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  • 1.
    Abugabbara, Marwan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gehlin, Signhild
    Swedish Geoenergy Center, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden; Alfa Laval Corporate AB, Sweden.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Holm, Daniel
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Hans
    Umeå ProjektEnergi AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Mattsson, Annika
    Granitor Properties, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Vasakronan AB, Sweden.
    Puttige, Anjan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berglöf, Klas
    ClimaCheck Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Claesson, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hofmeister, Morten
    VIA University College, Denmark.
    Janson, Ulla
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Axel
    Region Midtjylland,Denmark; Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Termén, Jens
    Energy Machines, Sweden.
    Javed, Saqib
    Lund University, Sweden.
    How to develop fifth-generation district heating and cooling in Sweden?: Application review and best practices proposed by middle agents2023In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 9, p. 4971-4983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has an ambitious plan to fully decarbonise district heating by 2030 and to contribute with negative emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050. The vagaries of the energy market associated with climate, political, and social changes entail cross-sectoral integration that can fulfill these national targets. Fifth-generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC) is a relatively new concept of district energy systems that features a simultaneous supply of heating and cooling using power-to-heat technologies. This paper presents best practices for developing 5GDHC systems in Sweden to reach a consensus view on these systems among all stakeholders. A mixed-method combining best practice and roadmapping workshops has been used to disseminate mixed knowledge and experience from middle agents representing industry professionals and practitioners. Four successful implementations of 5GDHC systems are demonstrated and the important learned lessons are shared. The best practices are outlined for system planning, system modeling and simulation, prevailing business models for energy communities, and system monitoring. A roadmap from the middle agents’ point of view is composed and can be utilised to establish industry standards and common regulatory frameworks. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 2.
    Askemar, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    van Noord, Michiel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Klimateffektiv solenergi : Jämförelse av klimatpåverkan från tillverkning av olika solcellsmoduler2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna första rapport från projektet Klimateffektiv solenergi sammanställer kunskapsläget om klimatpåverkan från solcellsmoduler och lägger grunden för vidare projektarbete med utformning av upphandlingskriterier. Litteraturgenomgången täcker både en marknadsöversikt över dagens solcellsmarknad samt en genomgång av klimatpåverkan från olika teknologier och konstruktioner för solcellsmoduler. Litteraturgenomgången avgränsas genom att projektet fokuserar på miljöpåverkanskategorin klimatpåverkan. Vidare har tillverkningsskedet varit centralt i arbetet då tidiga resultat från analyser av klimatpåverkan över solcellers hela livscykel påvisar att övervägande klimatpåverkan sker under tillverkningen av solceller. Centrala utmaningar vid bedömning av klimatpåverkan från solceller är brist på aktuella data, att olika studier redovisar resultat i olika enheter (koldioxidekvivalenter per kWh, per modul eller per kWp) samt hur årlig instrålning, prestanda, degradering och livslängd hanteras i de olika studierna. Resultatet påvisar att dagens dominerande solcellsteknik, kristallina kiselsolceller, har större klimatpåverkan jämfört med tunnfilmstekniker. Vidare har monokristallina kiselsolceller större klimatpåverkan från produktion än multikristallina kiselsolceller, men vilken kiselteknik som producerar el med lägst klimatpåverkan beror på verkningsgradsförhållandena. Nyare cellteknologier såsom PERC- och dubbelsidiga solceller kan minska klimatpåverkan från solel genom att elproduktionen per solcell ökar utan att utsläppen vid tillverkning ökar markant. Slutligen finns andra teknologier och modulkonstruktioner (exempelvis flexibla moduler) med potential att minska klimatpåverkan från solceller, både genom lägre klimatpåverkan från tillverkningen och genom att öka solcellernas effektivitet. Klimatpåverkan från tillverkning orsakas huvudsakligen av energianvändning i olika processer och därmed blir elmixen vid tillverkning avgörande för klimatpåverkan. Elmixen är starkt kopplad till det lokala elsystemet, vilket innebär att tillverkningsland för kiselråvaran, solceller, solcellsmoduler med mera kan bli en nyckelfaktor för att åstadkomma klimateffektiva solcellsmoduler. Eftersom tillverkningen idag sker främst i Kina och övriga asiatiska länder, som har en betydande andel kolkraft i elmixen, orsakas en stor del av klimatpåverkan från dagens solceller av den fossilbaserade elen i dessa länder.

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  • 3.
    Atamer Balkan, Büşra
    et al.
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Menendez III, Hector
    South Dakota State University, USA.
    Nicolaidis Lindqvist, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Odoemena, Kelechi
    Ag-AIM Solutions, Nigeria.
    Lamb, Robert
    Foundation for Inclusion, USA.
    Tiongco, Monique Ann
    Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines.
    Gupta, Stueti
    BlueKei Solutions, India.
    Peteru, Arpitha
    Foundation for Inclusion, USA.
    Resilience for Smallholder Farmers during Pandemic: Model Conceptualization for Agriculture and Food Supply Chain Dynamics2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 4.
    Balkan, Büsra Atamer
    et al.
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Nicolaidis, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Odoemena, Kelechi
    Ag-AIM Solutions, Nigeria.
    Lamb, Robert
    Foundation for Inclusion, US.
    Tiongco, Monique Ann
    Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines.
    Gupta, Stueti
    BlueKei Solutions, India.
    Peteru, Arpitha
    Foundation for Inclusion, US.
    Menendez, Hector Manuel
    South Dakota State University, US.
    Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply Chains: System Dynamics Modeling for the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers2022In: International Journal on Food System Dynamics, ISSN 1869-6945, E-ISSN 1869-6945, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 has caused severe agriculture and food supply chain disruptions, significantly affecting smallholder farmers who supply most of the world’s food, specifically their changes in vulnerability, resilience, and food loss and waste. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the complex causal and feedback relationships for this system by developing a dynamic hypothesis and causal loop diagrams utilizing the System Dynamics methodology. Results provide a roadmap for dialogue and a framework for case-specific model development and help to guide policy decisions for smallholder farmers’ survival during health crises. 

  • 5.
    Björkman, Max Bekken
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Heyne, Stefan
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Hammar, Maria
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Egilsson, Nils Ólafur
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vendt, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Karlberg, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Förstudie om resurskartläggning i företag: Att förstå och förändra för en ökad fysisk resurseffektivitet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har syftat till att undersöka potentialen med fysisk resurskartläggning (RKL) inom företag. RKL kan dels höja den interna kunskapen om företagets resursanvändning, dels stödja extern kommunikation av företagets materialeffektivitet, samt fungera som ett underlag för policymakers som vill utreda styrmedel kopplade till resursanvändning.

    Initiativet till förstudien är delvis sprungen ur tanken att delar av det som idag görs inom energikartläggning (EKL) också skulle kunna appliceras på kartläggning av fysiska resursströmmar. I förstudien har därför EKL summerats översiktligt tillsammans med tidigare utvärderingar av EKL. Rapporten lyfter även fram viktiga lärdomar från EKL som kan användas i resurskartläggningssammahang.

    En viktig del av förstudien har bestått i att utforska vad ett koncept som RKL kan inkludera för att uppnå ökad resurseffektivitet. Begreppet RKL kan delas in i två huvudsakliga delar: Förstå och Förändra. Generellt handlar det om att först kartlägga fysiska resursflöden, och därefter agera på resultaten för att nå konkret handling och förändring. Förstudien ger förslag på ett antal befintliga metoder som kan användas för inledande kartläggning, exempelvis materialflödesanalys (MFA) och livscykelanalys (LCA). Kopplat till detta har förstudien undersökt verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta cirkularitet som företag kan använda för att skapa sig en bild av hur cirkulär företagets verksamhet, produkter och tjänster är.

    För att få en bättre förståelse för hur företag och aktörer i Sverige ser på en mer detaljerad kartläggning av fysiska resursflöden i sina verksamheter, genomfördes femton intervjuer och en enkätstudie. Den enskilt största nyttan som de intervjuade personerna uttryckte med RKL var att kunna visualisera och synliggöra fysiska resurser och hur de flödar genom verksamheten. Via kommande lagkrav inom EU i form av CSRD (Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive) och ESRS (European Sustainability Reporting Standards) skruvas kraven på företags hållbarhetsredovisning upp. Detta nya regelverk kräver bland annat redovisning av in- och utflöden av fysiska resurser, samt att företagen ska kunna visa på mål, strategier och planer för hur resursflödena kan effektiviseras.

    De nya EU-kraven kommer troligen vara en av de starkaste drivkrafterna för företag att utföra RKL, i tillägg till externa krav från kunder och samarbetsparter. I rapporten har översiktliga processer skisserats som stöd för genomförande av RKL med hjälp av befintliga metoder och verktyg. RKL i företag är ett brett begrepp och därför kan RKL utföras på olika sätt beroende på syftet med kartläggningen och typ av företag.

    En slutsats från projektet är att det inte är nödvändigt eller lämpligt med en RKL-lagstiftning på samma sätt som dagens lagstiftning för EKL. Detta beror på att RKL innebär en större komplexitet än EKL och är svår att generalisera för alla företag. Den generella metodiken kan dock utformas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL, och stöden gällande nätverkande och lathundar skulle kunna erbjudas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL för att stötta företag i att uppfylla kommande krav.

    I det fortsatta arbetet med resurskartläggningar i företag är det viktigt att beakta: (1) Fokusera på att använda redan existerande metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta resurser och cirkularitet; (2) Samarbeta med organisationer som tillhandahåller och utvecklar metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för en ökad cirkularitet för att tillsammans med dem öka kunskapen och förståelsen hos företag; (3) Utveckla den skisserade RKLprocessen, så att den bättre kan visa vilka typer av metoder och indikatorer som passar särskilt bra för olika syften; (4) Testa och utveckla processerna och guiderna tillsammans med ett antal pilotföretag; (5) Integrera RKL-processen och guiden med pågående utveckling av standarder för rapportering inom EU och ISO-samarbetet.

  • 6.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Khan, Jamil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Diffusion of biogas for freight transport in Sweden: A user perspective2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 312, article id 127738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current freight transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and there is a need for a transition to alternative fuels and technologies. Biogas is a type of biofuel that has the potential to reduce climate emissions from freight transport, while providing additional benefits such as recycling of nutrients and increased energy security. This paper uses theories on the diffusion of green technologies to analyse the barriers and drivers for the increased use and diffusion of biogas in freight transport. The empirical focus is on the region of Västra Götaland in Sweden, and qualitative interviews have been conducted with demand-side actors such as transport buyers, haulage companies and vehicle manufacturers. The results confirm the important barriers observed in previous research, such as the higher costs of biogas, financial uncertainties and lack of infrastructure, as well as the interplay between barriers. The main drivers are an increased focus on sustainability both within the sector and from wider society, as well as the environmental properties of biogas. Specific barriers have also been identified such as a fragmented freight market structure with a mix of large and small transport companies, tight profit margins and reduced capacity for investments. There is also a division of labour and responsibilities between transport companies and transport buyers, which makes it unclear who will drive the transition to alternative fuels. In general, the study shows that the different types of uncertainty are perceived by the actors as being a significant barrier that needs to be better conceptualised in diffusion theory. © 2021 The Authors

  • 7.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Edvall, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Strandberg, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Emmanouilidis, Dimitris
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Envik, Christel
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Löfqvist, Jonas
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Örn, Mattias
    Axess Logistics, Sweden.
    Renström, Håkan
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Svedlund, Jerry
    CTEK, Sweden.
    Laddinfrastruktur och frekvensreglering: en fallstudie2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att elnätet ska fungera måste frekvensen hållas inom snäva gränser och därför handlar Svenska Kraftnät upp olika typer av stödtjänster för frekvensreglering. De senaste åren har kostnaderna för dessa tjänster ökat kraftigt, bland annat till följd av en allt högre andel intermittent elproduktion. Behoven är prognostiserade att öka ytterligare under de kommande åren. Detta har skapat ett ökat intresse för batterier och deras möjligheter att stödja elnätet. Men batterier och tillhörande kraftelektronik är kostsamt. Samtidigt finns en stor och alltjämt växande batterikapacitet i landets elbilar och med hjälp av dubbelriktad laddning, så kallad vehicle-to-grid öppnas nya möjligheter att komma åt denna potential för att på ett mer resurseffektivt sätt balansera elnätet. Projektets övergripande mål har varit att utreda hur standardisering kan användas för att påskynda och öka användandet av elbilar som resurs för flexibilitetstjänster till elnätet. Bland annat har en fallstudie genomförts av Axess Logistics anläggning i Malmö hamn och möjligheterna för att deras långtidsparkerade elbilar ska kunna leverera frekvensreglering till elnätet har studerats. Resultaten visar på att studerade standarder i stort inte utgör ett direkt hinder för användandet av elbilar för frekvensreglering men att förändringar av exempelvis ISO15118 skulle kunna öka möjligheterna att använda elbilar för att leverera frekvensreglering. Till exempel genom införande av krav på mätnoggrannhet på aktiv effekt, förkortning av tillåtna svarstider, krav på lokal frekvensmätning med god noggrannhet. För långtidsparkerade bilar vore det framförallt värdefullt att arbeta fram, och i standard beskriva, en funktion där elbilens BMS kan uppmanas av EVSE att hålla batteriet i ett tillstånd där det kan användas för att snabbt svara på en begäran om i-/urladdning. Detta så att elbilen kan vara förberedd för frekvensreglering även om den för stunden inte aktivt laddar eller matar effekt till elnätet. Detta en åtgärd som skulle kunna ha stor positiv påverkan på möjligheterna för långtidsparkerade elbilar att leverera frekvensreglering. Exemplifierande användarcykler för långtidsparkerade bilar har studerats för FCR-N och FCR-D. Resultaten visar att den förväntade cyklingen skiljer stort mellan dessa olika frekvensregleringstjänster och antyder att valet av frekvensregleringstjänst behöver studeras utifrån både förväntad ekonomi och eventuellt batterislitage. Överslagsräkningar på eventuella intäkter från deltagande i frekvensreglering har genomförts och de preliminära resultaten visar att investering av dyrare laddinfrastruktur som klarar Vehicle-to-Grid skulle kunna återbetalas inom ett år med 2022 års nivåer av ersättning för frekvensreglering. I en framtid där nya elbilar antas ha stöd för Vehicle-to-Grid har potentialen för att använda långtidsparkerade elbilar på logistikanläggningar till frekvensreglering preliminärt bedömts ligga mellan 110 och 165 MW för svenska förhållanden. Detta motsvarar ca 5-8% av den nordiska FCR-marknaden. På sikt kan också långtidsparkerade bilar hos återförsäljare, flygplatser med mera att utgöra en betydande potential.

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  • 8.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    van Noord, Michiel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain, Sweden.
    En kartläggning av solcellsparker i Sverige 20212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to map the largest groundbased solar farms in Sweden to better understand how they are usually designed; on what type of land they are built and how they can interact with other types of activities such as agriculture and measures to improve conditions for biodiversity. Mid-2021, the typical solar farm with at least 1 MW installed power is built on arable land, can be restored and, as a rule, avoids protected and designated natural areas according to this study, which is mainly based on survey responses. Solar panels are typically directed to the south with a 30-35 degree tilt and are anchored with piles. Generally, the distance between the rows is greater than 3 meters. The most common factors determining the location of the park are the costs for land purchases/leases and proximity to electricity grid. About half of the facilities surveyed are combined with some measure intended to benefit biodiversity. Combining the photovoltaic system with grazing (25%) or cultivation (10%) is still relatively uncommon. The results show that there is an awareness of issues related to biodiversity and opportunities to combine photovoltaic installations with other activities. The increasing pace of expansion of photovoltaic capacity suggests that a deeper understanding of how photovoltaic systems are best adapted to their surroundings will increase in importance.

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  • 9.
    Broberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Fransson, Liisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Smarta hållbara städer i Skåne: Innovationsekosystemkartläggning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2019 tog Forsknings och Innovationsrådet i Skåne fram en innovationsstrategi för regionen som syftar till att ”vara en långsiktig agenda för samarbete mellan nyckelaktörer i Skåne för att främja innovation, adressera svag produktivitet och stärka näringslivet med hållbarhet som en självklarhet och konkurrensfördel”. I strategin pekas sex specialiseringsområden ut, däribland smarta hållbara städer. I samarbete med Region Skåne har RISE under hösten 2020 – våren 2021, genomfört en innovationsekosystemanalys för smarta hållbara städer. Under de senaste åren har Region Skåne gett uppdrag till andra aktörer och även själv bedrivit arbete för att kartlägga delar av ekosystemet runt detta specialiseringsområde. Under arbetet med kartläggningen som presenteras i denna rapport identifierades gap i tidigare analyser främst kring vilka stödfunktioner som finns tillgängliga för aktörerna inom smarta hållbara städer. Fokus i denna kartläggning har därför varit ta fram ny kunskap om dessa stödfunktioner. Övriga delar av analysen baseras på en litteraturstudie av tidigare rapporter. Genom ekosystemanalysen vill Region Skåne få en ökad förståelse för regionens kapacitet inom ett antal utvecklingsområden. Härigenom ämnar man skapa en grund för att identifiera styrkor och svagheter inom området och skapa underlag för vidare arbete. Parallellt med RISE arbete har det pågått ett flertal initiativ och kartläggningar, däribland arbetet med klimatneutrala Lund och Malmö som sker på uppdrag av det strategiska innovationsprogrammet Viable Cities. Tillsammans förväntas genomförda och pågående initiativ ge viktiga resultat om Skånes position och utveckling inom området. Det kan även fungera som ett viktigt underlag i det arbete som pågår, och ska vara klart under 2021, med att ta fram en innovationsagenda för utvecklingen av specialiseringsområdet i regionen. Kartläggningen som presenteras i denna rapport har genomförts i tre delar: 1. En litteraturstudie av tidigare publicerade rapporter av relevans för innovationsekosystemet kring smarta hållbara städer. 2. En kartläggning över tillgången på stödfunktioner. 3. En intervjustudie för att få en fördjupad förståelse för stödfunktionernas verksamhet och roll i ekosystemet. Litteraturstudien utgick från flera tidigare genomförda analyser av regionens näringsliv (branscher, ankarföretag) och forskning och forskningsinfrastruktur. Sammanställningen visar att definition av branschområdet smarta hållbara städer är komplext och därmed är det utmanande att identifiera vilka företag som ingår i området. Dock pekar resultaten på att de branscher som inkluderas i FIRS definition av smarta hållbara städer i hög uträckning redan är, eller har potential att bli starka skånska styrkeområden. Gällande forskning visar studien att flera delområden inom smarta hållbara städer i regionen är starka. Framför allt energiområdet utmärker sig i samtliga studerade analyser, men även andra teknikområden är starka. Regionens städer har attraherat stora anslag bland annat från Vinnova, det strategiska innovationsprogrammet Viable Cities och EU Horizon. Antalet testbäddar inom smarta hållbara städer i regionen utmärker sig däremot som lågt jämfört med andra regioner i närområdet (STRING-regionerna). Kartläggningen av stödfunktioner visade att aktörerna ofta inte bedriver en renodlad verksamhet inom en viss typ av stödfunktion, och att de olika typerna av stödfunktioner på så sätt knyter an till varandra. Totalt identifierades 56 olika aktörer inom de fem kategorier av stöd som arbetades fram: acceleratorer och inkubatorer, testbäddar, innovationsstöd och plattformar, nätverk, kluster och hubbar, samt övrigt stöd. De identifierade aktörerna har en geografisk tyngdpunkt i storstadsregionerna i västra Skåne, och det finns således en stor outnyttjad potential i Skånes övriga kommuner som skulle kunna vara med i arbetet framåt och få innovationsområdet att växa i regionen. En fördjupad studie har gjorts genom intervjuer med aktörer med verksamhet inom testbäddar, inkubatorer och acceleratorer samt nätverk och hubbar. När det gäller testbäddar anses dessa utgöra en viktig länk i innovationsekosystemet genom att erbjuda en plats för behovsägare och leverantörer att mötas och för innovationer att testas. Testbäddar kan också ha en roll i att attrahera internationella aktörer till regionen. Trots dess roll anses antalet testbäddar inom smarta hållbara städer i regionen vara begränsat. Generellt upplevs definitionen av testbäddar som smal, och finansieringsmöjligheterna begränsade. Här identifieras ett behov av ökad kunskap kring alternativa finansieringslösningar för att utveckla och bedriva testmiljöer. I slutsatskapitlet sammanfogas resultat från litteraturstudien, kartläggningen och intervjustudien. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån olika domäner i Isenbergs innovationsekosystem-modell och kompletteras med reflektioner utifrån den högst aktuella och intensiva händelseutvecklingen som sker inom hållbar stadsutveckling på olika nivåer. Projektets slutsatser presenteras uppdelat på följande delområden: Näringslivet inom smarta hållbara städer i Skåne, Tillgång till forskning och forskningsinfrastruktur, Tillgång till innovations- och entreprenörskapsstöd, Finansiering och slutligen Den offentliga sektorns roll i utvecklingen av smarta hållbara städer. Städernas omställning pekas ut som en nyckel för att uppnå klimatneutralitet på nationell, europeisk och global nivå. Stora satsningar utvecklas i snabb takt inom den finansiella sektorn samt inom forskning och innovation. Därför behövs kontinuerlig omvärldsbevakning, positionering och påverkan och det finns möjligheter för regionens aktörer att aktivt bidra till utformningen. Nedan sammanfattas de främsta slutsatserna: • Malmö, Lund och Helsingborg har starka positioner inom hållbar stadsutveckling. För att skapa en förflyttning inom specialiseringsområdet i hela regionen krävs det att det skapas förutsättningar även för de mindre kommunerna och städerna att utvecklas och bidra till utvecklingen i regionen. • Det finns många nätverk, men få testbäddar inom specialiseringsområdet i Skåne. För att utveckla områdets styrkor krävs att det finns en utvecklad och fungerande testmiljöstruktur och att testmiljöerna, i den mån det är möjligt, är verksamma i verklig miljö och inom stadens ytor. • Det finns ett behov av att bredda omfattningen av smarta hållbara städer. Branscherna mobilitet och logistik bör inkluderas i definitionen. Därtill behövs en översyn av begreppet så att medborgarens och civilsamhällets drivkraft för att skapa hållbara och klimatneutrala städer kan tas tillvara. 

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  • 10.
    Broberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lindahl, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Potentialstudie för biogassubstrat i Västra Götaland, Halland och Skåne2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of producing biogas by digestion from substrates in Västra Götaland, Halland and Skåne has in this study been estimated to approximately 5 900 GWh per year, of which 2 300 GWh are found in Västra Götaland, 650 GWh in Halland and 3 000 GWh in Skåne. The estimated potential is based on the current amounts of the substrate categories food waste, agricultural residues, manure, sludge from sewage treatment plants and industrial organic residues. For each of the three regions, the largest contributor to the current substrate potential is agricultural residues. This category contributes with approximately 3 900 GWh annually in total for the three regions. However, to be able to fully realize the potential of the agricultural residues there are logistic and technical challenges to be solved. Manure accounts for the second largest contribution to the potential, approximately 1 000 GWh per year for the three regions. The conditions to realize the manure potential are good with national production support in place for this substrate category.

    The study also includes a brief investigation of future substrate categories focused on marine substrates, grass and hay harvesting, industrial wastewater and biological methanation. From the future substrates, a contribution of a total of 3 600 GWh per year will be added to the estimated potential for the three regions. The largest addition is potential biological methanation of the carbon dioxide streams from the total substrate potential from the current categories, approximately 3 000 GWh annually. Thereafter, the largest contributing future substrate category is industrial wastewater. Including the future substrate flows, a total biogas potential of 9 500 GWh per year was estimated for Västra Götaland, Skåne and Halland together. To realize the potential, close cooperation between substrate owners, gas producers and municipalities are needed together as well as a long-term policy landscape.

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  • 11.
    Broberg, Sarah
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sommarin, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Potential för användning av lågtempererad värme för uppvärmning av växthus – industriell restvärme och värme från returen på fjärrvärme2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet ”Innovativa energieffektiva växthus – designade för lågtempererade energikällor och värmeåtervinning”, som pågått mellan december 2020 – juni 2022 och finansierats av Energimyndigheten, föreslås och utvärderas ett nytt koncept för växthusodling, där energi- och odlingseffektivitet samspelar. Utvärderingen av konceptet inkluderar bland annat frågeställningar om hur energieffektiv teknik för växthus kan minska energibehovet vid odling och använda sig av värmeåtervinning och lågtempererade energikällor. Som en del av projektet genomförs och presenteras här en litteraturstudie över möjliga restvärmekällor i Sverige. Studien fokuserar i huvudsak på regionala kartläggningar som identifierats i svenska regioner. Dessa har identifierats och presenteras för tolv av Sveriges regioner. Möjligheterna att nyttja returvärmen på fjärrvärmevattnet diskuteras också, samt en diskussion om klimatavtryck från användning av restvärme.

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  • 12.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lundström, Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    The connected, sustainable and inclusive society – IoT implementation in a Swedish municipality2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, Vol. 349, article id 11006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT could thus be a game-changer for municipalities towards sustainability. The Swedish municipality of Södertälje strives to develop IoT concepts and use open data for a sustainable and inclusive society. The goal of this study was to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The goal was also to enhance the knowledge of the environmental and social benefits of IoT systems in the waste collection system in Södertälje. The analysis is based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and interviews. The results show a minor climate change impact for the IoT solutions in the overall smart waste collection system. The major climate impact contributor was instead associated with the trash bags used. Additionally, the study showed that the performance of the system relies on smart planning of the operations and the transportations.

  • 13.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ordoñez, Isabel
    Elisava Barcelona School of Design and Engineering, Spain.
    Svärd, Lotta
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    User centred design & energy efficient packaging collection infrastructure supporting circular future lifestyles2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle assessments have traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, not including the actors in the chain. How recycling should be done depends on who you ask, and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. FTI, the Packaging and Newspaper Collection organization is responsible for collecting these fractions and better material recirculation in Sweden's municipalities. They ensure that containers are emptied, that the collection points remain clean, that contents go to the right treatment, and that materials are recycled as much as possible. When recyclable materials end up in the wrong place, it causes problems leading to increased energy use in the life cycle. The ongoing project Tjårven, aims to reduce energy use in connection with packaging collection, as well as potential energy gains in the second stage of the packaging life cycle, by redesigning packaging collection from a user centred perspective. In order to show the energy use in the lifecycle and include the actors in the chain, an actor-based LCA method will be used. In order to redesign packaging collection from a user perspective, the design methods will start from users’ behaviour. The project includes a case study that intends to design a more energy efficient collection infrastructure and allowing for a better circularity and sustainable future lifestyle. The project also includes a literature study that will provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art of collection infrastructures, considering how energy efficient they are and how a circular lifestyle can contribute to future sustainable lifestyles.

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  • 14.
    Byrne, Eoin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ireland.
    Björkmalm, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    Bostick, James
    Lund University, Sweden; Coriolis Pharma Research GmbH, Germany.
    Sreenivas, Krishnan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    van Niel, Ed
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Characterization and adaptation of Caldicellulosiruptor strains to higher sugar concentrations, targeting enhanced hydrogen production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates2021In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the potential for future integration into a biorefinery system due to their capacity to generate hydrogen close to the theoretical limit of 4 mol H2/mol hexose, use a wide range of sugars and can grow on numerous lignocellulose hydrolysates. However, members of this genus are unable to survive in high sugar concentrations, limiting their ability to grow on more concentrated hydrolysates, thus impeding their industrial applicability. In this study five members of this genus, C.owensensis, C. kronotskyensis, C.bescii, C.acetigenus and C.kristjanssonii, were developed to tolerate higher sugar concentrations through an adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) process. The developed mixed population C.owensensis CO80 was further studied and accompanied by the development of a kinetic model based on Monod kinetics to quantitatively compare it with the parental strain. Results: Mixed populations of Caldicellulosiruptor tolerant to higher glucose concentrations were obtained with C.owensensis adapted to grow up to 80 g/L glucose; other strains in particular C. kristjanssonii demonstrated a greater restriction to adaptation. The C.owensensis CO80 mixed population was further studied and demonstrated the ability to grow in glucose concentrations up to 80 g/L glucose, but with reduced volumetric hydrogen productivities (QH2) and incomplete sugar conversion at elevated glucose concentrations. In addition, the carbon yield decreased with elevated concentrations of glucose. The ability of the mixed population C.owensensis CO80 to grow in high glucose concentrations was further described with a kinetic growth model, which revealed that the critical sugar concentration of the cells increased fourfold when cultivated at higher concentrations. When co-cultured with the adapted C.saccharolyticus G5 mixed culture at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, C.owensensis constituted only 0.09–1.58% of the population in suspension. Conclusions: The adaptation of members of the Caldicellulosiruptor genus to higher sugar concentrations established that the ability to develop improved strains via ALE is species dependent, with C.owensensis adapted to grow on 80 g/L, whereas C.kristjanssonii could only be adapted to 30 g/L glucose. Although C.owensensis CO80 was adapted to a higher sugar concentration, this mixed population demonstrated reduced QH2 with elevated glucose concentrations. This would indicate that while ALE permits adaptation to elevated sugar concentrations, this approach does not result in improved fermentation performances at these higher sugar concentrations. Moreover, the observation that planktonic mixed culture of CO80 was outcompeted by an adapted C.saccharolyticus, when co-cultivated in continuous mode, indicates that the robustness of CO80 mixed culture should be improved for industrial application. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 15.
    Carnohan, Shane
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Trier, X.
    European Environment Agency, Denmark.
    Liu, S.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Clausen, L. P. W.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Clifford-Holmes, J. K.
    Rhodes University, South Africa; Association for Water and Rural Development, South Africa.
    Hansen, S. F.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Benini, L.
    European Environment Agency, Denmark.
    McKnight, U. S.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Next generation application of DPSIR for sustainable policy implementation2023In: Current Research in Environmental Sustainability, E-ISSN 2666-0490, Vol. 5, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As our societies and natural systems are becoming ever more interconnected, it is critical that sustainable management can adapt to new knowledge from both the ecological and the social domains, and act on it in a timely and effective manner. This need is amplifying in the Anthropocene as we are approaching the limit for humanity's safe operating space, leading to irreversible change to ecosystem function. This urgently requires increased attention and concern regarding the information feedbacks between the silos of science, policy and society. A web of policies is in place to protect the health of people and the planet, but to ensure that they are effective we need frameworks to make sense of real-world complexities and interlinkages between multiple factors. The Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework was created for this purpose, however, its' implicit focus on 1) analytical and 2) procedural aspects must be made explicit, to enable coordination across silos and studies. Continued creation of new DPSIR derivatives may limit its impact, while more explicit coordination between these two aspects can improve the effectiveness of DPSIR while retaining its flexibility. We thus propose five elements to support sustainable policy development and implementation using DPSIR: 1) iteration; 2) risk, uncertainty and analytical bias; 3) flexible integration; 4) use of quantitative methods, and; 5) clear and standard definitions for DPSIR. We illustrate these elements in four cases: Three highlight missing feedbacks when DPSIR elements are not made explicit and a fourth case – on per-and-polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) – showing a potential roadmap to successful policy implementation using DPSIR. © 2022 The Authors

  • 16.
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    What have residents got todo with it?: Variations in energy use and energy-related behaviours in single-family houses2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve global energy goals, energy use in residential buildings must decrease. The implementation of technical measures is crucial but alone it is not sufficient; residents need to change their behaviour as well. However, households are not a homogeneous group in terms of their energy use and behaviour; rather, the use varies between households and over time. To promote energy savings in buildings, these variations need to be explored. The main objectives of this thesis were therefore to examine how energy use in single-family houses varied and how energy-related behaviours of households influenced the use of energy. The examined energy variations included changes over time, differences between households and variations of energy use throughout the day. The impact on these variations from the residents' activities and everyday behaviours was studied as well. A partially multidisciplinary approach was employed, whereby the following methods were combined: energy data analyses with interviews, energy performance measurements with calculations, and time-use diaries with energy measurements. A literature review was also conducted. The participating households lived in electrically heated, detached, single-family houses, built in Sweden in the 1980s. The residences spanned three different housing areas, each of which encompassed similar houses. The thesis showed that on an aggregated level, the energy use was stable over years of occupancy. An individual household's energy usage could, however, both increase and decrease over time, depending on several activities occurring over the years. On a group level, the daily electricity load curves differed between weekdays and weekend days, with clear power peaks in the morning and evening on weekdays. That is, during these peak hours the households contributed to potential power deficits in the energy system. Large differences between similar houses' energy use were demonstrated, similar to findings in other research. Differences of a factor of two to three between the highest and lowest energy usages were discovered; for water use, the differences were even greater, namely a factor of six. The studies found that there were many ways to be a high or a low consumer. That is, most of the households exhibited a range of different energy-related behaviours contributing to their energy use. In addition, there was a spread between households in how long they performed various activities. Moreover, the thesis showed a parallel use of electronic devices of the same type, which meant that each household member owned their own set of devices, potentially leading to an increased use of electricity at the household level. The findings in the thesis are of value when measures are designed to encourage residents to save energy and reduce power peaks. By field measurements, the empirical studies provided technical and resident-related information that is useful when estimating and verifying energy use of buildings. Additionally, the thesis contributed to the field of multidisciplinary research on household energy use as both technical and social perspectives were in focus – an approach that not only attempted to measure actual energy data, but also to reveal the behaviours that were concealed behind the data.

  • 17.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Enger, Johanna
    Konstfack University of Arts, Crafts and Design, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    User-Centric Measures of the Perceived Light Qualities of Lighting Products2023In: Emerging Science Journal, ISSN 2610-9182, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 609-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, lighting planning is predominantly determined by the need to meet physically measurable requirements that are often based on current lighting standards. However, meeting the minimum technical requirements of the standards is no guarantee for a visually appealing light environment. Instead, requirements based on perceived light qualities also need to be included to achieve better user comfort. Taking perception-based qualities into consideration when creating a light environment is, for many, not an easy task. In addition, a common terminology for perceived light qualities is currently lacking, both in industry and in research. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to explore how perceived light qualities of white light sources can be described when employing user-centric measures. The focus was on the qualities of light colour and diffuse and distinct light since these qualities have a great impact on the visual impression of light. The perception was assessed by applying analytical sensory analysis to lighting products, a method found to be promising in previous work. The methodology is based on analytical measurement by the human senses, which is particularly valuable when developing a general terminology. Since sensory analysis is still quite new to the topic of lighting, the applicability of using the methodology to assess lighting in a real context was also investigated. The results of the studies showed that the perception of light qualities can be described using further concepts in addition to those currently used. For light colour, the concepts of reddish, bluish, yellowish, and greenish light colours proved suitable for providing a richer description of the quality. The concepts of diffuse and distinct light satisfactorily captured variations in light contrast produced by shadows, reflections, and sparkles. In addition, the studies revealed that analytical sensory analysis was applicable for assessing the perception of lighting in a real-world context. The latter means that knowledge gained in the laboratory can be translated into real environments. The user-centric measures investigated in this paper have contributed to the terminology related to perceived light qualities. These can complement the physical measures in lighting planning to promote light environments that are not only energy efficient and meet technical requirements, but also cater for increased user comfort. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 18.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Isaksson, Charlotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University West, Sweden.
    Att utforma teknik med användarna i sikte: intervjuer med tillverkare av energitekniska installationer för småhus2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing technology with users in mind – Interviews with manufacturers of heating and ventilation systems for single-family houses: Implementing technology with good energy performance in our homes is crucial to be able to reduce the energy use and achieve society's energy goals. However, technical measures alone are not enough; how residents interact with and use the technology is also important. The current study revolved around how different users are considered by technology manufacturers in the design of the technology. The objectives of the study were to examine manufacturers' motives and ideas about how heating and ventilation systems are designed and their views on the communication with end users. To explore this, interviews were conducted with manufacturers of heat pumps and ventilation units for single-family houses. The interview study showed that there are several challenges when manufacturers are to consider users' interaction with the technology. It regards designing the products, and especially their interfaces, for different types of users – where the manufacturers hold the view that many users do not have knowledge or understanding of the product. Another challenge is the frequency of interaction with the product, meaning that heating and ventilation systems are technologies that residents usually do not need to interact with very often. This can lead to an unfamiliarity with handling the technology when it is actually required. Also, manufacturers do not have much direct contact with end users, which becomes a particular challenge in shaping the communication and support for users, as well as gaining knowledge about users' real needs. Residents' expectations of high comfort in their homes regarding heating and hot water are anticipated to pose another challenge, especially in supporting households to save energy. The question is then: how are these challenges handled by the manufacturers and how do they design the technology with the users in mind? First and foremost, it was evident during the interviews that a prominent position among the manufactures is that users should not have to interact with the products to any great extent at all. This position has led the manufacturers to design the technology for minimal use and maintenance. But there is somewhat of a duality. While the manufacturers design for a minimal use, they also strive to keep up with recent developments and invest in modern user interfaces, Internet-connected products, and new mobile applications. Several manufacturers have, to varying degrees, involved users and considered their needs in the development of products and interfaces. This has resulted in functions in the interfaces that are adapted to the users. The functions are organised in the interfaces to, together with the use of intuitive icons, create clarity and simplicity for the users. Energy-saving settings, including "eco-mode" and functions to reduce "unnecessary" energy use, have also been developed by several manufacturers. The communication from manufacturers to end users is mostly one-way, but during the interviews there were examples of how manufacturers work in different ways to make information easily accessible to users. For the two-way communication with end users, other professionals, such as dealers and technicians, play an important role in providing households with relevant information and technical support related to the technology. Further developments with more connected products, better control systems, and a higher degree of automation were seen as responses to many of the above-mentioned challenges as well. From the manufacturers' perspectives and views of the users, the study has provided insights that can be useful also in future challenges and opportunities regarding human interaction with, often increasingly advanced, technology. It can involve directing households even more clearly towards energy-saving behaviours or how future services in the “energy-smart home” can be designed based on the needs of end users.

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  • 19.
    Cea, B.
    et al.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Fraboulet, I.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Feuger, O.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Migliavacca, G.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Development and Evaluation of an Innovative Method Based on Dilution to Sample Solid and Condensable Fractions of Particles Emitted by Residential Wood Combustion2021In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, no 23, p. 19705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative and simple method based on dilution, named as the dilution chamber (DC), allowing the measurement of solid and condensable fractions of particulate matter emitted by residential wood combustion appliances has been developed, and its performances have been evaluated. The DC method was then tested by five European institutes (Ineris, ISSI/ENEA, DTI, and RISE) on advanced residential wood log/pellet stoves, under nominal output and low output combustion conditions and using different fuel types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of the DC method to collect the condensable fraction. The DC method was compared with another manual method used to collect the solid and condensable fractions at the same time, the dilution tunnel (DT), on four sampling platforms. A third method, a combining heated filter and impinger filled in with isopropanol collection (SPC-IPA), was also used by Ineris only for comparison with the DC method. PM measurements based on the DC method globally showed a linear correlation with PM measurements based on DT (R2 ranged between 0.81 and 0.99, p < 0.05) specifically for the residential wood stoves under low output conditions when the condensable fraction contributes the most. An analysis and quantification of PAHs related to the total mass of PM of samples taken by the DC method and performed by ENEA/ISSI showed that it produces a condensation effect of semivolatile species comparable or even greater than the DT method. PM emission factors calculated from PM measurements based on the DC method were (i) about 2- to 20-fold higher for the residential wood stoves (EF ranged between 201 to 2420 g GJ-1) compared to those obtained for the residential pellet stoves (EF ranged between 108 to 556 g GJ-1) and (ii) of the same magnitude of PM emission factors from the literature or the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

  • 20.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu
    Fortum Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Vu, H. D.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Wainaina, S.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, M. J.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Bio‑hydrogen and VFA production from steel mill gases using pure and mixed bacterial cultures2023In: Bioresource Technology Reports, ISSN 2589-014X, Vol. 23, article id 101544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major source of CO2 emissions is the flaring of steel mill gas. This work demonstrated the enrichment of carboxydotrophic bacteria for converting steel mill gas into volatile fatty acids and H2, via gas fermentation. Several combinations of pure and mixed anaerobic cultures were used as inoculum in 0.5-L reactors, operated at 30 and 60 °C. The process was then scaled up in a 4-L membrane bioreactor, operated for 20 days, at 48 °C. The results showed that the enriched microbiomes can oxidize CO completely to produce H2/H+ which is subsequently used to fix the CO2. At 30 °C, a mixture of acetate, isobutyrate and propionate was obtained while H2 and acetate were the main products at 60 °C. The highest CO conversion and H2 production rate observed in the membrane bioreactor were 29 and 28 mL/LR/h, respectively. The taxonomic diversity of the bacterial community increased and the dominant species was Pseudomonas.

  • 21.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sugianto, Laurenz Alan Ricardo
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Izazi, Nurina
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Protective effect of a reverse membrane bioreactor against toluene and naphthalene in anaerobic digestion.2022In: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry, ISSN 0885-4513, E-ISSN 1470-8744, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 1267-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raw syngas contains tar contaminants including toluene and naphthalene, which inhibit its conversion to methane. Cell encasement in a hydrophilic reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) could protect the cells from hydrophobic contaminants. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of toluene and naphthalene and the effect of using RMBR. In this work, toluene and napthalene were added at concentrations of 0.5 - 1.0 and 0.1 - 0.2 g/L in batch operation. In continuous operation, concentration of 0 - 6.44 g/L for toluene and 0 - 1.28 g/L for napthalene were studied. The results showed that no inhibition was observed in batch operation for toluene and naphthalene at concentrations up to 1 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. In continuous operation of free cell bioreactors (FCBR), inhibition of toluene and naphthalene started at 2.05 g/L and 0.63 g/L, respectively. When they were present simultaneously, inhibition of toluene and naphthalene occurred at concentrations of 3.14 g/L and 0.63 g/L, respectively. In continuous RMBRs, no inhibition for toluene and less inhibition for naphthalene were observed, resulting in higher methane production from RMBR than that of FCBR. These results indicated that RMBR system gave a better protection effect against inhibitors compared to FCBR. 

  • 22.
    Chen, Tao
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ku, Xiaoke
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; .
    High-temperature pyrolysis modeling of a thermally thick biomass particle based on an MD-derived tar cracking model2021In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 417, article id 127923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass pyrolysis in the thermally thick regime is an important thermochemical phenomenon encountered in many different types of reactors. In this paper, a particle-resolved algorithm for thermally thick biomass particle during high-temperature pyrolysis is established by using reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The temperature gradient inside the particle is computed with a heat transfer equation, and a multiphase flow algorithm is used to simulate the advection/diffusion both inside and outside the particle. Besides, to simulate the influence of intraparticle temperature gradient on the primary pyrolysis yields, a multistep kinetic scheme is used. Moreover, a new tar decomposition model is developed by reactive molecular dynamic simulations where every primary tar species in the multistep kinetic scheme cracks under high temperature. The integrated pyrolysis model is evaluated against a pyrolysis experiment of a centimeter-sized beech wood particle at 800–1050 °C. The simulation results show a remarkable improvement in both light gas and tar yields compared with a simplified tar cracking model. Meanwhile, the MD tar cracking model also gives a more reasonable prediction of the species yield history, which avoids the appearance of unrealistically high peak values at the initial stage of pyrolysis. Based on the new results, the different roles of secondary tar cracking inside and outside the particle are studied. Finally, the model is also used to assess the influence of tar residence time and several other factors impacting the pyrolysis.

  • 23.
    Dahl, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Avancerad spektroskopisk speciering av metaller i askan från avfallsförbränning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användning av sekundära råvaror har på senare tid fått ett ökat fokus med den drivkraft som finns kring cirkulär omställning. Möjligheten att nyttja askor ifrån avfallsförbränning är starkt beroende av deras innehåll av toxiska men också värdefulla komponenter, bland annat metaller.

    Föreliggande projekt har undersökt möjligheterna med att använda röntgenabsorptionsspektroskopi (XAS) för att påvisa de dominerande förekomstformerna av metallerna zink, bly, koppar och antimon i askor från förbränning av avfall. En ökad kunskap om dessa förekomstformer kan ge nya möjligheter till klassificering av bottenaskor (slaggrus) samt ge viktig information för optimering av behandlingsmetoder för att endera stabilisera flygaskor för säker deponi eller för utvinning av värdefulla metaller. I projektet ingick därför analyser av ett mindre antal askor representerande både färska och lagrade bottenaskor samt behandlade och icke behandlade flygaskor. Dessutom representerades olika förbränningsteknologier, såsom rosterpanna, roterugn och cirkulerande fluidiserad bädd (CFB).

    I projektet har röntgen-absorptionsspektroskopimätningar (XAS) genomförts vid BALDER som är ett av strålrören på MAX IV laboratoriet, Lund. XAS kan delas in i två delar, EXAFS och XANES, där XANES utnyttjar den första delen av spektrumet (energier närmast absorptionskanten) och kräver betydligt kortare analystid än en full EXAFS analys (högre energier). Fokus har därför legat på XANES i detta projekt då det är den teknik som har störst potential att fungera som en tidseffektiv standardanalys på MAX IV, speciellt för heterogena prov som genererar hög brusnivå vilket är typiskt för askor.

    Metoden är väldigt beroende av relevanta referensspektrum för att kunna identifiera de olika förekomstformerna. En stor del av arbetet har därför varit att identifiera, framskaffa, kontrollera renhetsgrad för och slutligen mäta på de totalt 43 referensmaterial som använts i analyserna (14 zinkföreningar, 14 kopparföreningar, 10 blyföreningar och 3 antimonföreningar). Dessa spektrum ligger kvar i en databas på MAX IV och kan därför utökas och kompletteras med nya relevanta referensmaterial för att ytterligare förbättra metoden framöver. Dessa är också tillgängliga för andra användare av MAX IV.

    Resultaten visade inte oväntat på att bottenaskor är mer heterogena än flygaskor vilket gav mer brus i analyserna av dessa askor, men med god reproducerbarhet. Övriga trender är beroende på vilket grundämne som undersöks.

    Den klart vanligaste förekomstformer av zink är silikatet hemimorfit (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) både i flyg- och bottenaskor. Analyserna föreslår att ca. 20-40 % av zink återfinns i denna form i de flesta askorna. Övriga dominerande förekomstformer sett till andelen zink är Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (Hydrozinkit) och ett annat silkat som heter Willemite och har formeln Zn2SiO3 men med en större skillnad mellan de olika analyserade askorna. En viss andel zinkklorid, ZnCl2, återfinns också i de flesta askorna.

    Den vanligaste förekomstformen av koppar i flygaskor är Cu(OH)2 (30–55%) men resultaten för bottenaskorna visar på en mer komplex sammansättning med olika oxidformer (CuO, Cu2O, CuFe2O4, Cu2SiO3) men också på förekomst av karbonat (CuCO3*Cu(OH)2) i ett av de lagrade proven.

    Den vanligaste förekomstformen av bly är associerad med någon form av silikat (PbSiO3 eller bundet till amorft SiO2 – liknande strukturen i Pb-glas), men även PbCl2 är vanligt förekommande, speciellt i flygaskor.

    Antimon var bara delvis inkluderad i studien och begränsat till tre referenser. Analysen fokuserade därför på att detektera skillnader före och efter behandling av flygaska. Ingen sådan skillnad kunde detekteras. Värt att notera är att Sb-spektrumet för den bottenaska som analyserades är identisk med det för referensen Sb2O5 och att oxidationstalet för Sb i alla askor ligger nära den för samma referens.

    En slutsats av analyserna var att vissa av referensmaterialens spektrum är mycket lika vilket resulterar i att några referenser som t.ex. ZnS aktivt behövdes selekteras bort vid analyserna baserat på kunskap om hur trolig deras förekomst i askorna är. Det finns också starka indikationer på att fler referensmaterial behövs för att beskriva några av askorna. En kombination av andra mätmetoder som t.ex. μ-XRF föreslås därför som en möjlighet i framtida arbete för att identifiera viktiga saknade referensmaterial. Dessutom skulle en jämförelse med lakanalyser vara kunskapsbyggande.

    Sammanfattningsvis har det i projektet utvecklats en fungerande analysmetod som har potential att kunna bli industriellt gångbar. De resultat som tagits fram kring möjliga förekomstformer är, sett till vad som finns publicerat i litteraturen, betydande. Men för att dra riktiga slutsatser kring olika påverkansfaktorer krävs betydligt fler riktade analyser.

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  • 24.
    Fornell, Rickard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Löwgren, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Karlberg, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Symbioser för en resurseffektiv bioekonomi2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE har fått en förfrågan av Regeringskansliets bioekonomiutredning att sammanställa en bilaga om industriell symbios. Utifrån samtal mellan RISE och utredare har bilagan strukturerats enligt: Ett första avsnitt som diskuterar vad industriell symbios är. Denna diskussion baseras på två definitioner som dels beskriver symbios från olika perspektiv, dels beskriver utvecklingen av begreppet över tid. I avsnittet ingår också en kort diskussion kring skillnader mellan begreppen bioraffinaderi och industriell symbios. Industriell symbios är oberoende av industrisektor, fokus ligger på skapandet av värde från resurser som inte nyttjas till fullo i olika sektorer. Att koppla symbios till bioraffinaderier ger en möjlighet dels att ta ett systemperspektiv på hur bioraffinaderier kan bli mer resurseffektiva, dels att koppla symbiosaktiviteter till utvecklingen av ett fossilfritt samhälle. Ett andra avsnitt som diskuterar olika drivkrafter för skapandet av industriell symbios, både historiskt och kopplat till agendor/strategier för samhällsomställning. Vi argumenterar att det är värdefullt att koppla symbiosutveckling till större omställningsstrategier som till exempel bioekonomistrategin. Då ökar potentialen för att etableringen av industriella symbioser skapar långsiktigt värde. Ett tredje avsnitt som diskuterar hur industriell symbios skapas. I detta avsnitt beskrivs olika utgångspunkter för symbiosaktiviteter (självorganiserade, faciliterade, planerade) och värdet av facilitering lyfts. Olika typer av stöd vid utveckling, och perspektiv som är viktiga att inkludera belyses tillsammans med vikten av det mänskliga perspektivet. Mycket av det som diskuteras i avsnittet gällande att effektivisera och förenkla hur symbioser skapas kopplar till hinder och angreppspunkter inom bioekonomistrategin. En slutsats är att det bör finnas ett stort värde för utvecklingen av både industriell symbios och en resurseffektiv bioekonomi i Sverige att inkorporera industriell symbios i strategin och på så sätt vidga perspektiven på hinder och möjligheter. Ett fjärde avsnitt som kort beskriver några exempel på bioekonomikopplade symbiosaktiviteter i Sverige. Det har skett en snabb utveckling av symbiosaktiviteter under de senaste tio åren i Sverige, och idag pågår aktiviteter i stort sett i hela Sverige där industriell symbios används som begrepp.

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  • 25.
    Fraboulet, I.
    et al.
    INERIS, France.
    Del-Gratta, F.
    INERIS, France.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    eINNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria s.r.l, Italy.
    European inter-comparison campaigns on pm and OGCS atmospheric emissions test methods from residential wood combustion using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases2020In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2020, p. 812-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 20/20/20 target for Europe, will lead to an increased use of biomass combustion, e.g. using wood logs and wood pellets. On the other hand, the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) lies down stringent requirements on maximum levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air. Domestic wood combustion emits particulate matter (PM) which are of concern to authorities and the public. Several different methods of PM measurements have historically been used to perform type testing of solid fuelled residential appliances and boilers. This method shall give repeatable results that are of a guaranteed traceable accuracy, and by this means give the consumer reliable information on the suitability of a particular appliance or boiler. One of the main methods used in Europe consists of sampling the solid fraction of aerosols using a heated filter, this method does not include the collection of the condensable fraction, OGC measurements are performed using FID method.The aim of this work carried out within the EMPIR IMPRESS2 Project was to evaluate the performances of this method by performing intercomparisons using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases.

  • 26.
    Ghanim, Bashir
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O'Dwyer, Thomas
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Leahy, James
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Courtney, Ronan
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Pembroke, Tony
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Murnane, John
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Application of KOH modified seaweed hydrochar as a biosorbent of Vanadium from aqueous solution: Characterisations, mechanisms and regeneration capacity2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 104176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium exists as a mobile and toxic trace metal in many alkaline residue leachates. Its removal and recovery not only reduces a global environmental risk but is also critical to the emergence of innovative technologies and the circular economy. In parallel, the use of treated biomass feedstock is receiving increased attention as a low cost adsorbent for toxic metals in wastewater. This study investigated the adsorption of Vanadium (V) from aqueous solution by KOH modified seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) hydrochar (HCKOH). The results showed that HCKOH is an effective V(V) adsorbent, achieving maximum uptake of 12.3 mg g-1 at solution pH 4, 60 min contact time and temperature 293 K. The kinetics followed a pseudo second order model with film diffusion controlling the overall adsorption rate. The type I adsorption isotherm was well fitted to a Langmuir model (qm = 12.3 mg g-1, R2 = 0.970, RMSE = 0.66) and a thermodynamic study indicated that the V(V) adsorption was both exothermic and spontaneous. The low enthalpy change (-10.97 kJ mol-1) indicated a weak binding of V(V) to HCKOH pointing to the possibility of V recovery. The impact of co-existing cations on V(V) uptake was negligible for Na(I) and Ga (III) but was reduced slightly for Al(III). Desorption and re-adsorption results (3 cycles) indicated that HCKOH has reusable potential to remove and recover V(V) from waste leachates. © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 27.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Importance of Individual Actor Characteristics and Contextual Aspects for Promoting Industrial Symbiosis Networks2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 4927-4927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors that affect and influence industrial symbiosis (IS) collaborations have been researched extensively in the literature, where they are mostly reported at a network level or for IS in general, and lack the individual actor’s perspective. This review article contributes to and expands knowledge of influencing factors and their effect on the individual actor. In a systematic review, guided by the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, this study reviews 53 scientific papers examining planned or existing IS networks. It examines literature from 1 January 2000 to 28 March 2022, and it identifies drivers, barriers, and enablers influencing actors to participate in IS. It explores whether and how the perception and impact of these factors differs depending on the characteristics of individual actors and their specific context. The main findings of this study reveal that an actor’s specific characteristics and the network’s context have a significant impact on decision making and how actors both perceive and are affected by factors influencing collaboration. Furthermore, an additional novel contribution to this field of research is that the study identifies three underlying and recurring considerations that actors appear to find critical, namely, perceived business opportunities/risks, regulatory and political setting, and potential inequalities in the network. The results show that an actor’s take on these critical considerations determines whether the actor is willing to engage in IS.

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  • 28.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Connecting organizational context to environmental sustainability initiatives and industrial symbiosis: Empirical results and case analysis2023In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 40, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis can move us closer to a circular economy and enable efficient and sustainable use of resources. Its potential has however been far from realized, and to increase our understanding of why that is, we investigate drivers, barriers, and outcomes associated with both broadly defined environmental sustainability initiatives and industrial symbiosis from an organizational context perspective. A mixed-methods approach is used, combining statistical analysis of survey material with an embedded case study at an industrial symbiosis network in Sotenäs, Sweden. The position of the customer order decoupling point (CODP), a critical aspect of supply chains that separates forecast-based operations from those tied to specific orders, enables comparisons between organizations with primarily forecast-driven operations from those with primarily order-driven operations. We find that the CODP plays an important role in organizations' commitments to sustainability initiatives in general, as organizations with different CODP positions experience different levels of benefits from such initiatives. We did not find that the CODP position had the same impact for industrial symbiosis initiatives. Our results indicate that both industrial symbiosis, a very specific type of sustainability initiative and collaboration, and environmental sustainability initiatives in a broad sense, are associated with multiple, positive business outcomes. However, case study participants also described that their industrial symbiosis participation was time consuming and associated with an added administrative burden. This could be a reason why such collaborations are not more prevalent, despite the potential of bringing about several positive business outcomes. Finally, our findings indicate that industrial symbiosis may bring business-related benefits to firms regardless of their CODP position, but then in order to understand why such networks are not more prevalent, we recommend that future research investigates ways of quantifying and distributing burdens and rewards associated with industrial symbiosis collaboration. © 2023 The Authors

  • 29.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Exploring Renewable Energy Futures through Household Energy Resilience2022In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, article id 333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition to renewable energy increases the risks of disruptions when electricity supply does not meet demand. HCI has explored how digital technologies can mitigate such problems in households through support for reducing or shifting electricity use. However, faster transitions may be possible if some disturbances can be acceptable and households are supported in adapting to them. In this paper, we present a study of 21 Swedish households and their experiences of and ideas on how to manage disruptions in electricity supply. We call this perspective household energy resilience and identify three strategies for resilience: (1) response diversity, i.e., diversity in ways of carrying out normally electricity-dependent practices, (2) creating opportunities to develop resilience, and (3) building community energy resilience. Furthermore, we suggest how HCI can support these strategies, both by providing tools to increase resilience and by carefully designing technology and services to be more resilient in themselves. © 2022 Owner/Author.

  • 30.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Household energy resilience: Shifting perspectives to reveal opportunities for renewable energy futures in affluent contexts2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 88, article id 102498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy resilience is an important focus for energy policy and research, since the energy system is increasingly facing challenges such as power shortages, e.g. due to increased renewable energy production, and risks of power outages caused by extreme weathers. Typically, energy resilience in these contexts focuses on infrastructure and securing supply of electricity despite disturbances. This paper contributes a complementary perspective on resilience, which takes households as a starting point for investigating resilience. Building on understandings of resilience from several disciplines, we suggest a definition of household energy resilience that can be used to explore how households can ensure a good life in a future with variable availability of electricity. Furthermore, we draw on current ideas of future domestic energy use in energy affluent contexts (backup energy sources, energy efficiency, flexibility, and energy sufficiency) to create a framework for exploring household energy resilience. We find a potential for diversity within and between the different ideas, that is not always present in mainstream visions of future energy use. With the perspective of household energy resilience, we wish to challenge the perception of electricity demand as non-negotiable and to reveal opportunities for supporting households in becoming more resilient in an uncertain future. © 2022 The Authors

  • 31.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhou, Ming
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faisal, Abrar
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Finelli, Valeria
    Università di Torino, Italy.
    Signorile, Matteo
    Università di Torino, Italy.
    Crocellà, Valentina
    Università di Torino, Italy.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Controlling diffusion resistance, selectivity and deactivation of ZSM-5 catalysts by crystal thickness and defects2022In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 410, p. 320-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation of two sets of defect free and defective ZSM-5 crystals with controlled thickness (T) between 30 and 400 nm and of their performances in methanol conversion was reported for the first time in the present work. The defect free ZSM-5 crystals with a thickness of 35 nm are by far the smallest ever reported and displayed superior activity, stability and selectivity to slower diffusing compounds, which resulted in high yield of e.g. gasoline and the 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene isomer with high octane number, as compared to the other studied catalysts. Almost only products forming in the zeolite pores were detected and consequently, the external surface must be nearly inactive. Strong correlations between T and deactivation rate were observed. Thick crystals deactivated much faster than thin crystals, probably due to formation of carbon species in the zeolite pores, which results in pronounced percolation effects and faster deactivation of the former. At comparable thickness, crystals with defects deactivated much faster than defect free crystals, due to formation of additional small molecular coke species in the former. Strong correlations between T and selectivity were also observed and assigned to control of diffusion resistance by crystal thickness. © 2022 The Authors

  • 32.
    Håkansson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    “None of us was prepared”—Caring for vulnerable people during the heatwave in Sweden in 20182023In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Climate change is increasing the risk for extreme weather events such as heatwaves, including in northern countries like Sweden, which until recent years has had limited experiences of coping with extreme heat. Based on predictions that Sweden will be more frequently exposed to heatwaves in the future, it is imperative to increase the societal resilience and adaptation measures. This paper presents a qualitative interview study involving 19 participants and their experiences of caring for vulnerable people during the heatwave in 2018. The participants represent four different organizations (working directly or indirectly with vulnerable people) in two municipalities in Sweden, including preschools, homes for the elderly, homecare services, and care homes for people with functional impairments, which were all impacted during the heatwave. This study contributes new empirical insights about the heatwave in 2018 and, in particular, similarities and differences in both experiences and adaptation measures across the four organizations. The findings show how both staff and vulnerable people suffered from the consequences of heat which increased vulnerability, how some organizations lacked enough (qualified) staff to secure routines, and that few evaluations and formal changes were done after the heatwave.

  • 33.
    Håkansson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sall Vesselényi, László
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Jonasson Tolv, Julia
    Savvy Design Collaborative, Sweden.
    ”Do they pass the woman test?”: Navigating and negotiating the gendering of residential solar panels2022In: NordiCHI '22: Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference, Aarhus, Denmark, October 8 - 12, 2022, New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, p. 1-12, article id 47Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential solar panels are increasingly popular, yet women arelargely invisible as customers and users. This creates barriers forreaching gender equality and climate goals where increased renewable energy is key. We present results from a norm-criticalstudy drawing on 10 interviews with solar industry representativesand focus groups with 28 women, either owning solar panels or inthe process of buying. The study aims to critically analyze currentgender norms related to technology, market, and use, as well asto identify difficulties for women’s solar panel engagement. Thestudy shows how women at different touchpoints in the processof buying and having solar panels both navigate and negotiate anongoing gendering of this technology, despite the industry attemptsto present solar panels as gender neutral. While the study focuseson residential solar panels, the contribution is relevant for widerHCI, e.g. work related to smart home technologies.

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  • 34.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Askemar, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hur påverkar hälsoeffekter planeringen avelektrifierade byggarbetsplatser?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How does health and environment affect electrification of working sites? Electrification of construction sites mainly relates to climate emissions, but the local environment is also affected through reduced emissions of exhaust gases and engine noise. This work presents a way to take into account both noise and air pollution in the choice of which work machines should be electrified in the first place. The work is based on interviews and literature about emissions from different types of work machines, about how decisions about which work machines are used in different types of contracts are made, as well as current legislation about noise and air pollution and the exposure that people are at risk of being exposed to in different situations. The project also presents a first draft of a model to be able to compare different working equipment, but does not go into how noise and exhaust gases should be valued between each other, nor on emission factors for the combustion engines that the electric work machines are expected to replace. Instead, the focus is on identifying the decision-making paths and aligning the various expert areas of noise and air in the choice of which work machine should be prioritized for electrification.

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  • 35.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Val av vägbeläggning : Hur påverkas buller, partiklar (vägdamm) och rullmotstånd?2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pavement choice - effects on noise, road dust and rolling resistance.

    A literature review of environmental effects related to the choice of road pavement is presented here, starting from noise-reduced pavements, and with a focus on non-exhaust particles, as a great deal of research is being performed in the area of road dust. A simple description of pavements based on the Swedish Transport Administration's requirements introduces the description of the relationship between pavements and the three areas of noise, road dust and rolling resistance. The conclusions are that environmental aspects are important to address already when choosing the pavement. There is great potential to limit the negative environmental effects through pavement choices, especially if simpler connections can be made, e.g. using the ideas we present in this report. We recommend further research on functional relationships, especially in the particle domain where the relationships between pavement and emissions of non-exhaust particles is seldom quantified. The relationships between pavement and each of the parameters; noise; non-exhaust particles; and rolling resistance, need to be modelled to be able to understand the processes fully, preferably including friction. Road dust also creates a risk of reducing the acoustic life of porous pavements, i.e. a type of pavement reducing noise emissions. Including the resuspension of road dust in the emissions is of great importance to increase the possibilities of using pavement choices to limit road dust emissions. A first detailed description is published in this report.

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  • 36.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Petersson, Mikaela
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Öman, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Release of carbon nanotubes during combustion of polymer nanocomposites in a pilot-scale facility for waste incineration2021In: NanoImpact, ISSN 2452-0748, Vol. 24, article id 100357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites, formed by incorporating nanoparticles into a matrix of standard materials, are increasing on the market. Little focus has been directed towards safe disposal and recycling of these new materials even though the disposal has been identified as a phase of the products' life cycle with a high risk of uncontrolled emissions of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigate if the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), when used as a filler in two types of polymers, are fully destructed in a pilot-scale combustion unit designed to mimic the combustion under waste incineration. The two polymer nanocomposites studied, polycarbonate (PC) with CNT and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with CNT, were incinerated at two temperatures where the lower temperature just about fulfilled the European waste incineration directive while the upper was chosen to be on the safe side of fulfilling the directive. Particles in the flue gas were sampled and analysed with online and offline instrumentation along with samples of the bottom ash. CNTs could be identified in the flue gas in all experiments, although present to a greater extent when the CNTs were introduced in PC as compared to in HDPE. In the case of using PC as polymer matrix, CNTs were identified in 3–10% of the analysed SEM images while for HDPE in only ~0.5% of the images. In the case of PC, the presence of CNTs decreased with increasing bed temperature (from 10% to 3% of the images). The CNTs identified were always in bundles, often coated with remnants of the polymer, forming particles of ~1–4 μm in diameter. No CNTs were identified in the bottom ash, likely explained by the difference in time when the bottom ash and fly ash are exposed to high temperatures (~hours compared to seconds) in the pilot facility. The results suggest that the residence time of the fly ash in the combustion zone is not long enough to allow full oxidation of the CNTs. Thus, the current regulation on waste incineration (requiring a residence time of the flue gas >850 °C during at least 2 s) may not be enough to obtain complete destruction of CNTs in polymer composites. Since several types of CNTs are known to be toxic, we stress the need for further investigation of the fate and toxicity of CNTs in waste treatment processes.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Energy strategies in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden: Interactions between efficient resource utilisation and increased product diversification2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 311, article id 127681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry faces several challenges linked to climate and environmental impact, resource efficiency, rising energy prices, increased competition for biomass resources, and declining demand for traditional printed paper products. However, these challenges also offer strategic opportunities for the industry to develop into a competitive, resource-efficient, and low-carbon industry in line with a biobased economy. Against this background, this paper aims to analyse current energy strategies in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden. Specifically, the paper analyses how companies combine continuous process efficiency to reduce energy costs with activities that could be developed into new energy-related products to increase revenue. Most of the analysed companies work to various degrees with both these strategies, employing methods that include improving energy efficiency, energy security, and energy conversion, as well as developing a wide range of biobased energy products. However, our study indicates that there is an untapped potential associated with energy product development, and we conclude that energy efficiency measures can free up resources, enabling the development of new energy products. Finally, several potential managerial outcomes and implications are outlined. © 2021 The Authors

  • 38.
    Jonauskaite, D.
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Abu-Akel, A.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Dael, N.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland; .
    Oberfeld, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany.
    Abdel-Khalek, A. M.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Al-Rasheed, A. S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Antonietti, J. -P
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bogushevskaya, V.
    Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy.
    Chamseddine, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Chkonia, E.
    Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia.
    Corona, V.
    Universidad Panamericana, Mexico; Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Fonseca-Pedrero, E.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Griber, Y. A.
    Smolensk State University, Russia.
    Grimshaw, G.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Hasan, A. A.
    Alexandria University, Egypt.
    Havelka, J.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Hirnstein, M.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Laurent, E.
    University Bourgogne Franche Comté, France; .
    Lindeman, M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marquardt, L.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mefoh, P.
    University of Nigeria, Nigeria.
    Papadatou-Pastou, M.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Academy of Athens, Greece.
    Pérez-Albéniz, A.
    University of La Rioja, Spain.
    Pouyan, N.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Roinishvili, M.
    I Beritashvili Center of Experimental Biomedicine, Georgia.
    Romanyuk, L.
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine; VI Vernadsky Taurida National University, Ukraine; Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Ukraine.
    Salgado Montejo, A.
    Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia; BI Norwegian Business School, Norway; Neurosketch, Colombia.
    Schrag, Y.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sultanova, A.
    National Mental Health Centre, Ministry of Health, Azerbaijan.
    Uusküla, M.
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Vainio, S.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Wąsowicz, G.
    Kozminski University, Poland.
    Zdravković, S.
    University of Novi Sad, Serbia; University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Zhang, M.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Mohr, C.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Universal Patterns in Color-Emotion Associations Are Further Shaped by Linguistic and Geographic Proximity2020In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1245-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of us “see red,” “feel blue,” or “turn green with envy.” Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficient r =.88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design. © The Author(s) 2020.

  • 39.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Light my fire but don't choke on the smoke: Wellbeing and pollution from fireplace use in Sweden2020In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 69, article id 101696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fireplaces are popular in Northern Europe. However, particle emissions from fireplaces have been identified as an environmental problem and a health problem. User behaviors affect particle emissions and the success of particle reducing technologies to a large extent. This interdisciplinary study aims to investigate why and how people use their fireplaces, including what emotions people associate with fire, and their interest in learning more about fire making and changing behavior related to fire making. It does so by applying an emotion regulation model in a novel way. In total, 146 Swedish individuals owning a fireplace (the majority had wood stoves, a few had tiled stoves, boilers or other types of fireplaces) participated in an online questionnaire about motives, behaviors, knowledge, and interest in learning and changing behavior. The most common motives for using a fireplace in this sample were complementary heating and “cozy fire making”. Our results suggest that watching a fire can aid in regulating emotions from unpleasant stress towards joy and provide a pleasant atmosphere for socialization, and that wood fuel may be a preferred complementary energy choice because it provides beautiful light, comfortable warmth, beautiful design and safety. People reporting emotional motives for using a fireplace also reported an interest in changing behavior.

  • 40.
    Kawasaki, Yayoi
    et al.
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Reid, J Nick
    Western University, Canada.
    Ikeda, Kazuhiro
    Shokei Gakuin University, Japan.
    Liu, Meiling
    DIS Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Color Judgments of #The Dress and #The Jacket in a Sample of Different Cultures.2021In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 216-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two viral photographs, #The Dress and #The Jacket, have received recent attention in research on perception as the colors in these photos are ambiguous. In the current study, we examined perception of these photographs across three different cultural samples: Sweden (Western culture), China (Eastern culture), and India (between Western and Eastern cultures). Participants also answered questions about gender, age, morningness, and previous experience of the photographs. Analyses revealed that only age was a significant predictor for the perception of The Dress, as older people were more likely to perceive the colors as blue and black than white and gold. In contrast, multiple factors predicted perception of The Jacket, including age, previous experience, and country. Consistent with some previous research, this suggests that the perception of The Jacket is a different phenomenon from perception of The Dress and is influenced by additional factors, most notably culture.

  • 41.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Gladh, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Dahlberg, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Månsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Marklund, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Effektiv minskning av vattenanvändning i hushåll2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective decrease of water use in households 

    This is the final report of a preparatory project which has aimed to identify and characterize methods which can be used to achieve a reduced usage of water for households in Sweden. This is so that the methods that give the most effect can be implemented. The project has also aimed to produce conditions for an implementation project so that methods can be tested and evaluated in a practical manner. The project’s long term goal is to create a system transfer and to reduce the water usage in Swedish households from 140 to 100 liters per person and per day. Getting individuals to change their behavior and reduce their water use is complex as several factors affect their water use today and the conditions for reducing water use. Several studies have reported differences between households with the highest and lowest consumption of water by a factor of four. The individual differences in water use per person can be equally as large. The variations in water use can be explained by several factors, such as the size of household, type of residence and the efficiency of the appliances. Besides these factors, there are also large variations in water related behaviors such as routines for showering and doing dishes. To identify methods with potential to make water use for households in Sweden more efficient, an oversight of projects, initiatives and previous research have been carried out with focus towards: • Decreased water usage on a national level • Decreased water usage on an international level • Decreased energy and water consumption through behavior change • Changes in behavior for citizens with regards to a sustainable usage of resources This analysis has landed in four methods to affect the households water use, which are: • Policy and legislation • Financial incentives • Communication • Technical solutions There is limited experience regarding the water saving potential that the different methods, and combinations of them, have in Sweden. The study shows that the method which is mainly used in Sweden is different forms of communication, even though communication seemingly has a limited effect. International studies show that water saving measures, such as water effective techniques and requirements for measuring water consumption, lead to a good outcome. For future studies we suggest that communication is combined with other methods and that more innovative methods are tested in situations that are as close to realistic situations as possible. This is important to understand what the effects will be in practice, and what the consequences will be for other important implementation parameters such as for example cost of implementation and environmental sustainability. We also see an obstacle in the lack of data that show the water use in households. In this project we have created conditions to test and evaluate solutions by using a digital water gauge with a high level of collection frequency. The water gauge is installed in a chosen villa area in the municipality of Kungsbacka.

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  • 42.
    Kong, Xiangrui
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salvador, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pathak, Ravikant
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Le Breton, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaita, Samuel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mitra, Kalyan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallquist, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hallquist, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molecular characterization and optical properties of primary emissions from a residential wood burning boiler2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 754, article id 142143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern small-scale biomass burners have been recognized as an important renewable energy source because of the economic and environmental advantages of biomass over fossil fuels. However, the characteristics of their gas and particulate emissions remain incompletely understood, and there is substantial uncertainty concerning their health and climate impacts. Here, we present online measurements conducted during the operation of a residential wood-burning boiler. The measured parameters include gas and particle concentrations, optical absorption and chemical characteristics of gases and particles. Positive matrix factorization was performed to analyze data from a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO). Six factors were identified and interpreted. Three factors were related to the chemical composition of the fuel representing lignin pyrolysis products, cellulose/hemicellulose pyrolysis products, and nitrogen-containing organics, while three factor were related to the physical characteristics of the emitted compounds: volatile compounds, semi-volatile compounds, and filter-derived compounds. An ordinal analysis was performed based on the factor fractions to identify the most influential masses in each factor, and by deconvoluting high-resolution mass spectra fingerprint molecules for each factor were identified. Results from the factor analysis were linked to the optical properties of the emissions, and lignin and cellulose/hemicellulose pyrolysis products appeared to be the most important sources of brown carbon under the tested burning conditions. It is concluded that the emissions from the complex combustion process can be described by a limited set of physically meaningful factors, which will help to rationalize subsequent transformation and tracing of emissions in the atmosphere and associated impacts on health and climate. 

  • 43.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Larsson, David
    Solisten, Sweden.
    Effektiv renovering med solceller2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Installation of solar PV is a measure that can contribute to great climate benefits when renovating buildings. This report, which is the final report of the project "Optimized renovation for efficient PV roofs" (short called EST), describes how property owners can contribute to increased climate benefits by considering the possibilities with PV installations when planning to renovate a building. The focus of the work has been PV installation in connection with roof renovation, but facades, which are increasingly mentioned in PV discussions, are also treated and we also touch on solar shading and balcony fronts that are potentially interesting for solar PV integration. Climate benefit means a minimization of the greenhouse gas emissions that occur through the energy use in the building and in the production of the building's constituent building materials, and that the excess solar exported from the plant can replace fossil-based power production, see sections 2.1 and 2.2. Section 2.3 “Well-planned solar PV renovation” gives an overall picture of the challenges facing those who want to achieve the greatest possible climate benefit, challenges that are discussed in the following sections. In the project, we have investigated different ways of maximizing the size of a photovoltaic system based on what the roof of a building can accommodate, which means that the size is optimized with regard to the climate benefits. In general, this gives a different result than an economic optimization where the latter results in significantly smaller systems. The reason is that the sale of larger electricity production surpluses in this segment is currently not as profitable as replacing the electricity you buy, with self-produced electricity. Most research reports and guidelines on the topic of optimal plant size also stop at economic optimization, often without even mentioning the possibility of going further to increase climate benefits. In this project, we have basically done the opposite, without turning a blind eye to economic realities. In section 3, we deal with architecture, planning and permit issues and argue that the strategy we advocate also leads to better architectural solutions than state of the art. The focus has been on presenting several concept solutions that aim to maximize the utilization of the available roof space, see sections 4 and 5 and Appendix 2. Our motives for this are partly a feeling of high importance when it comes to accelerating the introduction of renewable energy production in the built environment. Another is a hope and a belief that politics and the market both contribute and will continue to contribute to a development that makes maximized climate benefit a much better deal for the plant owner than it is today. Section 6 briefly discusses a few different measures to increase the own use of the solar electricity one can produce, which enables building a larger facility while maintaining good finances. One of these measures — collective measurement of the apartments' household electricity - is dealt with in more detail in Appendix 3, which is a guide aimed at property owners. The project's initial hypothesis was that simultaneous renovation of roofs and installation of solar PV was an optimal approach. The results from more in-depth investigations of, for example, contract forms and tender documents in section 8 and from the seven case studies presented in section 9, have led to a more nuanced picture: • It may sometimes be better to install solar cells after the roof or facade renovation has been completed, but even if it is expected to take place later, there is every reason to take this future work into account when planning a renovation. Conversely, there are good reasons to think through your renovation needs if you are considering investing in a solar PV system. • In addition to renovating the climate shell of a building, renovation of the ventilation and electrical systems can also have a major impact on the technical and economic potential of a future PV system. • City planning and the building permit requirements for building-integrated solar cell solutions can sometimes be a major challenge when you want to maximize the solar PV surface on a roof in connection with renovation or extension, which is dealt with in section 3. In section 10, we finally discuss the experiences and results that the project has led to. We also describe four projects that in different ways pave the way for the continued introduction of solar PV in buildings and describe how the work in the EST project can be taken further in future projects.

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  • 44.
    Krochak, Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    THE IMPACT OF DISPERSION BARRIER COATINGS ON WATER QUALITY AFTER RECYCLING2023In: TAPPICon 2023 - "Rock the Roll: Unleashing the Harmonies of the Paper Industry", TAPPI Press , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Larsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sommarin, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Petersson, Jeanette
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Mellgren, Adrian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Råberg, Tora
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Innovativa energieffektiva växthus - designade för lågtempererade energikällor och värmeåtervinning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual excess heat from industrial processes is today an under-utilized resource in society despite access to large amounts of energy. The project compiled a feasibility study, where a greenhouses concept was created. The concept consisted of residual heat from cooling industrial processes (30 – 40 °C), furthermore, utilizes free-cooling trough a thermal storage for cooling and dehumidification. The purpose of the feasibility study is to create conditions for sustainable and competitive greenhouse cultivation in Sweden through synergies between different industries and technologies. As an enabler, a new concept is proposed, which is being developed for greenhouse cultivation, in which energy and cultivation efficiency interact. By evaluating the concept, the feasibility study aims to answer questions about how energy-efficient greenhouse technology can reduce energy demand, as well as re-use residual energy sources, combined with heat recovery, while steering the climate in the greenhouse to improve cultivation capacity and CO2 fertilization. The result shows that the potential is strongly influenced by the additional heat from artificial light, which in turn is strongly correlated to the time of the season. The greenhouse's internal excess heat can be stored and returned to the greenhouse when there is a need, which may reduce the need of additional heating by approximately 85%. The greenhouse can also use low temperature heat sources to keep it warm, for example by using low temperature residual heat of about 30-40 ° C. An additional result from the modelling is that production can be increased by as much as approximately 30– 50% (depending on the season) with efficient CO2 fertilization due to an improved climate for the plants.

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  • 46.
    Lindahl, Lina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Gervind, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Vattenanvändning och möjligheter till vattenbesparing hos kemiklustret i Stenungsund2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water use and opportunities for water savings at the chemical industry cluster in Stenungsund Water scarcity is a growing problem in Sweden, as well as internationally, due to increasing demand for water and the impact of climate change. This is the case in Stenungsund where the ability for the municipality and industry to expand is limited by the availability of water from the local lake, Stora Hällungen. Working with the four largest industrial sites in the Stenungsund industrial cluster, Perstorp, Nouryon, Borealis and INOVYN, this project focused on mapping water use in the cluster by testing and further developing a tool for mapping of water use in industry. The flow of water through the industrial sites, its uses, treatment approaches and aggregated water quality data were included in the mapping and is presented using visual outputs generated from the tool. A methodology for water quality assessment and grouping was also developed and included in the tool. Results of the mapping were used as foundation to investigate opportunities for water savings through improved efficiency and reuse of wastewater streams. Measures to improve water efficiency include minimisation of the volume of reject water in treatment processes, sequence optimisation for reducing water use in cleaning and optimisation of steam and cooling systems. Opportunities for water reuse include the reuse of wastewater or stormwater for cooling at Perstorp and the Borealis PE site, and the recirculation of wastewater from the Borealis Cracker. Critically, the incentives for individual companies to implement water savings and reuse measures are a decisive factor in their implementation. Given this, a next step from this work would be to conduct a more comprehensive risk analysis to investigate future needs of the various stakeholders with respect to water and water supply risks. From these results a pinch analysis considering water quality could also be conducted to find further opportunities for water reuse.

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  • 47.
    Lindahl, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Walfridson, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Benson, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Räftegård, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Gustafsson, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Haglund Stignor, Caroline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Possibilities and constraints of grid flexible control of todays and tomorrows heat pumps2020In: 13th IEA Heat Pump Conference., 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article possibilities and constraints of grid flexible control of heat pumps for domestic heating are investigated. By creating dynamic coalitions of heat pumps and control their power consumption, demand response can be offered to the power grid. For a functional power grid, the heat pumps electrical power consumption needs to follow the electrical grids needs accurately. Possibilities to externally control the power consumption of a ground source heat pump has been investigated. Both direct control, where the compressor speed is set directly, and indirect control, achieved with outdoor temperature sensor override, has been evaluated. For the evaluation a test cycle for laboratory testing of a heat pumps grid flexibility has been developed. Based on the test cycle, the heat pumps possibilities to follow the load profile using both direct and indirect control was tested in laboratory. Both control methods were possible to use, with the direct control being significantly more accurate. Using direct control, the power consumption of the compressor managed to be within ±10% of the stated power consumption for 97% of the time.

  • 48.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Research for the retail grocery context: A systematic review on display cabinets2020In: Trends in Food Science & Technology, ISSN 0924-2244, E-ISSN 1879-3053, Vol. 100, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cabinet and in-store layout design impose high demands on supermarket refrigeration systems, due to temperature requirements and interactions between the ambient environment and the display. It is clear that views diverge on how different barriers should be investigated, and there are reasons to believe that energy efficiency measurements, with regards to both energy efficiency in buildings and energy efficiency in the operations, have weak points. The energy efficiency situation is a paradox that needs to be elaborated on. Scope and approach: The paper presents a systematic literature review of research on open (no doors) or closed refrigerated cabinets (with doors) energy efficiency, chilled groceries and the consumer behavior, followed by an analysis of the contemporary research. The paper draws on findings and collects peer-reviewed articles from databases in order to examine how research has reported on this issue. As a result, 31 articles were framed, with different variables, to form a body of this article. Key findings and conclusions: Empirical research is needed that uses actual data, such as perceptions, behavioral research with lab experiments, and field measurements. Consumers shopping situation, for chilled groceries, is an extensive and complex topic, and a single study cannot provide a complete overview of all its related aspects. The results focus on two objectives. Firstly to present the review and secondly to analyze and identify knowledge gaps within the energy efficiency and store installations in the grocery context.

  • 49.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Khalil, Sammar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kopainsky, Birgit
    University of Bergen, Sweden.
    Human-Water Dynamics and their Role for Seasonal Water Scarcity – a Case Study2021In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 3043-3061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring sustainable management and an adequate supply of freshwater resources is a growing challenge around the world. Even in historically water abundant regions climate change together with population growth and economic development are processes that are expected to contribute to an increase in permanent and seasonal water scarcity in the coming decades. Previous studies have shown how policies to address water scarcity often fail to deliver lasting improvements because they do not account for how these processes influence, and are influenced by, human-water interactions shaping water supply and demand. Despite significant progress in recent years, place-specific understanding of the mechanisms behind human-water feedbacks remain limited, particularly in historically water abundant regions. To this end, we here present a Swedish case study where we, by use of a qualitative system dynamics approach, explore how human-water interactions have contributed to seasonal water scarcity at the local-to-regional scale. Our results suggest that the current approach to address water scarcity by inter-basin water transports contributes to increasing demand by creating a gap between the perceived and actual state of water resources among consumers. This has resulted in escalating water use and put the region in a state of systemic lock-in where demand-regulating policies are mitigated by increases in water use enabled by water transports. We discuss a combination of information and economic policy instruments to combat water scarcity, and we propose the use of quantitative simulation methods to further assess these strategies in future studies. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 50.
    Liu, Tong
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Björkmalm, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Kreuger, Emma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Diversity and abundance of microbial communities in uasb reactors during methane production from hydrolyzed wheat straw and lucerne2020In: Microorganisms, E-ISSN 2076-2607, Vol. 8, no 9, article id 1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of straw for biofuel production is encouraged by the European Union. A previous study showed the feasibility of producing biomethane in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors using hydrolyzed, steam-pretreated wheat straw, before and after dark fermentation with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, and lucerne. This study provides information on overall microbial community development in those UASB processes and changes related to acidification. The bacterial and archaeal community in granular samples was analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was used to predict the abundance of microbial functional groups. The sequencing results showed decreased richness and diversity in the microbial community, and decreased relative abundance of bacteria in relation to archaea, after process acidification. Canonical correspondence analysis showed significant negative correlations between the concentration of organic acids and three phyla, and positive correlations with seven phyla. Organic loading rate and total COD fed also showed significant correlations with microbial community structure, which changed over time. ADM1 predicted a decrease in acetate degraders after a decrease to pH ≤ 6.5. Acidification had a sustained effect on the microbial community and process performance. © 2020 by the authors.

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