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  • 1.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fortifikationsverket (FORTV) has expressed a desire to investigate the design, reliability, performance and cost of a sprinkler system for a typical underground fortification facility. Based on the cost and the benefit associated with a sprinkler system, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. In addition, water mist fire protection systems were studied. The installation cost analysis was based on two fictious facilities; a small facility with a net area of 1 000 m2 and a large facility with a 5 000 m2 net area.

    The estimated installation cost for a traditional sprinkler system in the smaller type facility is about SEK 1,3 million and about SEK 3,3 million for the larger type facility. The installation cost for a high-pressure water mist system is higher than that of a traditional sprinkler system for the smaller type facility but comparable for the larger type facility. A low‑pressure water mist system seems to be the least expensive option for both types of facilities. This is probably because the system, unlike a traditional sprinkler system, requires smaller pipe sizes, smaller water pumps and a smaller water tank and unlike a high-pressure system uses normal steel pipes and less expensive centrifugal pumps.

    The cost-benefit analysis for the fictitious type facilities shows that a sprinkler system is cost-effective, especially for the larger type facility. But it should be noted that the uncertainty in the data base is quite large, which means that the trends in the result can be used for further analysis, but that the actual values ​​of the benefit ratio should be viewed with some caution. The sprinkler system mainly has an effect to reduce the property loss. The expected benefit for personal injury is around one percent of the total benefit of the sprinkler system. This is because the risk of fatality and injuries in the event of a fire is small, as people can usually put themselves in safety. The reduction in property loss was assumed to be 75%, and an assumed lowered benefit of sprinklers (50% and 25% property loss reduction, respectively) leads to a lower benefit ratio but for the large type facility the benefit ratio is still above 1,0. The benefit of sprinklers also decreases if the assumed fire frequency is reduced. However, for the larger type plant, the calculation shows that there is still a benefit, even if the assumed fire frequency is halved. The same applies if the cost of replacement of expensive equipment is assumed to be half as high.

  • 2.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Human contribution to safety of smart ships2019In: Developments in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 328-336Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies show that humans contribute to accidents, but research rarely addresses all the accidents that are avoided thanks to human capabilities. Today there is an interest in autonomous vessels and automation within shipping, often with arguments for safety and efficiency. Research from other domains suggests that automation can have unintended side-effects. Instead of increasing safety, automation may undermine people’s ability to understand the situation and make decisions, introducing new risks to the processes. To conclude that the frequency of accidents will be reduced proportionally to the people removed from the system neglects the dynamics of the socio-technical system and the positive human impact on maritime safety. Although shipping around Åland is not free of accidents and incidents, the system has a very good safety performance. The main purpose of the analysis is to analyze human impact on safe operation and performance exemplified by the vessels in Åland’s ferry lines. 

  • 3.
    Sun, P.
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Niu, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Huang, X.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Correction to: A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles (Fire Technology, (2020), 10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3)2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained an incorrect unit of PHRR for Eq. (3), which appears in abstract and conclusion, and an incorrect version of Fig. 23. (Figure presented

  • 4.
    Sun, Peiyi
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Niu, Huichang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Huang, Xinyan
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs (EB in Wh) crossing different scales as PHRR=2EB0.6. For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles.

  • 5.
    Torbjörnsson, Sone
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brand i elfordon och laddningsplatser i undermarksanläggningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing demand to minimize the global pollution, the research has made significant advances in electrically powered vehicles. This interest has also spiked in the mining industry since the current diesel-powered vehicles emits exhaust and particles, which results in the need for a costly ventilation system. But switching from a known, and widely used, propulsion system results in a step towards the unknown. This literature survey has mainly studied battery electric vehicles (BEV).

    This literature survey focusses on the issues related to thermal runaway of a battery and what it might cause. This includes the toxicity of gasses and combustion products, the impact on rescue operations, the effect on extinguishment and differences in fire behavior between BEVs and internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles.

    Full scale experiments have shown that the fire behavior might not depend solely on the energy storage as other component also contribute to the overall fire behavior as whole. These experiments have been conducted on single passenger vehicles and not mining vehicles, and it is reasonable to draw the conclusion that batteries as an energy storage do not change the overall fire behavior considerably. Changes do, however, occur when it comes to the extinguishment of a fire, since the battery design interferes with the possibility to cool the battery cells effectively. This difficulty in cooling the battery cells makes it very challenging prevent thermal runaway to stop a thermal runaway and propagation event inside the battery using conventional fire suppression methods.

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