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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Återvinning av växtnäringsämnen ur avloppsvatten – hur gör vi hållbarhetsbedömningar på bästa sätt?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna producera tillräckligt med mat på ett hållbart sätt behöver vi hushålla med växtnäring, och se till att den näring som redan finns i omlopp används på ett klokt sätt. Nya direktiv kring slamanvändning, krav på återförsel av växtnäring och hårdare utsläppskrav på reningsverk innebär att nya system och tekniker behöver utvecklas. Det kan dock vara svårt att veta vilket system eller vilken teknik som ger den största nyttan. Systemanalytiska metoder kan hjälpa till att tydliggöra dessa komplexa frågor.

    Målet med denna studie är att på ett övergripande sätt ge en insikt i hur arbetet kring hållbarhetsbedömningar kopplat till kommunal avloppsvattenrening och återföring av näringsämnen, med fokus på fosfor och kväve kan genomföras. Vidare har fokus legat på metodfrågor inom livscykelanalys (LCA), men en utblick kring andra hållbarhetsbedömningsmetoder ges även i en mindre omfattning. Mycket av det som behandlas inom LCA har dock bäring även för andra metoder för hållbarhetsbedömning.

    Idag finns det olika typer av standarder och riktlinjer för hur LCA-studier bör utföras, dock saknas det specifika riktlinjer för LCA-studier kopplade till näringsåtervinning ur avlopp. Det finns flera skäl till att LCA-metodfrågor kopplade till näringsåterföring behöver utredas; LCA är en metod som framförallt inriktar sig på att bedöma miljöpåverkan av en produkt, medan avloppsvattenrening ofta sker i kommunal regi och i nuläget är inriktat på att rena avloppsvatten och inte fokuserar på att producera produkter. Avloppssystem är ofta integrerade med både vattenförsörjning, energisystemet och jordbruket på ett intrikat sätt. Avlopp är också en sektor som har utsläpp både till luft och vatten, och metoder för att korrekt kunna bedöma dessa utsläpps påverkan på miljö är viktiga att utreda. Användningsområdet för LCA är väldigt brett. LCA kan dock inte svara på om det system som utvärderas är hållbart, bara om systemet har mer eller mindre påverkan än ett annat. LCA kan alltså inte svara på frågeställningar som: Vad är en hållbar återvinningsgrad för växtnäringsämnen?

    Arbetet har resulterat i en diskussion kring när LCA eller systemanalys lämpar sig och vad man bör tänka på när man genomför en LCA och vilka delar som bör ingå. Inom ramen för detta arbete anordnades även en workshop där berörda intressenter deltog från forskning, myndigheter och branschen. Syftet med workshopen var att få in synpunkter kring hur en systemanalys eller LCA bör läggas upp för att ge användbara resultat i beslutsfattande.

    I första hand vänder sig rapporten till dem som arbetar med kommunal avloppsvattenrening, teknikutveckling och myndigheter inom detta område, som har en grundförståelse för systemanalys och vill veta mer.

  • 2.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Almli, Valerie
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Consumer associations about other buyers of suboptimal food – And what it means for food waste avoidance actions2020In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 80, article id 103808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to tackling the imminent sustainability problem of food waste is to sell suboptimal food which otherwise might be wasted. However, understanding how the action of buying price-reduced suboptimal food is influenced by the fact that the consumer purchases it publicly while observed by others is yet unexplored. The present research investigates which associations consumers form when they see other consumers purchasing suboptimal foods. In an online experimental survey, consumers of five European countries checked every word that applied (CATA) from a set of items that described what choosing a food item told them about an acquaintance they met in the store in terms of his or her traits. The food item was optimal or suboptimal, fresh or packaged food, and presented with a communication that either underlined a budget saving benefit or a contribution to avoiding food waste. Results show that consumers of suboptimal products are regarded as economic and thrifty, as well as frugal and environmentally concerned. The associations with consumers of optimal products are more diverse, and include both positive and negative wordings, ranging from successful to fussy and inattentive. Consumers’ own level of environmental concerns and value consciousness explain the degree to which they perceive another consumer to have similar traits, revealing that consumers project their own traits on others. Findings imply that stores offering suboptimal food should present and communicate the items in line with the characteristics of the store's target group, and that suboptimal food choices can trigger positive associations. 

  • 3.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Danai, Ofer
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Tarazi, Ezri
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Ezov, Nirit
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Pereman, Idan
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Grobman, Yasha
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Mycelium bio-composites in industrial design and architecture: Comparative review and experimental analysis2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 246, article id 119037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent convergence of biotechnological and design tools has stimulated an emergence of new design practices utilizing natural mechanisms to program matter in a bottom-up approach. In this paper, the fibrous network of mycelium—the vegetative part of fungi—is employed to produce sustainable alternatives for synthetic foams. Current research on mycelium-based materials lacks essential details regarding material compositions, incubation conditions, and fabrication methods. The paper presents the results of ongoing research on employing mycelium to provide cleaner architecture and design products with sustainable lifecycles. The paper opens with a critical review of current projects, products, and scientific literature using mycelium in design and architecture. In the second section, material properties of varied fungi-substrate compositions and fabrication methods are evaluated and compared through changes in essential chemical parameters during fermentation, visual impression, water absorbency, and compression strength tests. Then, potential architecture and design implications related to the material properties are discussed. Results indicate a clear correlation between fungi, substrate, mold properties, and incubation conditions on final material characteristics, depicting a clear effect on material density, water absorbency, and the compressive strength of the final bio-composite. Finally, two primary case studies demonstrate implications for mycelium-based composites for circular design and architectural applications. The study shows that in order to produce desirable designs and performance within an inclusive circular approach, parameters such as material composition and fabrication conditions should be considered according to the target function of the final product throughout the design process.

  • 4.
    Carlström, Ingeborg
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Rashad, Ahmad
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Campodoni, Elisabetta
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Sandri, Monica
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bolstad, Anne
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Cross-linked gelatin-nanocellulose scaffolds for bone tissue engineering2020In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 264, article id 127326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have, in addition to high specific surface area and high surface reactivity, ability to mimic nanostructured collagen in bone extracellular matrix. These properties make CNFs promising materials for bone tissue engineering (BTE). The CNFs degrade slowly in vivo. By blending and cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with CNFs, scaffolds were produced with tuned degradation rate and enhanced mechanical properties, more suitable for BTE applications. This in vitro study aimed to examine initial biological responses of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to cross-linked Gel-CNF scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized CNF blended with Gel and cross-linked either by dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) or by a combination of hexamethylenediamine, genipin, and DHT. CNF scaffolds without cross-linking served as control. The produced scaffolds supported cell attachment, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. However, the early cell attachment after 1 day and the expression of RUNX2 and SPP1 genes after 7 days were highest in the CNF scaffolds. The results suggest that cross-linked Gel-CNF are cytocompatible and holds potential for BTE applications. 

  • 5.
    Chiulan, I.
    et al.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Panaitescu, D. M.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Radu, E. -R
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Frone, A. N.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Gabor, R. A.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Nicolae, C. A.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Jinescu, G.
    Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania.
    Tofan, V.
    Cantacuzino National Institute of Research and Development for Microbiology and Immunology, Romania.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Comprehensive characterization of silica-modified silicon rubbers2020In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 101, article id 103427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a commercially liquid silicone rubber was filled with fumed silica particles in different concentrations and evaluated for medical applications. The thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of silicone/silica composite samples were studied before and after aging, flexural tests and immersion in saline environment. Understanding the effect of silica content, aging conditions and thickness (from 0.6 to 2 mm) of the samples on the behavior of these materials in different environments is crucial for applications as implantable devices. Before inducing any mechanical stress, tensile strength was found to increase for samples containing 3 or 5 wt% of fumed silica, depending on the thickness. A similar trend was observed after 106 flexes for tensile strength, storage modulus and hardness at room temperature, which increased with the concentration of fumed silica. Moreover, tensile strength decreased with increasing the thickness of the samples from 0.6 to 2 mm. The thermal degradation was found to start at higher temperature in the case of the composites as compared with neat silicone, however, the glass transition and melting temperatures were only slightly modified by the presence of the silica particles, regardless the mechanical aging. The MTT assay using L929 fibroblasts mouse cells showed a good short-time cytocompatibility for both silicone elastomer and the composite with 3 wt% fumed silica. Similarly, the measurement of the cytokine secretion revealed no inflammatory response.

  • 6.
    De Menna, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Unger, Nicole
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Loubiere, Marion
    Deloitte Sustainability, France.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    A combined framework for the life cycle assessment and costing of food waste prevention and valorization: an application to school canteens2020In: Agricultural and Food Economics, ISSN 2193-7532, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About one third of global edible food is lost or wasted along the supply chain, causing the wastage of embedded natural and economic resources. Life cycle methodologies can be applied to identify sustainable and viable prevention and valorization routes needed to prevent such inefficiencies. However, no systemic approach has been developed so far to guide practitioners and stakeholders. Specifically, the goal and scoping phase (e.g. problem assessed or system function) can be characterized by a large flexibility, and the comparability between food waste scenarios could be not ensured. Within the Horizon2020 project Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain, this study aimed to provide practitioners with guidance on how to combine life cycle assessment and environmental life cycle costing in the context of food waste. Recent literature was reviewed to identify relevant methodological aspects, possible commonly adopted approaches, main differences among studies and standards and protocols, main challenges, and knowledge gaps. Basing on this review, an analytical framework with a set of recommendations was developed encompassing different assessment situations. The framework intends to provide a step by step guidance for food waste practitioners, and it is composed of a preliminary section on study purpose definition, three decision trees—respectively on assessment situation(s), costing approach, and type of study (footprint vs. intervention)—and two sets of recommendations. Recommendations can be applied to all levels of the food waste hierarchy, stating a generic order of preference for handling food chain side flows. This consistent and integrated life cycle approach should ensure a better understanding of the impact of specific interventions, thus supporting informed private and public decision making and promoting the design of sustainable and cost-efficient interventions and a more efficient food supply chains. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Ehman, N. V.
    et al.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Lourenço, A. F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    McDonagh, B. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Vallejos, M. E.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Felissia, F. E.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Ferreira, P. J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Area, M. C.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Influence of initial chemical composition and characteristics of pulps on the production and properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers2020In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 143, p. 453-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aimed to study the influence of the initial chemical composition (glucans, lignin, xylan, and mannans), intrinsic viscosity, and carboxylate groups of pulps on the production process and final properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF). Pulps of pine sawdust, eucalyptus sawdust, and sugarcane bagasse subjected to conventional pulping and highly oxidized processes were the starting materials. The LCNF were obtained by TEMPO mediated oxidation and mechanical fibrillation with a colloidal grinder. The nanofibrillation degree, chemical charge content, rheology, laser profilometry, cristallinity and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the LCNF. The carboxylate groups, hemicelluloses and lignin of the initial pulps were important factors that affected the production process of LCNF. The results revealed that intrinsic viscosity and carboxylate groups of the initial pulps affected LCNF production process, whereas lignin and hemicelluloses influenced the viscosity of LCNF aqueous suspensions, the roughness of LCNF films, and the carboxylate groups content of LCNF

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Mimmi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Forces at superhydrophobic and superamphiphobic surfaces2020In: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, ISSN 1359-0294, E-ISSN 1879-0399, Vol. 47, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forces exerted at surfaces and interphases due to formation of gaseous (air or vapor) bridges describe the extreme liquid repellence in superhydrophobicity (SH) and amphiphobicity. The neighboring research areas of liquid capillary bridges and that of interactions between hydrophobic surfaces are highly valuable reference systems. We review recent findings with particular focus on the three-phase contact line and surface forces. Although macroscopic contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<10°, but can be high; parahydrophobic or petal type) and low roll-off angle (≤5–10°) are adequate criteria for SH and superamphiphobicity (SA) for most studies, a detailed understanding requires a view related to mechanisms. Experimental studies of liquid drop–substrate and particle–substrate adhesion in hydrophobic, SH, and SA systems are summarized by relating measured forces to the wetting tension, γcosθ. A low wetting tension value is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for SH and SA systems. The picture emerging from detailed force distance studies is that extreme liquid repellence in SH and SA systems is a progression of liquid repellence due to hydrophobicity, in which force curves can be explained by capillary forces of constant volume of the gaseous capillary. In SH and SA, neither the capillary force equation assuming constant volume nor constant pressure of the gaseous capillary explains experimental force measurements as the capillary increases in both volume and pressure. In recent experimental studies, a transition is observed into nonconstant volume and pressure which suggests an SH and SA wetting transition from constant volume or pressure to a capillary growth as driven by the γA and the PV works but also by forces at the three-phase contact SLV (solid-liquid-vapor) line, viz. pinning forces, Fpin and Fdepin, and line energy, (τL)SLV, terms. Supported by calculations of the different contributions, we suggest this transition being an appropriate definition for the onset of (appreciable) SH and SA. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 9.
    Françon, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Zhen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marais, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mystek, Katarzyna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Piper, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Malti, Abdellah
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ambient-Dried, 3D-Printable and Electrically Conducting Cellulose Nanofiber Aerogels by Inclusion of Functional Polymers2020In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, article id 1909383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a novel, green, and efficient way of preparing crosslinked aerogels from cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and alginate using non-covalent chemistry. This new process can ultimately facilitate the fast, continuous, and large-scale production of porous, light-weight materials as it does not require freeze-drying, supercritical CO2 drying, or any environmentally harmful crosslinking chemistries. The reported preparation procedure relies solely on the successive freezing, solvent-exchange, and ambient drying of composite CNF-alginate gels. The presented findings suggest that a highly-porous structure can be preserved throughout the process by simply controlling the ionic strength of the gel. Aerogels with tunable densities (23–38 kg m−3) and compressive moduli (97–275 kPa) can be prepared by using different CNF concentrations. These low-density networks have a unique combination of formability (using molding or 3D-printing) and wet-stability (when ion exchanged to calcium ions). To demonstrate their use in advanced wet applications, the printed aerogels are functionalized with very high loadings of conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:TOS) polymer by using a novel in situ polymerization approach. In-depth material characterization reveals that these aerogels have the potential to be used in not only energy storage applications (specific capacitance of 78 F g−1), but also as mechanical-strain and humidity sensors. © 2020 The Authors. 

  • 10.
    Hjorth, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huseinovic, Ena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Changes in dietary carbon footprint over ten years relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine 10-year changes in dietary carbon footprint relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the unique longitudinal Västerbotten Intervention Programme, Sweden. Here, 14 591 women and 13 347 men had been followed over time. Food intake was assessed via multiple two study visits 1996–2016, using a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) related to food intake, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/1000 kcal and day, were estimated. Participants were classified into GHGE quintiles within sex and 10-year age group strata at both visits. Women and men changing from lowest to highest GHGE quintile exhibited highest body mass index within their quintiles at first visit, and the largest increase in intake of meat, minced meat, chicken, fish and butter and the largest decrease in intake of potatoes, rice and pasta. Women and men changing from highest to lowest GHGE quintile exhibited basically lowest rates of university degree and marriage and highest rates of smoking within their quintiles at first visit. Among these, both sexes reported the largest decrease in intake of meat, minced meat and milk, and the largest increase in intake of snacks and, for women, sweets. More research is needed on how to motivate dietary modifications to reduce climate impact and support public health. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 11.
    Jha, Piyush
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Chevallier, Silvie
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA CNRS 6144, France.
    Effect of innovative microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on the quality attributes of apples and potatoes2020In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 309, article id 125594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considered the effect of low energy microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on freezing time and quality attributes (microstructure, texture, drip loss and colour) of apple and potato. MAF of apples and potatoes was performed by applying constant microwave (MW) power (167 W/kg) and pulsed MW power (500 and 667 W/kg with 10 s pulse width and 20 s pulse interval resulting in an average power of 167 and 222 W/kg) during the freezing process. The temperature profile was monitored during the freezing process, and the microstructure was examined using X-ray micro-tomography and cryo-SEM. Other quality parameters such as texture, drip loss and colour were evaluated with thawed samples. It appeared that the freezing time was not affected by the MAF process. It is the first time that a MAF process is used for freezing plant-based products and showed that the application of microwaves during freezing process caused less freeze damage than the control condition.

  • 12.
    Karalius, Antanas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kravchenko, Oleksandr
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Elofsson, Ulla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical processes and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Szabó, Zoltan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Massachusetts Lowell, US.
    Ramström, Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, University of Massachusetts Lowell, US; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Formation and Out-of-Equilibrium, High/Low State Switching of a Nitroaldol Dynamer in Neutral Aqueous Media2020In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nitroaldol reaction is demonstrated as an efficient dynamic covalent reaction in phosphate buffers at neutral pH. Rapid equilibration was recorded with pyridine-based aldehydes, and dynamic oligomerization could be achieved, leading to nitroaldol dynamers of up to 17 repeating units. The dynamers were applied in a coherent stimuli-responsive molecular system in which larger dynamers transiently existed out-of-equilibrium in a neutral aqueous system rich in formaldehyde, controlled by nitromethane.

  • 13.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Ehsanzamir, Sohail
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Karkehabadi, Saeid
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Feng, Xinmei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Johansson, Monika
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Johansson, Daniel P.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sween.
    Gelation of faba bean proteins - Effect of extraction method, pH and NaCl2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 103, article id 105622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of extraction method, pH and NaCl addition on rheological properties and microstructure of heat-induced faba bean protein gels was evaluated. Gels formed at pH 7 (no NaCl) of alkaline-extracted protein had the densest and finest network structure and highest stress and strain at fracture. The high density of nodes and small pores in the protein network could contribute to those mechanical properties. In contrast, storage modulus (G′) and Young's modulus were lowest for protein gels at pH 7. The gels formed at pH 5 had high G′ and Young's modulus, whereas stress and strain at fracture were lower, especially for gels formed from alkaline-extracted protein. Gels formed at pH 5 with 2% NaCl had two types of internal gel network, caused by a change in solubility of 7S globulins. When the protein powder was dissolved in water, particle size was dependent on the extraction method, with alkaline extraction giving much larger protein particles than soaked extraction.

  • 14.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Choi, Y. S.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Atkin, R.
    University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Nanotribology of hydrogels with similar stiffness but different polymer and crosslinker concentrations2020In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 563, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis: The stiffness has been found to regulate hydrogel performances and applications. However, the key interfacial properties of hydrogels, like friction and adhesion are not controlled by the stiffness, but are altered by the structure and composition of hydrogels, like polymer volume fraction and crosslinking degree. Experiments: Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been use to investigate the relationship between tribological properties (friction and adhesion) and composition of hydrogels with similar stiffness, but different polymer volume fractions and crosslinking degrees. Findings: The interfacial normal and lateral (friction) forces of hydrogels are not directly correlated to the stiffness, but altered by the hydrogel structure and composition. For normal force measurements, the adhesion increases with polymer volume fraction but decreases with crosslinking degree. For lateral force measurements, friction increases with polymer volume fraction, but decreases with crosslinking degree. In the low normal force regime, friction is mainly adhesion-controlled and increases significantly with the adhesion and polymer volume fraction. In the high normal force regime, friction is predominantly load-controlled and shows slow increase with normal force. 

  • 15.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Möjligheter och utmaningar med en digitalisering av köttkedjan2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of work tasks has become commonplace for many primary producers with livestock, e.g. the use of milking robots and selection gates as well as automated feeding, weighing of animals and manure and litter handling. Advances in automation and digitalisation may be crucial for a sustainable increase in agricultural productivity and the future competitiveness of agricultural businesses. So far, the technical development has mainly been within crop management and milk production, while meat production still has a limited technical development. In fact, the entire meat supply chain is characterized by a low degree of digitization and automation. A digitalisation of the meat chain requires electronic identification of animals (e.g. RFID tags) to enable automated data collection, data management and decision support systems.

    The aim of this project activity was to investigate how a digitalisation of the meat chain could be designed and practically implemented in Sweden. Furthermore, the aim was to identify the drivers and barriers for increased digitalisation and automation of the meat supply chain as well as relevant actors’ needs and demands for information flow and data sharing. Finally, we aimed to identify what added values a digitalisation of the meat supply chain could provide in the form of increased efficiency, secure safer traceability and a more transparent production from farm to the consumer.

    The study was conducted during the period 2017 to 2019. Study visits in Denmark were made, as Denmark has implemented electronic ear tagging as a legal requirement and thus have experience from the development of digital systems in the meat chain. Study visits were also made in Sweden, to discuss the possibilities of digitalisation with various actors in the meat chain. In addition, an interview study was conducted with farmers, who today use electronic ear tags, to elucidate the areas of use and value added to Swedish farmers today. The study was concluded with a workshop, where the industry together with technology companies gathered to discuss opportunities, barriers and the need for a digital meat chain in Sweden.

    The results of this study showed that the Swedish meat industry generally is positive to an implementation of a digital meat supply chain. The advantages identified were that the digitalisation can be used to optimise production processes, increase food safety, increase data security and increase advisory and veterinary services. However, the industry is also aware of the initial cost a digitalisation will require due to investments in digital systems and various technical solutions, and this was considered a major barrier.

    In Sweden, the industry is well aware of the benefits that a digitalisation of the meat supply chain would entail, it is agreed that it is the future and that there is a need to digitize the meat supply chain from an efficiency and competition perspective. One barrier, however, is that it is generally preferred that the implementation will be voluntary, while some actors emphasise a need for quick transformation as a prolonged process increases costs and makes the transition to digital systems more difficult. Authorities and industry organisations need to take the initiative to demonstrate the need for a digitized meat supply chain and clearly take a position on the issue.

  • 16.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. University of Queensland, Australia.
    Martinez-Sanz, M.
    University of Queensland, Australia; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    Bonilla, M. R.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sonni, F.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gilbert, E. P.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia; University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gidley, M. J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Nanostructure and poroviscoelasticity in cell wall materials from onion, carrot and apple: Roles of pectin2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 98, article id 105253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hierarchical organisation of polysaccharides in primary plant cell walls is responsible for their unique mechanical properties, and in turn for the textural and rheological properties of plant-based foods and ingredients. It is expected that at the nano scale, the mechanical properties of cell wall materials arise from a combination of structural deformation of the polysaccharide networks and hydraulic properties of the continuous water phase, as has been shown for other cellulose-based composites. Pectin plays a key role in the load bearing properties of (bacterial) cellulose-pectin composites due to its contribution to both hydration structure and the dynamics of water movement. To investigate whether these features are also important in plant cell wall materials we have used a set of advanced characterisation techniques to elucidate cell wall structural features at different length scales (X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering) in cell walls from two dicotyledons (apple and carrot) and a non-commelinid monocotyledon (onion). The strength of isolated cell walls was measured under compression and fitted to a poroviscoelastic mechanical model, demonstrating that the mechanical properties of the isolated cell wall materials are directly linked to both polysaccharide networks and fluid flow through the networks. Our results show how pectin polysaccharides influence the viscoelastic behaviour of these materials and contribute to the texture of plant-derived food systems. 

  • 17.
    Martínez-Sanz, Marta
    et al.
    Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Larsson, Emanuel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Filli, Kalep
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loupiac, Camille
    Universite Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France; CEA French Atomic Energy Agency/CNRS French National Center for Scientific Research, France.
    Assifaoui, Ali
    Universite Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France.
    López-Rubio, Amparo
    Spanish National Research Council, Spain.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nano-/microstructure of extruded Spirulina/starch foams in relation to their textural properties2020In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 103, article id 105697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on an in-depth characterization of the nano- and microstructure of extruded starch foams loaded with the microalga Spirulina (1, 5 and 10 wt%), as well as the implications of Spirulina incorporation on the textural properties of the foams. Due to the gelatinization process occurring during extrusion, the crystalline and lamellar structures originally present in the starch granule were disrupted, resulting in very amorphous foams. Moreover, the crystalline structure of the fatty acids present in the raw microalga was lost during processing. The presence of Spirulina intracellular components induced the formation of more thermally-stable V-type crystallites through complexation with amylose, hence producing slightly more crystalline foams (XC~5–9%) than the pure extruded starch (XC ~3%). This affected the microstructure of the hybrid foams, which showed more densely packed and well-connected porous structures. Microstructural changes had an impact on the texture of the foams, which became harder with greater Spirulina loadings. The foams underwent very limited re-crystallization upon storage, which was further reduced by the presence of Spirulina. Interestingly, the free fatty acids from Spirulina re-crystallized and the resistant starch content in the 10% Spirulina foam increased, which could potentially be interesting from a nutritional perspective. These results show the potential of extrusion cooking to produce healthier snack foods and highlight the suitability of advanced characterization tools such as neutron tomography and small angle X-ray scattering to investigate food structure. 

  • 18.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Cappellini, Francesca
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Kessler, Amanda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moelijker, Nynke
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Derr, Remco
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hendriks, Giel
    Toxys, Netherlands.
    Karlsson, Hanna L
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    ToxTracker Reporter Cell Lines as a Tool for Mechanism-Based (geno)Toxicity Screening of Nanoparticles-Metals, Oxides and Quantum Dots.2020In: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 1, article id E110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of nanoparticles (NPs) requires efficient testing of their potential toxic effects. A promising approach is to use reporter cell lines to quickly assess the activation of cellular stress response pathways. This study aimed to use the ToxTracker reporter cell lines to investigate (geno)toxicity of various metal- or metal oxide NPs and draw general conclusions on NP-induced effects, in combination with our previous findings. The NPs tested in this study (n = 18) also included quantum dots (QDs) in different sizes. The results showed a large variation in cytotoxicity of the NPs tested. Furthermore, whereas many induced oxidative stress only few activated reporters related to DNA damage. NPs of manganese (Mn and Mn3O4) induced the most remarkable ToxTracker response with activation of reporters for oxidative stress, DNA damage, protein unfolding and p53-related stress. The QDs (CdTe) were highly toxic showing clearly size-dependent effects and calculations suggest surface area as the most relevant dose metric. Of all NPs investigated in this and previous studies the following induce the DNA damage reporter; CuO, Co, CoO, CdTe QDs, Mn, Mn3O4, V2O5, and welding NPs. We suggest that these NPs are of particular concern when considering genotoxicity induced by metal- and metal oxide NPs.

  • 19.
    Méhes, Gabor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mulla, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes2020In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 1900100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy harvesting from photosynthetic membranes, proteins, or bacteria through bio-photovoltaic or bio-electrochemical approaches has been proposed as a new route to clean energy. A major shortcoming of these and solar cell technologies is the underutilization of solar irradiation wavelengths in the IR region, especially those in the far IR region. Here, a biohybrid energy-harvesting device is demonstrated that exploits IR radiation, via convection and thermoelectric effects, to improve the resulting energy conversion performance. A composite of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the anode in biohybrid cells that includes thylakoid membranes (TMs) and redox mediators (RMs) in solution. By irradiating the conducting polymer electrode by an IR light-emitting diode, a sixfold enhancement in the harvested bio-photovoltaic power is achieved, without compromising stability of operation. Investigation of the output currents reveals that IR irradiation generates convective heat transfer in the electrolyte bulk, which enhances the redox reactions of RMs at the anode by suppressing diffusion limitations. In addition, a fast-transient thermoelectric component, originating from the PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose-electrolyte interphase, further increases the bio-photocurrent. These results pave the way for the development of energy-harvesting biohybrids that make use of heat, via IR absorption, to enhance energy conversion efficiency. 

  • 20.
    Oliaei, Erfan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindén, Pär
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) and nanopaper films from unbleached kraft softwood pulp2020In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is an important industrial nanocellulose product and material component. New MFC grades can widen the materials property range and improve product tailoring. Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) is investigated, with the hypothesis that there is an optimum in lignin content of unbleached wood pulp fibre with respect to nanofibril yield. A series of kraft fibres with falling Kappa numbers (lower lignin content) was prepared. Fibres were beaten and fibrillated into MFLC by high-pressure microfluidization. Nano-sized fractions of fibrils were separated using centrifugation. Lignin content and carbohydrate analysis, total charge, FE-SEM, TEM microscopy and suspension rheology characterization were carried out. Fibres with Kappa number 65 (11% lignin) combined high lignin content with ease of fibrillation. This confirms an optimum in nanofibril yield as a function of lignin content, and mechanisms are discussed. MFLC from these fibres contained a 40–60 wt% fraction of nano-sized fibrils with widths in the range of 2.5–70 nm. Despite the large size distribution, data for modulus and tensile strength of MFLC films with 11% lignin were as high as 14 GPa and 240 MPa. MFLC films showed improved water contact angle of 84–88°, compared to neat MFC films (< 50°). All MFLC films showed substantial optical transmittance, and the fraction of haze scattering strongly correlated with defect content in the form of coarse fibrils. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 21.
    Qazi, Wapas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Mansoor, Rashid
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simultaneous X-ray Video-Fluoroscopy and Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry Analyses of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallowing of Boluses with Different Rheological Properties2020In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique allows real-time, non-invasive flow mapping of a fluid along a 1D-measuring line. This study explores the possibility of using the UVP technique and X-ray video-fluoroscopy (XVF) to elucidate the deglutition process with the focus on bolus rheology. By positioning the UVP probe so that the pulsed ultrasonic beam passes behind the air-filled trachea, the bolus flow in the pharynx can be measured. Healthy subjects in a clinical study swallowed fluids with different rheological properties: Newtonian (constant shear viscosity and non-elastic); Boger (constant shear viscosity and elastic); and shear thinning (shear rate-dependent shear viscosity and elastic). The results from both the UVP and XVF reveal higher velocities for the shear thinning fluid, followed by the Boger and the Newtonian fluids, demonstrating that the UVP method has equivalent sensitivities for detecting the velocities of fluids with different rheological properties. The velocity of the contraction wave that clears the pharynx was measured in the UVP and found to be independent of bolus rheology. The results show that UVP not only assesses accurately the fluid velocity in a bolus flow, but it can also monitor the structural changes that take place in response to a bolus flow, with the added advantage of being a completely non-invasive technique that does not require the introduction of contrast media. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 22.
    Ribadeneyra, Maria
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    Grogan, Lia
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Au, Heather
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Schlee, Philipp
    Queen Mary University of London, UK; Imperial College London, UK.
    Herou, Servann
    Queen Mary University of London, UK; Imperial College London, UK.
    Neville, Tobias
    University College London, UK.
    Cullen, Patrick
    University College London, UK.
    Kok, Matt
    University College London, UK.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Titirici, M. M.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Brett, Daniel
    University College London, UK.
    Shearing, Paul
    University College London, UK.
    Jervis, Rhodri
    University College London, UK.
    Jorge, Ana
    Queen Mary University of London, UK; .
    Lignin-derived electrospun freestanding carbons as alternative electrodes for redox flow batteries2020In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 157, p. 847-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redox flow batteries represent a remarkable alternative for grid-scale energy storage. They commonly employ carbon felts or carbon papers, which suffer from low activity towards the redox reactions involved, leading to poor performance. Here we propose the use of electrospun freestanding carbon materials derived from lignin as alternative sustainable electrodes for all-vanadium flow batteries. The lignin-derived carbon electrospun mats exhibited a higher activity towards the VO2 +/VO2+ reaction than commercial carbon papers when tested in a three-electrode electrochemical cell (or half-cell), which we attribute to the higher surface area and higher amount of oxygen functional groups at the surface. The electrospun carbon electrodes also showed performance comparable to commercial carbon papers, when tested in a full cell configuration. The modification of the surface chemistry with the addition of phosphorous produced different effect in both samples, which needs further investigation. This work demonstrates for the first time the application of sustainably produced electrospun lignin-derived carbon electrodes in a redox flow cell, with comparable performance to commercial materials and establishes the great potential of biomass-derived carbons in energy devices.

  • 23.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brown rot gene expression and regulation in acetylated and furfurylated wood: A complex picture2020In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate Rhodonia placenta expression patterns of genes involved in the depolymerisation during the non-enzymatic phase in acetylated (WAc) and furfurylated wood (WFA). During the 98-day-long exposure, WAc [22.6% weight per cent gain (WPG) on average] and WFA (69% WPG on average) lost no more than 3% mass while the untreated wood (WUn) reached 41% mass loss (ML) in 55 days. Expression of six genes putatively involved in the non-enzymatic degradation process were investigated. In conclusion, expression levels of alcohol oxidase Ppl118723 (AlOx1) and laccase Ppl111314 (Lac) were significantly higher in the modified wood materials (WMod) than in WUn, which is in accordance with previous results and may be explained by the absence of the degradation products that have been proposed to down-regulate the non-enzymatic degradation process. However, copper radical oxidase Ppl156703 (CRO1) and a putative quinate transporter Ppl44553 (PQT) were expressed at significantly lower levels in WMod than in WUn while quinone reductase Ppl124517 (QRD) and glucose oxidase Ppl108489 (GOx) were expressed at similar levels as in WUn. These results suggest that gene regulation in WMod is more complex than a general up-regulation of genes involved in the non-enzymatic degradation phase.

  • 24.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Algerbo, Per-Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lundin, Gunnar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gödsling med fosfor från slam – fysikaliska egenskaper och spridningsjämnhet2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing new types of fertilizers, it is important that they have chemical and physical properties that enable good spreading precision with machine types available on the market, otherwise the products will not be used.

    This study included two phosphorus products made from different phosphorus extraction techniques: 1) granules (EkoBalans) consisting mainly of struvite, precipitated from drainage reject water from wastewater treatment plants, with addition of ammonium sulphate and potassium chloride, and 2) pellets (Outotec) consisting of ASH DEC P-fertilizer product made of ash from incinerated sludge. Comparisons of these products were conducted with current market fertilizer products Axan (granules) and Biofer (pellets).

    Physical properties of the phosphorus products and the market products were determined in terms of grain size, dimensions (pellets), strength, flow properties and bulk density. Even simpler field techniques for determining grain size and strength were used during the spreading tests.

    Spreader tests were conducted in the field to evaluate spreading patterns using a centrifugal spreader, one of the most common fertilizer spreaders in agriculture. Test equipment used for field testing fertilizer spreaders was used. Trays were placed in rows perpendicular to the tramline to collect the fertilizer granules over the full swath width while passing with the spreader. The contents of each tray were collected and measured to obtain scatter figures from which the spreading evenness was calculated at different effective swath widths.

    The general conclusion was that both tested products were spreadable with today's centrifugal spreader. However, granules performed better than pellets mainly probably because the granules had a higher mass flow, which reduces the risk of vault formation and stops in the discharge.

    Both commercial products, Axan and Biofer were more "homogeneous" in size than the products of recycled phosphorus. The strength of the granules from EkoBalans was almost as good as for the market product. The phosphorus pellets from Outotec and EkoBalans also had good strength, while the commercial Biofer pellets were easily broken. The Outotec pellets had the greatest mass flow, partly because their high density. There was no major difference in mass flow between the commercial Axan and EkoBalans’ recycled phosphorus granules. The granules from EkoBalans had a lower bulk density than the reference fertilizer and relatively low phosphorus concentration, which meant a high dosage (mass, volume) to spread 22 kg P/ha. Some recommended dosages can thus be greater than the current spreaders can handle.

    Spreading EkoBalans’ granules and Outotec's pellets with an effective swath width of 24 meter should not be a problem, and even 36 meters should be possible. However, spreader tests in the field should also optimize the spreader so that acceptable spreading uniformity is achieved at the desired working width. Fertilizers with low density and/or low plant nutrient content can result in low spreading capacity. Light granules or pellets also increase wind sensitivity when spreading.

    In order to get a new product on the fertilizer market, it is important that current setting recommendations for the spreaders are available. Testing of the product should also be done continuously to ensure quality over time. A test bed with stationary, automated test equipment to determine physical properties as well as to develop P setting recommendations for spreaders would increase the possibilities of getting products on the market.

    Key words: Fertilizer, recycled phosphorus, granules, pellets, physical properties, spreading tests, spreading evenness

  • 25.
    Romanovski, Valentin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National University of Science and Technology, Russia; National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus.
    Claesson, Per M
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Yolanta
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of different surface disinfection treatments of drinking water facilities from a corrosion and environmental perspective2020In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface disinfection of water facilities such as water wells requires measures that can remove pathogens from the walls to ensure a high drinking water quality, but many of these measures might increase corrosion of the contact surfaces (often highly pure steel) and affect the environment negatively due to disinfectant-contaminated waste sludge and wastewater. Today, most treatments worldwide are based on hypochlorites. We investigated the extent of corrosion during treatments of steel at relevant conditions of ozone, sodium, and calcium hypochlorite for drinking water preparation, utilizing weight loss, electrochemical, solution analytical, and surface analytical methods. The ozone treatment caused significantly less corrosion as compared with sodium or calcium hypochlorite with 150–250 mg/L active chlorine. Hypochlorite or other chlorine-containing compounds were trapped in corrosion products after the surface disinfection treatment with hypochlorite, and this risked influencing subsequent corrosion after the surface disinfection treatment. A life cycle impact assessment suggested ozone treatment to have the lowest negative effects on human health, ecosystems, and resources. Calcium hypochlorite showed the highest negative environmental impact due to its production phase. Our study suggests that ozone surface disinfection treatments are preferable as compared with hypochlorite treatments from corrosion, economic, and environmental perspectives. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 26.
    Rudd, Sean
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tsesmetzis, Nikolaos
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sanjiv, Kumar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Paulin, Cynthia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical processes and Pharmaceutical Development. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sandhow, Lakshmi
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kutzner, Juliane
    University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hed Myrberg, Ida
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bunten, Sarah
    University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.
    Axelsson, Hanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Zhang, Si
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rasti, Azita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Mäkelä, Petri
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Coggins, SiAna
    Emory University School of Medicine, US.
    Tao, Sijia
    Emory University School of Medicine, US.
    Suman, Sharda
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Branca, Rui
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Mermelekas, Georgios
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wiita, Elisee
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lee, Sun
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schinazi, Raymond
    Emory University School of Medicine, US.
    Kim, Baek
    Emory University School of Medicine, US; Kyung-Hee University, South Korea.
    Lehtiö, Janne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rassidakis, Georgis
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pokrovskaja Tamm, Katja
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Warpman-Berglund, Ulrika
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Heyman, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Grandér, Dan
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lehmann, Sören
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Thomas
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Qian, Hong
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schaller, Torsten
    University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany; Heidelberg ImmunoTherapeutics GmbH, Germany.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Sheffield, UK.
    Herold, Nikolas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors suppress SAMHD1 ara-CTPase activity enhancing cytarabine efficacy2020In: EMBO Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1757-4676, E-ISSN 1757-4684, article id e10419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deoxycytidine analogue cytarabine (ara-C) remains the backbone treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) as well as other haematological and lymphoid malignancies, but must be combined with other chemotherapeutics to achieve cure. Yet, the underlying mechanism dictating synergistic efficacy of combination chemotherapy remains largely unknown. The dNTPase SAMHD1, which regulates dNTP homoeostasis antagonistically to ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), limits ara-C efficacy by hydrolysing the active triphosphate metabolite ara-CTP. Here, we report that clinically used inhibitors of RNR, such as gemcitabine and hydroxyurea, overcome the SAMHD1-mediated barrier to ara-C efficacy in primary blasts and mouse models of AML, displaying SAMHD1-dependent synergy with ara-C. We present evidence that this is mediated by dNTP pool imbalances leading to allosteric reduction of SAMHD1 ara-CTPase activity. Thus, SAMHD1 constitutes a novel biomarker for combination therapies of ara-C and RNR inhibitors with immediate consequences for clinical practice to improve treatment of AML. © 2020 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license

  • 27.
    Sefidari, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ma, C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, C.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Lindblom, B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordin, L. O.
    LKAB, Sweden; GTT Technologies, Germany.
    Wu, G.
    GTT Technologies, Germany; Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Yazhenskikh, E.
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Müller, M.
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Öhman, M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    The effect of co-firing coal and woody biomass upon the slagging/deposition tendency in iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants2020In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 199, article id 106254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is being considered a potential co-firing fuel to reduce coal consumption in iron-ore pelletizing rotary kilns. An important consideration is the slagging inside the kiln caused by ash deposition that can lead to process disturbances or shutdowns. In terms of ash chemistry, co-firing woody biomass implies the addition of mainly Ca and K to the Si- and Al-dominated coal-ash (characteristic of high-rank coals) and Fe from the iron-ore that are both inherent to the process. An alkali-laden gaseous atmosphere is also present due to the accumulation of alkali via the recirculation of flue gas in the system. The slagging propensity of blending woody biomass with coal in the grate-kiln process was studied based on the viscosity of the molten phases predicted by global thermochemical equilibrium modeling. This was carried out for variations in temperature, gaseous KOH atmosphere, and fuel blending levels. Results were evaluated and compared using a qualitative slagging indicator previously proposed by the authors where an inverse relationship between deposition tendency and the viscosity of the molten fraction of the ash was established. The results were also compared with a set of co-firing experiments performed in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) experimental combustion furnace. In general, the co-firing of woody biomass would likely increase the slagging tendency via the increased formation of low-viscosity melts. The fluxing behavior of biomass-ash potentially reduces the viscosity of the Fe-rich aluminosilicate melt and intensifies deposition. However, the results also revealed that there are certain conditions where deposition tendency may decrease via the formation of high-melting-point alkali-containing solid phases (e.g., leucite). 

  • 28.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Molecular origin of mechano-sorptive creep in cellulosic fibres2020In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 230, article id 115615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechano-sorptive creep, i.e. the increased rate of creep that occurs during changing relative humidity, when loading paper or wood, is a phenomenon still not fully understood. This phenomenon was here investigated by examining the changes occurring at the molecular level utilising FTIR spectroscopy. By subjecting the paper to deuterated water, the changes involving both the crystalline hydroxyls as well as those in accessible regions could be examined. During loading, the cellulose molecular chains are stretched taking the load. In addition, during mechano-sorptive creep a further exchange from OH to OD groups occurred. This was interpreted as caused by slippage between cellulose fibrils allowing previously non-accessible hydroxyls to become available for deuterium exchange. Thus, the loosening of the structure, during the changing moisture conditions, is interpreted as what has led to the increased creep and the possibility for new areas of cellulose fibril/fibril aggregates to be exposed to the deuterium exchange.

  • 29.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Landquist, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Berglund, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Indikatorer för hållbart jordbruk: Växtnäring, klimat och biologisk mångfald på naturbruksskolorna Sötåsen och Uddetorp2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Naturbruksskolor i framkant – Nyckeltal och åtgärder för ett fortsatt håll-barhetsarbete har pågått under åren 2017–2019 vid naturbruksskolorna Sötåsen och Uddetorp. I denna rapport sammanfattas erfarenheterna av den del i projektet som har handlat om att ta fram indikatorer för nuvarande drift.

    Projektet inleddes med att vi inventerade ekosystemtjänster på skolorna samt genomförde beräkningar av klimatavtryck och växtnäringsbalanser med hjälp av verk-tyget VERA som tillhandahålls av Greppa Näringen. För att skaffa kunskap om tillståndet för den biologiska mångfalden på skolorna inventerade vi därefter fåglar, fjärilar och humlor. Inventeringarna var till stor hjälp då vi testade olika verktyg och indikatorer för biologisk mångfald. Sista året har vi utarbetat skötselplaner för biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster som inkluderar alla viktiga biotoper på naturbruksskolorna och dessutom inventerat jordlöpare och kortvingar. Skötselplanerna ska ligga till grund för det fortlöpande arbetet med att skapa gynnsamma förhållanden för den biologiska mångfalden och ekosystemtjänster genom olika åtgärder.

    Projektet inleddes med att vi inventerade ekosystemtjänster på skolorna samt genomförde beräkningar av klimatavtryck och växtnäringsbalanser med hjälp av verk-tyget VERA som tillhandahålls av Greppa Näringen. För att skaffa kunskap om tillståndet för den biologiska mångfalden på skolorna inventerade vi därefter fåglar, fjärilar och humlor. Inventeringarna var till stor hjälp då vi testade olika verktyg och indikatorer för biologisk mångfald. Sista året har vi utarbetat skötselplaner för biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster som inkluderar alla viktiga biotoper på naturbruksskolorna och dessutom inventerat jordlöpare och kortvingar. Skötselplanerna ska ligga till grund för det fortlöpande arbetet med att skapa gynnsamma förhållanden för den biologiska mångfalden och ekosystemtjänster genom olika åtgärder.

    Växtnäringsbalanser, det vill säga skillnaden mellan mängden växtnäring som tillförs gården via inköpta varor och kvävefixering och mängden växtnäring som bortförs via avyttrade produkter, har beräknats under lång tid och på många gårdar runt om i landet. Balanserna uttrycks som kg växtnäring per hektar. Det finns därmed en vana vid att göra, se och tolka växtnäringsbalanser, och det finns även ett stort jämförelsematerial att tillgå. Klimatavtrycksberäkningar är en nyare företeelse. Då summeras växthusgasutsläppen från gårdens växtodling och djurhållning samt från produktion och användning av insatsvaror. Än så länge går det bara att beräkna klimatavtrycket för en hel gård i VERA, vilket gör det vanskligt att jämföra gårdar och år på grund av skillnader i produktion och storlek.

    Växtnäringsbalanserna och klimatavtrycksberäkningarna som gjordes på skolorna visar på skillnader mellan år och mellan skolorna, vilket var förväntat. Uddetorp har högre djurtäthet än Sötåsen, vilket är en bidragande orsak till att växthusgasutsläpp fördelade per hektar var högre på Uddetorp. Torkan 2018 påverkar också resultaten, och bidrog till högre växtnäringsöverskott på båda skolorna till följd av att mer foder behövde köpas in.

    Vid användning av de olika verktygen för biologisk mångfald kan vi konstatera att diskus-sionen på skolorna då vi tillsammans med personal från skoljordbruken gick igenom frågorna och fyllde i svaren upplevdes som mycket värdefull. Det skapade kunskap då man insåg att vissa element eller åtgärder helt eller delvis saknades eller inte gjordes på gården. Att samla in data till indikatorerna är emellertid tidskrävande. Det var mycket värdefullt att i förväg ha inventerat flora och fauna på gårdarna för att få ett mer specifikt resultat men det är ett kostsamt arbete som inte kan implementeras brett i dagsläget.

    Verktyg och åtgärder i spannmålsodling lyfts ofta i de initiativ som finns i Sverige idag, men det är särskilt angeläget att även lyfta produktionsgrenar som mjölk- och nötkötts-gårdar eftersom åtgärder måste anpassas efter produktionsgrenar och regionala förut-sättningar. Poängsystem är intressant och förhållandevis enkelt att använda i praktiken eftersom de mest relevanta åtgärderna för en enskild gård kan väljas ut att införa. Vi ser ett stort behov att utöka möjligheterna för kostnadsfri rådgivning inom biologisk mångfald både för att ta fram indikatorer och för att göra skötselplaner för biologisk mångfald utifrån gårdens förutsättningar.

    De internationella verktygen för biologisk mångfald som testades är inte anpassade till svenska förhållanden vilket medför att de inte är lika användbara.

  • 30.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Food Structure Analysis Using Light and Confocal Microscopy: Chapter 122020In: Handbook of Food Structure Development, Royal Society of Chemistry , 2020, no 18, p. 287-308Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructure codes for the properties of food. Processing enables the microstructure. Food microstructures are in most cases hierarchical, heterogeneous, multiphase, and complex. A full understanding of the food microstructure requires the characterization at many different length scales. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are powerful tools to image food microstructures at the micrometer level. In this chapter, the principles and use of these microscopy techniques are described. Examples of the use of light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to characterize and understand the microstructures in bread and dough, fibrous vegetable protein structures, plant cell walls, fat-rich food, and mayonnaise are discussed. In the end, an outlook on the use of light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in foods is given..

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