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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Återvinning av växtnäringsämnen ur avloppsvatten – hur gör vi hållbarhetsbedömningar på bästa sätt?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna producera tillräckligt med mat på ett hållbart sätt behöver vi hushålla med växtnäring, och se till att den näring som redan finns i omlopp används på ett klokt sätt. Nya direktiv kring slamanvändning, krav på återförsel av växtnäring och hårdare utsläppskrav på reningsverk innebär att nya system och tekniker behöver utvecklas. Det kan dock vara svårt att veta vilket system eller vilken teknik som ger den största nyttan. Systemanalytiska metoder kan hjälpa till att tydliggöra dessa komplexa frågor.

    Målet med denna studie är att på ett övergripande sätt ge en insikt i hur arbetet kring hållbarhetsbedömningar kopplat till kommunal avloppsvattenrening och återföring av näringsämnen, med fokus på fosfor och kväve kan genomföras. Vidare har fokus legat på metodfrågor inom livscykelanalys (LCA), men en utblick kring andra hållbarhetsbedömningsmetoder ges även i en mindre omfattning. Mycket av det som behandlas inom LCA har dock bäring även för andra metoder för hållbarhetsbedömning.

    Idag finns det olika typer av standarder och riktlinjer för hur LCA-studier bör utföras, dock saknas det specifika riktlinjer för LCA-studier kopplade till näringsåtervinning ur avlopp. Det finns flera skäl till att LCA-metodfrågor kopplade till näringsåterföring behöver utredas; LCA är en metod som framförallt inriktar sig på att bedöma miljöpåverkan av en produkt, medan avloppsvattenrening ofta sker i kommunal regi och i nuläget är inriktat på att rena avloppsvatten och inte fokuserar på att producera produkter. Avloppssystem är ofta integrerade med både vattenförsörjning, energisystemet och jordbruket på ett intrikat sätt. Avlopp är också en sektor som har utsläpp både till luft och vatten, och metoder för att korrekt kunna bedöma dessa utsläpps påverkan på miljö är viktiga att utreda. Användningsområdet för LCA är väldigt brett. LCA kan dock inte svara på om det system som utvärderas är hållbart, bara om systemet har mer eller mindre påverkan än ett annat. LCA kan alltså inte svara på frågeställningar som: Vad är en hållbar återvinningsgrad för växtnäringsämnen?

    Arbetet har resulterat i en diskussion kring när LCA eller systemanalys lämpar sig och vad man bör tänka på när man genomför en LCA och vilka delar som bör ingå. Inom ramen för detta arbete anordnades även en workshop där berörda intressenter deltog från forskning, myndigheter och branschen. Syftet med workshopen var att få in synpunkter kring hur en systemanalys eller LCA bör läggas upp för att ge användbara resultat i beslutsfattande.

    I första hand vänder sig rapporten till dem som arbetar med kommunal avloppsvattenrening, teknikutveckling och myndigheter inom detta område, som har en grundförståelse för systemanalys och vill veta mer.

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  • 2.
    Backlund, Elin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Implementering och resultat av Göteborgsmodellen för mindre matsvinn2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gothenburg model for less food waste - a model forreducing food waste in municipal kitchensThe Swedish law states that all school children shall be served a nutritious, free schoollunch every day meaning that about 3 million meals are served per day in the municipalsector in Sweden. By developing efficient working models aimed for decreasing the foodwaste climate impact and costs can be significantly reduced.“The Gothenburg model for less food waste” is a practical tool describing simple andappropriate working routines aimed for reducing food waste in municipal kitchens. Thetool is designed to be used by the staff working in the kitchens. This report elucidatesdata and experiences from the implementation of “The Gothenburg model for less foodwaste”.Gothenburg City has a large meal organization with about 520 kitchens covering preschools,schools and elderly care settings. Through the “Gothenburg model for less foodwaste”, the City of Gothenburg reduced its food waste (serving and kitchen waste) in itskitchens by 50%, from about 30 g/serving to 15 g/serving, in two years, from January2017 to December 2018. At the end of the project, 95% of the kitchens measured theirfood waste. Together, these kitchens served over 80,000 lunches a day. Based on themeasurements in 2017–2018, serving waste accounted for about 80% of food waste,while 20% was kitchen waste.Based on the collected data on food waste targets for different categories of kitchenscould be formulated for serving and kitchen waste. The values suggested for schools were8 - 10 g/serving for production kitchens, 10-15 g/serving for reception kitchens and 30 -35 g/serving for serving kitchens. The corresponding values for pre-schools were 5 - 8g/serving for production kitchens, 10 - 15 g/serving for reception kitchens and 25 - 30g/serving for serving kitchens.The project has contributed to long-term effects by introducing a systematic approachfor reducing food waste in municipal kitchens. By  working according to the model, thekitchens have established procedures for reducing kitchen and serving waste as well asidentified structural problems that must be addressed in  the future for decreasing thefood waste further.Collected data for a time span up to 5 years  show that it takes time establish routines andlong-lasting changes. Generally, food waste levels decrease quite fast in the beginningdue to the easy wins and then level off gradually.

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  • 3.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Systemanalys av biodrivmedel baserade på halm och vall - samproduktion av etanol och bioolja2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of domestic raw material will be needed for future biofuel production in Sweden. Various grasses and straw are interesting alternatives for ethanol production. In the ethanol production, hydrolysis lignin residual is produced, which does not yet have a well-formulated end-use.

    HTL is a liquefaction process that can be used to produce bio-oil. In this project we have studied whether hydrolysis lignin residue from ethanol production could be used as raw material in the HTL process. The produced bio-oil can be upgraded together with fossil oil in a conventional refinery and converted into biofuel components.

    In this system study, biofuel production based on straw and ley grass as raw material have been studied in terms of climate impact, mass flows and economy. Four scenarios were investigated, two with straw as raw material and two with ley grass as raw materi-al. In all scenarios, the raw material was assumed to be used for ethanol production. In two scenarios, lignin residue from ethanol production was sent for incineration. In the other two scenarios, the lignin residue is further processed bio-oil via the HTL process.

    In all scenarios the climate impact was reduced compared to fossil fuels. Ethanol gives a reduction of 72 – 92% and biofuels from bio-oil a reduction of 64 – 81% compared to the fossil reference. Considering soil carbon however has a large effect on the climate impact; removing straw is a loss of carbon while cultivation of ley grass add carbon to the soil.

    The cost of producing ethanol was calculated to be between SEK 3 200 – 4 800 per metric ton ethanol. The fuels produced via HTL were estimated to have a production cost between SEK 11 600 – 15 100 per metric ton of fuel. Thus, biofuels from hydrolysis lignin were calculated to be much more expensive than ethanol. This is mainly due to the costs associated with the upgrade of bio-oil. However, results should be carefully interpreted as there is a lack of input data and major uncertainties in the estimations.

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  • 4.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Farmers current practices, and their opinion on supplying straw for production of second-generation biofuels in Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and especially focuses on the results from a survey looking at the current practices with straw use in Sweden as well as the farmer’s opinion on supplying straw for the production of second-generation biofuel. The survey was developed as a collaboration between LRF (Federation of Swedish farmers) RISE and Lantmännen.The reader can first read about the context within which the survey was developed and analysed. The questions and the methodology are then presented. The main part of the report presents the questionnaire results before drawing conclusions in line with the project’s objectives.The survey shows that about 60% of the straw from farmers participating in the survey, remains in the field while 40% is harvested mostly for animal production. The county of Skåne, the “ÖSÖ” region (Östergötland, Södermanland, and Örebro counties), the region including Uppsala, Stockholm and Västmanland counties, and the county of Västra Götaland have the largest potential for collection of straw for industrial processes in Sweden. However, farmers from these regions are the most concerned about the decrease of soil quality due to straw removal. The current common practices for straw handling in Sweden, including baling, collection, transport, storage and sale, are highlighted.Some interesting conclusions are drawn concerning the logistics needed for the handling of straw for the biobased industry. Moreover, the answers from the survey give some insights concerning a potential “straw contract” between Lantmännen and the farmers. The report also highlights the aspects to be further researched.More information concerning the Swedish contribution to the AGROinLOG project can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).

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  • 5.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lund, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A roadmap to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne Sweden - Case study grain milling industry2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and focuses on the development of a roadmap for the grain processing industry to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne. More information concerning the Swedish contribution can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).The Swedish partners of the AGROinLOG project have been interacting with different stakeholders from the grain processing industry in Skåne (South of Sweden) to investigate the existing hinders and drivers for the development of Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres (IBLC) in the region. This report focuses in particular into the milling industry in Skåne in regard to its potential, the utilization of the by-product bran and limitation for the implementation of IBLC. The objective of this reports is to propose a roadmap for the transformation of the current milling sector into an IBLC.The reader will first get a brief introduction to the IBLC concept and a detailed status of the cereal production and milling industry in Skåne. The process for data collection included many interactions with the industry and other relevant stakeholders. The results are then presented.The roadmap uses a backcasting approach starting with the development of a desired sustainable vision of the future. The vision foreseen that mills have developed into IBLCs and collaborate with many actors to produce a wider range of products and add values to other by-products than the mills’ own by-products. This new activity is profitable for the mills but also for other processing industries. The products developed are highly demanded by the consumers.The authors then mapped the current situation looking in particular at hinders, potential conflict of interest, and policy support. The hinders could be clustered into six categories: supply, communication, regulation, economy, market, and logistic. The conflict of interest for the valorisation of bran is low as it is used for human consumption to a low extent. It could however conflict with the animal feeding industry. Different kind of supports are needed at the different stage of the innovation development. Skåne, and Sweden in general have good access to supporting schemes. More technical data concerning the current status of the milling sector is included in the background chapter.Finally, concrete measures for moving from the current situation to the vision are discussed. The most important measure to implement would be to develop a market for the new bio-based products. To support this, a number of measures should be implemented in a joint effort. These measures include technical development, collaboration, and communication. Moreover, sustainability must be a red thread in this transformation, and new legislation should provide a supportive framework.

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  • 6.
    De Menna, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Unger, Nicole
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Loubiere, Marion
    Deloitte Sustainability, France.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    A combined framework for the life cycle assessment and costing of food waste prevention and valorization: an application to school canteens2020In: Agricultural and Food Economics, ISSN 2193-7532, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About one third of global edible food is lost or wasted along the supply chain, causing the wastage of embedded natural and economic resources. Life cycle methodologies can be applied to identify sustainable and viable prevention and valorization routes needed to prevent such inefficiencies. However, no systemic approach has been developed so far to guide practitioners and stakeholders. Specifically, the goal and scoping phase (e.g. problem assessed or system function) can be characterized by a large flexibility, and the comparability between food waste scenarios could be not ensured. Within the Horizon2020 project Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain, this study aimed to provide practitioners with guidance on how to combine life cycle assessment and environmental life cycle costing in the context of food waste. Recent literature was reviewed to identify relevant methodological aspects, possible commonly adopted approaches, main differences among studies and standards and protocols, main challenges, and knowledge gaps. Basing on this review, an analytical framework with a set of recommendations was developed encompassing different assessment situations. The framework intends to provide a step by step guidance for food waste practitioners, and it is composed of a preliminary section on study purpose definition, three decision trees—respectively on assessment situation(s), costing approach, and type of study (footprint vs. intervention)—and two sets of recommendations. Recommendations can be applied to all levels of the food waste hierarchy, stating a generic order of preference for handling food chain side flows. This consistent and integrated life cycle approach should ensure a better understanding of the impact of specific interventions, thus supporting informed private and public decision making and promoting the design of sustainable and cost-efficient interventions and a more efficient food supply chains. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Fager, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Olsson, Anna
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    Särkkä, Aila
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Optimization of FIB-SEM Tomography and Reconstruction for Soft, Porous, and Poorly Conducting Materials.2020In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tomography using a focused ion beam (FIB) combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is well-established for a wide range of conducting materials. However, performing FIB-SEM tomography on ion- and electron-beam-sensitive materials as well as poorly conducting soft materials remains challenging. Some common challenges include cross-sectioning artifacts, shadowing effects, and charging. Fully dense materials provide a planar cross section, whereas pores also expose subsurface areas of the planar cross-section surface. The image intensity of the subsurface areas gives rise to overlap between the grayscale intensity levels of the solid and pore areas, which complicates image processing and segmentation for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. To avoid the introduction of artifacts, the goal is to examine porous and poorly conducting soft materials as close as possible to their original state. This work presents a protocol for the optimization of FIB-SEM tomography parameters for porous and poorly conducting soft materials. The protocol reduces cross-sectioning artifacts, charging, and eliminates shadowing effects. In addition, it handles the subsurface and grayscale intensity overlap problems in image segmentation. The protocol was evaluated on porous polymer films which have both poor conductivity and pores. 3D reconstructions, with automated data segmentation, from three films with different porosities were successfully obtained.

  • 8.
    Ferri, Maura
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Vannini, Micaela
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ehrnell, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Monari, Stefania
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Sisti, Laura
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Marchese, Paola
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Celli, Annamaria
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tassoni, Annalisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    From winery waste to bioactive compounds and new polymeric biocomposites: A contribution to the circular economy concept2020In: Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2090-1232, Vol. 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at optimising and validating possible routes toward the full valorisation of grape agrowaste to produce bioactive molecules and new materials. Starting from Merlot red pomace, phenol complex mixtures were successfully extracted by using two different approaches. Extracts obtained by solvent-based (SE) technique contained up to 46.9 gGAeq/kgDW of total phenols. Depending on the used solvent, the prevalence of compounds belonging to different phenol families was achieved. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) gave higher total phenol yields (up to 79 gGAeq/kgDW) but a lower range of extracted compounds. All liquid extracts exerted strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, both SE and PLE extraction solid residues were directly exploited (between 5 and 20% w/w) to prepare biocomposite materials by direct mixing via an eco-friendly approach with PHBV polymer. The final composites showed mechanical characteristics similar to PHVB matrix. The use of pomace residues in biocomposites could therefore bring both to the reduction of the cost of the final material, as a lower amount of costly PHBV is used. The present research demonstrated the full valorisation of grape pomace, an agrowaste produced every year in large amounts and having a significant environmental impact.

  • 9.
    Fontes-Candia, Cynthia
    et al.
    IATA, Spain.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    López-Rubio, Amparo
    IATA, Spain.
    Martínez-Sanz, Marta
    IATA, Spain.
    Rheological and structural characterization of carrageenan emulsion gels2020In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 47, article id 101873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrageenan emulsion gels containing sunflower oil were prepared using three different commercial carrageenan grades (κ-C, ι-C and λ-C). The effect of the carrageenan and salt content, as well as the oil:water ratio, on the emulsion gel strength was evaluated through a response surface methodology. Moreover, the rheological properties and the micro- and nanostructure from the stronger emulsion gel formulations were investigated and compared to their analogous hydrogel formulations. Interestingly, emulsion gels formed stronger and more thermally stable networks than the hydrogels, being this effect more evident in ι-C and λ-C. The results indicate that this was mainly due to a polysaccharide concentration effect, as no evidence of interactions between the carrageenan and the oil phase was found. Consequently, the rheological behaviour of the emulsion gels was mostly determined by the type of carrageenan. The association of carrageenan molecular chains was favoured in κ-C and λ-C (due to the presence of κ-carrageenan in the latter) and promoted by the addition of KCl. In contrast, a lower degree of chain association, mostly driven by ionic cross-linking, took place in ι-C. These results evidence the relevance of the gelation mechanism on the properties of emulsion gels and provide the basis for the design of these systems for targeted applications within the food industry.

  • 10.
    Garrido-Bañuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Panzeri, Valeria
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Brand, Jeanne
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Evaluation of sensory effects of thiols in red wines by projective mapping using multifactorial analysis and correspondence analysis2020In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to systematically evaluate effects of single thiols, of thiol interactions in a single red wine matrix, and of red wine matrix effects combined with thiol interactions using projective mapping (PM) with experienced assessors. All work was done in dearomatized red wine from various cultivars. A dual approach to the projective mapping data analysis (coordinates and multifactorial analysis or frequency of citations and correspondence analysis), coupled to regression vector (RV) coefficients allowed to test the hypothesis that the resulting maps should be similar, which was the case for single thiols (RV > 0.7) but not for the more complex thiol × thiol or thiol × thiol × matrix interactions tested (RV < 0.7). It was shown that 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) levels were relatively more important than the cultivar used, while the opposite was true for 3-mercapto-1-hexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). No specific descriptors were associated with 3MH and 3MHA, but the wines had more “savory” notes. The interaction effects of 3MH × 4MMP and 3MHA × 4MMP were different both in the number and in the frequency of citation of the attributes. Practical Applications: Complex multilevel sensory interaction phenomena can be studied if a pragmatic and systematic practical methodology is used, as demonstrated by this work. As the method used does not require a trained panel, this type of approach can be used also outside an academic environment, to the benefit of the industry; however, the researchers must take into account the complexity of the matrix and the difficulty of the assessment. The outcome of the dual approach to the data analysis could help researchers decide which data handling option is better suited for their work.

  • 11.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lund, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Vall till etanolproduktion - koncept för vall i växtföljden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about ley for ethanol production, with focus on the cultivation and handling, and is part of the project " Biofuel from agricultural side streams and straw in a system perspective " financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The project is a continuation of the issue of secure raw material supply from the EU project AGROinLOG, which is about producing ethanol from straw.

    In order to be cost effective, ethanol is usually produced in large-scale plants, and with straw as a feedstock a secure supply of large quantities of straw is required. Producing ethanol from ley broadens the raw material base and is an opportunity to secure the supply of raw materials, especially during years with low cereal yields or with difficult harvest conditions for the straw. Introducing ley to a cereal-dominated crop rotation gives many positive effects on the cultivation system and to subsequent crops. There need to be a market and a buyer of the crop for the grain producers to be interested in ley cultivation. This report focuses on how a concept for ley to ethanol could look from the farmer's perspective.

    One question in the project was if the choice of grass and legumes variety is important. Four varieties of grass, as well as red clover and alfalfa, were harvested and collected in the project, in pure stand from Lantmännen's variety trials in Lännäs and Svalöv. The interviews with farmers conducted in the project showed that nitrogen fixating legumes such as clover and alfalfa are interesting from a farmer’s perspective for the positive effects, they have on the cultivation system. They should preferably be cultivated in combination with a fast-growing grass variety. The analyses that were done to investigate how the different ley species work as substrates for ethanol and bio-oil production showed that all the tested varieties work in these processes.

    In order to supply an ethanol plant with substrate all year round, the possibility to deliver both fresh and ensiled grass was studied. Fresh ley can be supplied to the plant from late May to late October. Depending on the extent of the fresh ley supply, it is complemented with silage or straw to cover the daily feedstock need.

    In order to avoid losses and heating of the material before entering the plant, the fresh ley should be harvested continuously every or every second day. Also, the ley should be physically damaged or cut as little as possible during harvesting and handling. The harvesting of fresh grass can be done in two steps. First the grass is mowed and left in swaths on the field. After that a forage wagon picks up the ley followed by transport to the plant. The other option is a direct-harvesting system using a tractor with a direct cut forage wagon and a mower in the front. The grass is cut and directly put in the wagon for transport to the plant. Which system to choose depends on how much grass is to be delivered per occasion and what degree of damage to the structure that is desired before delivery. For the ensiled ley the same kind of large-scale, cost-effective harvesting system usually used for harvesting of ley for animal production is suggested, typically consisting of a mower followed by a self -propelled precision chopper with separate wagons for transport to the plant.

    Essentially, three actors are involved in the delivery of ley to the ethanol plant, the farmer, the ethanol producer and a contractor who performs one or more steps in the harvesting and handling chain. Depending on the interests and conditions of the actors, two alternatives can be used to describe who is doing what. In option 1, the farmer establishes the ley and sells it on root. Then it is the buyer, or a contractor hired by the buyer, who handles harvesting, transport and storage. Depending on conditions on farm and plant, storage can be done on farm, on an intermediate storage or on plant. Option 2 means that the farmer has a more active role in cultivation, harvesting and transport and delivers the ley to the plant, either fresh at harvest or ensiled during the rest of the year.

    Two alternative concepts have been identified for delivering ley to ethanol production, where the proximity to the ethanol plant is what distinguishes the concepts. The concept "close" is aimed at farms located a short distance from Agroetanol. Fresh ley grass can be delivered with tractor to the plant during the growing season and ensiled ley grass is delivered by truck from the farm. The short distance makes it more interesting to receive, primarily, liquid residual streams that are produced at the ethanol plant. For the farm "further away" it is primarily silage that can be delivered because the silage has a lower water content compared to fresh ley, which means that it has lower transport costs.

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  • 12.
    Hjorth, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huseinovic, Ena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Changes in dietary carbon footprint over ten years relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine 10-year changes in dietary carbon footprint relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the unique longitudinal Västerbotten Intervention Programme, Sweden. Here, 14 591 women and 13 347 men had been followed over time. Food intake was assessed via multiple two study visits 1996–2016, using a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) related to food intake, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/1000 kcal and day, were estimated. Participants were classified into GHGE quintiles within sex and 10-year age group strata at both visits. Women and men changing from lowest to highest GHGE quintile exhibited highest body mass index within their quintiles at first visit, and the largest increase in intake of meat, minced meat, chicken, fish and butter and the largest decrease in intake of potatoes, rice and pasta. Women and men changing from highest to lowest GHGE quintile exhibited basically lowest rates of university degree and marriage and highest rates of smoking within their quintiles at first visit. Among these, both sexes reported the largest decrease in intake of meat, minced meat and milk, and the largest increase in intake of snacks and, for women, sweets. More research is needed on how to motivate dietary modifications to reduce climate impact and support public health. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 13.
    Jha, Piyush
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Chevallier, Silvie
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Effect of innovative microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on the quality attributes of apples and potatoes2020In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 309, article id 125594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considered the effect of low energy microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on freezing time and quality attributes (microstructure, texture, drip loss and colour) of apple and potato. MAF of apples and potatoes was performed by applying constant microwave (MW) power (167 W/kg) and pulsed MW power (500 and 667 W/kg with 10 s pulse width and 20 s pulse interval resulting in an average power of 167 and 222 W/kg) during the freezing process. The temperature profile was monitored during the freezing process, and the microstructure was examined using X-ray micro-tomography and cryo-SEM. Other quality parameters such as texture, drip loss and colour were evaluated with thawed samples. It appeared that the freezing time was not affected by the MAF process. It is the first time that a MAF process is used for freezing plant-based products and showed that the application of microwaves during freezing process caused less freeze damage than the control condition.

  • 14.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Ehsanzamir, Sohail
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Karkehabadi, Saeid
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Feng, Xinmei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Johansson, Monika
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Johansson, Daniel P.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Gelation of faba bean proteins - Effect of extraction method, pH and NaCl2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 103, article id 105622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of extraction method, pH and NaCl addition on rheological properties and microstructure of heat-induced faba bean protein gels was evaluated. Gels formed at pH 7 (no NaCl) of alkaline-extracted protein had the densest and finest network structure and highest stress and strain at fracture. The high density of nodes and small pores in the protein network could contribute to those mechanical properties. In contrast, storage modulus (G′) and Young's modulus were lowest for protein gels at pH 7. The gels formed at pH 5 had high G′ and Young's modulus, whereas stress and strain at fracture were lower, especially for gels formed from alkaline-extracted protein. Gels formed at pH 5 with 2% NaCl had two types of internal gel network, caused by a change in solubility of 7S globulins. When the protein powder was dissolved in water, particle size was dependent on the extraction method, with alkaline extraction giving much larger protein particles than soaked extraction.

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  • 15.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Möjligheter och utmaningar med en digitalisering av köttkedjan2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of work tasks has become commonplace for many primary producers with livestock, e.g. the use of milking robots and selection gates as well as automated feeding, weighing of animals and manure and litter handling. Advances in automation and digitalisation may be crucial for a sustainable increase in agricultural productivity and the future competitiveness of agricultural businesses. So far, the technical development has mainly been within crop management and milk production, while meat production still has a limited technical development. In fact, the entire meat supply chain is characterized by a low degree of digitization and automation. A digitalisation of the meat chain requires electronic identification of animals (e.g. RFID tags) to enable automated data collection, data management and decision support systems.

    The aim of this project activity was to investigate how a digitalisation of the meat chain could be designed and practically implemented in Sweden. Furthermore, the aim was to identify the drivers and barriers for increased digitalisation and automation of the meat supply chain as well as relevant actors’ needs and demands for information flow and data sharing. Finally, we aimed to identify what added values a digitalisation of the meat supply chain could provide in the form of increased efficiency, secure safer traceability and a more transparent production from farm to the consumer.

    The study was conducted during the period 2017 to 2019. Study visits in Denmark were made, as Denmark has implemented electronic ear tagging as a legal requirement and thus have experience from the development of digital systems in the meat chain. Study visits were also made in Sweden, to discuss the possibilities of digitalisation with various actors in the meat chain. In addition, an interview study was conducted with farmers, who today use electronic ear tags, to elucidate the areas of use and value added to Swedish farmers today. The study was concluded with a workshop, where the industry together with technology companies gathered to discuss opportunities, barriers and the need for a digital meat chain in Sweden.

    The results of this study showed that the Swedish meat industry generally is positive to an implementation of a digital meat supply chain. The advantages identified were that the digitalisation can be used to optimise production processes, increase food safety, increase data security and increase advisory and veterinary services. However, the industry is also aware of the initial cost a digitalisation will require due to investments in digital systems and various technical solutions, and this was considered a major barrier.

    In Sweden, the industry is well aware of the benefits that a digitalisation of the meat supply chain would entail, it is agreed that it is the future and that there is a need to digitize the meat supply chain from an efficiency and competition perspective. One barrier, however, is that it is generally preferred that the implementation will be voluntary, while some actors emphasise a need for quick transformation as a prolonged process increases costs and makes the transition to digital systems more difficult. Authorities and industry organisations need to take the initiative to demonstrate the need for a digitized meat supply chain and clearly take a position on the issue.

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    Lind et al 2020
  • 16.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. University of Queensland, Australia.
    Martinez-Sanz, M.
    University of Queensland, Australia; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    Bonilla, M. R.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sonni, F.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gilbert, E. P.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia; University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gidley, M. J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Nanostructure and poroviscoelasticity in cell wall materials from onion, carrot and apple: Roles of pectin2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 98, article id 105253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hierarchical organisation of polysaccharides in primary plant cell walls is responsible for their unique mechanical properties, and in turn for the textural and rheological properties of plant-based foods and ingredients. It is expected that at the nano scale, the mechanical properties of cell wall materials arise from a combination of structural deformation of the polysaccharide networks and hydraulic properties of the continuous water phase, as has been shown for other cellulose-based composites. Pectin plays a key role in the load bearing properties of (bacterial) cellulose-pectin composites due to its contribution to both hydration structure and the dynamics of water movement. To investigate whether these features are also important in plant cell wall materials we have used a set of advanced characterisation techniques to elucidate cell wall structural features at different length scales (X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering) in cell walls from two dicotyledons (apple and carrot) and a non-commelinid monocotyledon (onion). The strength of isolated cell walls was measured under compression and fitted to a poroviscoelastic mechanical model, demonstrating that the mechanical properties of the isolated cell wall materials are directly linked to both polysaccharide networks and fluid flow through the networks. Our results show how pectin polysaccharides influence the viscoelastic behaviour of these materials and contribute to the texture of plant-derived food systems. 

  • 17.
    Martínez-Sanz, Marta
    et al.
    Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Filli, Kalep
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loupiac, Camille
    Universite Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France; CEA French Atomic Energy Agency/CNRS French National Center for Scientific Research, France.
    Assifaoui, Ali
    Universite Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France.
    López-Rubio, Amparo
    Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nano-/microstructure of extruded Spirulina/starch foams in relation to their textural properties2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 103, article id 105697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on an in-depth characterization of the nano- and microstructure of extruded starch foams loaded with the microalga Spirulina (1, 5 and 10 wt%), as well as the implications of Spirulina incorporation on the textural properties of the foams. Due to the gelatinization process occurring during extrusion, the crystalline and lamellar structures originally present in the starch granule were disrupted, resulting in very amorphous foams. Moreover, the crystalline structure of the fatty acids present in the raw microalga was lost during processing. The presence of Spirulina intracellular components induced the formation of more thermally-stable V-type crystallites through complexation with amylose, hence producing slightly more crystalline foams (XC~5–9%) than the pure extruded starch (XC ~3%). This affected the microstructure of the hybrid foams, which showed more densely packed and well-connected porous structures. Microstructural changes had an impact on the texture of the foams, which became harder with greater Spirulina loadings. The foams underwent very limited re-crystallization upon storage, which was further reduced by the presence of Spirulina. Interestingly, the free fatty acids from Spirulina re-crystallized and the resistant starch content in the 10% Spirulina foam increased, which could potentially be interesting from a nutritional perspective. These results show the potential of extrusion cooking to produce healthier snack foods and highlight the suitability of advanced characterization tools such as neutron tomography and small angle X-ray scattering to investigate food structure. 

  • 18.
    Qazi, Wapas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Mansoor, Rashid
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simultaneous X-ray Video-Fluoroscopy and Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry Analyses of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallowing of Boluses with Different Rheological Properties2020In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique allows real-time, non-invasive flow mapping of a fluid along a 1D-measuring line. This study explores the possibility of using the UVP technique and X-ray video-fluoroscopy (XVF) to elucidate the deglutition process with the focus on bolus rheology. By positioning the UVP probe so that the pulsed ultrasonic beam passes behind the air-filled trachea, the bolus flow in the pharynx can be measured. Healthy subjects in a clinical study swallowed fluids with different rheological properties: Newtonian (constant shear viscosity and non-elastic); Boger (constant shear viscosity and elastic); and shear thinning (shear rate-dependent shear viscosity and elastic). The results from both the UVP and XVF reveal higher velocities for the shear thinning fluid, followed by the Boger and the Newtonian fluids, demonstrating that the UVP method has equivalent sensitivities for detecting the velocities of fluids with different rheological properties. The velocity of the contraction wave that clears the pharynx was measured in the UVP and found to be independent of bolus rheology. The results show that UVP not only assesses accurately the fluid velocity in a bolus flow, but it can also monitor the structural changes that take place in response to a bolus flow, with the added advantage of being a completely non-invasive technique that does not require the introduction of contrast media. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 19.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Algerbo, Per-Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lundin, Gunnar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gödsling med fosfor från slam – fysikaliska egenskaper och spridningsjämnhet2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing new types of fertilizers, it is important that they have chemical and physical properties that enable good spreading precision with machine types available on the market, otherwise the products will not be used.

    This study included two phosphorus products made from different phosphorus extraction techniques: 1) granules (EkoBalans) consisting mainly of struvite, precipitated from drainage reject water from wastewater treatment plants, with addition of ammonium sulphate and potassium chloride, and 2) pellets (Outotec) consisting of ASH DEC P-fertilizer product made of ash from incinerated sludge. Comparisons of these products were conducted with current market fertilizer products Axan (granules) and Biofer (pellets).

    Physical properties of the phosphorus products and the market products were determined in terms of grain size, dimensions (pellets), strength, flow properties and bulk density. Even simpler field techniques for determining grain size and strength were used during the spreading tests.

    Spreader tests were conducted in the field to evaluate spreading patterns using a centrifugal spreader, one of the most common fertilizer spreaders in agriculture. Test equipment used for field testing fertilizer spreaders was used. Trays were placed in rows perpendicular to the tramline to collect the fertilizer granules over the full swath width while passing with the spreader. The contents of each tray were collected and measured to obtain scatter figures from which the spreading evenness was calculated at different effective swath widths.

    The general conclusion was that both tested products were spreadable with today's centrifugal spreader. However, granules performed better than pellets mainly probably because the granules had a higher mass flow, which reduces the risk of vault formation and stops in the discharge.

    Both commercial products, Axan and Biofer were more "homogeneous" in size than the products of recycled phosphorus. The strength of the granules from EkoBalans was almost as good as for the market product. The phosphorus pellets from Outotec and EkoBalans also had good strength, while the commercial Biofer pellets were easily broken. The Outotec pellets had the greatest mass flow, partly because their high density. There was no major difference in mass flow between the commercial Axan and EkoBalans’ recycled phosphorus granules. The granules from EkoBalans had a lower bulk density than the reference fertilizer and relatively low phosphorus concentration, which meant a high dosage (mass, volume) to spread 22 kg P/ha. Some recommended dosages can thus be greater than the current spreaders can handle.

    Spreading EkoBalans’ granules and Outotec's pellets with an effective swath width of 24 meter should not be a problem, and even 36 meters should be possible. However, spreader tests in the field should also optimize the spreader so that acceptable spreading uniformity is achieved at the desired working width. Fertilizers with low density and/or low plant nutrient content can result in low spreading capacity. Light granules or pellets also increase wind sensitivity when spreading.

    In order to get a new product on the fertilizer market, it is important that current setting recommendations for the spreaders are available. Testing of the product should also be done continuously to ensure quality over time. A test bed with stationary, automated test equipment to determine physical properties as well as to develop P setting recommendations for spreaders would increase the possibilities of getting products on the market.

    Key words: Fertilizer, recycled phosphorus, granules, pellets, physical properties, spreading tests, spreading evenness

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  • 20.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanches, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Challer, V.
    Johansson, C.
    Nano-rheometry for food oral processing2019In: Annual transactions of the nordic rheology society, 2019, Vol. 27, p. 117-120Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Landquist, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Berglund, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Indikatorer för hållbart jordbruk: Växtnäring, klimat och biologisk mångfald på naturbruksskolorna Sötåsen och Uddetorp2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Naturbruksskolor i framkant – Nyckeltal och åtgärder för ett fortsatt håll-barhetsarbete har pågått under åren 2017–2019 vid naturbruksskolorna Sötåsen och Uddetorp. I denna rapport sammanfattas erfarenheterna av den del i projektet som har handlat om att ta fram indikatorer för nuvarande drift.

    Projektet inleddes med att vi inventerade ekosystemtjänster på skolorna samt genomförde beräkningar av klimatavtryck och växtnäringsbalanser med hjälp av verk-tyget VERA som tillhandahålls av Greppa Näringen. För att skaffa kunskap om tillståndet för den biologiska mångfalden på skolorna inventerade vi därefter fåglar, fjärilar och humlor. Inventeringarna var till stor hjälp då vi testade olika verktyg och indikatorer för biologisk mångfald. Sista året har vi utarbetat skötselplaner för biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster som inkluderar alla viktiga biotoper på naturbruksskolorna och dessutom inventerat jordlöpare och kortvingar. Skötselplanerna ska ligga till grund för det fortlöpande arbetet med att skapa gynnsamma förhållanden för den biologiska mångfalden och ekosystemtjänster genom olika åtgärder.

    Projektet inleddes med att vi inventerade ekosystemtjänster på skolorna samt genomförde beräkningar av klimatavtryck och växtnäringsbalanser med hjälp av verk-tyget VERA som tillhandahålls av Greppa Näringen. För att skaffa kunskap om tillståndet för den biologiska mångfalden på skolorna inventerade vi därefter fåglar, fjärilar och humlor. Inventeringarna var till stor hjälp då vi testade olika verktyg och indikatorer för biologisk mångfald. Sista året har vi utarbetat skötselplaner för biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster som inkluderar alla viktiga biotoper på naturbruksskolorna och dessutom inventerat jordlöpare och kortvingar. Skötselplanerna ska ligga till grund för det fortlöpande arbetet med att skapa gynnsamma förhållanden för den biologiska mångfalden och ekosystemtjänster genom olika åtgärder.

    Växtnäringsbalanser, det vill säga skillnaden mellan mängden växtnäring som tillförs gården via inköpta varor och kvävefixering och mängden växtnäring som bortförs via avyttrade produkter, har beräknats under lång tid och på många gårdar runt om i landet. Balanserna uttrycks som kg växtnäring per hektar. Det finns därmed en vana vid att göra, se och tolka växtnäringsbalanser, och det finns även ett stort jämförelsematerial att tillgå. Klimatavtrycksberäkningar är en nyare företeelse. Då summeras växthusgasutsläppen från gårdens växtodling och djurhållning samt från produktion och användning av insatsvaror. Än så länge går det bara att beräkna klimatavtrycket för en hel gård i VERA, vilket gör det vanskligt att jämföra gårdar och år på grund av skillnader i produktion och storlek.

    Växtnäringsbalanserna och klimatavtrycksberäkningarna som gjordes på skolorna visar på skillnader mellan år och mellan skolorna, vilket var förväntat. Uddetorp har högre djurtäthet än Sötåsen, vilket är en bidragande orsak till att växthusgasutsläpp fördelade per hektar var högre på Uddetorp. Torkan 2018 påverkar också resultaten, och bidrog till högre växtnäringsöverskott på båda skolorna till följd av att mer foder behövde köpas in.

    Vid användning av de olika verktygen för biologisk mångfald kan vi konstatera att diskus-sionen på skolorna då vi tillsammans med personal från skoljordbruken gick igenom frågorna och fyllde i svaren upplevdes som mycket värdefull. Det skapade kunskap då man insåg att vissa element eller åtgärder helt eller delvis saknades eller inte gjordes på gården. Att samla in data till indikatorerna är emellertid tidskrävande. Det var mycket värdefullt att i förväg ha inventerat flora och fauna på gårdarna för att få ett mer specifikt resultat men det är ett kostsamt arbete som inte kan implementeras brett i dagsläget.

    Verktyg och åtgärder i spannmålsodling lyfts ofta i de initiativ som finns i Sverige idag, men det är särskilt angeläget att även lyfta produktionsgrenar som mjölk- och nötkötts-gårdar eftersom åtgärder måste anpassas efter produktionsgrenar och regionala förut-sättningar. Poängsystem är intressant och förhållandevis enkelt att använda i praktiken eftersom de mest relevanta åtgärderna för en enskild gård kan väljas ut att införa. Vi ser ett stort behov att utöka möjligheterna för kostnadsfri rådgivning inom biologisk mångfald både för att ta fram indikatorer och för att göra skötselplaner för biologisk mångfald utifrån gårdens förutsättningar.

    De internationella verktygen för biologisk mångfald som testades är inte anpassade till svenska förhållanden vilket medför att de inte är lika användbara.

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  • 22.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Food Structure Analysis Using Light and Confocal Microscopy: Chapter 122020In: Handbook of Food Structure Development, Royal Society of Chemistry , 2020, no 18, p. 287-308Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructure codes for the properties of food. Processing enables the microstructure. Food microstructures are in most cases hierarchical, heterogeneous, multiphase, and complex. A full understanding of the food microstructure requires the characterization at many different length scales. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are powerful tools to image food microstructures at the micrometer level. In this chapter, the principles and use of these microscopy techniques are described. Examples of the use of light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize and understand the microstructures in bread and dough, fibrous vegetable protein structures, plant cell walls, fat-rich food, and mayonnaise are discussed. In the end, an outlook on the use of light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in foods is given..

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