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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    A refined terminology on system-of-systems substructure and constituent system states2019In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 31-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of systems-of-systems (SoS) engineering, there is broad agreement on a few characterizations, and these are currently being standardized. However, many aspects in the field still lack an established terminology. In particular, there are unclarities related to the internal structure of an SoS, and on the internal states of constituent systems. In this paper, a refined terminology is therefore proposed, which covers the internal substructure of an SoS; the states of constituent systems in relation to those substructures; and how it relates to hierarchical levels. This terminology can also be used to classify the characteristics of an SoS through different metrics. The terminology is illustrated through three examples of SoS applications in various domains. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    An initial analysis of operational emergent properties in a platooning system-of-systems2018In: 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As systems-of-systems start to be more common in commercial applications, an analysis of emergent properties related to utility and cost for all stakeholders becomes critical. This paper describes an approach for this based on network simulation and game theory, which is applied to truck highway platooning. The emergent properties of energy efficiency and transport efficiency are studied as a consequence of the strategies for platoon formation, and it is shown that having information about the route planning of other vehicles has a significant positive effect on the properties. This indicates the need for a mediator in the platooning system-of-systems architecture. Its role is to communicate plans of the constituent systems.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15), New York, NY, USA: ACM , 2015, 9, article id a15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems is an extension of traditional embedded systems, where communication to the outside world is given more emphasis. This leads to a new design space also for software development, allowing new allocation strategies for functionality. In traditional embedded systems, all functionality was inside the product, but now it becomes possible to partition the software between the embedded systems and IT systems outside the product. This paper investigates, through a case study from the automotive domain, possible new allocation alternatives where computation is offloaded from the embedded system to a server, and what additional architectural concerns this leads to, including performance, resource utilization, robustness, and lifecycle aspects. In addition, the paper addresses new opportunities created by allocating functionality outside the embedded systems, and thus making data available for extended services, as well as the larger concerns that result on the organizational level, including new competency in architecture and DevOps.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Business models and roles for mediating services in a truck platooning system-of-systems2019In: 2019 14th Annual Conference System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 113-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning of trucks on motorways has been proposed as a method of reducing fuel consumption. It requires communication between the trucks to control the distance between them. However, this system-of-systems (SoS) cannot only contain the trucks, but also needs to include mediating off-board services for match-making to find suitable constellations of trucks, and for creating platooning incentives by distributing the profit made equally among the constituent systems. This paper analyzes what actors in the SoS would be suitable to operate these services, and also business models that cover the cost for their implementation and operation. It concludes that the truck OEMs have a vital role in creating the mediating services, and that a suitable business model would be based on usage fees for the services rather than upfront payment for platooning equipment. 

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Experiences of using linked data and ontologies for operational data sharing in systems-of-systems2019In: SysCon 2019 - 13th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of exchanging complex data between the constituent systems in a system-of-systems. This is necessary to ensure that they have compatible understandings of the world surrounding them and entails a need for semantic interoperability between the constituents. Through a case study of a road construction system-of-systems, the world wide web technologies of linked data and ontologies are explored as a framework for data representation and exchange. This data includes several broad categories, such as assets, interfaces, organizations, capabilities, missions, and observations, as well as various properties of those. It is also discussed how the constituents can use this data for reasoning and decision making. The results have been validated through a simulation-based research prototype of the road construction case, from which experiences are reported. 

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Experiences of Using Linked Data and Ontologiesfor Operational Data Sharing in Systems-of-Systems2019In: Proceedings of SysCon2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of exchangingcomplex data between the constituent systems in a system-ofsystems. This is necessary to ensure that they have compatibleunderstandings of the world surrounding them and entails aneed for semantic interoperability between the constituents.Through a case study of a road construction system-of-systems,the world wide web technologies of linked data and ontologiesare explored as a framework for data representation andexchange. This data includes several broad categories, such asassets, interfaces, organizations, capabilities, missions, andobservations, as well as various properties of those. It is alsodiscussed how the constituents can use this data for reasoningand decision making. The results have been validated through asimulation-based research prototype of the road constructioncase, from which experiences are reported.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Game theory applications in systems-of-systems engineering: A literature review and synthesis2019In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 153, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems-of-systems (SoS) are becoming increasingly common in more and more domains, spreading from the initial focus on government-controlled areas such as defense to open market industries. This implies that collaborative SoS are becoming more important, where the constituents need to be given incentives to join and remain within the SoS. Game theory has been proposed as a framework to model and analyze such SoS mechanisms. It aims at providing incentives to the independently operated and managed constituents. This paper presents a systematic literature review on the applications of game theory to SoS engineering, together with a synthesis aiming at capturing the best practices for doing such an analysis. The main conclusions are that game theory can be applied to SoS in a wide range of application areas, and deal with problems related to acquisition, design, and operations. In particular, the operational formation of SoS are well suited for this kind of analysis, and it often requires the use of simulation techniques. However, most results in the field lack a validation in practice.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Proceedings of the Third SwedishWorkshop on the Engineering ofSystems-of-Systems (SWESoS2018)2018Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Bergh, Torsten
    Swedish Transport Administration/Movea, Sweden.
    Johansson, Alexander
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mårdberg, Björn
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Svenson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Åkesson, Viktor
    DB Schenker, Sweden.
    Truck Platooning Business Case Analysis2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we describe results from the work on business case analysis of the Sweden for Platooning (S4P) project. Platooning has the potential to contribute to the on-going transformation of the transport sector by reducing environmental impact, saving fuel, as well as (to a lesser extent) by improving traffic flow and safety and in the long run reducing driver hours. In order to fulfil these promises, it must be shown that there are viable business cases for all involved actors. This report describes the analysis of truck platooning business cases performed in the S4P project.

    Some of the main findings are that there is a significant potential for reducing fuel consumption and hence CO2 exhaust through platooning; that waiting on the order of minutes for a platooning opportunity is reasonable but that taking another route is probably not; that it is necessary to have mediating services that help platoons to form and share the costs and benefits associated with platooning; and that there are different possible ways of implementing a system for sharing the benefits.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Blue Institute, Sweden.
    Architecting systems-of-systems and their constituents: A case study applying Industry 4.0 in the construction domain2019In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 455-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of system-of-systems (SoS) requires a continuous interplay between design decisions on the SoS level and those on the level of its constituent systems (CS), which often preexist and need to be adapted as the SoS evolves. This involves not only preparing the CS to participate in a particular SoS, but also designing the CS architecture to make it easily adaptable to a future SoS context. The problem is in part addressed in an emerging SoS framework in the manufacturing domain called Industry 4.0. It focuses on connected and digitalized production with the ambition of increasing flexibility and efficiency. This paper investigates how Industry 4.0 standards can be used in an SoS context to make CS more flexible and adaptive, and evaluates their usefulness outside manufacturing. The study is based on a case from the construction domain, for which a generic SoS architecture is developed. Several extensions and adaptations of Industry 4.0 are suggested, including specifications of ontologies for missions and workflows. © 2019 The Authors. 

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Sweden.
    Towards a system-of-systems for improved road construction efficiency using lean and industry 4.02018In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 576-582Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road construction is a very large business segment, consuming enormous public funding every year and with significant environmental impacts. However, the rate of efficiency improvement during the last few decades has been negligible, whereas other industries, such as manufacturing, have seen very large improvements by applying automation and Leanbased flow optimization across the production system. In this paper, we outline a system-of-systems concept for road construction which applies similar principles as have previously proved successful in other industries. The paper identifies efficiency attributes and wastes in current practices, which lead to a conceptual solution that focuses on improved coordination of working machines. Technical elements from Industry 4.0 are considered as potential building blocks in this concept, identifying similarities and differences between the construction domain and other industries. Finally, challenges are identified, in particular within knowledge representation and information management.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of systems-of-systems (SoS) present fundamental challenges regarding properties such as safety, security, reliability, and robustness. This is due to the SoS nature where a collection of independent systems cooperate to fulfil certain high-level objectives. Risk analysis is thus an important activity in SoS engineering. This paper presents a risk analysis method which extends the existing STAMP safety analysis method that is based on systems thinking. Our extensions are aimed at coping with other risks than safety, and the usage is tailored to SoS. The method aims at deriving requirements on the constituent systems that will reduce the emergent risks on the SoS as a whole. The method has been applied to a case study of vehicle platooning.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Nylander, Stina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    An analysis of systems-of-systems opportunities and challenges related to mobility in smart cities2018In: 2018 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018, 2018, p. 132-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is one of the major current trends in society. Cities around the world are looking into 'smart' solutions based on information and communication technology to deal with the challenges that result from this development. Mobility is one of the most important areas to address, and system-of-systems solutions where vehicles and infrastructure are connected have a potential to improve urban transportation in many aspects. In this paper, current initiatives related to mobility in smart cities around the world are surveyed, and this is complemented with input from focus groups of transportation stakeholders to identify the important aspects of the problem. Based on this, challenges related to the application of systems-ofsystems in urban mobility are identified.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2016In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

  • 15.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 16.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 17.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015In: Software Business, Springer International Publishing , 2015, 11, Vol. 210, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

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