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  • 1.
    Abi Nassif, L.
    et al.
    University Brest, France; Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Rioual, S.
    University Brest, France.
    Farah, W.
    Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Hellio, C.
    University Brest, France.
    Fauchon, M.
    University Brest, France.
    Trepos, R.
    University Brest, France.
    Abboud, M.
    Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lescop, B.
    University Brest, France.
    Reduction of potential ennoblement of stainless steel in natural seawater by an ecofriendly biopolymer2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 103609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of biofilm formation on passive stainless steel in seawater environments is of primary importance since it leads to potential ennoblement of surfaces and subsequently to localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. This study aims at developing an ecofriendly alginate biopolymer containing both non-toxic calcium and a limited amount of biocidal zinc ions which inhibits this effect. For this purpose, calcium alginate containing less than 1 % of zinc ions localized in the vicinity of the steel surface in natural and renewed seawater is demonstrated to reduce significantly the ennoblement process of steel. After 1 month of immersion, a mass loss of only 4 % of the active material is observed authorizing thereby long-term protection of steel in real environment. 

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 3.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 4.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. University West, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Sweden.
    A detailed investigation of residual stresses after milling Inconel 718 using typical production parameters for assessment of affected depth2020In: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 24, article id 100958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of superalloy gas turbine parts involves time consuming milling operations typically performed in a sequence from rough to finish milling. Rough milling using ceramic inserts allows high removal rates but causes severe sub-surface impact. A relatively large allowance is therefore left for subsequent cemented carbide milling. With increased knowledge of the affected depth it will be possible to reduce the machining allowance and increase efficiency of the manufacturing process. Milling Inconel 718 using typical production parameters has been investigated using new and worn ceramic and cemented carbide inserts. Residual stresses in a milled slot were measured by x-ray diffraction. Stresses were measured laterally across the slot and below the surface, to study the depth affected by milling. The most important result from this work is the development of a framework concerning how to evaluate the affected depth for a milling operation. The evaluation of a single milled slot shows great potential for determining the optimum allowance for machining. Our results show that the residual stresses are greatly affected by the ceramic and cemented carbide milling; both regarding depth as well as distribution across the milled slot. It has been shown that it is important to consider that the stresses across a milled slot are the highest in the center of the slot and gradually decrease toward the edges. Different inserts, ceramic and cemented carbide, and tool wear, alter how the stresses are distributed across the slot and the affected depth.

  • 5.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique2020In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 137, no 5, article id 48339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for nonwoven materials has increased during the last few years and is expected to increase further due to its use in a broad range of new application areas. Today, the majority of nonwovens are from petroleum-based resources but there is a desideratum to develop sustainable and competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, renewable nonwovens are produced by solution blowing of dissolved cellulose using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. Properties of cellulose solutions and process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, air pressure, and distance to collector, are evaluated in respect to spinnability and material structural properties. Nonwovens with fiber diameters mainly in the micrometer range were successfully produced and it was shown that high temperature or low flow rate resulted in thinner fibers. The produced materials were stiffer (higher effective stress and lower strain) compared to commercial polypropylene nonwoven. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Applied Polymer Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48339. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 6.
    Kundrát, Martin
    et al.
    University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Slovakia.
    Rich, Thomas
    Melbourne Museum, Australia.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Vickers-Rich, Patricia
    Swinburne University of Technology, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Chiappe, Luis
    Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, US.
    Kear, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A polar dinosaur feather assemblage from Australia2020In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptionally preserved Mesozoic feathered dinosaur fossils (including birds) are famous, but recognized from only very few localities worldwide, and are especially rare in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we report an assemblage of non-avian and avian dinosaur feathers from an Early Cretaceous polar (around 70°S) environment in what is now southeastern Australia. The recovered remains incorporate small (10–30 mm long) basal paravian-like tufted body feathers, open-vaned contour feathers, and asymmetrical bird-like wing feathers that possess high-angled barbs with possible remnants of barbicels — amongst the geologically oldest observed to date. Such morphological diversity augments scant skeletal evidence for a range of insulated non-avian theropods and birds inhabiting extreme southern high-latitude settings during the Mesozoic. Although some of these fossil feathers exhibit what may be residual patterning, most are uniformly toned and preserve rod-shaped microbodies, as well as densely-packed microbody imprints on the barbules that are structurally consistent with eumelanosomes. Geochemical analysis detected no identifiable residual biomolecules, which we suspect were lost via hydrolysis and oxidization during diagenesis and weathering. Nevertheless, an originally dark pigmentation can be reasonably inferred from these melanic traces, which like the coloured feathers of modern birds, might have facilitated crypsis, visual communication and/or thermoregulation in a cold polar habitat. 

  • 7.
    Landberg, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, Paul
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isakson, Pauline
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanström, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rafnsdottir, Svanheidur
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Annna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ranji, Parmida
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gregersson, Pernilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ståhlberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient-derived scaffolds uncover breast cancer promoting properties of the microenvironment2020In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 235, article id 119705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor cells interact with the microenvironment that specifically supports and promotes tumor development. Key components in the tumor environment have been linked to various aggressive cancer features and can further influence the presence of subpopulations of cancer cells with specific functions, including cancer stem cells and migratory cells. To model and further understand the influence of specific microenvironments we have developed an experimental platform using cell-free patient-derived scaffolds (PDSs) from primary breast cancers infiltrated with standardized breast cancer cell lines. This PDS culture system induced a series of orchestrated changes in differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and proliferation of the cancer cell population, where an increased cancer stem cell pool was confirmed using functional assays. Furthermore, global gene expression profiling showed that PDS cultures were similar to xenograft cultures. Mass spectrometry analyses of cell-free PDSs identified subgroups based on their protein composition that were linked to clinical properties, including tumor grade. Finally, we observed that an induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes in cancer cells growing on the PDSs were significantly associated with clinical disease recurrences in breast cancer patients. Patient-derived scaffolds thus mimics in vivo-like growth conditions and uncovers unique information about the malignancy-inducing properties of tumor microenvironment. © 2019 The Authors

  • 8.
    Larsson, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    An Approach to Compensate for the Influence of the System Normal Stiffness in CNS Direct Shear Tests2020In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying accurate normal load to a specimen in direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) is of importance for the quality of the resulting data, which in turn influences the conclusions. However, deficiencies in the test system give rise to a normal stiffness, here designated as system normal stiffness, which results in deviations between the intended and actual applied normal loads. Aiming to reduce these deviations, this paper presents the effective normal stiffness approach applicable to closed-loop control systems. Validation through direct shear tests indicates a clear influence of the system normal stiffness on the applied normal load (13% for the test system used in this work). The ability of the approach to compensate for this influence is confirmed herein. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the differences between the measured and the nominal normal displacements are established by the normal load increment divided by the system normal stiffness. This further demonstrates the existence of the system normal stiffness. To employ the effective normal stiffness approach, the intended normal stiffness (user defined) and the system normal stiffness must be known. The latter is determined from a calibration curve based on normal loading tests using a stiff test dummy. Finally, a procedure is presented to estimate errors originating from the application of an approximate representation of the system normal stiffness. The approach is shown to effectively reduce the deviations between intended normal loads and the actual applied normal loads. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 9.
    Liens, Alethea
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, France; ANTHOGYR, France.
    Reveron, Helen
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Douillard, Thierry
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Blanchard, Nicholas
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Lughi, Vanni
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Sergo, Valter
    University of Trieste, Italy; University of Macau, China.
    Laquai, Rene
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Müller, Bernd
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Bruno, Giovanni
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Schomer, Sven
    MOESCHTER GROUP Holding GmbH, Germany.
    Fürderer, Tobias
    MOESCHTER GROUP Holding GmbH, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Courtois, Nicolas
    ANTHOGYR, France.
    Swain, Michael
    University of Sydney, Australia; Don State Technical University, Russia.
    Chevalier, Jerome
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Phase transformation induces plasticity with negligible damage in ceria-stabilized zirconia-based ceramics2020In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 183, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramics and their composites are in general brittle materials because they are predominantly made up of ionic and covalent bonds that avoid dislocation motion at room temperature. However, a remarkable ductile behavior has been observed on newly developed 11 mol.% ceria-stabilized zirconia (11Ce-TZP) composite containing fine alumina (8 vol.% Al2O3) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8 vol.% SrAl12O19) grains. The as-synthesized composite also has shown full resistance to Low Temperature Degradation (LTD), relatively high strength and exceptionally high Weibull modulus, allowing its use in a broader range of biomedical applications. In this study, to deepen the understanding of plastic deformation in Ce-TZP based composites that could soon be used for manufacturing dental implants, different mechanical tests were applied on the material, followed by complete microstructural characterization. Distinct from pure Ce-TZP material or other zirconia-based ceramics developed in the past, the material here studied can be permanently strained without affecting the Young modulus, indicating that the ductile response of tested samples cannot be associated to damage occurrence. This ductility is related to the stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic (t-m) zirconia phase transformation, analogue to Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, where retained austenite is transformed to martensite. The aim of this study is to corroborate if the observed plasticity can be associated exclusively to the zirconia t-m phase transformation, or also to microcraking induced by the transformation. The t-m transformed-zones produced after bending and biaxial tests were examined by X-ray refraction and SEM/TEM coupled with Raman. The results revealed that the observed elastic-plastic behavior occurs without extensive microcracking, confirming a purely elastic-plastic behavior driven by the phase transformation (absence of damage).

  • 10.
    Linden, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Diedrich, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Life cycle work: A process study of the emergence and performance of life cycle practice2020In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle management (LCM) is a concept that goes beyond traditional corporate environmental management, due to its’ focus on a product’s entire life cycle. The spread of such concepts is usually understood in terms of processes of ‘diffusion’, whereby ideas spread over time by some inexplicable force. However, diffusion has proven less adequate to describe how ideas spreads in practice. Here, we address this oversight by studying the emergence and performance of what we refer to as life cycle practices. Drawing on an analysis of the development of a sustainability portfolio within a globally-operating manufacturing company, we illustrate the kinds of life cycle work involved in dealing with local activities and interests, connecting activities and interests into action-nets, performing life cycle practices, and spreading the life cycle idea. Finally, we discuss implications of life cycle work for research in the field of organization and management studies and for LCM research.

  • 11.
    Monte, Joana
    et al.
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Claudia
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Parreira, Celina
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Costa, Luis
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Brive, Lena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Casal, Susana
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Brazinha, Carla
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Crespo, Jaoa
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Biorefinery of Dunaliella salina: Sustainable recovery of carotenoids, polar lipids and glycerol2020In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 297, article id 122509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dunaliella salina is well-known for its high content in carotenoids and glycerol. Nevertheless, Dunaliella salina has also a high content in lipids, including polar lipids, which are suitable for nutraceutical/cosmeceutical applications. This work proposes a sustainable process to maximise the potential of Dunaliella salina for the production of distinct fractions of carotenoids, glycerol, polar lipids and proteins, which may contribute to improve the revenues of the microalgae industry. In this work, extraction with non-hazardous solvents and organic solvent nanofiltration are integrated, in order to obtain added-value products and glycerol. Also, aiming to separate carotenoids from glycerides, a saponification process is proposed. High overall recoveries were obtained for carotenoids (85%), glycerol (86%), polar lipids (94%) and proteins (95%). In order to evaluate the profitability of the proposed biorefinery, an economic assessment was accomplished. Both CAPEX and OPEX (Capital and Operating expenditure) were calculated, likewise the Return of Investment (ROI).

  • 12.
    Nazarov, Andrej P.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Persson, Daniel Pergament
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Electrochemical and corrosion properties of ZnO/Zn electrode in atmospheric environments2015In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 737, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO films of different thicknesses were prepared by thermal oxidation of zinc. The oxide covered surfaces were characterized by Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) and Scanning Kelvin Probe-Surface Photovoltage (SKP-SPV) techniques, Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), contact angle measurements, and dc voltammetry. The influence of the thickness of ZnO on the absorption of the light, water and oxygen was evaluated. SKP and dc electrochemistry were used to estimate the mechanism of electron exchange between the zinc surface and an aqueous solution containing a red-ox system [Fe(CN)6]2-/[Fe(CN)6]3-. It was shown that ZnO/Zn electrodes with a thick ZnO film nobled the Volta potential that enhanced the electron transfer from the bulk zinc to the molecule of the oxidizer- [Fe(CN)6]3-. Atmospheric corrosion of oxidized zinc surface was investigated after deposition of a single droplet of NaCl aqueous electrolyte. Thicker ZnO films promote the oxygen reduction and the spreading area of the cathodic reaction from the local NaCl contamination. It enlarged the area of metal surface participating in the cathodic reaction and consequently accelerated the atmospheric corrosion. The ability to enhance the oxygen reduction was discussed from the point of view of the band structure and the semiconducting properties of the ZnO layer.

  • 13.
    Oliaei, Erfan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindén, Pär
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) and nanopaper films from unbleached kraft softwood pulp2020In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is an important industrial nanocellulose product and material component. New MFC grades can widen the materials property range and improve product tailoring. Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) is investigated, with the hypothesis that there is an optimum in lignin content of unbleached wood pulp fibre with respect to nanofibril yield. A series of kraft fibres with falling Kappa numbers (lower lignin content) was prepared. Fibres were beaten and fibrillated into MFLC by high-pressure microfluidization. Nano-sized fractions of fibrils were separated using centrifugation. Lignin content and carbohydrate analysis, total charge, FE-SEM, TEM microscopy and suspension rheology characterization were carried out. Fibres with Kappa number 65 (11% lignin) combined high lignin content with ease of fibrillation. This confirms an optimum in nanofibril yield as a function of lignin content, and mechanisms are discussed. MFLC from these fibres contained a 40–60 wt% fraction of nano-sized fibrils with widths in the range of 2.5–70 nm. Despite the large size distribution, data for modulus and tensile strength of MFLC films with 11% lignin were as high as 14 GPa and 240 MPa. MFLC films showed improved water contact angle of 84–88°, compared to neat MFC films (< 50°). All MFLC films showed substantial optical transmittance, and the fraction of haze scattering strongly correlated with defect content in the form of coarse fibrils. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Posner, Stefan
    Stefan Posner AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Function-Based Approach for Life Cycle Management of Chemicals in the Textile Industry2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer products such as clothes and footwear sometimes contain chemical substances with properties that pose a risk to human health and the environment. These substances, restricted by law or company policy, are in focus for chemicals management processes by textile retailers. However, complex and non-transparent supply chains, and limited chemical knowledge, makes chemicals management challenging. Therefore, a function-based approach for life cycle management (LCM) of chemicals was developed, based on results of previous projects and evaluated using a two-step Delphi process. The resulting approach aims to help retailers identify and substitute hazardous substances in products, and consists of three parts: (i) a function-based chemicals management concept model for different levels of chemical information within the supply chain, (ii) tools for non-chemists which explain chemical information, and (iii) a continuous provision of knowledge to stakeholders (e.g., retailers) in a network. This approach is successfully implemented by over 100 retailers in the Nordic countries, providing the textile industry with practical and robust tools to manage and substitute hazardous chemicals in products and production processes. We conclude that the developed approach provides an explicit link, communication, and knowledge sharing between actors in the supply chain, which has proven important in chemicals LCM.

  • 15.
    Saseendran, Sibin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Berglund, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Viscoelastic model with complex rheological behavior (VisCoR): incremental formulation2020In: Advanced Manufacturing: Polymer and Composites Science, ISSN 2055-0359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermo-rheologically complex linear viscoelastic material model, accounting for temperature and degree of cure (DoC), is developed starting with series expansion of the Helmholtz free energy and systematically implementing simplifying assumptions regarding the material behavior. In addition to the temperature and DoC dependent shift factor present in rheologically simple models, the derived novel model contains three cure and temperature dependent functions. The first function is identified as the rubbery modulus. The second is a weight factor to the transient integral term in the model and reflects the current temperature and cure state, whereas the third function is under the sign of the convolution integral, thus affecting the “memory” of the material. An incremental form of this model is presented which, due to improved approximation inside the time increment, has better numerical convergence than most of the similar forms. Parametric analysis is performed simulating stress development in a polymer, geometrically constrained in the mold during curing and cool-down. The importance of using proper viscoelastic model is shown, and the role of parameters in the model is revealed and discussed. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 16.
    Tasiopoulos, Christos
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Sahlin, Herman
    Neoss Ltd, Sweden.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface Functionalization of PTFE Membranes Intended for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Recombinant Spider Silk2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 577-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alveolar bone loss is usually treated with guided bone regeneration, a dental procedure which utilizes a tissue-separation membrane. The barrier membrane prevents pathogens and epithelial cells to invade the bone augmentation site, thereby permitting osteoblasts to deposit minerals and build up bone. This study aims at adding bioactive properties to otherwise inert PTFE membranes in order to enhance cell adherence and promote proliferation. A prewetting by ethanol and stepwise hydration protocol was herein employed to overcome high surface tension of PTFE membranes and allow for a recombinant spider silk protein, functionalized with a cell-binding motif from fibronectin (FN-silk), to self-assemble into a nanofibrillar coating. HaCaT and U-2 OS cells were seeded onto soft and hard tissue sides, respectively, of membranes coated with FN-silk. The cells could firmly adhere as early as 1 h post seeding, as well as markedly grow in numbers when kept in culture for 7 days. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy images revealed that adherent cells could form a confluent monolayer and develop essential cell-cell contacts during 1 week of culture. Hence, functionalized PTFE membranes have a potential of better integration at the implantation site, with reduced risk of membrane displacement as well as exposure to oral pathogens.

  • 17.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion of hot-dip-galvanised steel and zinc alloy-coated steel in ammonia and ammonium chloride2020In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many potential causes of corrosion in animal buildings. Animals exhale large quantities of moisture into the air creating high relative humidity in the building if the moisture is not properly vented. High humidity increases the potential for condensation. In addition, ammonia may be found in large quantities in animal buildings. Ammonia is released from manure and urine. In addition, ammonium chloride is used as a nitrogen source in fertilisers. In this study, the atmospheric corrosion of hot-dip-galvanised steel and zinc alloy-coated steel such as zinc–aluminium and zinc–aluminium–magnesium has been studied in atmospheres containing different levels of ammonia. Investigations have also been conducted at different levels of ammonium chloride. The results are discussed in view of the mechanisms of corrosion of zinc and zinc alloy-coated steel in ammonia and ammonium chloride-containing environments.

  • 18.
    Tiemann, T T
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Padma, A M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sehic, E
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäckdahl, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Oltean, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Song, M J
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; The Catholic University of Korea, South Korea.
    Brännström, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Stockholm IVF-EUGIN, Sweden.
    Hellström, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards uterus tissue engineering: a comparative study of sheep uterus decellularisation.2020In: Molecular human reproduction, ISSN 1360-9947, E-ISSN 1460-2407, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uterus tissue engineering may dismantle limitations in current uterus transplantation protocols. A uterine biomaterial populated with patient-derived cells could potentially serve as a graft to circumvent complicated surgery of live donors, immunosuppressive medication, and rejection episodes. Repeated uterine bioengineering studies on rodents have shown promising results using decellularised scaffolds to restore fertility in a partially impaired uterus, and now mandate experiments on larger and more human-like animal models. The aim of the presented studies was therefore to establish adequate protocols for scaffold generation, and prepare for future in-vivo sheep uterus bioengineering experiments. Three decellularisation protocols were developed using vascular perfusion through the uterine artery of whole sheep uteri obtained from slaughterhouse material. Decellularisation solutions used were based on 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (protocol 1) or 2% sodium deoxycholate (protocol 2) or with a sequential perfusion of 2% sodium deoxycholate and 1% Triton X-100 (protocol 3). The scaffolds were examined by histology, extracellular matrix quantification, evaluation of mechanical properties and the ability to support fetal sheep stem cells after recellularisation. We showed that a sheep uterus can successfully be decellularised while maintaining a high integrity of the extracellular components. Uteri perfused with sodium deoxycholate (protocol 2) was the most favourable treatment in our study based on quantifications. However, all scaffolds supported stem cells for two weeks in vitro and showed no cytotoxicity signs. Cells continued to express markers for proliferation and maintained their undifferentiated phenotype. Hence, this study reports three valuable decellularisation protocols for future in-vivo sheep uterus bioengineering experiments.

  • 19.
    van der Veen, Ike
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Stare, Ann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Leonards, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Weiss, Jana
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The effect of weathering on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from durable water repellent (DWR) clothing2020In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 249, article id 126100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effects of weathering on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from durable water repellent (DWR) clothing, thirteen commercial textile samples were exposed to elevated ultra violet (UV) radiation, humidity, and temperature in an aging device for 300 h, which mimics the lifespan of outdoor clothing. Before and after aging, the textile samples were extracted and analysed for the ionic PFASs (perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)) and volatile PFASs (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), acrylates (FTACs) and methacrylates (FTMACs)). Results showed that weathering can have an effect on PFASs used in DWR of outdoor clothing, both on the PFAS profile and on the measured concentrations. In most weathered samples the PFAA concentrations increased by 5- to more than 100-fold, while PFAAs not detected in the original textiles were detected in the weathered samples. DWR chemistries are based on side-chain fluorinated polymers. A possible explanation for the increase in concentration of the PFAAs is hydrolysis of the fluorotelomer based polymers (FTPs), or degradation of the FTOHs, which are used in the manufacturing of the FTPs. The concentrations of volatile PFASs also increased, by a factor up to 20. Suggested explanations are the degradation of the DWR polymers, making non-extractable fluorines extractable, or the transformation or degradation of unknown precursors. Further research is needed to unravel the details of these processes and to determine the transformation routes. This study shows that setting maximum tolerance limits only for a few individual PFASs is not sufficient to control these harmful substances in outdoor clothing.

  • 20.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Filzmoser, Peter
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Fray, Nicolas
    Université de Paris, France.
    Cottin, Herve
    Université de Paris, France.
    Merouane, Siane
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Paquette, John
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Briois, Christelle
    Université d'Orléans, France.
    Baklouti, Donia
    Université Paris Sud, France.
    Bardyn, Anais
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Composition of cometary particles collected during two periods of the Rosetta mission: multivariate evaluation of mass spectral data2020In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, article id e3218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instrument COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer) onboard of the European Space Agency mission Rosetta collected and analyzed dust particles in the neighborhood of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The chemical composition of the particle surfaces was characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. A set of 2213 spectra has been selected, and relative abundances for CH-containing positive ions as well as positive elemental ions define a set of multivariate data with nine variables. Evaluation by complementary chemometric techniques shows different compositions of sample groups collected during two periods of the mission. The first period was August to November 2014 (far from the Sun); the second period was January 2015 to February 2016 (nearer to the Sun). The applied data evaluation methods consider the compositional nature of the mass spectral data and comprise robust principal component analysis as well as classification with discriminant partial least squares regression, k-nearest neighbor search, and random forest decision trees. The results indicate a high importance of the relative abundances of the secondary ions C+ and Fe+ for the group separation and demonstrate an enhanced content of carbon-containing substances in samples collected in the period with smaller distances to the Sun. © 2020 The Authors.

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