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  • 1.
    Abi Nassif, L.
    et al.
    University Brest, France; Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Rioual, S.
    University Brest, France.
    Farah, W.
    Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Hellio, C.
    University Brest, France.
    Fauchon, M.
    University Brest, France.
    Trepos, R.
    University Brest, France.
    Abboud, M.
    Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lescop, B.
    University Brest, France.
    Reduction of potential ennoblement of stainless steel in natural seawater by an ecofriendly biopolymer2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 103609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of biofilm formation on passive stainless steel in seawater environments is of primary importance since it leads to potential ennoblement of surfaces and subsequently to localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. This study aims at developing an ecofriendly alginate biopolymer containing both non-toxic calcium and a limited amount of biocidal zinc ions which inhibits this effect. For this purpose, calcium alginate containing less than 1 % of zinc ions localized in the vicinity of the steel surface in natural and renewed seawater is demonstrated to reduce significantly the ennoblement process of steel. After 1 month of immersion, a mass loss of only 4 % of the active material is observed authorizing thereby long-term protection of steel in real environment. 

  • 2.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites.2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id E2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 3.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 4.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 11907-11917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 5.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Interactive research in production start-up—application and outcomes2020In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on interactive research as a means to create relevant knowledge in the domain of operations management in general and specifically in the context of production start-up. Design/methodology/approach: The reflection on the use of interactive research in production start-ups was based on a study of two completed interactive research projects. The lens for reflection was a framework including context, quality of relationship, quality of the research process itself and outcomes. Findings: The context was industrial manufacturing companies in Sweden, with different kind of challenges related to production start-ups, such as collaboration between involved functions and suppliers, competence development and work routines. Indicators of the quality of relationship between researchers and practitioners were initiated development activities and new collaboration between functions, within the company, between companies and in supply chains. The reflection of the quality of the research process itself was based on an interactive research process including four iterative steps with regular follow-ups allowing joint practitioner and researcher reflection on the progress. Identified outcomes included increased awareness and competence on how to deal with production start-ups, improvements of communication, work procedures and structures, better use of competences, increased cross-functional dialogue and cultural understanding. Practical implications: Implications for practitioners are the possibilities for knowledge creation through interactive collaboration in research projects enabling exchange between researchers from complementary fields and other companies dealing with production start-ups. Originality/value: The interactive research approach enables joint knowledge creation in a fast-changing context such as production start-ups as well as value-adding results both for practitioners in industry and for academia. 

  • 6.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 7.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    A Start-up Firm´s Greenfield Project of Building a New State-of-the-art Factory in Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique greenfield project within a new industrial domain in Europe started 2017, with a mission to build the world’s greenest batteries, to enable and accelerate the European transition to renewable energy. The new firm, together with Sweden’s Innovation Agency Vinnova, initiated collaboration in the project “Research – new state-of-the-art factory”, (VDr. 2017-03397). This report includes an executive summary and an extract of results. The research project specifically contributed to the initiation and knowledge related to the union collaboration process, aiming to support the establishment of a new state-of-the-art factory in a Swedish context. Relevant results identified during the start-up journey will serve as a contextual base and be used in agreement with the start-up firm in planned publications, i.e. they are not included in detail in this report. Furthermore, areas of development regarding concepts for work organization in the initial production organization have been identified, and initiated actions during the study contributing to operational work processes, and organizational learning.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-12-01 08:00
  • 8.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. University West, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Sweden.
    A detailed investigation of residual stresses after milling Inconel 718 using typical production parameters for assessment of affected depth2020In: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 24, article id 100958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of superalloy gas turbine parts involves time consuming milling operations typically performed in a sequence from rough to finish milling. Rough milling using ceramic inserts allows high removal rates but causes severe sub-surface impact. A relatively large allowance is therefore left for subsequent cemented carbide milling. With increased knowledge of the affected depth it will be possible to reduce the machining allowance and increase efficiency of the manufacturing process. Milling Inconel 718 using typical production parameters has been investigated using new and worn ceramic and cemented carbide inserts. Residual stresses in a milled slot were measured by x-ray diffraction. Stresses were measured laterally across the slot and below the surface, to study the depth affected by milling. The most important result from this work is the development of a framework concerning how to evaluate the affected depth for a milling operation. The evaluation of a single milled slot shows great potential for determining the optimum allowance for machining. Our results show that the residual stresses are greatly affected by the ceramic and cemented carbide milling; both regarding depth as well as distribution across the milled slot. It has been shown that it is important to consider that the stresses across a milled slot are the highest in the center of the slot and gradually decrease toward the edges. Different inserts, ceramic and cemented carbide, and tool wear, alter how the stresses are distributed across the slot and the affected depth.

  • 9.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Cellulosic nonwovens produced via efficient solution blowing technique2020In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 137, no 5, article id 48339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for nonwoven materials has increased during the last few years and is expected to increase further due to its use in a broad range of new application areas. Today, the majority of nonwovens are from petroleum-based resources but there is a desideratum to develop sustainable and competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, renewable nonwovens are produced by solution blowing of dissolved cellulose using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. Properties of cellulose solutions and process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, air pressure, and distance to collector, are evaluated in respect to spinnability and material structural properties. Nonwovens with fiber diameters mainly in the micrometer range were successfully produced and it was shown that high temperature or low flow rate resulted in thinner fibers. The produced materials were stiffer (higher effective stress and lower strain) compared to commercial polypropylene nonwoven. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Applied Polymer Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48339. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 10.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    et al.
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Chaiwong, Wantani
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Stromberg, Emma
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Torro, Rosana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ek, Monika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Enhancement of interfacial adhesion and engineering properties of polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid laminate films filled with modified microfibrillated cellulose2020In: Journal of plastic film & sheeting (Print), ISSN 8756-0879, E-ISSN 1530-8014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was done to improve the interfacial adhesion and engineering performance of polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid laminate film by altering the polyvinyl alcohol phase surface properties via incorporating microfibrillated cellulose modified by propionylation. Incorporating the modified microfibrillated cellulose into polyvinyl alcohol film improved adhesion between film layers during the laminating process. Improved peel strength and tensile properties confirmed that modified microfibrillated cellulose can produce better bonding between polyvinyl alcohol and polylactic acid via mechanical interlocking and cohesive forces at the film interface. Modified microfibrillated cellulose (3 wt%) increased the peel strength by 40% comparing with the neat polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid laminate film.The reduction of both moisture absorption and diffusion rate of the modified microfibrillated cellulose–polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid to 20 and 23%, respectively, also indicated that the modified microfibrillated cellulose could inhibit moisture permeation across the film. This was because the modified microfibrillated cellulose is hydrophobic. Furthermore, the addition of modified microfibrillated cellulose also increased the decomposition temperature of the laminate film up to 10% as observed at 20% of remaining weight, while the storage modulus substantially increasing to 72% relative to the neat laminate film.The superior interfacial adhesion between the polylactic acid and modified microfibrillated cellulose–polyvinyl alcohol layers, observed by scanning electron microscopy, confirmed the improved compatibility between the polyvinyl alcohol and polylactic acid phases. © The Author(s) 2020.

  • 11.
    Kundrát, Martin
    et al.
    University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Slovakia.
    Rich, Thomas
    Melbourne Museum, Australia.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Vickers-Rich, Patricia
    Swinburne University of Technology, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Chiappe, Luis
    Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, US.
    Kear, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A polar dinosaur feather assemblage from Australia2020In: Gondwana Research, ISSN 1342-937X, E-ISSN 1878-0571, Vol. 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptionally preserved Mesozoic feathered dinosaur fossils (including birds) are famous, but recognized from only very few localities worldwide, and are especially rare in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we report an assemblage of non-avian and avian dinosaur feathers from an Early Cretaceous polar (around 70°S) environment in what is now southeastern Australia. The recovered remains incorporate small (10–30 mm long) basal paravian-like tufted body feathers, open-vaned contour feathers, and asymmetrical bird-like wing feathers that possess high-angled barbs with possible remnants of barbicels — amongst the geologically oldest observed to date. Such morphological diversity augments scant skeletal evidence for a range of insulated non-avian theropods and birds inhabiting extreme southern high-latitude settings during the Mesozoic. Although some of these fossil feathers exhibit what may be residual patterning, most are uniformly toned and preserve rod-shaped microbodies, as well as densely-packed microbody imprints on the barbules that are structurally consistent with eumelanosomes. Geochemical analysis detected no identifiable residual biomolecules, which we suspect were lost via hydrolysis and oxidization during diagenesis and weathering. Nevertheless, an originally dark pigmentation can be reasonably inferred from these melanic traces, which like the coloured feathers of modern birds, might have facilitated crypsis, visual communication and/or thermoregulation in a cold polar habitat. 

  • 12.
    Landberg, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fitzpatrick, Paul
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isakson, Pauline
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanström, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rafnsdottir, Svanheidur
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Annna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ranji, Parmida
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gregersson, Pernilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ylva
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ståhlberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient-derived scaffolds uncover breast cancer promoting properties of the microenvironment2020In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 235, article id 119705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor cells interact with the microenvironment that specifically supports and promotes tumor development. Key components in the tumor environment have been linked to various aggressive cancer features and can further influence the presence of subpopulations of cancer cells with specific functions, including cancer stem cells and migratory cells. To model and further understand the influence of specific microenvironments we have developed an experimental platform using cell-free patient-derived scaffolds (PDSs) from primary breast cancers infiltrated with standardized breast cancer cell lines. This PDS culture system induced a series of orchestrated changes in differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and proliferation of the cancer cell population, where an increased cancer stem cell pool was confirmed using functional assays. Furthermore, global gene expression profiling showed that PDS cultures were similar to xenograft cultures. Mass spectrometry analyses of cell-free PDSs identified subgroups based on their protein composition that were linked to clinical properties, including tumor grade. Finally, we observed that an induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes in cancer cells growing on the PDSs were significantly associated with clinical disease recurrences in breast cancer patients. Patient-derived scaffolds thus mimics in vivo-like growth conditions and uncovers unique information about the malignancy-inducing properties of tumor microenvironment. © 2019 The Authors

  • 13.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    An Approach to Compensate for the Influence of the System Normal Stiffness in CNS Direct Shear Tests2020In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying accurate normal load to a specimen in direct shear tests under constant normal stiffness (CNS) is of importance for the quality of the resulting data, which in turn influences the conclusions. However, deficiencies in the test system give rise to a normal stiffness, here designated as system normal stiffness, which results in deviations between the intended and actual applied normal loads. Aiming to reduce these deviations, this paper presents the effective normal stiffness approach applicable to closed-loop control systems. Validation through direct shear tests indicates a clear influence of the system normal stiffness on the applied normal load (13% for the test system used in this work). The ability of the approach to compensate for this influence is confirmed herein. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the differences between the measured and the nominal normal displacements are established by the normal load increment divided by the system normal stiffness. This further demonstrates the existence of the system normal stiffness. To employ the effective normal stiffness approach, the intended normal stiffness (user defined) and the system normal stiffness must be known. The latter is determined from a calibration curve based on normal loading tests using a stiff test dummy. Finally, a procedure is presented to estimate errors originating from the application of an approximate representation of the system normal stiffness. The approach is shown to effectively reduce the deviations between intended normal loads and the actual applied normal loads. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 14.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Winzenburg, Susanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Edström, Adam
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Färdplan: Teknik, material och förmågor för hållbar industriell konkurrenskraft2020Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Larsson, Stig
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Winzenburg, Susanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Edström, Adam
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Färdplan: Teknik, material och förmågor för hållbar industriell konkurrenskraft (Broschyr)2020Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De närmaste 15 åren kommer svenskindustri att med förnyad kraft fortsätta sin digitala omställning, ta tillsig en rad nya material, utveckla nyaaffärsmodeller och öka sin transformationsförmåga. Allt för att stärkasin konkurrenskraft, i symbios medhållbarhet – ekonomisk, ekologisk ochsocial. Coronapandemin medför förvisso enorma utmaningar för industrin,men efter den akuta kris hanteringenkommer med all sannolikhetindustriomställningen att ta ny fart.

    Denna broschyr är en förkortad sammanställning av RISE rapport 2020:46 som finns på länken:http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-44978

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Liens, Alethea
    et al.
    Université de Lyon, France; ANTHOGYR, France.
    Reveron, Helen
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Douillard, Thierry
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Blanchard, Nicholas
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Lughi, Vanni
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Sergo, Valter
    University of Trieste, Italy; University of Macau, China.
    Laquai, Rene
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Müller, Bernd
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Bruno, Giovanni
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Schomer, Sven
    MOESCHTER GROUP Holding GmbH, Germany.
    Fürderer, Tobias
    MOESCHTER GROUP Holding GmbH, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Courtois, Nicolas
    ANTHOGYR, France.
    Swain, Michael
    University of Sydney, Australia; Don State Technical University, Russia.
    Chevalier, Jerome
    Université de Lyon, France.
    Phase transformation induces plasticity with negligible damage in ceria-stabilized zirconia-based ceramics2020In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 183, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramics and their composites are in general brittle materials because they are predominantly made up of ionic and covalent bonds that avoid dislocation motion at room temperature. However, a remarkable ductile behavior has been observed on newly developed 11 mol.% ceria-stabilized zirconia (11Ce-TZP) composite containing fine alumina (8 vol.% Al2O3) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8 vol.% SrAl12O19) grains. The as-synthesized composite also has shown full resistance to Low Temperature Degradation (LTD), relatively high strength and exceptionally high Weibull modulus, allowing its use in a broader range of biomedical applications. In this study, to deepen the understanding of plastic deformation in Ce-TZP based composites that could soon be used for manufacturing dental implants, different mechanical tests were applied on the material, followed by complete microstructural characterization. Distinct from pure Ce-TZP material or other zirconia-based ceramics developed in the past, the material here studied can be permanently strained without affecting the Young modulus, indicating that the ductile response of tested samples cannot be associated to damage occurrence. This ductility is related to the stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic (t-m) zirconia phase transformation, analogue to Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, where retained austenite is transformed to martensite. The aim of this study is to corroborate if the observed plasticity can be associated exclusively to the zirconia t-m phase transformation, or also to microcraking induced by the transformation. The t-m transformed-zones produced after bending and biaxial tests were examined by X-ray refraction and SEM/TEM coupled with Raman. The results revealed that the observed elastic-plastic behavior occurs without extensive microcracking, confirming a purely elastic-plastic behavior driven by the phase transformation (absence of damage).

  • 17.
    Linden, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Diedrich, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Life cycle work: A process study of the emergence and performance of life cycle practice2020In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle management (LCM) is a concept that goes beyond traditional corporate environmental management, due to its’ focus on a product’s entire life cycle. The spread of such concepts is usually understood in terms of processes of ‘diffusion’, whereby ideas spread over time by some inexplicable force. However, diffusion has proven less adequate to describe how ideas spreads in practice. Here, we address this oversight by studying the emergence and performance of what we refer to as life cycle practices. Drawing on an analysis of the development of a sustainability portfolio within a globally-operating manufacturing company, we illustrate the kinds of life cycle work involved in dealing with local activities and interests, connecting activities and interests into action-nets, performing life cycle practices, and spreading the life cycle idea. Finally, we discuss implications of life cycle work for research in the field of organization and management studies and for LCM research.

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    Nilsson-Lindén, Diedrich, Baumann (2020) Life cycle work
  • 18.
    Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden - SPÅRBARHET OCH MÄRKNING: Sammanställning av aktiviteter och tester inom AP32020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 19.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Örnemark, Ulf
    Emendo dokumentgranskning, Sweden.
    Metodvalidering : Handbok för laboratoriet: utgåva 42020Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 20.
    Martin-Bertelsen, Birte
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erika
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Hedlund, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Stigsson, Lars
    KIRAM AB, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Revisiting the dissolution of cellulose in NaOH as "Seen" by X-rays2020In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cotton production is reaching a global limit, leading to a growing demand for bio-based textile fibers produced by other means. Textile fibers based on regenerated cellulose from wood holds great potential, but in order to produce fibers, the components need to be dissolved in suitable solvents. Furthermore, the dissolution process of cellulose is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the dissolution state of microcrystalline cellulose in aqueous NaOH by using primarily scattering methods. Contrary to previous findings, this study indicated that cellulose concentrations of up to 2 wt % are completely molecularly dissolved in 8 wt % NaOH. Scattering data furthermore revealed the presence of semi-flexible cylinders with stiff segments. In order to improve the dissolution capability of NaOH, the effects of different additives have been of interest. In this study, scattering data indicated that the addition of ZnO decreased the formation of aggregates, while the addition of PEG did not improve the dissolution properties significantly, although preliminary NMR data did suggest a weak attraction between PEG and cellulose. Overall, this study sheds further light on the dissolution of cellulose in NaOH and highlights the use of scattering methods to assess solvent quality. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 21.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Centerholt, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Bryntesson, Peter
    The Scandinavian Automotive Supplier Association, Sweden.
    Banehag, Gabriella
    The Scandinavian Automotive Supplier Association, Sweden.
    Insufficient knowledge in industrial digitalization – Promising perspective from female suppliers2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 38, p. 832-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) don’t know exactly what digitalization means and have difficulties in reaching the potential benefits. To stay competitive SMEs, need support in how to implement digitalization. A promising perspective and ideas on how to get started were captured in two courses given to female suppliers from the automotive industry. The female suppliers stated that it is relevant to start small, find enjoyment in digitalization, involve all co-workers, find a strategy for competence insurance, start learning programs and find business in digitalization.

  • 22.
    Monte, Joana
    et al.
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Claudia
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Parreira, Celina
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Costa, Luis
    A4F Algae for Future, Portugal.
    Brive, Lena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Casal, Susana
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Brazinha, Carla
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Crespo, Jaoa
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Biorefinery of Dunaliella salina: Sustainable recovery of carotenoids, polar lipids and glycerol2020In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 297, article id 122509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dunaliella salina is well-known for its high content in carotenoids and glycerol. Nevertheless, Dunaliella salina has also a high content in lipids, including polar lipids, which are suitable for nutraceutical/cosmeceutical applications. This work proposes a sustainable process to maximise the potential of Dunaliella salina for the production of distinct fractions of carotenoids, glycerol, polar lipids and proteins, which may contribute to improve the revenues of the microalgae industry. In this work, extraction with non-hazardous solvents and organic solvent nanofiltration are integrated, in order to obtain added-value products and glycerol. Also, aiming to separate carotenoids from glycerides, a saponification process is proposed. High overall recoveries were obtained for carotenoids (85%), glycerol (86%), polar lipids (94%) and proteins (95%). In order to evaluate the profitability of the proposed biorefinery, an economic assessment was accomplished. Both CAPEX and OPEX (Capital and Operating expenditure) were calculated, likewise the Return of Investment (ROI).

  • 23.
    Nazarov, Andrej P.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Persson, Daniel Pergament
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Electrochemical and corrosion properties of ZnO/Zn electrode in atmospheric environments2015In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 737, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO films of different thicknesses were prepared by thermal oxidation of zinc. The oxide covered surfaces were characterized by Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) and Scanning Kelvin Probe-Surface Photovoltage (SKP-SPV) techniques, Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS), contact angle measurements, and dc voltammetry. The influence of the thickness of ZnO on the absorption of the light, water and oxygen was evaluated. SKP and dc electrochemistry were used to estimate the mechanism of electron exchange between the zinc surface and an aqueous solution containing a red-ox system [Fe(CN)6]2-/[Fe(CN)6]3-. It was shown that ZnO/Zn electrodes with a thick ZnO film nobled the Volta potential that enhanced the electron transfer from the bulk zinc to the molecule of the oxidizer- [Fe(CN)6]3-. Atmospheric corrosion of oxidized zinc surface was investigated after deposition of a single droplet of NaCl aqueous electrolyte. Thicker ZnO films promote the oxygen reduction and the spreading area of the cathodic reaction from the local NaCl contamination. It enlarged the area of metal surface participating in the cathodic reaction and consequently accelerated the atmospheric corrosion. The ability to enhance the oxygen reduction was discussed from the point of view of the band structure and the semiconducting properties of the ZnO layer.

  • 24.
    Newman, Diane K
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    New, Peter W
    Monash University, Australia; Caulfield Hospital, Australia.
    Heriseanu, Roxana
    Royal Rehab, Australia.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Håkansson, Maria Å
    Wellspect, Sweden.
    Lee, Bonsan Bonne
    Prince of Wales Hospital, Australia.
    Intermittent catheterization with single- or multiple-reuse catheters: clinical study on safety and impact on quality of life.2020In: International Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0301-1623, E-ISSN 1573-2584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Intermittent catheterization (IC) is a proven effective long-term bladder management strategy for individuals who have lower urinary tract dysfunction. This study provides clinical evidence about multiple-reuse versus single-use catheterization techniques and if catheter choice can have an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

    METHOD: A prospective, multi-center, clinical trial studied patients who currently practiced catheter reuse, and who agreed to prospectively evaluate single-use hydrophilic-coated (HC) (i.e. LoFric) catheters for 4 weeks. A validated Intermittent Self-Catheterization Questionnaire (ISC-Q) was used to obtain HRQoL. Reused catheters were collected and studied with regard to microbial and debris contamination.

    RESULTS: The study included 39 patients who had practiced IC for a mean of 10 years, 6 times daily. At inclusion, all patients reused catheters for a mean of 21 days (SD = 48) per catheter. 36 patients completed the prospective test period and the mean ISC-Q score increased from 58.0 (SD = 22.6) to 67.2 (SD = 17.7) when patients switched to the single-use HC catheters (p = 0.0101). At the end of the study, 83% (95% CI [67-94%]) preferred to continue using single-use HC catheters. All collected reused catheters (100%) were contaminated by debris and 74% (95% CI [58-87%]) were contaminated by microorganisms, some with biofilm.

    CONCLUSION: Single-use HC catheters improved HRQoL and were preferred over catheter reuse among people practicing IC. Catheter multiple-reuse may pose a potential safety concern due to colonization by microorganisms as well as having reduced acceptance compared to single use.

    TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02129738.

  • 25.
    Oliaei, Erfan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindén, Pär
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) and nanopaper films from unbleached kraft softwood pulp2020In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is an important industrial nanocellulose product and material component. New MFC grades can widen the materials property range and improve product tailoring. Microfibrillated lignocellulose (MFLC) is investigated, with the hypothesis that there is an optimum in lignin content of unbleached wood pulp fibre with respect to nanofibril yield. A series of kraft fibres with falling Kappa numbers (lower lignin content) was prepared. Fibres were beaten and fibrillated into MFLC by high-pressure microfluidization. Nano-sized fractions of fibrils were separated using centrifugation. Lignin content and carbohydrate analysis, total charge, FE-SEM, TEM microscopy and suspension rheology characterization were carried out. Fibres with Kappa number 65 (11% lignin) combined high lignin content with ease of fibrillation. This confirms an optimum in nanofibril yield as a function of lignin content, and mechanisms are discussed. MFLC from these fibres contained a 40–60 wt% fraction of nano-sized fibrils with widths in the range of 2.5–70 nm. Despite the large size distribution, data for modulus and tensile strength of MFLC films with 11% lignin were as high as 14 GPa and 240 MPa. MFLC films showed improved water contact angle of 84–88°, compared to neat MFC films (< 50°). All MFLC films showed substantial optical transmittance, and the fraction of haze scattering strongly correlated with defect content in the form of coarse fibrils. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 26.
    Palladino, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Hacke, Marei
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Poggi, Giovanna
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kolman, Krzysztof
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Nouryon, Sweden.
    Xu, Qingmeng
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Persson, Michael E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Nouryon, Sweden.
    Giorgi, Rodorico
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Holmberg, Krister
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Baglioni, Piero
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanomaterials for combined stabilisation and deacidification of cellulosic materials: the case of iron-tannate dyed cotton2020In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conservation of textiles is a challenge due to the often fast degradation that results from the acidity combined with a complex structure that requires remediation actions to be conducted at several length scales. Nanomaterials have lately been used for various purposes in the conservation of cultural heritage. The advantage with these materials is their high efficiency combined with a great control. Here, we provide an overview of the latest developments in terms of nanomaterials-based alternatives, namely inorganic nanoparticles and nanocellulose, to conventional methods for the strengthening and deacidification of cellulose-based materials. Then, using the case of iron-tannate dyed cotton, we show that conservation can only be addressed if the mechanical strengthening is preceded by a deacidification step. We used CaCO3 nanoparticles to neutralize the acidity, while the stabilisation was addressed by a combination of nanocellulose, and silica nanoparticles, to truly tackle the complexity of the hierarchical nature of cotton textiles. Silica nanoparticles enabled strengthening at the fibre scale by covering the fibre surface, while the nanocellulose acted at bigger length scales. The evaluation of the applied treatments, before and after an accelerated ageing, was assessed by tensile testing, the fibre structure by SEM and the apparent colour changes by colourimetric measurements.

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  • 27.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Malm, A
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, T.
    RenoveraVA, Sweden.
    Condition monitoring of excavated CIPP-liners to ensure lifespan2020In: 37th International NO-DIG Conference and Exhibition 2019, International Society for Trenchless Technology , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a lack of knowledge on the expected service life of installed CIPP-liners and a general aim to request CIPP-liners with a 100-year lifespan. In cooperation with Swedish water utilities a national project has been launched for condition monitoring of used CIPP-liners. A large number of CIPP-liners installed in sewage pipes will be excavated and analyzed in order to evaluate material degradation and estimating remaining service life. The CIPP-liners are all between 5-35 years old. The material performance of the CIPP-liners are either compared with the reference data provided from the installation, or in some case compared to pieces of corresponding CIPP-liners that have been kept in a storage. These pieces becomes especially valuable when looking at possible changes in mechanical properties that may have occurred during the time in use. The materials will be assessed by e.g. bending modulus to investigate material integrity and e.g. FT-IR for chemical stability in the environment of the sewage system. In total the results will give a valuable tool in assessing the expected lifetime of the installed CIPP-liners. The knowledge acquired will help Swedish water utilities to predict service life of installed CIPP-liners and to set sufficient quality demands on new installations for pipe renovation. At an initial stage two excavated CIPP-liners that have been in use for 12 and 16 years have been analyzed and compared with reference data from the time of installation.

  • 28.
    Perez Caro, Lluis
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schill, Mikael
    DYNAmore Nordic AB, Sweden.
    Steffenburg-Nordenström, Joachim
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden, Sweden.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Prediction of shape distortions during forming and welding of a double-curved strip geometry in alloy 7182020In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The finite element method (FEM) has considerably contributed to the development of advanced manufacturing methods for metal structures. The prediction of the final shape of a component is of great interest to the manufacturing industry. The level of demand may increase due to multistage processes. Therefore, including all steps of the manufacturing chain in the simulations is a key to being successful. This has been done for a long time in the stamping industry, which involves sequences of forming, trimming, and springback. However, more complex manufacturing procedures that include assembling of formed parts with forgings and castings via welding have been modelled with simplifications, resulting in a reduced prediction accuracy. In the present study, a double-curved part manufactured from alloy 718 is formed at 20 °C and laser-welded using the bead-on-plate procedure. The coupling of different manufacturing analyses, including cold forming, trimming, result mapping, welding, cooling, and springback, is achieved using LS-DYNA. Additionally, the effect of adding a damage and failure model in the forming simulation is studied. The results of the forming analysis are used as inputs for the material model *MAT_CWM in the welding simulation. The anisotropic thermomechanical properties of alloy 718 are determined at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Encouraging agreement is found between the model predictions and the results of forming and welding tests. The findings underscore the importance of including the material history and accurate process conditions along the manufacturing chain to both the prediction accuracy of shape distortions, and to the potential of the industry. © 2020, The Author(s).

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    Erratum
  • 29.
    Persson, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Heydari, G
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Edvinsson, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Sundell, P. E.
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Depth-resolved FTIR focal plane array (FPA) spectroscopic imaging of the loss of melamine functionality of polyester melamine coating after accelerated and natural weathering2020In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 86, article id 106500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FTIR-ATR (Focal Plane Array) FPA spectroscopic imaging was used to obtain depth resolved information about degradation of a polyester melamine coating by performing measurements on drilled conical holes. The results of the FTIR-FPA imaging show that combined effect of UV and moisture resulted in larger degradation effects in the outermost parts of the coatings but loss of melamine functionality was detected to the depth of approximately 8–10 μm after 2163 h weathering in QUVA accelerated test and after 4 years exposure in a marine environment. Longer periods of accelerated weathering, up to 4000 h, resulted in degradation through the whole coating outer layer.

  • 30.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Östling, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Quistgaard, Louise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Välkommen in i det cirkulära: Erfarenheter och slutsatser från projektet ”Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden” startades med syfte att visa hur en bransch konkret kan ställa om till en mer cirkulär ekonomi. Vi ville möta samhällets behov av minskat resursbehov och mer hållbar industriell utveckling, genom att ge förutsättningar för en produktion och konsumtion av offentliga möbler som var mer resurseffektiv, mindre miljöbelastande och samtidigt stärkte företagens internationella konkurrenskraft.

    Projektet har pågått i tre steg, finansierade genom Vinnovas program Utmaningsdriven innovation under åren 2014-2020. Under steg 1 identifierades intresse, behov, potential och affärsmöjligheter för en ökad cirkulär ekonomi inom svensk möbelindustri gällande främst möbler/inredning för offentligt bruk. I steg 2 utvecklades och testades de identifierade affärsmodellkoncepten, och nytänkande affärsrelationer och affärsmodeller togs fram. I detta steg kunde vi också visa att det gick att förena stark konkurrenskraft med en mer hållbar samhällsutveckling. I steg 3 har fokus varit på att gå från enskilda goda exempel till industriell skala, med nya erbjudanden, ändrade affärsmodeller, ökad efterfrågan och nya rutiner och normer där cirkulärt är det nya normala. Genom alla steg har projektet stävat efter att cirkulära erbjudanden och affärer ska bli ett stolt och självklart inslag hos de som erbjuder och efterfrågar möbler för offentligt bruk i Sverige.

    Nu är vi där. Tillverkare, återförsäljare och återbrukare tävlar idag om att visa upp sina cirkulära erbjudanden och inredningsarkitekter och kunder – inom offentlig såväl som privat sektor – inför nya upphandlingsföremål, roller och rutiner till förmån för cirkulära flöden.

    I den här skriften ges en sammanfattning av den utveckling vi gjort tillsammans inom projektet, och ni får även stifta bekantskap med många av våra partners och deras cirkulära resa. Vi vill på detta sätt visa att det går att ta steget från enstaka återbruksexempel till cirkulära affärer i stor skala – i alla fall om man jobbar tillsammans!

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  • 31.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Shun Han
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lang, Xiao
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Kamf, Jonas
    W4P Waves4Power AB, Sweden.
    Mooring forces in a floating point-absorbing WEC system–a comparison between full-scale measurements and numerical simulations2020In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an investigation of Waves4Power’s WaveEL 3.0 wave energy converter (WEC). It was used as a reference for full-scale measurements of the mooring forces and buoy motions in a measurement campaign 2017 at an installation location off the coast of Runde in Norway. A numerical simulation model of the installation was developed in the DNV GL software SESAM. Unfortunately, the sea state conditions were not measured during the measurement campaign. Hence, a methodology was developed that used the recorded motion data to compute the sea state conditions at the test site. The simulated WEC motions based on the computed sea states agreed very well with the measured WEC motions. The measured and simulated mooring forces were compared under various environmental conditions. 3-hour sea state realizations are typically preferred in numerical simulations. However, influences from the tide at the test site showed that sea states were normally stationary for only 1–2 h. The measured and simulated average mooring forces agreed very well during 1-hour periods, whereas the simulations overestimated the mooring forces in 3-hour periods because of the tide. © 2020 The Author(s). 

  • 32.
    Robuschi, Samanta
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, Ignasi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anchorage of naturally corroded, plain reinforcement bars in flexural members2020In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 53, no 2, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforced concrete structures are often damaged by corrosion, which affects the interaction between reinforcement bars and concrete. Earlier studies mostly applied artificial corrosion to test the bond between deformed bars and concrete. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the effects of natural corrosion on plain bars. In this paper, 20 beams with naturally corroded plain bars and varying amount of damage were taken from an 80-year-old bridge and tested in three-point bending. All but three of the specimens anchored the yield force of the bars after the opening of one or two major bending cracks. At large deflections, the load-carrying mechanism changed from beam to arch action. Eventually, end-slip of the reinforcement bars was observed. The bars were extracted, cleaned, three-dimensionally scanned, and tested in tension. The average bond strength in the unyielded zone was found to be equal to 7.39 MPa, with a standard deviation of 3.33 MPa. The casting position was identified as an important factor: when uncorroded, bottom-cast bars had a higher bond strength than that of top-cast bars. However, they were more prone to splitting cracks and, consequently, loss of bond strength for small corrosion levels. Top-cast bars had increasing bond strength with increasing corrosion levels, owing to the absence of external cracks. These differences were likely related to a denser concrete surrounding the bottom-cast bars. The remaining bond capacity in the yielded zones was evaluated to be approximately 1.0 MPa. © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 33.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Posner, Stefan
    Stefan Posner AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Function-Based Approach for Life Cycle Management of Chemicals in the Textile Industry2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer products such as clothes and footwear sometimes contain chemical substances with properties that pose a risk to human health and the environment. These substances, restricted by law or company policy, are in focus for chemicals management processes by textile retailers. However, complex and non-transparent supply chains, and limited chemical knowledge, makes chemicals management challenging. Therefore, a function-based approach for life cycle management (LCM) of chemicals was developed, based on results of previous projects and evaluated using a two-step Delphi process. The resulting approach aims to help retailers identify and substitute hazardous substances in products, and consists of three parts: (i) a function-based chemicals management concept model for different levels of chemical information within the supply chain, (ii) tools for non-chemists which explain chemical information, and (iii) a continuous provision of knowledge to stakeholders (e.g., retailers) in a network. This approach is successfully implemented by over 100 retailers in the Nordic countries, providing the textile industry with practical and robust tools to manage and substitute hazardous chemicals in products and production processes. We conclude that the developed approach provides an explicit link, communication, and knowledge sharing between actors in the supply chain, which has proven important in chemicals LCM.

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  • 34.
    Saarimaa, Ville J.
    et al.
    Top Analytica, Finland.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Zavalis, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Kaleva, Aaretti
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Nikkanen, Juha Pekka
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Levänen, Erkki
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Assessment of pitting corrosion in bare and passivated (wet scCO2-induced patination and chemical passivation) hot-dip galvanized steel samples with SVET, FTIR, and SEM (EDS)2020In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the local electrochemical activity of untreated and passivated (natural or chemical passivation) zinc specimens was observed during immersion in a 0.1-M NaCl solution. The localized anodic activity during the exposure, measured with the scanning vibrating electrode technique, was linked to zinc dissolution by the pitting corrosion mechanism. It was correlated to specific corrosion products characterized by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) microscopy. FTIR molecule maps were produced from individual pitting corrosion sites (100–200 µm in width). With argon ion beam milling and latest energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) technology, element maps with a high spatial resolution (≪100 nm) were recorded from abrasion- and beam-sensitive corrosion products, showing a residual layer structure. This study demonstrates the capability of FTIR mapping, cross-section polishing, and state-of-the-art scanning electron microscopy imaging, and EDS element mapping to produce high-resolution elemental, molecular, and visual information about pitting corrosion mechanisms on a hot-dip galvanized steel sample.

  • 35.
    Saseendran, Sibin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Berglund, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Viscoelastic model with complex rheological behavior (VisCoR): incremental formulation2020In: Advanced Manufacturing: Polymer and Composites Science, ISSN 2055-0359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermo-rheologically complex linear viscoelastic material model, accounting for temperature and degree of cure (DoC), is developed starting with series expansion of the Helmholtz free energy and systematically implementing simplifying assumptions regarding the material behavior. In addition to the temperature and DoC dependent shift factor present in rheologically simple models, the derived novel model contains three cure and temperature dependent functions. The first function is identified as the rubbery modulus. The second is a weight factor to the transient integral term in the model and reflects the current temperature and cure state, whereas the third function is under the sign of the convolution integral, thus affecting the “memory” of the material. An incremental form of this model is presented which, due to improved approximation inside the time increment, has better numerical convergence than most of the similar forms. Parametric analysis is performed simulating stress development in a polymer, geometrically constrained in the mold during curing and cool-down. The importance of using proper viscoelastic model is shown, and the role of parameters in the model is revealed and discussed. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 36.
    Stig, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Extended framework for geometric modelling of textile architectures2020In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 244, article id 112239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three dimensional (3D) textiles are finding their way into fibre reinforced composite applications, and for good reasons; they can eliminate the hazard of delamination and enable complex reinforcement shapes. There is therefore a need for engineering methods to simulate these advanced textile structures during the product development phase. This is many times challenging since the textile architecture is truly 3D and not built by layers as in conventional laminated composites. The overall approach is similar as in a method previously presented by the authors, but some steps are changed that enable modelling of textiles containing strongly curved yarns, yet with very good geometric representation. That is essential for reliable simulations of all parts of the 3D reinforced composite materials, which could then be performed at close to authentic meso level resolution. The resulting textile geometries are very similar to the real materials they represent, both in terms of variation of yarn cross section area and shape along the length of the yarns. This is demonstrated by comparison of details between the real materials and the numerical implementations of their geometry.

  • 37.
    Tasiopoulos, Christos
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Sahlin, Herman
    Neoss Ltd, Sweden.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface Functionalization of PTFE Membranes Intended for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Recombinant Spider Silk2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 577-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alveolar bone loss is usually treated with guided bone regeneration, a dental procedure which utilizes a tissue-separation membrane. The barrier membrane prevents pathogens and epithelial cells to invade the bone augmentation site, thereby permitting osteoblasts to deposit minerals and build up bone. This study aims at adding bioactive properties to otherwise inert PTFE membranes in order to enhance cell adherence and promote proliferation. A prewetting by ethanol and stepwise hydration protocol was herein employed to overcome high surface tension of PTFE membranes and allow for a recombinant spider silk protein, functionalized with a cell-binding motif from fibronectin (FN-silk), to self-assemble into a nanofibrillar coating. HaCaT and U-2 OS cells were seeded onto soft and hard tissue sides, respectively, of membranes coated with FN-silk. The cells could firmly adhere as early as 1 h post seeding, as well as markedly grow in numbers when kept in culture for 7 days. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy images revealed that adherent cells could form a confluent monolayer and develop essential cell-cell contacts during 1 week of culture. Hence, functionalized PTFE membranes have a potential of better integration at the implantation site, with reduced risk of membrane displacement as well as exposure to oral pathogens.

  • 38.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Corrosion of hot-dip-galvanised steel and zinc alloy-coated steel in ammonia and ammonium chloride2020In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many potential causes of corrosion in animal buildings. Animals exhale large quantities of moisture into the air creating high relative humidity in the building if the moisture is not properly vented. High humidity increases the potential for condensation. In addition, ammonia may be found in large quantities in animal buildings. Ammonia is released from manure and urine. In addition, ammonium chloride is used as a nitrogen source in fertilisers. In this study, the atmospheric corrosion of hot-dip-galvanised steel and zinc alloy-coated steel such as zinc–aluminium and zinc–aluminium–magnesium has been studied in atmospheres containing different levels of ammonia. Investigations have also been conducted at different levels of ammonium chloride. The results are discussed in view of the mechanisms of corrosion of zinc and zinc alloy-coated steel in ammonia and ammonium chloride-containing environments.

  • 39.
    Tiemann, T T
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Padma, A M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sehic, E
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäckdahl, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Oltean, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Song, M J
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; The Catholic University of Korea, South Korea.
    Brännström, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Stockholm IVF-EUGIN, Sweden.
    Hellström, M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards uterus tissue engineering: a comparative study of sheep uterus decellularisation.2020In: Molecular human reproduction, ISSN 1360-9947, E-ISSN 1460-2407, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uterus tissue engineering may dismantle limitations in current uterus transplantation protocols. A uterine biomaterial populated with patient-derived cells could potentially serve as a graft to circumvent complicated surgery of live donors, immunosuppressive medication, and rejection episodes. Repeated uterine bioengineering studies on rodents have shown promising results using decellularised scaffolds to restore fertility in a partially impaired uterus, and now mandate experiments on larger and more human-like animal models. The aim of the presented studies was therefore to establish adequate protocols for scaffold generation, and prepare for future in-vivo sheep uterus bioengineering experiments. Three decellularisation protocols were developed using vascular perfusion through the uterine artery of whole sheep uteri obtained from slaughterhouse material. Decellularisation solutions used were based on 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (protocol 1) or 2% sodium deoxycholate (protocol 2) or with a sequential perfusion of 2% sodium deoxycholate and 1% Triton X-100 (protocol 3). The scaffolds were examined by histology, extracellular matrix quantification, evaluation of mechanical properties and the ability to support fetal sheep stem cells after recellularisation. We showed that a sheep uterus can successfully be decellularised while maintaining a high integrity of the extracellular components. Uteri perfused with sodium deoxycholate (protocol 2) was the most favourable treatment in our study based on quantifications. However, all scaffolds supported stem cells for two weeks in vitro and showed no cytotoxicity signs. Cells continued to express markers for proliferation and maintained their undifferentiated phenotype. Hence, this study reports three valuable decellularisation protocols for future in-vivo sheep uterus bioengineering experiments.

  • 40.
    van der Veen, Ike
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Hanning, Anne-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Stare, Ann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Leonards, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Weiss, Jana
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The effect of weathering on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from durable water repellent (DWR) clothing2020In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 249, article id 126100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effects of weathering on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from durable water repellent (DWR) clothing, thirteen commercial textile samples were exposed to elevated ultra violet (UV) radiation, humidity, and temperature in an aging device for 300 h, which mimics the lifespan of outdoor clothing. Before and after aging, the textile samples were extracted and analysed for the ionic PFASs (perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)) and volatile PFASs (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), acrylates (FTACs) and methacrylates (FTMACs)). Results showed that weathering can have an effect on PFASs used in DWR of outdoor clothing, both on the PFAS profile and on the measured concentrations. In most weathered samples the PFAA concentrations increased by 5- to more than 100-fold, while PFAAs not detected in the original textiles were detected in the weathered samples. DWR chemistries are based on side-chain fluorinated polymers. A possible explanation for the increase in concentration of the PFAAs is hydrolysis of the fluorotelomer based polymers (FTPs), or degradation of the FTOHs, which are used in the manufacturing of the FTPs. The concentrations of volatile PFASs also increased, by a factor up to 20. Suggested explanations are the degradation of the DWR polymers, making non-extractable fluorines extractable, or the transformation or degradation of unknown precursors. Further research is needed to unravel the details of these processes and to determine the transformation routes. This study shows that setting maximum tolerance limits only for a few individual PFASs is not sufficient to control these harmful substances in outdoor clothing.

  • 41.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Filzmoser, Peter
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Fray, Nicolas
    Université de Paris, France.
    Cottin, Herve
    Université de Paris, France.
    Merouane, Siane
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Paquette, John
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Briois, Christelle
    Université d'Orléans, France.
    Baklouti, Donia
    Université Paris Sud, France.
    Bardyn, Anais
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max-Planck-Institute, Germany.
    Composition of cometary particles collected during two periods of the Rosetta mission: multivariate evaluation of mass spectral data2020In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, article id e3218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instrument COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer) onboard of the European Space Agency mission Rosetta collected and analyzed dust particles in the neighborhood of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The chemical composition of the particle surfaces was characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. A set of 2213 spectra has been selected, and relative abundances for CH-containing positive ions as well as positive elemental ions define a set of multivariate data with nine variables. Evaluation by complementary chemometric techniques shows different compositions of sample groups collected during two periods of the mission. The first period was August to November 2014 (far from the Sun); the second period was January 2015 to February 2016 (nearer to the Sun). The applied data evaluation methods consider the compositional nature of the mass spectral data and comprise robust principal component analysis as well as classification with discriminant partial least squares regression, k-nearest neighbor search, and random forest decision trees. The results indicate a high importance of the relative abundances of the secondary ions C+ and Fe+ for the group separation and demonstrate an enhanced content of carbon-containing substances in samples collected in the period with smaller distances to the Sun. © 2020 The Authors.

  • 42.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Quality management to facilitate product introduction across borders2020In: International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, ISSN 1746-6474, E-ISSN 1746-6482, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 268-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how quality management (QM) can be used to mitigate managerial challenges in new product introduction (NPI) across national borders. A longitudinal case study involving one Swedish and one Chinese company was conducted. The data were collected through 35 semi-structured interviews and five workshops with employees and managers of several functions before, during and after NPI in a product development project. Several managerial challenges in the cross-cultural collaboration were revealed. The study demonstrated that lack of understanding of cultural differences negatively affected the NPI process and product quality, but these challenges could be handled by a QM approach. Therefore, this paper proposes QM to help mitigate managerial challenges in cross-cultural NPI. The paper contributes to earlier research on the application of QM and the NPI field by suggesting QM as a means to bridge cultural gaps and facilitate NPI across borders. 

  • 43.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Flansbjer, MathiasRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.Carró-Lopez, DiegoFernandez, Ignasi
    Analysis of tensile behavior of recycled aggregate concrete using acoustic emission technique2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was processed from reinforced concrete edge beams sourced from a demolished bridge. This material replaced different ratios of coarse aggregate in a benchmark concrete. The tensile behavior of the developed concrete mixes was characterized via monotonic and cyclic uni-axial tensile tests performed on notched cylinders. Such tensile tests allow for the quantification of the fracture energy and softening behavior of the concrete. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) measurements were conducted in conjunction with the cyclic tests to characterize e.g. micro-crack initiation and development, as well as crack localization. The tensile behavior of the various materials was found to be similar with minimal variation in the results. However, the softening behavior suggests that the RCA materials are slightly more brittle compared to both the mother and benchmark materials. The corresponding AE measurements also indicated similarities between the micro-crack initiation and development for these mixes. It can be constituted that if the concrete used to produce RCA is of high quality and from one source, the resulting RAC will have adequate tensile properties with minimal variation, despite the aggregate replacement ratio.

  • 44.
    Zimmerman, Jordan J
    et al.
    Medical College of WI, USA.
    Bain, James LW
    Medical College of WI, USA.
    Wu, Chaowen
    Medical College of WI, USA.
    Lindell, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Grétarsson, Snævar Leó
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Riley, Danny A
    Medical College of WI, USA.
    Riveting hammer vibration damages mechanosensory nerve endings2020In: Journal of the peripheral nervous system, ISSN 1085-9489, E-ISSN 1529-8027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is an irreversible neurodegenerative, vasospastic and musculoskeletal occupational disease of workers using powered hand tools. The etiology is poorly understood. Neurological symptoms include numbness, tingling and pain. This study examines impact hammer vibration-induced injury and recoverability of hair mechanosensory innervation. Methods Rat tails were vibrated 12?min/d for 5 wk followed by 5 wk recovery with synchronous non-vibrated controls. Nerve fibers were PGP9.5 immunostained. Lanceolate complex innervation was compared quantitatively in vibrated vs sham. Vibration peak acceleration magnitudes were characterized by frequency power spectral analysis. Results Average magnitude (2515?m/s2, rms) in kHz frequencies was 109 times that (23?m/s2) in low Hz. Percentage of hairs innervated by lanceolate complexes was 69.1% in 5wk sham and 53.4% in 5wk vib generating a denervation difference of 15.7% higher in vibration. Hair innervation was 76.9% in 5wk recovery sham and 62.0% in 5wk recovery vibration producing a denervation difference 14.9% higher in recovery vibration. Lanceolate number per complex (18.4?±?0.2) after vibration remained near sham (19.3?±?0.3), but 44.9% of lanceolate complexes were abnormal in 5 wk vibrated compared to 18.8% in sham. Interpretation The largest vibration energies are peak kHz accelerations (~?100?000?m/s2) from shock waves. The existing ISO 5349-1 standard excludes kHz vibrations, seriously underestimating vibration injury risk. The present study validates the rat-tail, impact hammer vibration as a model for investigating irreversible nerve damage. Persistence of higher denervation difference after 5-week recovery suggests repeated vibration injury destroys the capability of lanceolate nerve endings to regenerate. 

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