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  • 1.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment2020In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 3.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 11907-11917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 4.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems2020In: Fire Protection Engineering, ISSN 1524-900X, no 85, p. 16-22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fortifikationsverket (FORTV) has expressed a desire to investigate the design, reliability, performance and cost of a sprinkler system for a typical underground fortification facility. Based on the cost and the benefit associated with a sprinkler system, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. In addition, water mist fire protection systems were studied. The installation cost analysis was based on two fictious facilities; a small facility with a net area of 1 000 m2 and a large facility with a 5 000 m2 net area.

    The estimated installation cost for a traditional sprinkler system in the smaller type facility is about SEK 1,3 million and about SEK 3,3 million for the larger type facility. The installation cost for a high-pressure water mist system is higher than that of a traditional sprinkler system for the smaller type facility but comparable for the larger type facility. A low‑pressure water mist system seems to be the least expensive option for both types of facilities. This is probably because the system, unlike a traditional sprinkler system, requires smaller pipe sizes, smaller water pumps and a smaller water tank and unlike a high-pressure system uses normal steel pipes and less expensive centrifugal pumps.

    The cost-benefit analysis for the fictitious type facilities shows that a sprinkler system is cost-effective, especially for the larger type facility. But it should be noted that the uncertainty in the data base is quite large, which means that the trends in the result can be used for further analysis, but that the actual values ​​of the benefit ratio should be viewed with some caution. The sprinkler system mainly has an effect to reduce the property loss. The expected benefit for personal injury is around one percent of the total benefit of the sprinkler system. This is because the risk of fatality and injuries in the event of a fire is small, as people can usually put themselves in safety. The reduction in property loss was assumed to be 75%, and an assumed lowered benefit of sprinklers (50% and 25% property loss reduction, respectively) leads to a lower benefit ratio but for the large type facility the benefit ratio is still above 1,0. The benefit of sprinklers also decreases if the assumed fire frequency is reduced. However, for the larger type plant, the calculation shows that there is still a benefit, even if the assumed fire frequency is halved. The same applies if the cost of replacement of expensive equipment is assumed to be half as high.

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  • 6.
    Badrzadeh, B
    et al.
    Australian Energy Market Operator, Australia.
    Emin, Zia
    PSC Power Systems Consultants, USA.
    Hillberg, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jacobson, D
    Manitoba Hydro, Canada.
    Kocewiak, L
    Ørsted Offshore, Denmark.
    Lietz, G
    Digsilent, Germany.
    da Silva, F
    Aalborg university, Denmark.
    Val Escudero, M
    Eirgrid, Ireland.
    The Need or Enhanced Power System Modelling Techniques and Simulation Tools2020In: CIGRE SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, E-ISSN 2426-1335, Vol. 17, no Febr, p. 30-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a clean energy future requires thorough understanding of increasingly complex interactions between conventional generation, network equipment, variable renewable generation technologies (centralised and distributed), and demand response. Secure and reliable operation under such complex interactions requires the use of more advanced power system modelling and simulation tools and techniques. Conventional tools and techniques are reaching their limits to support such paradigm shifts. This paper provides an overview of commonly used and emerging power system simulation tools and techniques. Applications of these tools ranging from real-time power system operation to long-term planning are also discussed. Various approaches to gain confidence in the accuracy and applicability of the simulation models are presented. The paper then discusses emerging trends in simulation tools and techniques primarily stemming from the transition to a power system with increased penetration of inverter-based resources as these are used in variable renewable energy technologies.

  • 7.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Collection of Façade Fire Tests Including Timber Structures2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes three case studies that each involved an analysis of a fire test of an external wall that included a timber structure or part of a timber structure. These external walls all had wooden façade panels, were ventilated behind the façade panels and had glass wool or stone wool insulation. The three case studies aim to assess the contribution of structural timber to the fire development and the fire spread. In addition, the potential of façade systems with combustible materials to limit the fire spread through and along the external wall was assessed. The fire tests were performed for commercial purposes and their results were made available for this study. Not all details of the façade systems details are included in this report.

    The analysis discussed in this report indicates that the timber structures did not contribute to the fire development and the fire spread in two of the three tests. The structural members in the external wall remained unaffected during the test. Visual inspection of the third test showed locally some superficial coloring and charring. However, the temperature measurements of the remaining test did not indicate any contribution of the structural timber to the fire development and fire spread. The energy contribution corresponding to the local and superficial coloring and charring is considered negligible.

    Two of the three tests analyzed in this study were performed in accordance with the Swedish façade fire testing standard SP Fire 105. Both tests were assessed by the accredited testing institute to meet the requirements set by the Swedish Building regulations that: (1) the fire spread inside the external wall shall be limited; (2) the risk for fire spread along the façade surface shall be limited and; (3) the risk for injuries as a consequence of falling parts from the external wall shall be limited.

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  • 8.
    Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charging of electric cars in parking garages2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

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  • 9.
    Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Ladding av elbil i parkeringsgarage2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Charging of electric cars in parking garages

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

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  • 10.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Design of a local energy market with multiple energy carriers2020In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 118, article id 105739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in the electric power sector as well as in district heating and cooling systems has led to an increased interest in local energy systems and markets. In the electricity sector, this is driven by the integration of distributed resources such as solar power, electric vehicles and demand response. For district heating, sustainability and energy efficiency targets drives the development to further exploit small-scale heat sources. A closer integration of these energy carriers can also unlock potential flexibility, to the benefit of local as well as overlaying systems. In this respect, there is a need to further explore the possibilities to design local energy markets to facilitate the integration between electricity and district heating, as well as providing adequate instruments enabling flexibility. This paper therefore presents a market clearing design, based on optimization, for local energy markets incorporating multiple energy carriers and bid structures suitable for representing flexibility. The market clearing model is applied in a case study to illustrate and validate key design elements. One conclusion is that even though various elements can be added to the market clearing function, there is a challenge to interpret the results due to an increased complexity of the resulting optimization problem. 

  • 11.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Proceedings from the 9thInternational Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 13.
    Flink, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Hedberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Guide gällande dokumentationskrav för EN ISO 138492020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Machinery directive gives the requirements for safe machinery, and safe machine control, within the European Union. The European standard EN ISO 13849-1 describes safety-related machine control. This report explains some of the documentation requirements, especially for safety-related machine control systems.

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  • 14.
    Francart, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sargon Orahim, Allanmikel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sharing indoor space: stakeholders’ perspectives and energy metrics2020In: Buildings and Cities, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing of indoor space can improve space and energy efficiency. The drivers and barriers to space-sharing initiatives are investigated from the perspectives of building users and building sector practitioners, based on interviews and a workshop. The role of energy performance metrics in promoting space efficiency is further analysed through a literature review. From the users’ perspective, space sharing can be understood through the interplay between tangible aspects (e.g. concrete benefits derived from sharing), organisational aspects (e.g. common decision processes and conflict resolution) and social aspects (e.g. group identity and consensus on appropriate behaviours). From the perspective of architects and property owners, shareable spaces require features such as flexibility and multifunctionality. The design of such spaces is limited by regulatory issues (e.g. building regulations poorly accommodate shared facilities) and business-related issues. One such issue is that building performance metrics normalised based on floor area do not incentivise the efficient use of space. A review of complementary metrics is provided, covering parameters such as number of users, layout, time of use, etc. Each metric serves a particular purpose; therefore, a set of complementary metrics can be used to support decisions at different phases of the building’s life cycle.

    Practice relevanceImproving space efficiency (e.g. by sharing indoor space) is a key strategy to meet simultaneously the future demand for facilities in cities and fulfil environmental objectives such as a reduction of climate change impact in the building sector. A clearer understanding of the specificities of space sharing is provided from the perspectives of building users and practitioners. This will assist practitioners to understand the needs of other stakeholders. Regulatory and business-related barriers to space-sharing initiatives are highlighted as a first step towards overcoming these barriers. Guidance is provided on complementary energy performance metrics appropriate for space efficiency. These metrics can be used to support various decisions during the different stages of a building’s life cycle.

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  • 15.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Återvinning av avfall: Beslut och riskbedömning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to highlight different factors that waste recycling decisions can consider, as well as contributing to a constructive discussion of goals and overall principles for waste recycling. The background of the project is that it has been shown that the recycling of construction material has decreased with the application of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's handbook (2010:1). One view that emerged from an evaluation of the handbook is that the non-toxic environmental target (“Giftfri miljö”) gets too much weight and that resource management gets too little focus. As the climate crisis becomes more acute, and since recycling in many cases reduces the climate impact, this limitation can be questioned. However, it is currently unclear how a non-toxic environment and resource efficiency should be balanced.A literature study has been carried out in two parts: 1) decision and risk management theory, and 2) ethics. The first part was aimed at providing theory about risk decisions and basic steps that should be included in a decision-making process. The second part of the literature study, ethics, presents theory of ethical aspects linked to decisions. Ethics is central because it has long sought answers to the question of how we should act.Furthermore, nine interviews have also been conducted with various stakeholders, from the governmental agency level to recyclers, to capture how waste recycling works in practice. From the interview result, the theme "The goal Non-toxic environment and the difficulties that can arise in its practical application" crystallized. Which was discussed further in a workshop. Invited to the workshop were mainly those who had been interviewed and had relevant roles for the chosen theme.If waste recycling is seen as a decision problem, the choice is between to recycle (in different ways) or not to recycle (ie. landfill, incineration or energy recovery). Based on decision theory, all the relevant goals should be considered. This is likely to require a broader perspective for more difficult cases, which includes environmental risks linked to the different alternatives.With a broader perspective, it is recognized that no alternative is risk-free. A multi-criteria analysis can weigh the various factors against each other to see what weighs most, which from the perspective of the environmental code is most reasonable, ie. provides the most environmental benefit. A broader perspective favours long-term sustainability and, in the long run, all environmental goals. On a higher level, recycled and virgin material should be treated equally. Similarly, from a circular perspective, it should be demonstrated that the choice of material (recycled and virgin) promotes long-term sustainability.

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  • 16.
    Gyllenhammar, Magnus
    et al.
    Zenuity AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Autonomous Intelligent Driving, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heyn, Hans-Martin
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Jan
    Systemite AB, Sweden.
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Towards an Operational Design Domain That Supports the Safety Argumentation of an Automated Driving System2020In: 10th European Congress on Embedded Real Time Systems (ERTS 2020), Toulouse, France, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges for self-driving road vehicles is how to argue that their safety cases are complete.The operational design domain (ODD) of the automated driving system (ADS) can be used to restrict where the ADS is valid and thus confine the scope of the safety case as well as the verification. To complete the safety case there is a need to ensure that the ADS will not exit its ODD. We present four generic strategies to ensure this. Use cases (UCs) provide a convenient way providing such a strategy for a collection of operating conditions (OCs) and furth erensures that the ODD allows for operation within the real world. A framework to categorise the OCs of a UC is presented and it is suggested that the ODD is written with this structure in mind to facilitate mapping towards potential UCs. The ODD defines the functional boundary of the system and modelling it with this structure makes it modular and generalisable across different potential UCs. Further, using the ODD to connect the ADS to the UC enables the continuous delivery of the ADS feature. Two examples of dimensions of the ODD are given and a strategy to avoid an ODD exit is proposed in the respective case.

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  • 17.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Human contribution to safety of smart ships2019In: Developments in the Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Collision and Grounding of Ships and Offshore Structures, ICCGS 2019, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 328-336Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies show that humans contribute to accidents, but research rarely addresses all the accidents that are avoided thanks to human capabilities. Today there is an interest in autonomous vessels and automation within shipping, often with arguments for safety and efficiency. Research from other domains suggests that automation can have unintended side-effects. Instead of increasing safety, automation may undermine people’s ability to understand the situation and make decisions, introducing new risks to the processes. To conclude that the frequency of accidents will be reduced proportionally to the people removed from the system neglects the dynamics of the socio-technical system and the positive human impact on maritime safety. Although shipping around Åland is not free of accidents and incidents, the system has a very good safety performance. The main purpose of the analysis is to analyze human impact on safe operation and performance exemplified by the vessels in Åland’s ferry lines. 

  • 18.
    Ji, Yilin
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Fan, Wei
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Hentila, Lassi
    Keysight Technologies Oy, Finland.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Vehicles and Automation.
    Tufvesson, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Gert
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Virtual Drive Testing Over-the-Air for Vehicular Communications2020In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 1203-1213, article id 8917696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) over-the-air (OTA) testing is a standardized procedure to evaluate the performance of MIMO-capable devices such as mobile phones and laptops. With the growth of the vehicle-to-everything (V2X) service, the need for vehicular communication testing is expected to increase significantly. The so-called multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup is standardized for MIMO OTA testing. Typically, a test zone of 0.85 wavelength in diameter can be achieved with an 8-probe MPAC setup, which can encompass device-under-test (DUT) of small form factors. However, a test zone of this size may not be large enough to encompass DUTs such as cars. In this article, the sufficient number of OTA probes for the MPAC setup for car testing is investigated with respect to the emulation accuracy. Our investigation shows that the effective antenna distance of the DUT is more critical than its physical dimensions to determine the required number of OTA probes. In addition, throughput measurements are performed under the standard SCME UMa and UMi channel models with the 8-probe MPAC setup and the wireless cable setup, i.e. another standardized testing setup. The results show reasonably good agreement between the two setups for MIMO OTA testing with cars under the standard channel models. 

  • 19.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Hidalgo, Juan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    A Comparison of the Conditions in a Fire Resistance Furnace When Testing Combustible and Non-combustible Construction2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in a fire resistance furnace to study the differences in the boundary conditions, the fire dynamics and the fuel required to run the furnace when a combustible timber specimen as opposed to a non-combustible concrete specimen is tested. In both experiments measurements were taken in the furnace to evaluate the difference in the environments of the furnace and the response of the elements being tested. These include non-control plate thermometers distributed throughout the furnace; O2, CO2 and CO gas measurements taken at different distances from the specimen surface and in the furnace exhaust; instrumentation of one of the bricks comprising the furnace lining with thermocouples at different depths from the exposed surface; and mass loss of the combustible timber specimen. Thermal exposure of elements in a furnace is discussed, as well as the impact of the different materials on the similarity of thermal exposure. This is done through analysis and discussion of the different measurements taken and the apparent influence of the specimen being tested on the boundary condition of the heat diffusion equation. We conclude that; (1) the fire dynamics in a furnace are dependent on the specimen being tested; (2) that the test with the combustible specimen requires less fuel flow to the burners such that the control plate thermometers follow the ISO 834 temperature–time curve compared to the non-combustible specimen, however that this is not only a result of the combustibility of the specimen but is also a consequence of the different thermal inertia of the two materials; (3) that the boundary condition for heat transfer to a test object in furnace tests is dependent on the properties of the specimen being tested; and (4) that the timber when placed on the furnace experiences smouldering combustion after the char layer has formed. A fire resistance test of combustible construction of a given period represents a significantly less onerous test in terms of energy absorbed or fuel made available than one of a non-combustible construction, implying that the existing fire resistance framework may not be appropriate for timber structures and that an alternative approach may be required.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Zimmermann, Florian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Medium-scale self-heating tests with biomass pellets2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly known problem with storage of biomass pellets is the risk for self-heating. The propensity for self-heating depends on several parameters e.g. type of pellets, humidity, ventilation, temperature, type of storage and handling prior to storage.

    Within the framework of the research project SafePellets (Safety and quality assurance measures along the pellets supply chain) a medium-scale methodology to assess the propensity for self-heating has been developed. In addition, methods to study carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) concentrations as well as different aldehydes have been tested and evaluated in this study.

    Biomass pellets from three different sources, i.e. 100 % pine; a mixture of spruce and pine and a mixture of straw, seed residue and spruce, were tested in a 1 m3 test container. The test container and the pellets were pre-heated and kept at the nominal test temperature until self-heating occurred, or the test was terminated. Temperatures were measured at more than 40 different positions and gas samples were extracted from the test container and analysed.

    Differences were observed as a function of pellet type, but also as a function of nominal test temperature and ventilation. Significant levels of CO and CO2 and a reduced level of O2 were observed direct after the pre-heating, indicating oxidation of the pellets. Ten different tests were made; ignition occurred in four of them. The higher the nominal test temperature, the higher propensity for self-heating. When ignition occurred, the concentrations of CO and CO2 increased rapidly. It was found that the ventilation conditions were important. In some of the tests, natural convection caused the pellet bulk to cool. In other tests, when the test container was closed, the oxygen concentration dropped, and self-heating was reduced.

    Measurements of CO, CO2 and O2 contributed with information about the tests. However, the results from aldehyde measurements were unconcise and the values have only been used as indicative. Identified aldehydes were hexanal, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein.

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  • 21.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    The Role of Trans-Disciplinary Research in Sustainable Renovation2020In: Journal of Management and Sustainability, ISSN 1925-4725, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the role of trans-disciplinary research networks tackling the challenges of sustainablerenovation such as; environmental impact of substitute building materials and waste, relocation of tenants, lackof skilled labor, rent increase due to high renovation costs, and provides a detailed perspective on the effects interms of both new forms of collaboration and research results obtained by the researchers and practitionerswithin the network. The research network Sustainable Integrated Renovation SIRen has become a platform forresearchers and actors such as building owners, housing companies, facility managers, contractors, consultants,architects, building conservationists, authorities and tenants’ organisations to meet and work together ontechnical, environmental, economic, social and cultural historical aspects on renovation of buildings, as well asto identify and discuss new challenges. A multi-aspect process covering all aspects that must be considered bythe various actors during different stages of the renovation process has been developed and implemented in four‘Living Labs’ in real renovation projects. This involved using new modes of work in early stages to place thefocus on sustainability aspects and work on new dialogue methods and using methods to evaluate the variousrenovation options based on technical, environmental, economic, social and cultural historical perspectives.

  • 22.
    Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ukaj, Kujtim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Zawadowska, Aleksandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Summary report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the final report from the research project RO5. The report summarises the results from the research project RO5. The report consists of summary from a literature study, from computer simulations and from model scale tests. This, together with results from full scale demonstrational test (documented only in this report) leads to the conceptional solutions and recommendations presented in this report. The project focused aim was to investigate the effects of ventilation on fire development in ro-ro spaces with different ventilation conditions.

    Important conclusion from the literature study is that ventilation is primary to prevent flammable and other harmful gases from accumulating in the spaces, and the mechanical ventilation is not designed to be functional in case of fire. It is a must for the crew to gain knowledge about the ventilation system (i.e. fans, inlets and outlets) and its capacity from tests and experiences. It is important that guidelines, rules and routines are established for using the ventilation system in typical conditions (loading/unloading etc.) and that it is documented and passed on to provide guidance for the ship's crew.

    One of the most important conclusions from the model scale tests and numerical simulation study is that distinct limitation is found for 4% opening of space sides (natural ventilation) for the fire self-extinction to occur. This is dependent on the height and shape of the opening. For the mechanical ventilation case, in case of fire, stopping the ventilation is the best way to reduce the fire intensity. The tests show that mechanical ventilation is vital for the fire to continue to burn. The recommendations aim at giving advise concerning ventilation in case of fire and how to deal with the ventilation at different ro-ro spaces.

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  • 23.
    Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Rakovic, Alen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Model scale tests of a ro-ro space fire ventilation2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains results from a parametric study using model scale tests with natural and mechanical ventilation on ro-ro ship. Two types of fuels were used, heptane liquid fire and wood cribs. The heptane fire was used for the test series using natural ventilation and wood cribs were used in the test series using mechanical ventilation. The tests were carried out in a scale model 1:8 made of steel covered with 6 mm thick gypsum boards. The size of the model was 14.4 m long, 2.8 m wide and 0.6 m high. For natural ventilation different opening sizes (0, 1, 4 and 10% of the area of the walls along the sides) and shapes were located at different hull sides and sill heights. For mechanical ventilation both inlets supply, and outlets extracts were attached to the model and external fans combined with opening or closing of one end side. The air change per hours (ACPH) were set at 0, 10 and 20.

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  • 24.
    Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Ranudd, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    RO5 ro-ro space fire ventilation: Literature study2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire in a ro-ro space can grow intensely large and statistics show that the number of fire accidents in these spaces are not decreasing over the last years. The different types of ro-ro spaces defined in SOLAS has different requirements for fire extinguishing systems, natural and mechanical ventilation and fire detection system. RO5 aims to clarify how the ro-ro space ventilation affects the development and management of a fire and to recommend appropriate fire protection measures for ro-ro space with different ventilation conditions. This report gives the reader the background of the project with the review of literature together with review of accident investigation reports, inventory of ventilation design and a documentation of the performed hazard identification workshop that was held with suppliers, authorities, crew and ship owners.

    The final report of RO5 will present overall project result from tests, computer simulations including recommendations and concept solutions.

    The accident investigation review shows that the most common way to operate the ventilation system in case of a fire onboard was to shut it down. From the workshop the comments from crew was the interest to learn more how to use the ventilation system onboard. Densely stowed cars, which made it hard for the fire fighters to approach the fire, was mentioned as a problem in 7/10 accident reports with closed ro-ro spaces and in 3/4 reports with open ro-ro spaces.

    The intention with the SOLAS regulations is to structurally divide passenger ships so that a fire cannot spread, and that fire extinguishing system or horizontal divisions should exist to control a fire in the space of origin. While on the other hand the principle of large ro-ro spaces is an important part of the maritime industry. Some of the accident investigations reveal that the large spaces such as open ro-ro spaces make it difficult to meet the functional requirements of the regulations and that open ro-ro spaces may be prohibited. The same conclusion is made from the two zone fire simulations conducted in the project. The simulations show that both increased natural ventilation and increased mechanical ventilation results in larger fire development. The conducted parameter simulation study shows that if natural ventilation is nevertheless required, the openings should, in terms of fire development, preferably be constructed as wide as possible and with as low sill and soffit height as possible.

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  • 25.
    Petersen, Laura
    et al.
    UIC, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Fallou, Laure
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Teixeira, Rui
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Bonavita, Alexandre
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Resilience for whom?: The general public's tolerance levels as CI resilience criteria2020In: International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, ISSN 1874-5482, E-ISSN 2212-2087, article id 100340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While maintaining a minimum level of service and rapidly restoring services to normal are key components of critical infrastructure (CI) resilience, who should and how to define these parameters remains under debate. Rarely solicited in the debate, yet integral actors in CI resilience, is the general public. In response to this, this paper presents a questionnaire-based methodology for determining public tolerance levels for service reduction and recovery rapidity. This paper explores this under-researched area using a case-study of the Barreiro Municipal Water Network. It draws on key themes that emerged from the literature as well as interviews with the CI operators in order to develop a tolerance questionnaire, implements said questionnaire (N = 1005), and analysizes the results. Results demonstrate that the methodology works for collecting tolerance levels, that when taking into account vulnerable groups, public tolerance levels appear higher than CI operator capability and that communication expectations are high. 

  • 26.
    Rebaque, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norwaay; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Experimental study of smouldering in wood pellets with and without air draft2020In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 264, article id 116806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry wood pellets (diameter 8 mm) of mixed Norwegian spruce and pine were tested in samples of 1.25 kg (1.7 l) in configurations with and without air draft from below. The pellets were placed in a vertical 15 cm diameter cylinder on top of a hot plate. Air draft inlet, when allowed, came through narrow openings in the cylinder bottom periphery. The bulk void of 36% formed channels for gas flows within the pellets bed. Initially, the samples were heated externally from below for 6 h. Time series of distributed temperatures were recorded, together with values of the mass. Smouldering with air draft was observed with two distinct behaviours: Type 1, where the sample after the period of external heating cooled down for several hours, and then increased in temperature to intense smouldering, and Type 2, where the sample went into intense smouldering before the end of external heating. Without draft airflow from below, the sample cooled down after external heating, before developing into intense smouldering about 20 h later. In all cases, the intense period lasted for 2 h. Typical temperatures were in the range 300–450 °C, while higher temperatures occurred in the intense period. Draft flow caused fast oxidation spreading, while slow without draft. Indications of oxidation spreading as a distriäbuted reaction were seen. Circulating air motions in the irregular void between individual pellets is discussed as an explanation for the behaviour. Uneven access to oxygen, with possibilities of locally excess air, can explain the peak temperatures observed. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 27.
    Rieck, Carsten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jaldehag, kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Time and frequency laboratory activities at RISE2020In: Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting, PTTI, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 169-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden is since 2018 the result of a rebranding of SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden and several other national research facilities and test beds in Sweden. This also comprises most national metrology institute (NMI) activities, including time and frequency that is still located at its Borås facilities in the southwest of Sweden since 1995. UTC(SP) remains the official designation of the Swedish UTC(k) realization. It is realized in a classical master clock and phase stepper setup and is locally distributed to different users and time transfer applications. The most recent local clock ensemble consists of four hydrogen masers and three high performance 5071A Cs standards. UTC(SP) is linked to TAI using TWSTFT and GNSS. The primary link is a combination TWGPPP with current calibration uncertainties of 1.1 ns. The time scale is regularly kept within ±5 ns of UTC. RISE has also established several distributed UTC(SP) copies, with both local backups in Borås and facilities at remote sites linked together by GNSS time transfer. Network time distribution at those sites make UTC(SP) publicly available. Additionally, RISE offers several calibration services for the distribution of UTC-traceable time and frequency signals. Time and frequency related metrological research at RISE is mostly concentrated on further refinement of GNSS and TWSTFT methods, their calibration and the dissemination using those methods. We are also active in research on fiber based optical time and frequency transfer. Outside the metrological responsibilities, many research projects focus on establishing metrological aspects of time and frequency within for instance the automotive and maritime domain.

  • 28.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study2020In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in wood waste storages cause financial losses, are difficult to extinguish, and emit large amounts of fire effluents. The mechanisms related to fires in wood chip piles are not well elucidated. To find suitable preventive measures for handling such fires in wood waste, a better understanding of the physical properties of wood waste is needed. The present study investigates how granularity affects mechanisms of smoldering fire and transition to flaming in wood chip piles. Eighteen experiments with samples inside a top-ventilated, vertical cylinder were conducted. Heating from underneath the cylinder induced auto-ignition and smoldering fire, and temperatures and mass loss of the sample were measured. The results showed that granularity significantly affects the smoldering fire dynamics. Material containing larger wood chips (length 4-100 mm) demonstrated more irregular temperature development, higher temperatures, faster combustion, and higher mass losses than material of smaller wood chips (length <4 mm). The larger wood chips also underwent transition to flaming fires. Flaming fires were not observed for small wood chips, which instead demonstrated prolonged and steady smoldering propagation. The differences are assumed to be partly due to the different bulk densities of the samples of large and small wood chips affecting the ventilation conditions. Increased knowledge about these combustion processes and transition to flaming is vital to develop risk-reducing measures when storing wood chips made from wood waste in piles.

  • 29.
    Silander, Isak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Forssen, Clayton
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zakrisson, Johan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zelan, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Axner, Ove
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Invar-based refractometer for pressure assessments2020In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 2652-2655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas modulation refractometry (GAMOR) is a methodology that can mitigate fluctuations and drifts in refractometry. This can open up for the use of non-conventional cavity spacer materials. In this paper, we report a dual-cavity system based on Invar that shows better precision for assessment of pressure than a similar system based on Zerodur. This refractometer shows for empty cavity measurements, up to 104 s, a white noise response (for N2) of 3 mPa s1=2. At 4303 Pa, the system has a minimum Allan deviation of 0.34 mPa (0.08 ppm) and a long-term stability (24 h) of 0.7 mPa. This shows that the GAMOR methodology allows for the use of alternative cavity materials.

  • 30.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Learning from fire investigations and research – A Norwegian perspective on moving from a reactive to a proactive fire safety management2020In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, article id 103047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of fires are useful tools for gathering experience and knowledge of how and why fires occur and why they develop as they do. Several tools for accident investigation that also are applicable for analysis of fires are available. Data from fires is valuable for different branches of the fire safety science and are also used in revisions of fire regulations. This paper describes the concept of accident investigation with focus on learning and presents how investigation from fires has been used as a valuable tool in Norwegian fire safety management. Examples of how learnings have improved the residential fire safety level in Norway over the last decades are described. Three different analyses of fatal fires over four decades have given knowledge about how and why residential fires start, and how the victims could be characterized. The fire fatality rate in Norway has decreased by 50% from 1970 until 2014, one of the reasons for this is believed to be implementation of several targeted fire safety measures over the years. Through fire investigations combined with research, new trends in society and their possible implications on fire safety can be uncovered and lead to a more proactive fire safety management.

  • 31.
    Sun, P.
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Niu, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Huang, X.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs (EB in Wh) crossing different scales as PHRR=2EB0.6. For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles. 

  • 32.
    Sun, P.
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Niu, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Huang, X.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Correction:: A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles (Fire Technology, (2020), 10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3)2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained an incorrect unit of PHRR for Eq. (3), which appears in abstract and conclusion, and an incorrect version of Fig. 23. (Figure presented

  • 33.
    Torbjörnsson, Sone
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brand i elfordon och laddningsplatser i undermarksanläggningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing demand to minimize the global pollution, the research has made significant advances in electrically powered vehicles. This interest has also spiked in the mining industry since the current diesel-powered vehicles emits exhaust and particles, which results in the need for a costly ventilation system. But switching from a known, and widely used, propulsion system results in a step towards the unknown. This literature survey has mainly studied battery electric vehicles (BEV).

    This literature survey focusses on the issues related to thermal runaway of a battery and what it might cause. This includes the toxicity of gasses and combustion products, the impact on rescue operations, the effect on extinguishment and differences in fire behavior between BEVs and internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles.

    Full scale experiments have shown that the fire behavior might not depend solely on the energy storage as other component also contribute to the overall fire behavior as whole. These experiments have been conducted on single passenger vehicles and not mining vehicles, and it is reasonable to draw the conclusion that batteries as an energy storage do not change the overall fire behavior considerably. Changes do, however, occur when it comes to the extinguishment of a fire, since the battery design interferes with the possibility to cool the battery cells effectively. This difficulty in cooling the battery cells makes it very challenging prevent thermal runaway to stop a thermal runaway and propagation event inside the battery using conventional fire suppression methods.

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  • 34.
    Vedder, Benjamin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Svensson, Joel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Automated Testing of Ultrawideband Positioning for Autonomous Driving2020In: Journal of Robotics, ISSN 1687-9600, E-ISSN 1687-9619, Vol. 2020, article id 9345360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles need accurate and dependable positioning, and these systems need to be tested extensively. We have evaluated positioning based on ultrawideband (UWB) ranging with our self-driving model car using a highly automated approach. Random drivable trajectories were generated, while the UWB position was compared against the Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) positioning system which our model car also is equipped with. Fault injection was used to study the fault tolerance of the UWB positioning system. Addressed challenges are automatically generating test cases for real-time hardware, restoring the state between tests, and maintaining safety by preventing collisions. We were able to automatically generate and carry out hundreds of experiments on the model car in real time and rerun them consistently with and without fault injection enabled. Thereby, we demonstrate one novel approach to perform automated testing on complex real-time hardware.

  • 35.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jörgensson, Kajsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Viktor
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Using Machine Learning to Enrich Building Databases—Methods for Tailored Energy Retrofits2020In: energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building databases are important assets when estimating and planning for national energy savings from energy retrofitting. However, databases often lack information on building characteristics needed to determine the feasibility of specific energy conservation measures. In this paper, machine learning methods are used to enrich the Swedish database of Energy Performance Certificates with building characteristics relevant for a chosen set of energy retrofitting packages. The study is limited to the Swedish multifamily building stock constructed between 1945 and 1975, as these buildings are facing refurbishment needs that advantageously can be combined with energy retrofitting. In total, 514 ocular observations were conducted in Google Street View of two building characteristics that were needed to determine the feasibility of the chosen energy retrofitting packages: (i) building type and (ii) suitability for additional fa&ccedil;ade insulation. Results showed that these building characteristics could be predicted with an accuracy of 88.9% and 72.5% respectively. It could be concluded that machine learning methods show promising potential to enrich building databases with building characteristics relevant for energy retrofitting, which in turn can improve estimations of national energy savings potential.

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  • 36.
    Warg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Kaalhus, Martin
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Wiik, Richard
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Towards Safety Analysis of Interactions BetweenHuman Users and Automated Driving Systems2020In: 10th European Congress of Embedded Real Time Systems (ERTS 2020), Toulouse, France, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major challenges of designing automateddriving systems (ADS) is showing that they are safe. This includes safety analysis of interactions between humans and the ADS, amulti-disciplinary task involving functional safety and human factors expertise. In this paper, we lay the foundation for a safety analysis method for these interactions, which builds upon combining human factors knowledge with known techniques from the functional safety domain.

    The aim of the proposed method is finding safety issues in proposed HMI protocols. It combines constructing interaction sequences between human and ADS as a variant of sequence diagrams,and use these sequences as input to a cause-consequence analysis with the purpose of finding potential interaction faults that may lead to dangerous failures. Based on a this analysis,the HMI design can be improved to reduce safety risks, and the analysis results can also be used as part of the ADS safety case.

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