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  • 1.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose-Based Hybrid Materials for UV Blocking and Mechanically Robust Barriers2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 2245-2254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose (NC)-based hybrid coatings and films containing CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to impart UV screening and hardness properties, respectively, were prepared by solvent casting. The NC film-forming component (75 wt % of the overall solids) was composed entirely of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or of CNCs combined with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Zeta potential measurements indicated that the four NP types (CNC, CNF, CeO2, and SiO2) were stably dispersed in water and negatively charged at pH values between 6 and 9. The combination of NPs within this pH range ensured uniform formulations and homogeneous coatings and films, which blocked UV light, the extent of which depended on film thickness and CeO2 NP content, while maintaining good transparency in the visible spectrum (∼80%). The addition of a low amount of CNFs (1%) reduced the film hardness, but this effect was compensated by the addition of SiO2 NPs. Chiral nematic self-assembly was observed in the mixed NC film; however, this ordering was disrupted by the addition of the oxide NPs. The roughness of the hybrid coatings was reduced by the inclusion of oxide NPs into the NC matrix perhaps because the spherical oxide NPs were able to pack into the spaces between cellulose fibrils. We envision these hybrid coatings and films in barrier applications, photovoltaics, cosmetic formulations, such as sunscreens, and for the care and maintenance of wood and glass surfaces, or other surfaces that require a smooth, hard, and transparent finish and protection from UV damage.

  • 2.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Almli, Valerie
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Consumer associations about other buyers of suboptimal food – And what it means for food waste avoidance actions2020In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 80, article id 103808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to tackling the imminent sustainability problem of food waste is to sell suboptimal food which otherwise might be wasted. However, understanding how the action of buying price-reduced suboptimal food is influenced by the fact that the consumer purchases it publicly while observed by others is yet unexplored. The present research investigates which associations consumers form when they see other consumers purchasing suboptimal foods. In an online experimental survey, consumers of five European countries checked every word that applied (CATA) from a set of items that described what choosing a food item told them about an acquaintance they met in the store in terms of his or her traits. The food item was optimal or suboptimal, fresh or packaged food, and presented with a communication that either underlined a budget saving benefit or a contribution to avoiding food waste. Results show that consumers of suboptimal products are regarded as economic and thrifty, as well as frugal and environmentally concerned. The associations with consumers of optimal products are more diverse, and include both positive and negative wordings, ranging from successful to fussy and inattentive. Consumers’ own level of environmental concerns and value consciousness explain the degree to which they perceive another consumer to have similar traits, revealing that consumers project their own traits on others. Findings imply that stores offering suboptimal food should present and communicate the items in line with the characteristics of the store's target group, and that suboptimal food choices can trigger positive associations. 

  • 3.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Danai, Ofer
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Tarazi, Ezri
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Ezov, Nirit
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Pereman, Idan
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Grobman, Yasha
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Mycelium bio-composites in industrial design and architecture: Comparative review and experimental analysis2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 246, article id 119037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent convergence of biotechnological and design tools has stimulated an emergence of new design practices utilizing natural mechanisms to program matter in a bottom-up approach. In this paper, the fibrous network of mycelium—the vegetative part of fungi—is employed to produce sustainable alternatives for synthetic foams. Current research on mycelium-based materials lacks essential details regarding material compositions, incubation conditions, and fabrication methods. The paper presents the results of ongoing research on employing mycelium to provide cleaner architecture and design products with sustainable lifecycles. The paper opens with a critical review of current projects, products, and scientific literature using mycelium in design and architecture. In the second section, material properties of varied fungi-substrate compositions and fabrication methods are evaluated and compared through changes in essential chemical parameters during fermentation, visual impression, water absorbency, and compression strength tests. Then, potential architecture and design implications related to the material properties are discussed. Results indicate a clear correlation between fungi, substrate, mold properties, and incubation conditions on final material characteristics, depicting a clear effect on material density, water absorbency, and the compressive strength of the final bio-composite. Finally, two primary case studies demonstrate implications for mycelium-based composites for circular design and architectural applications. The study shows that in order to produce desirable designs and performance within an inclusive circular approach, parameters such as material composition and fabrication conditions should be considered according to the target function of the final product throughout the design process.

  • 4.
    Carlström, Ingeborg
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Rashad, Ahmad
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Campodoni, Elisabetta
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Sandri, Monica
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bolstad, Anne
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Cross-linked gelatin-nanocellulose scaffolds for bone tissue engineering2020In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 264, article id 127326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have, in addition to high specific surface area and high surface reactivity, ability to mimic nanostructured collagen in bone extracellular matrix. These properties make CNFs promising materials for bone tissue engineering (BTE). The CNFs degrade slowly in vivo. By blending and cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with CNFs, scaffolds were produced with tuned degradation rate and enhanced mechanical properties, more suitable for BTE applications. This in vitro study aimed to examine initial biological responses of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to cross-linked Gel-CNF scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized CNF blended with Gel and cross-linked either by dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) or by a combination of hexamethylenediamine, genipin, and DHT. CNF scaffolds without cross-linking served as control. The produced scaffolds supported cell attachment, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. However, the early cell attachment after 1 day and the expression of RUNX2 and SPP1 genes after 7 days were highest in the CNF scaffolds. The results suggest that cross-linked Gel-CNF are cytocompatible and holds potential for BTE applications. 

  • 5.
    Chiulan, I.
    et al.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Panaitescu, D. M.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Radu, E. -R
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Frone, A. N.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Gabor, R. A.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Nicolae, C. A.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Jinescu, G.
    Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania.
    Tofan, V.
    Cantacuzino National Institute of Research and Development for Microbiology and Immunology, Romania.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Comprehensive characterization of silica-modified silicon rubbers2020In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 101, article id 103427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a commercially liquid silicone rubber was filled with fumed silica particles in different concentrations and evaluated for medical applications. The thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of silicone/silica composite samples were studied before and after aging, flexural tests and immersion in saline environment. Understanding the effect of silica content, aging conditions and thickness (from 0.6 to 2 mm) of the samples on the behavior of these materials in different environments is crucial for applications as implantable devices. Before inducing any mechanical stress, tensile strength was found to increase for samples containing 3 or 5 wt% of fumed silica, depending on the thickness. A similar trend was observed after 106 flexes for tensile strength, storage modulus and hardness at room temperature, which increased with the concentration of fumed silica. Moreover, tensile strength decreased with increasing the thickness of the samples from 0.6 to 2 mm. The thermal degradation was found to start at higher temperature in the case of the composites as compared with neat silicone, however, the glass transition and melting temperatures were only slightly modified by the presence of the silica particles, regardless the mechanical aging. The MTT assay using L929 fibroblasts mouse cells showed a good short-time cytocompatibility for both silicone elastomer and the composite with 3 wt% fumed silica. Similarly, the measurement of the cytokine secretion revealed no inflammatory response.

  • 6.
    Ehman, N. V.
    et al.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Lourenço, A. F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    McDonagh, B. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Vallejos, M. E.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Felissia, F. E.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Ferreira, P. J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Area, M. C.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Influence of initial chemical composition and characteristics of pulps on the production and properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers2020In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 143, p. 453-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aimed to study the influence of the initial chemical composition (glucans, lignin, xylan, and mannans), intrinsic viscosity, and carboxylate groups of pulps on the production process and final properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF). Pulps of pine sawdust, eucalyptus sawdust, and sugarcane bagasse subjected to conventional pulping and highly oxidized processes were the starting materials. The LCNF were obtained by TEMPO mediated oxidation and mechanical fibrillation with a colloidal grinder. The nanofibrillation degree, chemical charge content, rheology, laser profilometry, cristallinity and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the LCNF. The carboxylate groups, hemicelluloses and lignin of the initial pulps were important factors that affected the production process of LCNF. The results revealed that intrinsic viscosity and carboxylate groups of the initial pulps affected LCNF production process, whereas lignin and hemicelluloses influenced the viscosity of LCNF aqueous suspensions, the roughness of LCNF films, and the carboxylate groups content of LCNF

  • 7.
    Ehman, Nanci Vanesa
    et al.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Ita-Nagy, Diana
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Felissia, Fernando Esteban
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Vallejos, María Evangelina
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Quispe, Isabel
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Area, María Cristina
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Biocomposites of Bio-Polyethylene Reinforced with a Hydrothermal-Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pulp and Coupled with a Bio-Based Compatibilizer.2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 9, article id E2158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-polyethylene (BioPE, derived from sugarcane), sugarcane bagasse pulp, and two compatibilizers (fossil and bio-based), were used to manufacture biocomposite filaments for 3D printing. Biocomposite filaments were manufactured and characterized in detail, including measurement of water absorption, mechanical properties, thermal stability and decomposition temperature (thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to assess the fracture area of the filaments after mechanical testing. Increases of up to 10% in water absorption were measured for the samples with 40 wt% fibers and the fossil compatibilizer. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing the fraction of bagasse fibers from 0% to 20% and 40%. The suitability of the biocomposite filaments was tested for 3D printing, and some shapes were printed as demonstrators. Importantly, in a cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis of the biocomposites, we demonstrated that replacing fossil compatibilizer with a bio-based compatibilizer contributes to a reduction in CO2-eq emissions, and an increase in CO2 capture, achieving a CO2-eq storage of 2.12 kg CO2 eq/kg for the biocomposite containing 40% bagasse fibers and 6% bio-based compatibilizer.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Mimmi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Forces at superhydrophobic and superamphiphobic surfaces2020In: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, ISSN 1359-0294, E-ISSN 1879-0399, Vol. 47, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forces exerted at surfaces and interphases due to formation of gaseous (air or vapor) bridges describe the extreme liquid repellence in superhydrophobicity (SH) and amphiphobicity. The neighboring research areas of liquid capillary bridges and that of interactions between hydrophobic surfaces are highly valuable reference systems. We review recent findings with particular focus on the three-phase contact line and surface forces. Although macroscopic contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<10°, but can be high; parahydrophobic or petal type) and low roll-off angle (≤5–10°) are adequate criteria for SH and superamphiphobicity (SA) for most studies, a detailed understanding requires a view related to mechanisms. Experimental studies of liquid drop–substrate and particle–substrate adhesion in hydrophobic, SH, and SA systems are summarized by relating measured forces to the wetting tension, γcosθ. A low wetting tension value is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for SH and SA systems. The picture emerging from detailed force distance studies is that extreme liquid repellence in SH and SA systems is a progression of liquid repellence due to hydrophobicity, in which force curves can be explained by capillary forces of constant volume of the gaseous capillary. In SH and SA, neither the capillary force equation assuming constant volume nor constant pressure of the gaseous capillary explains experimental force measurements as the capillary increases in both volume and pressure. In recent experimental studies, a transition is observed into nonconstant volume and pressure which suggests an SH and SA wetting transition from constant volume or pressure to a capillary growth as driven by the γA and the PV works but also by forces at the three-phase contact SLV (solid-liquid-vapor) line, viz. pinning forces, Fpin and Fdepin, and line energy, (τL)SLV, terms. Supported by calculations of the different contributions, we suggest this transition being an appropriate definition for the onset of (appreciable) SH and SA. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 9.
    Ita-Nagy, Diana
    et al.
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Kahhat, Ramzy
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Quispe, Isabel
    Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Clauser, Nicolas
    National University of Misiones, Argentina.
    Area, Maria
    National University of Misiones, Argentina.
    Life cycle assessment of bagasse fiber reinforced biocomposites2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 720, article id 137586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the life cycle environmental implications of producing fiber-reinforced biocomposite pellets, compared with sugarcane- and petroleum-based polyethylene (PE) pellets. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to evaluate the production of four types of pellets. LCA allows the evaluation of the benefits of improving the production of biobased materials by replacing part of the sugarcane bioPE with bagasse fibers. The functional unit selected was the production of 1 kg of plastic pellets. Primary data were collected from laboratory tests designed to obtain pulp fibers from bagasse and mix them with sugarcane bioPE. Two processes were studied to obtain fibers from bagasse: soda fractionation and hot water-soda fractionation. The results from the LCA show environmental improvements when reducing the amount of bioPE by replacing it with bagasse fibers in the categories of global warming, ozone formation, terrestrial acidification and fossil resource scarcity, when comparing to 100% sugarcane bioPE, and a reduction in global warming and fossil resource scarcity when compared to fossil-based PE. In contrast, results also indicate that there could be higher impacts in terms of ozone formation, freshwater eutrophication, and terrestrial acidification. Even though biocomposites result as a preferred option to bioPE, several challenges need to be overcome before a final recommendation is placed. The sensitivity analysis showed the importance of the energy source on the impacts of the processing of fibers. Thus, using clean energy to produce biobased materials may reduce the impacts related to the production stage. These results are intended to increase the attention of the revalorization of these residues and their application to generate more advanced materials. Further outlook should also consider a deeper evaluation of the impacts during the production of a plastic object and possible effects of the biobased materials during final disposal.

  • 10.
    Jensen, Carl
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Lindberg, Siv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Hinder och möjligheter för att öka källsortering av plastavfall från tillverkningsindustrin2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of plastics and the management of the generated amounts of plastic waste are two issues that have been some of the most prominent in the environmental debate in recent years. Today, large quantities of plastic waste from the Swedish manufacturing industry is generated that are not sorted for recycling but end up in combustible residual waste going to energy recovery, which means a significant waste of resources. Although large quantities of plastic waste originate from the manufacturing industry, the vast majority of initiatives related to a more resource-efficient management of plastic waste have focused on the plastic waste generated related to consumption. Relatively little focus has been on the primary plastic waste generated from the manufacturing industry.

    The purpose of this project has been to contribute to increase the source sorting and recycling of plastic waste from the Swedish manufacturing industry. The goals were to identify and evaluate significant barriers faced by the Swedish manufacturing industry to increase the sorting of plastic in Sweden and to propose how the sorting of the plastic waste can increase.

    The project and its results were based on a survey answered by manufacturing companies, which was supplemented by interviews with waste and recycling actors.

    The results and conclusions of the project can be summarized as follows:

    ▪ There is considerable potential to increase the source sorting of generated plastic waste from the manufacturing industry

    Of the companies that responded to the survey, 12 percent answered that no source sorting of plastic waste occurs. Although the number of responses was small and not representative of Sweden as a whole, the figures give an indication that the number of manufacturing companies and the amount of plastic waste that is not sorted out can be significant. Of the companies that stated that plastic packaging is generated, as many as 19 percent have no source sorting of plastic packaging. For plastic production waste and other process material containing plastic, a large proportion responded that no source sorting occurs, 26 and 53 percent, respectively.

    ▪ Manufacturing companies sorting out plastic waste have a high source sorting efficiency

    The results from the project show that the companies that sort their waste also have high source sorting levels, ire. there is a small proportion of plastic waste generated that end up in combustible waste fractions. Almost 80 percent of manufacturing companies sort out at least 70 percent of the generated plastic packaging waste. For plastic production waste, about 78 percent sort out at least 70 percent of plastic waste generated. For other process materials containing plastics, the source sorting rate is considerably lower, 44 percent of the companies sort out at least 70 percent of the generated amounts.

    ▪ Existing barriers to increased sorting of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry are estimated to be relatively small

    For each barrier, a majority of manufacturing companies indicated that the current barriers are not relevant or had a minor impact on the sorting of plastic waste. However, it should be pointed out that there are major differences between individual companies where some experience major barriers to increase their source sorting of plastic waste.

    The technical barriers are the most important ones in increasing the source sorting of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry

    For all three plastic waste streams studied, the technical barriers were the most significant to overcome in order to increase the source sorting and recycling of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry. For plastic packaging, the most important technical obstacle was that plastic packaging was contaminated. For production waste, a complex material composition, contamination and the fact that a sufficiently high quality cannot be guaranteed, were the major obstacles. For other process materials, small amounts of waste were considered to be the most important barrier. Other technical barriers for other process materials containing plastics were the presence of contaminants and that a sufficiently high quality of the waste cannot be guaranteed.

    ▪ The incentives to increase the source sorting of plastic waste are small

    Although the barriers to increased source sorting are relatively small, the incentives to increase source sorting for manufacturing companies are also small. Overall, the responses to the survey indicate that the costs related to waste management constitute a small proportion of the total production cost of manufacturing companies. This means that the financial incentives to reduce their production costs through better source sorting are small. Although several source sorted plastic fractions have a material value, the cost associated with the collection of the plastic waste is considerable and may also exceed the revenue a manufacturing company receives for the material itself. A significant proportion (21 percent) of respondents also stated that the cost of source sorted plastics is in the same order of magnitude as for combustible and sorted waste fractions.

    ▪ A large proportion of manufacturing companies use secondary plastic raw materials in their production

    Of the respondents, around half of them use secondary plastic raw material in their production. Although a majority of these use smaller quantities (<10%), reported figures indicate that there is a demand for recycled plastic raw materials in the manufacturing industry. Limitations in quality as well as large variations in the quality of recycled plastic raw materials are considered to be the main reasons why manufacturing companies use more secondary plastics in their production. The quality aspect and that secondary raw material does not meet the set quality requirements is the major reason why half of the responding companies do not use any secondary plastic raw material in their production. This shows the importance of high quality of the source sorted plastics but also sorting and recycling techniques which can handle quality deviations in collected plastic waste.

    Recommendations for increasing the source sorting and recycling of the generated plastic waste from the manufacturing industry can be summarized as follows:

    ▪ Utilize conventional goods transport for reverse logistics of plastic waste to a greater extent

    Plastic waste is often bulky, which means that costs associated with collection are significant in relation to the material value of the plastic waste and can also exceed the revenue generated for the material. Since conventional goods transport often goes back empty after delivery, there is a potential to transport the generated plastic waste to a greater extent. In a future project, the opportunities and barriers exist should be explored to realize this on a large scale, where differences between different industries also exist.

    Increased collaboration between waste and recycling actors in the collection of plastic waste

    Waste and recycling companies which collect waste from businesses and industries operate in a competitive market. This can hamper an efficient collection of plastic waste from industries as several waste and recycling companies have customers located in the same geographical area. Through increased collaboration, improved logistics could be obtained together with a reduced environmental impact at the collection. If the costs of collection can be reduced, the manufacturing companies can be offered a higher price for source sorted plastics and thus increase the financial incentives of source sorting.

    ▪ Increased collaboration between actors in the value chain

    Increased collaboration, communication and transparency between actors in the value chain (manufacturing industry, waste and recycling companies, material manufacturers to suppliers), are also necessary to achieve increased source sorting and recycling of plastic waste. Material recycling is a much more sensitive process in terms of contamination, quality, etc. compared to energy recycling which today receives large amounts of plastic waste. Therefore, it is important that quality requirements and measures to achieve these are stated and communicated by each actor in the value chain in order to enable high quality of recycled plastic raw material. Requirements and measures to reach sufficiently high quality is something the actors in the value chain have great experience and know-how in the manufacture of products, why much of this could be applied to the plastic waste generated from the production.

    ▪ Utilize the possibilities of chemical recycling of plastic waste

    A limitation with the mechanical recycling that exists today is that it is relatively sensitive to contaminants, lack of quality and when materials other than plastic are present. These aggravating circumstances can be mitigated by chemical and/or thermal recycling processes which are significantly less sensitive compared to the mechanical recycling processes. These technologies are not fully developed but have great potential to be alternatives for recycling the plastic waste that is not possible to be recycled mechanically.

    ▪ Reduce the number of plastic types for plastic packaging and other process materials

    A significant barrier is the large number of types of plastics used, which makes source sorting difficult and expensive. For plastic packaging but also other process materials containing plastics, the possibilities of reducing the number of different types of plastic are considerably easier compared to plastic production waste whose content and quality are affected by the industry and product being manufactured. One tool to achieve this is to develop guidelines and set requirements for material content in packaging and recyclability at procurement. By reducing the number of plastic types, the source sorting process is simplified and larger quantities of different types of plastic waste are obtained.

    ▪ Continuous information efforts and feedback to production personnel

    Providing employees with continuous feedback through KPIs etc. is fundamental and something that many manufacturing companies use as a tool for their continuous improvement. This is also something that should be applied when handling waste, where production personnel should receive continuous feedback on waste sorting and the importance of source sorting. There is still a widespread perception that source sorted plastics are still being incinerated, which is important to prevent to get a motivated production staff. In this work, it is also important to highlight why a source sorting of plastics is important from a global and environmental perspective that extends beyond the business economic perspective.

    ▪ Goal monitoring of the company's waste management

    Although the two barriers lack of target follow-up and feedback on source sorting of plastic waste and the absence of directives from the management were considered to be of minor importance overall, there were individual manufacturing companies that considered these barriers to be significant. A recommendation is therefore to set up recycling targets within organizations, follow up, revise these and communicate these to employees.

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  • 11.
    Kummala, Ruut
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Soto Véliz, Diosángeles
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Fang, Zhiqiang
    South China University of Technology, China.
    Xu, Wenyang
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Xu, Chunlin
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Human Dermal Fibroblast Viability and Adhesion on Cellulose Nanomaterial Coatings: Influence of Surface Characteristics.2020In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable and renewable materials, such as cellulose nanomaterials, have been studied as a replacement material for traditional plastics in the biomedical field. Furthermore, in chronic wound care, modern wound dressings, hydrogels, and active synthetic extracellular matrices promoting tissue regeneration are developed to guide cell growth and differentiation. Cells are guided not only by chemical cues but also through their interaction with the surrounding substrate and its physicochemical properties. Hence, the current work investigated plant-based cellulose nanomaterials and their surface characteristic effects on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) behavior. Four thin cellulose nanomaterial-based coatings produced from microfibrillar cellulose (MFC), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and two TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (CNF) with different total surface charge were characterized, and HDF viability and adhesion were evaluated. The highest viability and most stable adhesion were on the anionic CNF coating with a surface charge of 1.14 mmol/g. On MFC and CNC coated surfaces, HDFs sedimented but were unable to anchor to the substrate, leading to low viability.

  • 12.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Choi, Y. S.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Atkin, R.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Nanotribology of hydrogels with similar stiffness but different polymer and crosslinker concentrations2020In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 563, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis: The stiffness has been found to regulate hydrogel performances and applications. However, the key interfacial properties of hydrogels, like friction and adhesion are not controlled by the stiffness, but are altered by the structure and composition of hydrogels, like polymer volume fraction and crosslinking degree. Experiments: Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been use to investigate the relationship between tribological properties (friction and adhesion) and composition of hydrogels with similar stiffness, but different polymer volume fractions and crosslinking degrees. Findings: The interfacial normal and lateral (friction) forces of hydrogels are not directly correlated to the stiffness, but altered by the hydrogel structure and composition. For normal force measurements, the adhesion increases with polymer volume fraction but decreases with crosslinking degree. For lateral force measurements, friction increases with polymer volume fraction, but decreases with crosslinking degree. In the low normal force regime, friction is mainly adhesion-controlled and increases significantly with the adhesion and polymer volume fraction. In the high normal force regime, friction is predominantly load-controlled and shows slow increase with normal force. 

  • 13.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Cappellini, Francesca
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Kessler, Amanda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moelijker, Nynke
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Derr, Remco
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hendriks, Giel
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Karlsson, Hanna L
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    ToxTracker Reporter Cell Lines as a Tool for Mechanism-Based (geno)Toxicity Screening of Nanoparticles-Metals, Oxides and Quantum Dots.2020In: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 1, article id E110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of nanoparticles (NPs) requires efficient testing of their potential toxic effects. A promising approach is to use reporter cell lines to quickly assess the activation of cellular stress response pathways. This study aimed to use the ToxTracker reporter cell lines to investigate (geno)toxicity of various metal- or metal oxide NPs and draw general conclusions on NP-induced effects, in combination with our previous findings. The NPs tested in this study (n = 18) also included quantum dots (QDs) in different sizes. The results showed a large variation in cytotoxicity of the NPs tested. Furthermore, whereas many induced oxidative stress only few activated reporters related to DNA damage. NPs of manganese (Mn and Mn3O4) induced the most remarkable ToxTracker response with activation of reporters for oxidative stress, DNA damage, protein unfolding and p53-related stress. The QDs (CdTe) were highly toxic showing clearly size-dependent effects and calculations suggest surface area as the most relevant dose metric. Of all NPs investigated in this and previous studies the following induce the DNA damage reporter; CuO, Co, CoO, CdTe QDs, Mn, Mn3O4, V2O5, and welding NPs. We suggest that these NPs are of particular concern when considering genotoxicity induced by metal- and metal oxide NPs.

  • 14.
    Oliaei, Erfan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindén, Pär
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) and nanopaper films from unbleached kraft softwood pulp2020In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is an important industrial nanocellulose product and material component. New MFC grades can widen the materials property range and improve product tailoring. Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) is investigated, with the hypothesis that there is an optimum in lignin content of unbleached wood pulp fibre with respect to nanofibril yield. A series of kraft fibres with falling Kappa numbers (lower lignin content) was prepared. Fibres were beaten and fibrillated into MFLC by high-pressure microfluidization. Nano-sized fractions of fibrils were separated using centrifugation. Lignin content and carbohydrate analysis, total charge, FE-SEM, TEM microscopy and suspension rheology characterization were carried out. Fibres with Kappa number 65 (11% lignin) combined high lignin content with ease of fibrillation. This confirms an optimum in nanofibril yield as a function of lignin content, and mechanisms are discussed. MFLC from these fibres contained a 40–60 wt% fraction of nano-sized fibrils with widths in the range of 2.5–70 nm. Despite the large size distribution, data for modulus and tensile strength of MFLC films with 11% lignin were as high as 14 GPa and 240 MPa. MFLC films showed improved water contact angle of 84–88°, compared to neat MFC films (< 50°). All MFLC films showed substantial optical transmittance, and the fraction of haze scattering strongly correlated with defect content in the form of coarse fibrils. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 15.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brown rot gene expression and regulation in acetylated and furfurylated wood: A complex picture2020In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate Rhodonia placenta expression patterns of genes involved in the depolymerisation during the non-enzymatic phase in acetylated (WAc) and furfurylated wood (WFA). During the 98-day-long exposure, WAc [22.6% weight per cent gain (WPG) on average] and WFA (69% WPG on average) lost no more than 3% mass while the untreated wood (WUn) reached 41% mass loss (ML) in 55 days. Expression of six genes putatively involved in the non-enzymatic degradation process were investigated. In conclusion, expression levels of alcohol oxidase Ppl118723 (AlOx1) and laccase Ppl111314 (Lac) were significantly higher in the modified wood materials (WMod) than in WUn, which is in accordance with previous results and may be explained by the absence of the degradation products that have been proposed to down-regulate the non-enzymatic degradation process. However, copper radical oxidase Ppl156703 (CRO1) and a putative quinate transporter Ppl44553 (PQT) were expressed at significantly lower levels in WMod than in WUn while quinone reductase Ppl124517 (QRD) and glucose oxidase Ppl108489 (GOx) were expressed at similar levels as in WUn. These results suggest that gene regulation in WMod is more complex than a general up-regulation of genes involved in the non-enzymatic degradation phase.

  • 16.
    Romanovski, Valentin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National University of Science and Technology, Russia; National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus.
    Claesson, Per M
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Yolanta
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of different surface disinfection treatments of drinking water facilities from a corrosion and environmental perspective2020In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface disinfection of water facilities such as water wells requires measures that can remove pathogens from the walls to ensure a high drinking water quality, but many of these measures might increase corrosion of the contact surfaces (often highly pure steel) and affect the environment negatively due to disinfectant-contaminated waste sludge and wastewater. Today, most treatments worldwide are based on hypochlorites. We investigated the extent of corrosion during treatments of steel at relevant conditions of ozone, sodium, and calcium hypochlorite for drinking water preparation, utilizing weight loss, electrochemical, solution analytical, and surface analytical methods. The ozone treatment caused significantly less corrosion as compared with sodium or calcium hypochlorite with 150–250 mg/L active chlorine. Hypochlorite or other chlorine-containing compounds were trapped in corrosion products after the surface disinfection treatment with hypochlorite, and this risked influencing subsequent corrosion after the surface disinfection treatment. A life cycle impact assessment suggested ozone treatment to have the lowest negative effects on human health, ecosystems, and resources. Calcium hypochlorite showed the highest negative environmental impact due to its production phase. Our study suggests that ozone surface disinfection treatments are preferable as compared with hypochlorite treatments from corrosion, economic, and environmental perspectives. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 17.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Harris, Kathryn L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The finishing touches: the role of friction and roughness in haptic perception of surface coatings.2020In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are extraordinarily skilled in the tactile evaluation of, and differentiation between, surfaces. The chemical and mechanical properties of these surfaces are translated into tactile signals during haptic exploration by mechanoreceptors in our skin, which are specialized to respond to different types of temporal and mechanical stimulation. Describing the effects of measurable physical characteristics on the human response to tactile exploration of surfaces is of great interest to manufacturers of household materials so that the haptic experience can be considered during design, product development and quality control. In this study, methods from psychophysics and materials science are combined to advance current understanding of which physical properties affect tactile perception of a range of furniture surfaces, i.e., foils and coatings, thus creating a tactile map of the furniture product landscape. Participants' responses in a similarity scaling task were analyzed using INDSCAL from which three haptic dimensions were identified. Results show that specific roughness parameters, tactile friction and vibrational information, as characterized by a stylus profilometer, a Forceboard, and a biomimetic synthetic finger, are important for tactile differentiation and preferences of these surface treatments. The obtained dimensions are described as distinct combinations of the surface properties characterized, rather than as 'roughness' or 'friction' independently. Preferences by touch were related to the roughness, friction and thermal properties of the surfaces. The results both complement and advance current understanding of how roughness and friction relate to tactile perception of surfaces.

  • 18.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Molecular origin of mechano-sorptive creep in cellulosic fibres2020In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 230, article id 115615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechano-sorptive creep, i.e. the increased rate of creep that occurs during changing relative humidity, when loading paper or wood, is a phenomenon still not fully understood. This phenomenon was here investigated by examining the changes occurring at the molecular level utilising FTIR spectroscopy. By subjecting the paper to deuterated water, the changes involving both the crystalline hydroxyls as well as those in accessible regions could be examined. During loading, the cellulose molecular chains are stretched taking the load. In addition, during mechano-sorptive creep a further exchange from OH to OD groups occurred. This was interpreted as caused by slippage between cellulose fibrils allowing previously non-accessible hydroxyls to become available for deuterium exchange. Thus, the loosening of the structure, during the changing moisture conditions, is interpreted as what has led to the increased creep and the possibility for new areas of cellulose fibril/fibril aggregates to be exposed to the deuterium exchange.

  • 19.
    Watanabe, Seiya
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilkington, Georgia A
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Oleshkevych, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pedraz, Patricia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Radiom, Milad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Welbourn, Rebecca
    Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Interfacial structuring of non-halogenated imidazolium ionic liquids at charged surfaces: effect of alkyl chain length.2020In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 22, no 16, p. 8450-8460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of the interfacial structures of ionic liquids (ILs) at charged interfaces is important to many of their applications, including in energy storage solutions, sensors and advanced lubrication technologies utilising electric fields. In the case of the latter, there is an increasing demand for the study of non-halogenated ILs, as many fluorinated anions have been found to produce corrosive and toxic halides under tribological conditions. Here, the interfacial structuring of a series of four imidazolium ILs ([CnC1Im]) of varying alkyl chain lengths (n = 5, 6, 7, 10), with a non-halogenated borate-based anion ([BOB]), have been studied at charged interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and neutron reflectivity (NR). For all alkyl chain lengths, the SFG spectra show that the cation imidazolium ring responds to the surface charge by modifying its orientation with respect to the surface normal. In addition, the combination of SFG spectra with electrochemical NR measurements reveals that the longest alkyl chain length (n = 10) forms a bilayer structure at all charged interfaces, independent of the ring orientation. These results demonstrate the tunability of IL interfacial layers through the use of surface charge, as well as effect of the cation alkyl chain length, and provide valuable insight into the charge compensation mechanisms of ILs.

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