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  • 1.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway.
    Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne FRIC studien er den forebyggende effekten av Bjørnis for brannsikkerheten i norske husstander studert. Hovedkonklusjonen er at Bjørnis har ført til en tydelig og dokumenterbar forbedring av brannsikkerheten i norske hjem. Studien er utført som en del av prosjekt 4.3 Brannsikkerhetstiltak for boliger i FRIC, i samarbeid med Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis. Det er også et webinar på norsk og engelsk som presenterer studien, opptak av webinaret vil bli publisert her: https://fric.no/publikasjoner.

    | In this FRIC study, the effect of the fire mascot Bjørnis on the fire safety in Norwegian households is studied. The main conclusion is that Bjørnis has led to a clear and documentable improvement of the fire safety in Norwegian homes. This study is a part of project 4.3 Fire safety measures for dwellings in FRIC, in collaboration with the Bjørnis Foundation. There is also a webinar in Norwegian and English presenting the study, the webinar recording will be published at: https://fric.no/en/publications.

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  • 2.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway..
    FRIC webinar: Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Other (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway..
    FRIC webinar: The effect of Bjørnis the fire mascot - The effect of Bjørnis for the fire safety in Norwegian households2024Other (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjoner på bygg: Brannspredning og sikkerhet for brannvesen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Fire spread and safety for fire services.

    The aim of the project has been to answer the following four research questions: 1. How do wind speed and air gap size affect the fire development in the cavity between the solar cell module and the underlying roof structure, and how do these factors affect the extent of damage to the underlying roof structure? 2. How do solar cell modules affect a fire on a realistic, Norwegian, pitched roof? 3. What work is ongoing in Europe and internationally to developing test methods for fire technical documentation of photovoltaic modules, and how should this be implemented in Norway? 4. How should fire service personnel be secured in their work when the fire includes solar cell installation? In this research question, larger installations beyond residential houses and detached houses are also relevant, including larger buildings, flat roofs and BIPV. To answer research questions 1 and 2, a total of 29 experiments were performed with fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. This main report (RISE report 2022:82) summarizes the entire project, and additional details from the experiments performed are given in a separate technical report (RISE report 2022:83). The main findings from the experiments are that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. It was found that both the length of the damaged area on the roof and the temperature rise inwards in the roof (below the chipboard) increased when the distance between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface decreased. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a relation between the size of the gap between the roof surface and the solar cell module, and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. A larger distance between the roof surface and the solar module requires a larger initial fire for the fire to spread. The temperature increase inwards in the roof structure was not large enough in the experiments performed to pose a danger of immediate fire spreading inwards in the structure. Work is ongoing internationally on the development of test methods for fire technical documentation of solar cell modules. This work has so far not resulted in new standards or procedures that can be implemented in Norway. Information has been found from various guidelines and reports on what equipment and expertise the fire service needs to secure their efforts. It is important that the fire service has sufficient knowledge about the working principle of a solar cell installation, so that they understand that parts of the installation can conduct electricity, even if the switch-off switch is activated. The fire service must also be given training in how to handle a fire in a building with a solar cell installation, as well as what protective equipment and tools are needed. The answers from the various fire services to a questionnaire show that solar cell installations rarely are included in the risk and vulnerability analyses (ROS analyses). As a consequence, they do not currently have good enough training and knowledge about handling fires in buildings with solar cell installations. The questionnaire also shows that it seems somewhat unclear to the fire service what responsibility they have in the event of a fire in solar cell installations. This should be clarified, and in cases where solar cell installations pose an increased risk, the fire service must be provided with resources so that they have the right equipment, the right competence, and the right staff to handle such fires.

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  • 5.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag Fire and Rescue Service, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection, Norway.
    Communication of fire safety2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is made by Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). The purpose is to find the best ways to communicate knowledge about fire and fire safety to different target groups and to learn from those working with communication of fire safety in Norway today. These include local fire services, organizations like the Norwegian Fire Protection Association (Norsk Brannvernforening), insurance companies and local, regional and national authorities. The study poses three main questions. Information is collected through a survey which 40 Norwegian fire services answered, through dialogue with relevant stakeholdersin meetings and in a webinar, and through the authors’ own experiences in their own organizations.

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  • 6.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap, Norway.
    Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av brannforsknings- og innovasjonssenteret Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). Målsettingen er å finne ut hvordan man best kan kommunisere kunnskap om brann og brannsikkerhet til ulike målgrupper, og å lære av de som driver med kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet i Norge i dag. Dette inkluderer lokalt brannvesen, organisasjoner slik som Norsk Brannvernforening, forsikringsselskaper, samt lokale, regionale og nasjonale myndigheter. Tre hovedspørsmål er belyst. Informasjon er samlet inn gjennom en spørreundersøkelse som 40 norske brannvesen besvarte, gjennom dialog med relevante aktører i møter og på et webinar, samt fra forfatternes egne erfaringer med arbeid på temaet i sine organisasjoner.

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  • 7.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Rømning ved brann i litium-ion batteri i elsparkesykkel2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire evacuation during lithium-ion battery fires in electric scooters

    This study deals with escape in the event of a lithium-ion battery fire. The study is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). The main objective is to evaluate the consequences of a thermal runaway in an electric scooter in an enclosed space in terms of the spread of gas and smoke from the battery and the potential to prevent escape via escape routes. The scenarios examined are representative of public buildings, schools, office buildings, and other buildings that require many people to escape via large open spaces (e.g., classrooms, open-plan offices) and corridors (escape routes). In addition to the experimental study, information about incidents involving fires in electric scooters in Bergen in recent years has been collected, and the Bergen Fire Service’s experiences from these incidents are presented. A total of 6 large-scale experiments were carried out with a fire in an electric scooter, 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 55 m2 large room corresponding to a classroom, and 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 15 m long corridor (38 m2 ). The ceiling height in the building was around 3 m. The concentrations of the gases CO2, CO, O2, HCl, HF, HCN, SO2, CH2O, NO and NO2 were measured in the experiments. The measurements are used to establish an experimental basis for evaluating whether and when critical gas values (according to ISO 13571:2012 "Lifethreatening components of fire") are achieved and thus lead to reduced ability to escape. The temperature change caused by the fire was measured at different heights in the room. In addition, video documentation is used to assess how the spread of smoke affects escape in a situation where there is a fire in an electric scooter in an escape route. The study has shown that a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery leads to a rapid fire development where the battery essentially bursts into flames, with jet fires and potential ejections of burning battery cells far away from where the fire started. The duration of this fire behavior with jet fires and flying debris was between 3 and 7 minutes. In the fire experiments, the emitted energy was not high enough to raise the room temperature to a critical level. Near the fire, however, there is a hazard of fire spread to other combustible materials in the room due to the behavior of the fire and high temperature of the jet flame. Ejection of burning battery cells poses a hazard of fire spread even to areas far away from the start location. Fires in an electric scooter battery or similar lithium-ion batteries can cause a rapid spread of smoke to the entire room. In the conducted experiments, the fire room was no longer smoke-free at the height of 1.9 m already after 1-2 minutes. Due to this rapid spread of smoke, visibility in the room will be affected after a short time and make escape more difficult. In the corridor, the smoke spread was relatively evenly distributed in height, while the smoke in the large room ("classroom") spread in a layer under the roof. Both forms of dispersion are thus possible, depending on the room and ventilation configuration. The gas measurements in the fire experiments detected both asphyxiant and irritant gases. Due to the battery size, which affects how much gas is formed, in relation to room size and ventilation conditions, the calculated FEC, i.e., the critical concentration of irritant gases, was below the selected limit value of 0.1 in all experiments. Although the FEC value was below 0.1 in all the experiments, people in the fire room would have begun to feel an effect from some of the toxic gases. However, this effect would not have been disabling. The FED, that is, the critical dose for asphyxiant gases, was only obtained after 23 to 30 minutes. It is important to remember that the concentration of toxic gases in a room due to a fire in a lithium-ion battery depends on the ratio of battery size, room size, and ventilation conditions. This means the limit values could have been exceeded for a larger battery or in a smaller room. The most important recommendation from this study is: Avoid storing and charging electric scooters and similar in living areas and escape routes. Chapter 7 also presents 8 tips and recommendations for the population, as well as 1 for the building owner and 1 for the fire service.

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  • 8.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brannsikkerhet ved oppføring og rehabilitering av bygg2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety during construction and rehabilitation of buildings. This study deals with how the covering of buildings during the construction or rehabilitation of buildings affects fire safety and to what extent the regulations take this into account. The main focus has been mapping relevant requirements, recommendations, and performances related to the covering of buildings, mapping available materials, investigating the material’s fire properties, and modelling the spread of smoke within the covering. A mapping of the relevant laws and regulations applied for constructing and rehabilitating buildings has been carried out. The mapping has shown that demands are placed on owners, users, project owners, builders, businesses, employers, planners and contractors through many different laws and regulations. The people involved can have several roles, and similar roles have different names in the various regulations. For buildings in use, fire safety must be ensured for both the users and workers. It also applies that both the owner and the users are responsible for ensuring fire safety. It requires good communication and cooperation between different actors to ensure that fire safety is maintained for all involved, during the construction and rehabilitation of buildings. When covered scaffolding is used, the Regulations concerning the performance of work, use of work equipment and related technical requirements [10] require that the covering satisfy the fire requirements for materials used in escape routes (§17-20). The guideline to the Norwegian Regulations on technical requirements for construction works, TEK10, (Veiledningen til TEK10) §11-9, provides pre-accepted performance levels. For escape routes, class B-s1,d0 (In 1) is specified for walls and ceilings. There is no requirement for fire classification of the walkways in the scaffolding under the applicable laws and regulations. We believe there should be requirements for fire classification of the walkways, in the same way as for the covering, i.e., B-s1,d0 (In 1) for surfaces on walls and ceilings and Dfl-s1 (G) for surfaces on floors. The simulations of the spread of smoke from a fire inside a building during construction or rehabilitation show that the spread of smoke is affected when the scaffolding around the building is covered. Covering around the sides leads to a greater horizontal spread of smoke in the scaffolding than without covering. When the cover also has a roof, the smoke first accumulates underneath the cover's roof before it eventually also fills up with smoke down the floors of the scaffolding. The simulations showed that establishing an open field in the upper part of the cover would ventilate the smoke gases effectively, and the spread of smoke was essentially the same as for a cover without a roof. In addition, the simulation indicated that the air flow through the walkways in the scaffold could be an important factor in reducing the covering's negative effect on the spread of smoke. Of the 64 different products used for covering found in the survey, 35% had full classification according to EN 13501-1 (such as B,s1-d0). About 6% stated that the product was not flame retardant. Of the remainder, it was evenly distributed between those who stated a fire classification according to other test methods, those who did not provide any information on the fire properties and those who stated that the product was flame retardant without further specification. The mapping also indicates that the products from market leaders used by large general contractors provide products with documented fire properties. Conversations with two of Norway’s largest fire and rescue services shed light on several challenges connected to covering scaffolding and construction during firefighting activities. They pointed out that the covering could cause challenges and delays throughout their efforts. The covering gives a reduced visual overview of the spread of smoke and the location of doors and windows. This information is important for planning both extinguishing and smoke diver efforts. In addition, the covering can be an obstacle to the actual extinguishing effort, the use of an extinguishing agent and smoke divers and rescue efforts.

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  • 9.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Yang, Aileen
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Dovran, Freddie
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Olsen, Jørn
    GK Norge, Norway.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BRAVENT – Storskala branntester (del 1): Brannytelse for ikke-brannklassifiserte ventilasjonskomponenter2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BRAVENT – Large-scale fire tests (part 1): Fire performance for non-fire rated ventilation components In the overall BRAVENT project, the goal is to generate answers and documentation on current issues related to ventilation and fire by examining these with experimental fire tests. The present study aimed to evaluate the fire performance of key non-fire-rated components, mainly DCV dampers and exhaust filters, in a comfort ventilation system by testing the hypothesis that the ventilation components will not be damaged by fire within 30 or 60 minutes. To test the hypothesis, a total of 14 large-scale fire tests with different fuels were carried out. The tests were carried out in a test building with several rooms that are representative of classrooms, offices, and corridors. The fire tests were designed to investigate relevant fire scenarios for school buildings, but the findings from the tests can also be used for other purpose-built buildings. The building was equipped with a full-fledged damper-optimized ventilation system, sized to serve a total of 450 m2 and thus provide a realistic basis for the fire tests. Currently, there is no documentation on how non-fire-rated dampers are affected by high temperatures that occur during a fire. The temperature specifications given for non-fire rated DCV dampers are intended for normal operation. Two different types of DCV dampers were tested. In one type, the airflow was measured with a measuring cross, and for the other, the airflow was measured with sensors integrated into the damper blade itself. In several of the conducted tests the non-fire-rated dampers were not able to sustain their function for the required duration of 30 minutes or longer, and failed completely when the temperature inside or outside the dampers reached about 200 ºC. Misreporting of some temperature measurements in the building management system already occurred at lower temperatures, around 120˚C, without significantly affecting the delivered air flow rate. For the damper type with a measuring cross, the plastic hoses connecting the measuring cross and the measuring transducer for the damper melted when hot smoke was transported through the damper. This failure resulted in the DCV damper measuring too low or no airflow. In several tests, this measurement error meant that the DCV damper opened fully, trying to achieve a large enough airflow. In one of the tests where the supply air damper was placed inside the fire room, such a fault on the supply air damper caused it to close completely. In addition to the damage to the dampers, the power supply to the damper was destroyed, and a fuse for the power supply in the control cabinet was short-circuited. This resulted in the building management system losing contact with all the dampers. This shows that a local error can cause the entire system to fail. For the other damper type, where the sensors were located in the damper blade, the high temperatures caused the entire damper blade to melt. It was not observed that soot in the fire smoke led to problems with the dampers' measuring sensors for any of the damper types examined. This indicates that for the performed test series, high temperature and not soot was the greatest challenge for the dampers in the event of a fire. In addition to examining how dampers are affected by fire, there was also an investigation into how the filter performs during a fire. It was found that the filter could largely capture the soot particles in the smoke. This means that equipment located downstream of the filter is relatively well protected against soot, and the possibility of soot contamination to the supply air side via a rotating heat recovery unit can, therefore, be considered minimal as long as the filter is not damaged. However, when the filter collects so much soot, it shows that the potential for the filter to clog. How quickly this happens depends, among other things, on the materials that burn and the size of the fire in relation to the air handling unit's capacity. This also aligns with results from an earlier BRAVENT project [1]. The air temperature in the unit was in all tests carried out below 60˚C and thus lower than the filters' maximum operating temperature of 70˚C. The conclusion from the tests is that the extraction principle with non-fire-rated components cannot be considered a safe strategy for 30 or 60 minutes.

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  • 10.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Mysen, Mads
    GK Norge, Norway.
    Ingebrigtsen, Sturla
    Trox Auranor, Norway.
    Samuelsen, Per Henning
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Byenstuen, Tommy
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Dovran, Freddy
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Øyen Knutsen, Peer
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Haug, Hugo
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Kausland, Åge
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Tvilde, Tor
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Prosjektnotat : Kontrollplan – Ventilasjonsanleggets funksjon under brann2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Dette notatet er en delleveranse i arbeidspakke WP3 i prosjektet BRAVENT – Effektiv ventilasjon av røyk fra små branner. Notatet med tilhørende vedlegg Kontrollplan gir en beskrivelse av hvordan periodisk kontroll og daglig/ukentlig internkontroll av ventilasjonsanleggets funksjon under brann i skolebygg kan utføres. Kontrollplanen kan også være nyttig for bruk i andre offentlige formålsbygg.

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  • 11.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Mysen, Mads
    GK Norge, Norway.
    Ingebrigtsen, Sturla
    Trox Auranor, Norway.
    Samuelsen, Per Henning
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Byenstuen, Tommy
    Oslobygg KF, NorwayOslobygg KF, Norway.
    Dovran, Freddy
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Øyen Knutsen, Peer
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Kværner Hestetun, Johanne
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Haug, Hugo
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Kausland, Åge
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Tvilde, Tor
    Bergen kommune, Norway.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BRAVENT – Veileder for brannteknisk prosjektering av ventilasjonsanlegg i skolebygg2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Dette dokumentet er en veileder. Veilederen skal benyttes av rådgivende ingeniører i brannteknisk prosjektering av ventilasjonsanlegg i skolebygg. Det fokuseres på rømningssikkerhet og skadebegrensning ved små branner i en tidlig fase av brannforløpet. Veilederen beskriver forutsetninger for bruk, krav og preaksepterte ytelser i VTEK, samt ulike typer ventilasjonsanlegg med tilhørende komponenter. Dokumentet illustrerer typiske prinsippløsninger for ulike ventilasjonsstrategier i bygg, samt forskningsresultater fra brannforsøk og undersøkelser i tidligere faser av BRAVENT-prosjektet. Veilederen tar for seg nybygg, eksisterende bygg og verneverdige bygg hvor grensesnittet mellom rådgivende ingeniør brann (RIBr), ventilasjon (RIV), elektro (RIE) og automasjon (RIAut) defineres. En sjekkliste oppsummerer viktige punkter å hensynta ved prosjektering av ventilasjonsanlegg. Rutiner for drift og vedlikehold beskrives til slutt.

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  • 12.
    Meraner, Christoph
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BRAVENT – Storskala branntester (del 2): Effekten av ventilasjonsstrategi på røykspredning og trykkontroll i en mock-up skolebygning2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BRAVENT – Large-scale fire tests (part 2): The effect of the ventilation strategy on smoke dispersion and pressure control in a mock-up school building In the overall BRAVENT project, the goal is to generate answers and documentation on current issues related to ventilation and fire by examining these with experimental fire tests. The present study aimed to evaluate how different failure mechanisms identified in sub-report 1, "Fire performance for non-fire rated ventilation components" [5], affect the pressure conditions and possible smoke spread in the building. In order to investigate the ventilation system's ability to control pressure balance and smoke spread in the event of a fire, 14 large-scale fire tests with different fuel types were carried out. The tests were conducted in a test building with several rooms representing a classroom, an office and a corridor. The fire tests were designed to investigate relevant fire scenarios for school buildings, but the findings from the tests may also be relevant for other purpose-built buildings. The building was equipped with a full-fledged damper-optimized ventilation system which was sized to serve a total of 450 m2 and thus provide a realistic basis for the fire tests. In sub-report 1, a number of component failures were uncovered when the system was exposed to hot smoke. The failure mechanisms led to the system losing its status and control over the dampers, thus also losing the overview of which air volumes passed through the dampers. The failure of the dampers then led to an imbalance in the ventilation system, also in rooms other than the fire room. In the extreme, this can lead to challenges in connection with escape by making it difficult or impossible to open doors. Smoke spread via the supply air ducts can occur due to smoke backflow if the pressure in the fire compartment exceeds the pressure in the supply air duct. In the experiments, the ventilation system increased to the maximum design airflow rate (Vmax) upon fire detection, and no smoke spread due to backflow of fire smoke in the supply air ducts was observed. It was not tested whether a backflow of smoke could have also been prevented at lower airflow rates than Vmax. Whether the ventilation system maintains sufficiently high pressure in the supply air duct to prevent backflow depends on, among other things, the capacity of the supply air fans, the density of the fire compartment and how quickly the fire develops. The smoke from the fire caused the filter in the unit to gradually clog. In three tests, the filter was clogged so much that the air handling unit could not extract enough air, which created an imbalance in the ventilation system. The new BRAVENT tests show that the size of the fire in relation to the air handling unit's capacity plays an important role in how long the exhaust airflow can be maintained. An air handling unit serving several small fire cells with limited available fuel will be able to maintain the required exhaust air volume longer than an aggregate serving a few large fire cells as the ratio between smoke volume and total air volume changes. Other factors that affect how long the unit can compensate for filter clogging are: • whether the air handling unit is designed for 100% or less simultaneity, i.e. the proportion of rooms that can have the maximum amount of airflow at the same time, • the condition of the filter at the start of the fire, completely new filters were used in each of the fire tests, • whether the ventilation system operates with Vmax or less airflow when a fire alarm is triggered. No smoke spread between the rooms via the exhaust duct was observed. However, since the exhaust airflow rate in one of the tests was significantly reduced to around 50% of the maximum design airflow rate, it is concluded that gradual clogging of the exhaust filter will increase the risk of smoke spreading via the exhaust duct. Clogging of the filters can be avoided by establishing a bypass. Nevertheless, it must then still be documented that all other functions of the ventilation system are safeguarded in the event of a fire. The tests carried out showed that the failure mechanism of some components (measurement errors in dampers, short circuits and clogging of the exhaust filters) can lead to the whole system no longer being able to maintain its function.

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  • 13.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    RISE Fire Research sitt høst-webinar [RISE Fire Research’s autumn webinar]: 17 november 20232023Other (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Stenstad, Vidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities2023In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023, p. 201-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities (garages). A semi-automatic parking facility is a parking facility where larger or smaller areas have a system for automatic car stacking or close parking of cars on the same level. The paper is based on a project initiated to increase the knowledge about semi-automatic parking facilities and fire safety in these facilities. Information about semi-automatic parking facilities in Norway and abroad was collected through surveys, interviews, and literature studies.

  • 15.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brannsikkerhet i semiautomatiske parkeringsanlegg2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities

    The main goal of this study is to contribute to increased safety in semi-automatic parking facilities. Semi-automatic parking facilities are parking facilities with a system for automatic stacking of cars, but in contrast to fully automatic parking facilities, these are not closed, compact, and unavailable for the public. The study is financed by The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). A fire simulation was conducted to compare fire spread in a semi-automatic parking facility to fire spread in an ordinary parking facility. The results indicate that the spread of fire from the car that was first ignited to another car happens approximately equally fast in the two scenarios. Thereafter, the fire spread faster in the semi-automatic parking facility compared to the ordinary parking facility. Although these results should only be considered as indicative, they do show that decreasing the distance between rows of cars can lead to a much faster fire spread. The simulation also shows that the size of a fire in a relatively closed-off parking facility is not necessarily controlled by the number of cars but by the access to air. Hence, the number of openings and properties of ventilation systems in such facilities are important factors to consider when assessing fire safety. A study of regulations and experiences with semi-automatic parking facilities in Norway and other countries as well as aspects that increase risks in semi-automatic parking facilities was conducted. No specific fire-related experiences were discovered, but this is not surprising when considering that fires in parking facilities are relatively rare and there are relatively few semiautomatic parking facilities. In addition, these types of facilities are relatively new. The study found regulations for fully automatic parking facilities in Norway, but semiautomatic parking facilities are not covered by the same regulations. The current regulations do not ensure that the authorities are informed when automatic car-stacking systems are installed in existing parking facilities that are open to the public. There are no regulations ensuring that a fire safety assessment is conducted when an automatic car-stacking system is installed in an existing building regulated for parking that is accessible to the public. It is our opinion that there is a need for a new assessment of fire safety when a system for car stacking is established in an existing parking facility.

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  • 16.
    Stölen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjonar på bygg: Eksperimentell studie av brannspreiing i holrom bak solcellemodular på skrå takflater2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Experimental study of fire spread in cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces.

    This report describes a total of 29 experiments where the fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces were studied. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. The series of experiments was carried out to investigate how a fire on a pitched roof surface will be affected by the presence of solar cell modules installed parallel to the roof surface. Simulated steel solar cell modules were used for all experiments. In a small-scale experimental setup, it was studied how different distances (6, 9, 12 and 15 cm) between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface affect the fire spread at two different wind speeds (2 and 4 m/s). In a medium-scale experimental setup, it was studied how the fire spread was affected by the size of the initial fire. Finally, in a large-scale experimental setup, it was studied how the fire spread occurs on a roof surface with dimensions in the same order of magnitude as for a roof on a small house. The results show that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. The findings from the experiments indicate that there is a correlation between the distance from the roof surface to the solar cell module and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. In the small-scale experiments with a small initial fire, it was not found that the simulated solar cell module affected the extent of damage when the distance between the module and the roof surface was greater than 9 cm. For experiments performed in an intermediate-scale setup, it was found that with a larger initial fire, the fire could spread even when there was 12 cm between the roof surface and the simulated solar cell module. The two large-scale experiments also showed fire spread under the simulated solar cell modules with a UL crib (a standardized fire source) used as the initial fire. The extent of the damaged area on the roof surface was similar for the two experiments, even though the wind direction was different. In both experiments, the fire spread below two rows of simulated solar modules and all the way to the ridge. The heat transfer inwards in the roof construction were greater in the experiments with a simulated solar cell module present than without. It increases with a reduced distance between the roof surface and the simulated solar cell module. Directly below the initial fire, no substantially increased thermal stress was observed on the underlying structure when a simulated solar cell module was installed. The thermal stress, on the other hand, increased to a greater extent because of the fire on the roof surface becoming more extensive when the simulated solar cell module was installed. There was a relatively low temperature increase measured under the chipboard behind the roof covering, which indicates that there was no immediate danger of fire spreading inwards into the roof structure directly through the 22 mm thick chipboard.

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  • 17.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Brann i holrom bak royaloljebehandla kledning av furu2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains measurements, observations, and results from 30 experiments with fire in the cavity between the wood cladding and the wind barrier. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. The main focus of the study is on fire inside the cavity between the wind barrier and the cladding. The purpose has been to investigate how different parameters, such as material use and geometry, affect the fire in this cavity. This test series is done by using varying combinations of royal oil-treated and untreated cladding of pine with wind barriers of two different reaction to fire classifications and two different lathing types in the various experiments The various experimental setups have been done in a way that is meant to represent typical constructions in Norwegian houses with wooden cladding. All walls were flat, with cladding without gaps or openings and without internal corners, extruding parts, doors, windows, or other penetrations. In most experiments, measures were taken to shield the outside of the cladding from exposure to the initial fire. In several experiments, however, the fire also established itself on the outside of the cladding after it had burned through the cladding from the inside. Large-scale experiments have also been carried out, where both the cavity and the front of the cladding were exposed to the initial fire. The experiments' results show that the use of royal oil-treated cladding had no statistically significant effect on how the fire in the cavity spread. The results indicate that the use of the used wind barrier with reaction to fire classification F lead to faster flame spread and temperature rise than the used wind barrier with fire classification A2 did, but this is not statistically significant and may be due to random variations. Experiments with vertical lathing showed faster temperature rise in the cavity than experiments with cross-lathing. This means that the heat spreads faster upwards in the cavity when it forms continuous vertical channels than where the cavity is connected both horizontally and vertically between the cross-lathing. In the cavity with cross-lathing, on the other hand, the heat and fire spread to a greater extent laterally than in the cavity with only vertical lathing. The fire in the cavity was in many of the experiments limited by oxygen supply. This shows that the supply of air in the cavity can be as crucial for delimiting the fire spread as the fire properties of the materials inside the cavity. When the cavity fire is delimited by the oxygen supply, higher amounts of combustible gases will be formed in the smoke. This can cause the fire to spread to other places if this gas can be re-ignited.

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