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  • 1.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Collection of Façade Fire Tests Including Timber Structures2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes three case studies that each involved an analysis of a fire test of an external wall that included a timber structure or part of a timber structure. These external walls all had wooden façade panels, were ventilated behind the façade panels and had glass wool or stone wool insulation. The three case studies aim to assess the contribution of structural timber to the fire development and the fire spread. In addition, the potential of façade systems with combustible materials to limit the fire spread through and along the external wall was assessed. The fire tests were performed for commercial purposes and their results were made available for this study. Not all details of the façade systems details are included in this report.

    The analysis discussed in this report indicates that the timber structures did not contribute to the fire development and the fire spread in two of the three tests. The structural members in the external wall remained unaffected during the test. Visual inspection of the third test showed locally some superficial coloring and charring. However, the temperature measurements of the remaining test did not indicate any contribution of the structural timber to the fire development and fire spread. The energy contribution corresponding to the local and superficial coloring and charring is considered negligible.

    Two of the three tests analyzed in this study were performed in accordance with the Swedish façade fire testing standard SP Fire 105. Both tests were assessed by the accredited testing institute to meet the requirements set by the Swedish Building regulations that: (1) the fire spread inside the external wall shall be limited; (2) the risk for fire spread along the façade surface shall be limited and; (3) the risk for injuries as a consequence of falling parts from the external wall shall be limited.

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  • 2.
    Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charging of electric cars in parking garages2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

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  • 3.
    Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Ladding av elbil i parkeringsgarage2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Charging of electric cars in parking garages

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Proceedings from the 9thInternational Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 6.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Hidalgo, Juan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    A Comparison of the Conditions in a Fire Resistance Furnace When Testing Combustible and Non-combustible Construction2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in a fire resistance furnace to study the differences in the boundary conditions, the fire dynamics and the fuel required to run the furnace when a combustible timber specimen as opposed to a non-combustible concrete specimen is tested. In both experiments measurements were taken in the furnace to evaluate the difference in the environments of the furnace and the response of the elements being tested. These include non-control plate thermometers distributed throughout the furnace; O2, CO2 and CO gas measurements taken at different distances from the specimen surface and in the furnace exhaust; instrumentation of one of the bricks comprising the furnace lining with thermocouples at different depths from the exposed surface; and mass loss of the combustible timber specimen. Thermal exposure of elements in a furnace is discussed, as well as the impact of the different materials on the similarity of thermal exposure. This is done through analysis and discussion of the different measurements taken and the apparent influence of the specimen being tested on the boundary condition of the heat diffusion equation. We conclude that; (1) the fire dynamics in a furnace are dependent on the specimen being tested; (2) that the test with the combustible specimen requires less fuel flow to the burners such that the control plate thermometers follow the ISO 834 temperature–time curve compared to the non-combustible specimen, however that this is not only a result of the combustibility of the specimen but is also a consequence of the different thermal inertia of the two materials; (3) that the boundary condition for heat transfer to a test object in furnace tests is dependent on the properties of the specimen being tested; and (4) that the timber when placed on the furnace experiences smouldering combustion after the char layer has formed. A fire resistance test of combustible construction of a given period represents a significantly less onerous test in terms of energy absorbed or fuel made available than one of a non-combustible construction, implying that the existing fire resistance framework may not be appropriate for timber structures and that an alternative approach may be required.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Zimmermann, Florian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Medium-scale self-heating tests with biomass pellets2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly known problem with storage of biomass pellets is the risk for self-heating. The propensity for self-heating depends on several parameters e.g. type of pellets, humidity, ventilation, temperature, type of storage and handling prior to storage.

    Within the framework of the research project SafePellets (Safety and quality assurance measures along the pellets supply chain) a medium-scale methodology to assess the propensity for self-heating has been developed. In addition, methods to study carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) concentrations as well as different aldehydes have been tested and evaluated in this study.

    Biomass pellets from three different sources, i.e. 100 % pine; a mixture of spruce and pine and a mixture of straw, seed residue and spruce, were tested in a 1 m3 test container. The test container and the pellets were pre-heated and kept at the nominal test temperature until self-heating occurred, or the test was terminated. Temperatures were measured at more than 40 different positions and gas samples were extracted from the test container and analysed.

    Differences were observed as a function of pellet type, but also as a function of nominal test temperature and ventilation. Significant levels of CO and CO2 and a reduced level of O2 were observed direct after the pre-heating, indicating oxidation of the pellets. Ten different tests were made; ignition occurred in four of them. The higher the nominal test temperature, the higher propensity for self-heating. When ignition occurred, the concentrations of CO and CO2 increased rapidly. It was found that the ventilation conditions were important. In some of the tests, natural convection caused the pellet bulk to cool. In other tests, when the test container was closed, the oxygen concentration dropped, and self-heating was reduced.

    Measurements of CO, CO2 and O2 contributed with information about the tests. However, the results from aldehyde measurements were unconcise and the values have only been used as indicative. Identified aldehydes were hexanal, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein.

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  • 8.
    Petersen, Laura
    et al.
    UIC, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Fallou, Laure
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Teixeira, Rui
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Bonavita, Alexandre
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Resilience for whom?: The general public's tolerance levels as CI resilience criteria2020In: International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, ISSN 1874-5482, E-ISSN 2212-2087, article id 100340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While maintaining a minimum level of service and rapidly restoring services to normal are key components of critical infrastructure (CI) resilience, who should and how to define these parameters remains under debate. Rarely solicited in the debate, yet integral actors in CI resilience, is the general public. In response to this, this paper presents a questionnaire-based methodology for determining public tolerance levels for service reduction and recovery rapidity. This paper explores this under-researched area using a case-study of the Barreiro Municipal Water Network. It draws on key themes that emerged from the literature as well as interviews with the CI operators in order to develop a tolerance questionnaire, implements said questionnaire (N = 1005), and analysizes the results. Results demonstrate that the methodology works for collecting tolerance levels, that when taking into account vulnerable groups, public tolerance levels appear higher than CI operator capability and that communication expectations are high. 

  • 9.
    Rebaque, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norwaay; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Experimental study of smouldering in wood pellets with and without air draft2020In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 264, article id 116806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry wood pellets (diameter 8 mm) of mixed Norwegian spruce and pine were tested in samples of 1.25 kg (1.7 l) in configurations with and without air draft from below. The pellets were placed in a vertical 15 cm diameter cylinder on top of a hot plate. Air draft inlet, when allowed, came through narrow openings in the cylinder bottom periphery. The bulk void of 36% formed channels for gas flows within the pellets bed. Initially, the samples were heated externally from below for 6 h. Time series of distributed temperatures were recorded, together with values of the mass. Smouldering with air draft was observed with two distinct behaviours: Type 1, where the sample after the period of external heating cooled down for several hours, and then increased in temperature to intense smouldering, and Type 2, where the sample went into intense smouldering before the end of external heating. Without draft airflow from below, the sample cooled down after external heating, before developing into intense smouldering about 20 h later. In all cases, the intense period lasted for 2 h. Typical temperatures were in the range 300–450 °C, while higher temperatures occurred in the intense period. Draft flow caused fast oxidation spreading, while slow without draft. Indications of oxidation spreading as a distriäbuted reaction were seen. Circulating air motions in the irregular void between individual pellets is discussed as an explanation for the behaviour. Uneven access to oxygen, with possibilities of locally excess air, can explain the peak temperatures observed. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 10.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study2020In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in wood waste storages cause financial losses, are difficult to extinguish, and emit large amounts of fire effluents. The mechanisms related to fires in wood chip piles are not well elucidated. To find suitable preventive measures for handling such fires in wood waste, a better understanding of the physical properties of wood waste is needed. The present study investigates how granularity affects mechanisms of smoldering fire and transition to flaming in wood chip piles. Eighteen experiments with samples inside a top-ventilated, vertical cylinder were conducted. Heating from underneath the cylinder induced auto-ignition and smoldering fire, and temperatures and mass loss of the sample were measured. The results showed that granularity significantly affects the smoldering fire dynamics. Material containing larger wood chips (length 4-100 mm) demonstrated more irregular temperature development, higher temperatures, faster combustion, and higher mass losses than material of smaller wood chips (length <4 mm). The larger wood chips also underwent transition to flaming fires. Flaming fires were not observed for small wood chips, which instead demonstrated prolonged and steady smoldering propagation. The differences are assumed to be partly due to the different bulk densities of the samples of large and small wood chips affecting the ventilation conditions. Increased knowledge about these combustion processes and transition to flaming is vital to develop risk-reducing measures when storing wood chips made from wood waste in piles.

  • 11.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Learning from fire investigations and research – A Norwegian perspective on moving from a reactive to a proactive fire safety management2020In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, article id 103047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of fires are useful tools for gathering experience and knowledge of how and why fires occur and why they develop as they do. Several tools for accident investigation that also are applicable for analysis of fires are available. Data from fires is valuable for different branches of the fire safety science and are also used in revisions of fire regulations. This paper describes the concept of accident investigation with focus on learning and presents how investigation from fires has been used as a valuable tool in Norwegian fire safety management. Examples of how learnings have improved the residential fire safety level in Norway over the last decades are described. Three different analyses of fatal fires over four decades have given knowledge about how and why residential fires start, and how the victims could be characterized. The fire fatality rate in Norway has decreased by 50% from 1970 until 2014, one of the reasons for this is believed to be implementation of several targeted fire safety measures over the years. Through fire investigations combined with research, new trends in society and their possible implications on fire safety can be uncovered and lead to a more proactive fire safety management.

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