som gav bäst resultat utifrån upphandlingens krav. Kloridinterferens kompenseras genom separat kloridmätning och reduktion av uppmätt COD-värde. Metoden gav resultat med hög riktighet och god repeterbarhet för inkommande prover. För utgående prover var riktigheten acceptabel på ett av tre laboratorier. På de laboratorier vars prover kom från stora reningsverk med höga utsläppskrav underskattade metoden COD-halten. Kloridkoncentrationen i provet kunde inte visas påverka mätresultatet. CD-COD är kvicksilverfri men inte dikromatfri. Metodenär färdig att kommersialisera för mätning på inkommande avloppsvatten. Även förutgående avloppsvatten kan analysmetoden användas om en laboratorie intern validering visar att riktigheten är acceptabel på specifika provtyper och provpunkter. För generell tillämpning på utgående prover behöver metoden utvecklas vidare.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Sustainability Analysis forWastewater Heat Recovery - Literature Review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report describes the literature review conducted on wastewater heat recovery (WWHR). As part of the urban water cycle, domestic hot water consumes the lion share – up to 90 % – of the total energy requirement for water management. Individual energy consumption of 780 to 1 150 kWh/cay/yr has been estimated in Sweden. Energy can be recovered from wastewater, in buildings close to the source or further downstream in the wastewater system. Depending on wastewater flow and temperature heat exchangers or heat pumps (or a combination of both) can be used for extracting heat the energy. Obstacles for utilizing this potential are for example: clogging and fouling of equipment, potentially negative system impacts and economic feasibility. Examples of various WWHR implementations have been found in Sweden, Switzerland and North America. Some installations have been running for a long time and technical function and financial viability has been evaluated and are reviewed in the report. Generally, heat pumps reach a coefficient of performance of 3 to 7, better the higher the wastewater temperature is, i.e. further up-stream.

    WWHR application in a wastewater system can be modelled. The domestic hot water requirement and associated energy use has been modelled previously and concepts can be adapted for modelling the larger system. Equations for calculating performance and output variables from heat recovery equipment have been reviewed and is presented. For the purpose of assessing single WWHR installations in sewers, detailed models have been developed and presented. There are reviewed in the text. Concepts for estimating temperature variations in sewers are essential to assess the impact on wastewater treatment plants. Performance of wastewater treatment plants and their temperature dependence can be modelled with existing process models. Temperature variations along the course of the treatment plant might be important to consider.

    In Sweden, there are currently some regulations related to WWHR. The temperature of hot water systems in buildings are regulated to prevent Legionella outbreaks. Furthermore, the practice of WWHR is limited in extent and requires a permit from the utility as by the contract between the consumer and the utility. Currently, this limits the implementation of WWHR in Sweden.

  • 12.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Miltell, Maya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Olsson, Gustaf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Making waves: A vision for digital water utilities2023In: Water Research X, ISSN 2589-9147, Vol. 19, p. 100170-100170, article id 100170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalisation has developed over half a century and is one of the global trends defining society of today and future. Digitalisation is envisioned to help water utilities to become: i) community orientated and digitally integrated with customers and society; ii) digitally transformed end-to-end throughout the value-chain and interconnected between business units; iii) predictive & proactive, utilizing models and applications for control and decision support; iv) visually communicative with customers and society, creating customers aware of the value of water; and financially sustainable by optimal operation (OPEX), and sustainable investments (CAPEX). Digitalisation is a process for business development, where digital solutions are used for automation and innovation. Utilizing the potential of the technological innovation requires a parallel organisational transformation. Any implementation of systems or applications must be motivated in actual needs for the organisation and service delivery. Prior to any digitalisation, identifying issues and areas of improvement is essential. Starting the digital journey, motivating employees, improving the digital culture and creating acceptance of new processes are needed on all levels. Most digital applications require collection, storage, sharing and integrated analysis of large amounts of data. This includes both soft and hard digital infrastructure.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Evaluating Environmental Performance of Operational Strategies at Wastewater Treatment Plants2016In: IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 2016 (IWA 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objectiveperformance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluationof modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also, resourceefficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost callsfor assessment methods including both on and off-site effects. In this study amethod combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and detailed energy models – and life cycle assessment was developed.The method is applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performanceassessment study changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primarytreatment was performed and evaluated. The results show that the primaryobjectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce greenhouse gasemissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the globalwarming potential (GWP) decreased by 28%. However, the LCA revealed that due toincreased consumption of precipitation chemicals and additional carbon sourcedosing (methanol) the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil re-sourcesincreased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasise the importance ofusing plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture thedynamics of the plant – e.g. dynamics of GHG emissions – and the potentialglobal environmental impact.

  • 14.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Multi-objective performance assessment of wastewatertreatment plants combining plant-wide process modelsand life cycle assessment2017In: Journal of Water and Climate Change, ISSN 20402244, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 715-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective performance assessment of operational strategies at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a challenging task. The holistic perspective applied to evaluation of modern WWTPs, including not only effluent quality but also resource efficiency and recovery, global environmental impact and operational cost calls for assessment methods including both on- and off-site effects. In this study, a method combining dynamic process models – including greenhouse gas (GHG), detailed energy models and operational cost – and life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed. The method was applied and calibrated to a large Swedish WWTP. In a performance assessment study, changing the operational strategy to chemically enhanced primary treatment was evaluated. The results show that the primary objectives, to enhance bio-methane production and reduce GHG emissions were reached. Bio-methane production increased by 14% and the global warming potential decreased by 28%. However, due to increased consumption of chemicals, the operational cost increased by 87% and the LCA revealed that the abiotic depletion of elements and fossil resources increased by 77 and 305%, respectively. The results emphasize the importance of using plant-wide mechanistic models and life cycle analysis to capture both the dynamics of the plant and the potential environmental impacts.

  • 15.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Värmeåtervinning ur avloppsvatten: Energiåtervinning och påverkan på avloppssystemet2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating of tap water makes up the lion share of the total energy used in the urban water cycle, up to 90 %. Estimates show that 780 to 1,150 kWh per person and year is used in Sweden for heating water. This energy mainly ends up in the sewers. Even if variations in energy use for this purpose are large and savings are possible, wastewater heat recovery, using heat exchangers or heat pumps, has a large potential.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Rapport
  • 16.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Sörelius, Helene
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    IWA Sverige - länk till kunskap och kontakter i världen2015In: Svenskt Vatten, Bilaga: Internationell Special, no 2, p. 8-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    et al.
    Promiko AB, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Optimization of Aeration Diffuser System Design: A Simulation Study2023In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 149, no 4, article id 04023003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of aeration diffuser system design on electricity usage, effluent water quality, and life-cycle cost in biological wastewater treatment was investigated. A plant-wide model was implemented, and simulations were carried out with different process configurations and aeration systems. Model-aided design of new aeration diffuser systems could significantly decrease electricity usage and life-cycle cost while at the same time avoiding negative effects on the treatment performance. The optimum distribution of diffuser systems in tanks in series was found to be influenced by process configuration, volumetric loading rate, temperature, and the internal recirculation flow rate. Compared with a conventional design approach, increasing the number of diffusers, up to a critical point, led to higher energy efficiency and lower life-cycle cost. This was despite an increasing limitation of the minimum airflow rate, leading to dissolved oxygen levels significantly exceeding control targets. Aeration systems optimized by simulations were found to, independently of process configuration, exhibit 20% lower electricity usage and 16%-18% lower life-cycle costs compared with systems designed based on a more conventional approach typically applied in practice.

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    et al.
    Promiko, Sweden.
    Fujii, Dan
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Held, Henrik
    Veolia, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, David
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Effektiv luftning: Design, drift, underhåll och upphandling av luftningsutrustning för kommunala avloppsre-ningsverk2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, aeration at municipal wastewater treatment plants is described with focus on energy efficiency. Design of aeration systems is described as well as methods for control, operation, follow-up and maintenance with real examples and model simulations. Guidance for procurement of aeration systems is also provided.

  • 19.
    Flores-Alsina, Xavier
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Corominas, Lluis
    ICRA Catalan Institute for Water Research, Spain.
    Sweetapple, Chris
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Fu, Guangtao
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Butler, David
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Vanrolleghem, P. A.
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Gernaey, Krist V
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    Benchmarking strategies to control GHG production and emissions: Chapter 92022In: Quantification and Modelling of Fugitive Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Water Systems: A report from the IWA Task Group on GHG, IWA Publishing , 2022, p. 213-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Benchmarking has been a useful tool for unbiased comparison of control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in terms of effluent quality, operational cost and risk of suffering microbiology-related total suspended solids (TSS) separation problems. This chapter presents the status of extending the original Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) towards including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A mathematical approach based on a set of comprehensive models that estimate all potential on-site and off-site sources of COinf2/inf, CHinf4/inf and Ninf2/infO is presented and discussed in detail. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects on increased GHG emissions when carrying out local energy optimization in the activated sludge section and/or energy recovery in the anaerobic digester. Although off-site COinf2/inf emissions may decrease in such scenarios due to either lower aeration energy requirement or higher heat and electricity production, these effects may be counterbalanced by increased Ninf2/infO emissions, especially since Ninf2/infO has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than COinf2/inf. The reported results emphasize the importance of using integrated approaches when comparing and evaluating (plant-wide) control strategies in WWTPs for more informed operational decision-making. 

  • 20.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Bergvatten, Anders
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of Biogas Production and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants – Technical Report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improved by incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work a new industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view of process optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry. The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mill effluents are treated by high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors to produce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in the anaerobic effluent stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achieve maximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge should in the case study then be co-digested with residues from fish farming industry to yield methane for energy production, nutrient-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludge treatment for optimum microbial activities and production of a nutrient-rich soil amendment. The overall research aim was in this project to develop a mathematical model that describes the relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organic matter removal, biogas production and nutrient release. The plant-wide model used integrated activated sludge and anaerobic models with a physico-chemical modelling framework. Through systematic calibration good general agreement was obtained between the full-scale experimental and simulated results at steady state. Acceptable differences between measured and modelled biogas production (flow rate and methane concentration), nutrients release (N and P) and effluent quality (N, P and COD) of 2-3.2 %, 5.3-7.4 % and 1.4-1.9 %, respectively, were observed throughout the full-scale system. Model-based analysis shows that the model can predict and give insight on dynamic behaviours resulting from deliberate changes but also on disturbances in one of the systems and their subsequent impacts within the integrated plant. Additionally, the model allowed the prediction of nutrients release in anaerobic digestion and subsequent consumption upstream in the high-rate anaerobic system or activated sludge system. Simulations show that there is a need for imposing a basic control and operational strategy for efficient reject water recirculation to optimize the concentrations of N and P in the activated sludge system while also achieving nutrient levels required to meet the effluent discharge permits. Overall, the evaluated plant-wide model can jointly describe the relevant physico-chemical and biological processes and is therefore advocated as a tool for future extension of this type of industrial symbiosis concepts between biogas producers and industries producing large amounts of wastewater rich in organic material. The model can be used for design, multi-criteria performance assessment and optimization of different treatment plants.

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  • 21.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svedin, Christer
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of BiogasProduction and Industrial WastewaterTreatment Plants – A Review2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improvedby incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work anew industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view ofprocess optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry.The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mills effluents are treatedby high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors toproduce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in thedigestate stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achievemaximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge shouldin the case study then be co-digested with fish-waste silage to yield methane for energyproduction, nutrients-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludgetreatment for optimum microbial activities and, production of nutrient rich soilamendment. The overall research aim is to develop a mathematical model that describesthe relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organicmatter removal, biogas production and nutrients release. The review overall finds thatan integrated model is required to simulate this concept and should include recentdevelopments in activated sludge, anaerobic digestion and physico-chemical modelling.

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  • 22.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) allows for underutilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), e.g. food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper focuses on the implementation of codigestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment and OFMSW through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process and an increase of the biomethane production of 20 to 40% with 50% OFMSW and it has an impact on the microbial community. The methanogenic activity increases and changes towards acetate degradation while the community without co-substrate remains unaffected. The modelling results show that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in digester performance due to varying inhibition. Modelling can be successfully used for designing feed strategies and experimental set-ups for anaerobic co-digestion.

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  • 23.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

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  • 24.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sörelius, Helene
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Hållbarhetsindex och FN:s hållbarhetsmål: Förslag på vägar framåt för den svenska VA-branschen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains a presentation of different sustainability goals that the water and wastewater sector needs to consider. Water utilities’ work in Sweden with sustainability index (HBI) and its relation to the SDGs is shown. HBI is covering several of the SDGs but the water and wastewater sector can both deepen and broaden its sustainability work; suggestions how are given in the report.

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    Rapport
  • 25.
    Lindblom, Erik
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Stockholm Vatten, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Lund University, Sweden.
    Flores-Alsina, Xavier
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Stenström, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden; VA-Ingenjörerna AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, D.J.I.
    VA SYD, Sweden; Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Yang, Jiannan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems2016In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 798-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases. The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and (2) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment plants can be generally predicted with high certainty by simulations. Continued efforts should focus on determining the switching conditions for different N2O formation pathways and, if full-scale data are used, more detailed modelling of the measurement devices might improve the conclusions that can be drawn.

  • 26.
    Lindblom, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Vatten, Swden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Modellering av lustgasemissioner från SBR- och anammoxprocesser för rejektvattenbehandling2015Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lundin, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Sehlen, Robert
    Tik, Sovanna
    Vanrolleghem, Peter A
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Modelling Chemically Enhanced Primary Settlers for Resource Recovery Purposes2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Neth, Maria
    et al.
    Gryaab AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Ann
    Gryaab AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    I'Ons, David
    Gryaab AB, Sweden.
    Tumlin, Susanne
    Gryaab AB, Sweden; .
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Blom, Lena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; City of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wilén, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modin, Oskar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A collaborative planning process to develop future scenarios for wastewater systems2022In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 316, article id 115202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater infrastructure has a long lifetime and is subject to changing conditions and demands. When plans are made to upgrade or build new infrastructure, transdisciplinary planning processes and a robust analysis of future conditions are needed to make sustainable choices. Here, we provide a stepwise collaborative planning process in which future scenarios are developed together with local stakeholders and expert groups. The process was implemented at one of the largest wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Scandinavia. With a combination of workshops and the use of a web-based digital tool, future scenarios including flows, pollutant loads, and treatment requirements could be created. Furthermore, sustainability prioritizations affecting the WWTP, were identified. The future scenarios developed for the WWTP in the case study, predict stricter and new regulations, constant or lower future loads and ambiguous future flows. The highest ranked sustainability priority was low resource and energy consumption together with low CO2 footprint. The quantified future scenarios developed in the planning process were used as input to a process model to show the consequences they would have on the WWTP in the case study. Applying this collaborative process revealed future scenarios with many, sometimes conflicting, expectations on future WWTPs. It also highlighted needs for improvements of both the collection system and the WWTP. © 2022 The Authors

  • 29.
    Regmi, P.
    et al.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Miller, M.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Jimenez, J.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Stewart, H.
    Jacobs, USA.
    Johnson, B.
    Jacobs, USA.
    Amerlinck, Y.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Volcke, E. I. P.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    García, P. J.
    Atkins, UK.
    Maere, T.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Torfs, E.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Vanrolleghem, P. A.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Miletić, I.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Rieger, L.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Schraa, O.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Samstag, R.
    Bainbridge Island, USA.
    Santoro, D.
    Trojan Technologies, Canada.
    Snowling, S.
    Hydromantis ESS Inc, Canada.
    Takács, I.
    Dynamita, France.
    The future of WRRF modelling - Outlook and challenges2019In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wastewater industry is currently facing dramatic changes, shifting away from energy-intensive wastewater treatment towards low-energy, sustainable technologies capable of achieving energy positive operation and resource recovery. The latter will shift the focus of the wastewater industry to how one could manage and extract resources from the wastewater, as opposed to the conventional paradigm of treatment. Debatable questions arise: Can the more complex models be calibrated, or will additional unknowns be introduced? After almost 30 years using well-known International Water Association (IWA) models, should the community move to other components, processes, or model structures like 'black box' models, computational fluid dynamics techniques, etc.? Can new data sources - e.g. on-line sensor data, chemical and molecular analyses, new analytical techniques, off-gas analysis - keep up with the increasing process complexity? Are different methods for data management, data reconciliation, and fault detection mature enough for coping with such a large amount of information? Are the available calibration techniques able to cope with such complex models? This paper describes the thoughts and opinions collected during the closing session of the 6th IWA/WEF Water Resource Recovery Modelling Seminar 2018. It presents a concerted and collective effort by individuals from many different sectors of the wastewater industry to offer past and present insights, as well as an outlook into the future of wastewater modelling.

  • 30.
    Saagi, R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reyes, D.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling temperature dynamics in sewer systems – Comparing mechanistic and conceptual modelling approaches2021In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 84, no 9, p. 2335-2352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of the energy consumed for urban water services is used to heat tap water. Heat recovery from wastewater is consequently an area of rapidly growing concern, both in research and by commercial interest, promoting the path towards a circular economy. To facilitate a system-wide evaluation of heat recovery from wastewater, this paper compares two one-dimensional models (mechanistic and conceptual) that can describe wastewater temperature dynamics in sewer pipe systems. The models are applied to successfully predict downstream wastewater temperature for sewer stretches in two Swedish cities (Linköping and Malmö). The root mean squared errors for the mechanistic model (Linköping Dataset1 – 0.33 °C; Linköping Dataset2 – 0.28 °C; Malmö – 0.40 °C) and the conceptual model (Linköping Dataset1 – 0.32 °C; Linköping Dataset2 – 0.20 °C; Malmö – 0.44 °C) indicate that both models have similar predictive capabilities, encouraging the use of conceptual models to reduce data requirements and model calibration efforts. Both models are freely distributed and can be easily integrated with wastewater generation and treatment models to facilitate system-wide wastewater temperature dynamics analysis. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 31.
    Saagi, R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    City-wide model-based analysis of heat recovery from wastewater using an uncertainty-based approach2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 820, article id 153273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 90% of the energy requirement for urban water systems management is for heating domestic tap water. In addition, the energy content of wastewater is mainly in the form of heat (85%). Hence, there is an obvious interest in recovering a large portion of this heat. However, city-wide scenario analyses that evaluate heat recovery at various locations while considering impacts on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) performance are currently very limited. This study presents a comprehensive model-based city-wide evaluation considering four different heat recovery locations (appliance, household, precinct and WWTP effluent) for a Swedish city with varying degrees of implementation using an uncertainty-based approach. Results show that heat recovery at the appliance level, with heat exchangers installed at 77% of the showers at domestic households, leads to a mean energy recovery of 127 MWh/day with a 0.25 °C reduction in mean WWTP inlet temperature compared to the default case without heat recovery. The highest mean temperature reduction compared to the default case is 1.5 °C when heat is recovered at the precinct level for 77% of the domestic wastewater flow rate. Finally, the impact on WWTP nitrification capacity is negligible in this case due to its large existing capacity and design. © 2022 The Authors

  • 32.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reyes, Diego
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling heat transfer in sewer systems - towards a city-wide model for heat recovery from wastewater2019In: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Majority of the energy consumed for urban water services is used to heat tap water. In order to allow for a system-wide evaluation of heat recovery possibilities from wastewater, this paper presents a one-dimensional model that can describe temperature and flow rate variations in a sewer pipe. The model is applied to successfully predict downstream wastewater temperature for sewer stretches in two Swedish cities (Linköping, Malmö). The model can be used to study various heat recovery possibilities from wastewater. It can be easily integrated with models developed to generate flow rate and temperature profiles from households as well as standard activated sludge models for modelling wastewater treatment plants so that a system-wide heat recovery study can be made possible.

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  • 33.
    Winberg, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Farestveit, Tomas
    Fire Sprinkler Systems- Capacity tests and Public Water Mains2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Winberg, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Farestveit, Tomas
    Nordiska Brand AB.
    Vattensprinkleranläggningar - Kapacitetsprov och kommunala vattenledningsnät2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to provide support to local municipalities and other stakeholders on how sprinkler installations connected to the water mains should be installed and maintained so that a high fire safety can be obtained without any inconvenience or disturbances to the municipal water supply. The report includes recommendations for how Swedish municipalities can manage applications for sprinkler connections, and how the sprinkler industry can handle the design, installation and maintenance to minimize the risk for drinking water quality problems.Key words:Sprinkler, public water mains, drinking water quality, backflow prevention, sprinkler pumps, capacity test.

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  • 35.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Berbeyer Cuevas, M.
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Jonas
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    A tool to support upstream work2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theupstream work at utilities can be facilitated by a tool for calculatingpollution loads. A web application for mapping sources and performing substanceflow analysis is being developed. It aims to support location of sources,planning of measurement campaigns and evaluation of specific measures.

  • 36.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Processmodelleringav avloppsreningsverk: Kunskapsspridning om ettkraftfullt verktyg för driftoch design2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to raise the awareness about the benefi ts of modeling at wastewater treatment plants by highlighting existing knowledge, showing good examples and disseminating knowledge about the practical use of models for simulation studies. A knowledge portal is available on-line (in Swedish).

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  • 37.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Modelling heat recovery potential from household wastewater2019In: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strongly growing interest for wastewater heat recovery (WWHR) in Sweden and elsewhere, but a lack of adequate tools to determine downstream impacts due to the associated temperature drop. The heat recovery potential and associated temperature drop after heat recovery on a building level is modelled for a case study in Linköping, Sweden. The maximum temperature drop reaches 4.2 °C, with an annual recovered heat of 0.65 kWh/person/day. Wastewater temperature out from the heat exchanger was 18.0 °C in winter at the lowest. The drinking water source type can be an important factor when considering wastewater heat recovery.

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  • 38.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, R.
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling heat recovery potential from household wastewater2020In: Water Sci Technol, Vol. 81, no 8, p. 1597-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strongly growing interest for wastewater heat recovery (WWHR) in Sweden and elsewhere, but a lack of adequate tools to determine downstream impacts due to the associated temperature drop. The heat recovery potential and associated temperature drop after heat recovery on a building level is modelled for a case study in Linköping, Sweden. The maximum temperature drop reaches 4.2 °C, with an annual recovered heat of 0.65 kWh · person(-1) · day(-1). Wastewater temperature out from the heat exchanger was 18.0 °C in winter at the lowest. The drinking water source type can be an important factor when considering wastewater heat recovery.

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  • 39. Åmand, Linda
    et al.
    Andersson, S
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Urban Water Management AB.
    Junestedt, C
    Rahmberg, M
    Lindblom, E
    Thunberg, A
    Nillsson, A
    SIMULATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF STRICTER NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS DISCHARGE CRITERIA2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Åmand, Linda
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Nya utsläppskrav för svenska reningsverk – effekter på reningsverkens totala miljöpåverkan2016Report (Other academic)
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