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  • 1.
    Abi Nassif, L.
    et al.
    University Brest, France; Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Rioual, S.
    University Brest, France.
    Farah, W.
    Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Hellio, C.
    University Brest, France.
    Fauchon, M.
    University Brest, France.
    Trepos, R.
    University Brest, France.
    Abboud, M.
    Université Saint Joseph, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lescop, B.
    University Brest, France.
    Reduction of potential ennoblement of stainless steel in natural seawater by an ecofriendly biopolymer2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 103609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of biofilm formation on passive stainless steel in seawater environments is of primary importance since it leads to potential ennoblement of surfaces and subsequently to localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. This study aims at developing an ecofriendly alginate biopolymer containing both non-toxic calcium and a limited amount of biocidal zinc ions which inhibits this effect. For this purpose, calcium alginate containing less than 1 % of zinc ions localized in the vicinity of the steel surface in natural and renewed seawater is demonstrated to reduce significantly the ennoblement process of steel. After 1 month of immersion, a mass loss of only 4 % of the active material is observed authorizing thereby long-term protection of steel in real environment. 

  • 2.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nanocellulose-Based Hybrid Materials for UV Blocking and Mechanically Robust Barriers2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 2245-2254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose (NC)-based hybrid coatings and films containing CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to impart UV screening and hardness properties, respectively, were prepared by solvent casting. The NC film-forming component (75 wt % of the overall solids) was composed entirely of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or of CNCs combined with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Zeta potential measurements indicated that the four NP types (CNC, CNF, CeO2, and SiO2) were stably dispersed in water and negatively charged at pH values between 6 and 9. The combination of NPs within this pH range ensured uniform formulations and homogeneous coatings and films, which blocked UV light, the extent of which depended on film thickness and CeO2 NP content, while maintaining good transparency in the visible spectrum (∼80%). The addition of a low amount of CNFs (1%) reduced the film hardness, but this effect was compensated by the addition of SiO2 NPs. Chiral nematic self-assembly was observed in the mixed NC film; however, this ordering was disrupted by the addition of the oxide NPs. The roughness of the hybrid coatings was reduced by the inclusion of oxide NPs into the NC matrix perhaps because the spherical oxide NPs were able to pack into the spaces between cellulose fibrils. We envision these hybrid coatings and films in barrier applications, photovoltaics, cosmetic formulations, such as sunscreens, and for the care and maintenance of wood and glass surfaces, or other surfaces that require a smooth, hard, and transparent finish and protection from UV damage.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Återvinning av växtnäringsämnen ur avloppsvatten – hur gör vi hållbarhetsbedömningar på bästa sätt?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna producera tillräckligt med mat på ett hållbart sätt behöver vi hushålla med växtnäring, och se till att den näring som redan finns i omlopp används på ett klokt sätt. Nya direktiv kring slamanvändning, krav på återförsel av växtnäring och hårdare utsläppskrav på reningsverk innebär att nya system och tekniker behöver utvecklas. Det kan dock vara svårt att veta vilket system eller vilken teknik som ger den största nyttan. Systemanalytiska metoder kan hjälpa till att tydliggöra dessa komplexa frågor.

    Målet med denna studie är att på ett övergripande sätt ge en insikt i hur arbetet kring hållbarhetsbedömningar kopplat till kommunal avloppsvattenrening och återföring av näringsämnen, med fokus på fosfor och kväve kan genomföras. Vidare har fokus legat på metodfrågor inom livscykelanalys (LCA), men en utblick kring andra hållbarhetsbedömningsmetoder ges även i en mindre omfattning. Mycket av det som behandlas inom LCA har dock bäring även för andra metoder för hållbarhetsbedömning.

    Idag finns det olika typer av standarder och riktlinjer för hur LCA-studier bör utföras, dock saknas det specifika riktlinjer för LCA-studier kopplade till näringsåtervinning ur avlopp. Det finns flera skäl till att LCA-metodfrågor kopplade till näringsåterföring behöver utredas; LCA är en metod som framförallt inriktar sig på att bedöma miljöpåverkan av en produkt, medan avloppsvattenrening ofta sker i kommunal regi och i nuläget är inriktat på att rena avloppsvatten och inte fokuserar på att producera produkter. Avloppssystem är ofta integrerade med både vattenförsörjning, energisystemet och jordbruket på ett intrikat sätt. Avlopp är också en sektor som har utsläpp både till luft och vatten, och metoder för att korrekt kunna bedöma dessa utsläpps påverkan på miljö är viktiga att utreda. Användningsområdet för LCA är väldigt brett. LCA kan dock inte svara på om det system som utvärderas är hållbart, bara om systemet har mer eller mindre påverkan än ett annat. LCA kan alltså inte svara på frågeställningar som: Vad är en hållbar återvinningsgrad för växtnäringsämnen?

    Arbetet har resulterat i en diskussion kring när LCA eller systemanalys lämpar sig och vad man bör tänka på när man genomför en LCA och vilka delar som bör ingå. Inom ramen för detta arbete anordnades även en workshop där berörda intressenter deltog från forskning, myndigheter och branschen. Syftet med workshopen var att få in synpunkter kring hur en systemanalys eller LCA bör läggas upp för att ge användbara resultat i beslutsfattande.

    I första hand vänder sig rapporten till dem som arbetar med kommunal avloppsvattenrening, teknikutveckling och myndigheter inom detta område, som har en grundförståelse för systemanalys och vill veta mer.

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  • 4.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic potential for substitution of fossil fuels with liquefied biomethane in Swedish iron and steel industry – Synergy and competition with other sectors2020In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 209, article id 112641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the iron and steel industry (ISI) is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most of the emissions result from the use of fossil reducing agents. Nevertheless, the use of fossil fuels for other purposes must also be eliminated in order to reach the Swedish emissions reduction targets. In this study, we investigate the possibility to replace fossil gaseous and liquid fuels used for heating in the ISI, with liquefied biomethane (LBG) produced through gasification of forest residues. We hypothesize that such utilization of fuels in the Swedish ISI is insufficient to independently drive the development of large-scale LBG production, and that other sectors demanding LBG, e.g., for transportation, can be expected to influence the economic potential for the ISI to switch to LBG. The paper investigates how demand for LBG from other sectors can contribute to, or prevent, a phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI under different future energy market scenarios, with additional analysis of the impact of a CO2 emissions charge. A geographically explicit cost-minimizing biofuel production localization model is combined with heat integration and energy market scenario analysis. The results show that from a set of possible future energy market scenarios, none yielded more than a 9% replacement of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI, and only when there was also a demand for LBG from other sectors. The scenarios corresponding to a more ambitious GHG mitigation policy did not achieve higher adoption of LBG, due to corresponding higher biomass prices. A CO2 charge exceeding 200 EUR/tonCO2 would be required to achieve a full phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI. We conclude that with the current policy situation, substitution of fossil fuels by LBG will not be economically feasible for the Swedish ISI.

  • 5.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites.2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id E2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 6.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment2020In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

  • 7.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Monolithic integration of display driver circuits and displays manufactured by screen printing2020In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report all-screen printed display driver circuits, based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), and their monolithic integration with organic electrochromic displays (OECDs). Both OECTs and OECDs operate at low voltages and have similar device architectures, and, notably, they rely on the very same electroactive material as well as on the same electrochemical switching mechanism. This then allows us to manufacture OECT-OECD circuits in a concurrent manufacturing process entirely based on screen printing methods. By taking advantage of the high current throughput capability of OECTs, we further demonstrate their ability to control the light emission in traditional light-emitting diodes (LEDs), where the actual LED addressing is achieved by an OECT-based decoder circuit. The possibility to monolithically integrate all-screen printed OECTs and OECDs on flexible plastic foils paves the way for distributed smart sensor labels and similar Internet of Things applications.

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  • 8.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 9.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 11907-11917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 10.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Fire protection of robotic top-loading compact storage systems2020In: Fire Protection Engineering, ISSN 1524-900X, no 85, p. 16-22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sprinklersystem i fortifikationsläggningar under mark: Kostnad och nytta2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fortifikationsverket (FORTV) has expressed a desire to investigate the design, reliability, performance and cost of a sprinkler system for a typical underground fortification facility. Based on the cost and the benefit associated with a sprinkler system, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. In addition, water mist fire protection systems were studied. The installation cost analysis was based on two fictious facilities; a small facility with a net area of 1 000 m2 and a large facility with a 5 000 m2 net area.

    The estimated installation cost for a traditional sprinkler system in the smaller type facility is about SEK 1,3 million and about SEK 3,3 million for the larger type facility. The installation cost for a high-pressure water mist system is higher than that of a traditional sprinkler system for the smaller type facility but comparable for the larger type facility. A low‑pressure water mist system seems to be the least expensive option for both types of facilities. This is probably because the system, unlike a traditional sprinkler system, requires smaller pipe sizes, smaller water pumps and a smaller water tank and unlike a high-pressure system uses normal steel pipes and less expensive centrifugal pumps.

    The cost-benefit analysis for the fictitious type facilities shows that a sprinkler system is cost-effective, especially for the larger type facility. But it should be noted that the uncertainty in the data base is quite large, which means that the trends in the result can be used for further analysis, but that the actual values ​​of the benefit ratio should be viewed with some caution. The sprinkler system mainly has an effect to reduce the property loss. The expected benefit for personal injury is around one percent of the total benefit of the sprinkler system. This is because the risk of fatality and injuries in the event of a fire is small, as people can usually put themselves in safety. The reduction in property loss was assumed to be 75%, and an assumed lowered benefit of sprinklers (50% and 25% property loss reduction, respectively) leads to a lower benefit ratio but for the large type facility the benefit ratio is still above 1,0. The benefit of sprinklers also decreases if the assumed fire frequency is reduced. However, for the larger type plant, the calculation shows that there is still a benefit, even if the assumed fire frequency is halved. The same applies if the cost of replacement of expensive equipment is assumed to be half as high.

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  • 12.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, Ilona
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Rohm, Harald
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Almli, Valerie
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Consumer associations about other buyers of suboptimal food – And what it means for food waste avoidance actions2020In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 80, article id 103808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One approach to tackling the imminent sustainability problem of food waste is to sell suboptimal food which otherwise might be wasted. However, understanding how the action of buying price-reduced suboptimal food is influenced by the fact that the consumer purchases it publicly while observed by others is yet unexplored. The present research investigates which associations consumers form when they see other consumers purchasing suboptimal foods. In an online experimental survey, consumers of five European countries checked every word that applied (CATA) from a set of items that described what choosing a food item told them about an acquaintance they met in the store in terms of his or her traits. The food item was optimal or suboptimal, fresh or packaged food, and presented with a communication that either underlined a budget saving benefit or a contribution to avoiding food waste. Results show that consumers of suboptimal products are regarded as economic and thrifty, as well as frugal and environmentally concerned. The associations with consumers of optimal products are more diverse, and include both positive and negative wordings, ranging from successful to fussy and inattentive. Consumers’ own level of environmental concerns and value consciousness explain the degree to which they perceive another consumer to have similar traits, revealing that consumers project their own traits on others. Findings imply that stores offering suboptimal food should present and communicate the items in line with the characteristics of the store's target group, and that suboptimal food choices can trigger positive associations. 

  • 13.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems. COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Bouget, Simon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Security and trust preserving inter- and intra-cloud VM migrations2020In: International Journal of Network Management, ISSN 1055-7148, E-ISSN 1099-1190, article id e2103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focus on providing a secure and trustworthy solution for virtual machine (VM) migration within an existing cloud provider domain, and/or to the other federating cloud providers. The infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) cloud service model is mainly addressed to extend and complement the previous Trusted Computing techniques for secure VM launch and VM migration case. The VM migration solution proposed in this paper uses a Trust_Token based to guarantee that the user VMs can only be migrated and hosted on a trustworthy and/or compliant cloud platforms. The possibility to also check the compliance of the cloud platforms with the pre-defined baseline configurations makes our solution compatible with an existing widely accepted standards-based, security-focused cloud frameworks like FedRAMP. Our proposed solution can be used for both inter- and intra-cloud VM migrations. Different from previous schemes, our solution is not dependent on an active (on-line) trusted third party; that is, the trusted third party only performs the platform certification and is not involved in the actual VM migration process. We use the Tamarin solver to realize a formal security analysis of the proposed migration protocol and show that our protocol is safe under the Dolev-Yao intruder model. Finally, we show how our proposed mechanisms fulfill major security and trust requirements for secure VM migration in cloud environments. 

  • 14.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Mohsin, Bushra
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Nasir, Abdul
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    FoNAC - An automated Fog Node Audit and Certification scheme2020In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 93, article id 101759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the security and privacy needs for IoT data becomes equally important in the newly introduced intermediary Fog Computing layer, as it was in its former technological layer - Cloud; but the accomplishment of such security is critical and challenging. While security assurance of the fog layer devices is imperative due to their exposure to the public Internet, it becomes even more complex, than the cloud layer, as it involves a large number of heterogeneous devices deployed hierarchically. Manual audit and certification schemes are unsuitable for large number of fog nodes thereby inhibiting the involved stakeholders to use manual security assurance schemes altogether. However, scalable and feasible security assurance can be provided by introducing automated and continuous monitoring and auditing of fog nodes to ensure a trusted, updated and vulnerability free fog layer. This paper presents such an solution in the form of an automated Fog Node Audit and Certification scheme (FoNAC) which guarantees a secure fog layer through the proposed fog layer assurance mechanism. FoNAC leverages Trusted Platform Module (TPM 2.0) capabilities to evaluate/audit the platform integrity of the operating fog nodes and grants certificate to the individual node after a successful security audit. FoNAC security is also validated through its formal security analysis performed using AVISPA under Dolev-Yao intruder model. The security analysis of FoNAC shows its resistance against cyber-attacks like impersonation, replay attack, forgery, Denial of Service(DoS) and MITM attack.

  • 15.
    Attias, Noam
    et al.
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Danai, Ofer
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Abitbol, Tiffany
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Tarazi, Ezri
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Ezov, Nirit
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Pereman, Idan
    Galilee Research Institute, Israel.
    Grobman, Yasha
    Israel Institute of Technology, Isreal.
    Mycelium bio-composites in industrial design and architecture: Comparative review and experimental analysis2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 246, article id 119037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent convergence of biotechnological and design tools has stimulated an emergence of new design practices utilizing natural mechanisms to program matter in a bottom-up approach. In this paper, the fibrous network of mycelium—the vegetative part of fungi—is employed to produce sustainable alternatives for synthetic foams. Current research on mycelium-based materials lacks essential details regarding material compositions, incubation conditions, and fabrication methods. The paper presents the results of ongoing research on employing mycelium to provide cleaner architecture and design products with sustainable lifecycles. The paper opens with a critical review of current projects, products, and scientific literature using mycelium in design and architecture. In the second section, material properties of varied fungi-substrate compositions and fabrication methods are evaluated and compared through changes in essential chemical parameters during fermentation, visual impression, water absorbency, and compression strength tests. Then, potential architecture and design implications related to the material properties are discussed. Results indicate a clear correlation between fungi, substrate, mold properties, and incubation conditions on final material characteristics, depicting a clear effect on material density, water absorbency, and the compressive strength of the final bio-composite. Finally, two primary case studies demonstrate implications for mycelium-based composites for circular design and architectural applications. The study shows that in order to produce desirable designs and performance within an inclusive circular approach, parameters such as material composition and fabrication conditions should be considered according to the target function of the final product throughout the design process.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Bergh, Torsten
    Swedish Transport Administration/Movea, Sweden.
    Johansson, Alexander
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mårdberg, Björn
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Svenson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Åkesson, Viktor
    DB Schenker, Sweden.
    Truck Platooning Business Case Analysis2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we describe results from the work on business case analysis of the Sweden for Platooning (S4P) project. Platooning has the potential to contribute to the on-going transformation of the transport sector by reducing environmental impact, saving fuel, as well as (to a lesser extent) by improving traffic flow and safety and in the long run reducing driver hours. In order to fulfil these promises, it must be shown that there are viable business cases for all involved actors. This report describes the analysis of truck platooning business cases performed in the S4P project.

    Some of the main findings are that there is a significant potential for reducing fuel consumption and hence CO2 exhaust through platooning; that waiting on the order of minutes for a platooning opportunity is reasonable but that taking another route is probably not; that it is necessary to have mediating services that help platoons to form and share the costs and benefits associated with platooning; and that there are different possible ways of implementing a system for sharing the benefits.

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  • 17.
    Backlund, Elin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Implementering och resultat av Göteborgsmodellen för mindre matsvinn2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gothenburg model for less food waste - a model forreducing food waste in municipal kitchensThe Swedish law states that all school children shall be served a nutritious, free schoollunch every day meaning that about 3 million meals are served per day in the municipalsector in Sweden. By developing efficient working models aimed for decreasing the foodwaste climate impact and costs can be significantly reduced.“The Gothenburg model for less food waste” is a practical tool describing simple andappropriate working routines aimed for reducing food waste in municipal kitchens. Thetool is designed to be used by the staff working in the kitchens. This report elucidatesdata and experiences from the implementation of “The Gothenburg model for less foodwaste”.Gothenburg City has a large meal organization with about 520 kitchens covering preschools,schools and elderly care settings. Through the “Gothenburg model for less foodwaste”, the City of Gothenburg reduced its food waste (serving and kitchen waste) in itskitchens by 50%, from about 30 g/serving to 15 g/serving, in two years, from January2017 to December 2018. At the end of the project, 95% of the kitchens measured theirfood waste. Together, these kitchens served over 80,000 lunches a day. Based on themeasurements in 2017–2018, serving waste accounted for about 80% of food waste,while 20% was kitchen waste.Based on the collected data on food waste targets for different categories of kitchenscould be formulated for serving and kitchen waste. The values suggested for schools were8 - 10 g/serving for production kitchens, 10-15 g/serving for reception kitchens and 30 -35 g/serving for serving kitchens. The corresponding values for pre-schools were 5 - 8g/serving for production kitchens, 10 - 15 g/serving for reception kitchens and 25 - 30g/serving for serving kitchens.The project has contributed to long-term effects by introducing a systematic approachfor reducing food waste in municipal kitchens. By  working according to the model, thekitchens have established procedures for reducing kitchen and serving waste as well asidentified structural problems that must be addressed in  the future for decreasing thefood waste further.Collected data for a time span up to 5 years  show that it takes time establish routines andlong-lasting changes. Generally, food waste levels decrease quite fast in the beginningdue to the easy wins and then level off gradually.

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  • 18.
    Badrzadeh, B
    et al.
    Australian Energy Market Operator, Australia.
    Emin, Zia
    PSC Power Systems Consultants, USA.
    Hillberg, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jacobson, D
    Manitoba Hydro, Canada.
    Kocewiak, L
    Ørsted Offshore, Denmark.
    Lietz, G
    Digsilent, Germany.
    da Silva, F
    Aalborg university, Denmark.
    Val Escudero, M
    Eirgrid, Ireland.
    The Need or Enhanced Power System Modelling Techniques and Simulation Tools2020In: CIGRE SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, E-ISSN 2426-1335, Vol. 17, no Febr, p. 30-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a clean energy future requires thorough understanding of increasingly complex interactions between conventional generation, network equipment, variable renewable generation technologies (centralised and distributed), and demand response. Secure and reliable operation under such complex interactions requires the use of more advanced power system modelling and simulation tools and techniques. Conventional tools and techniques are reaching their limits to support such paradigm shifts. This paper provides an overview of commonly used and emerging power system simulation tools and techniques. Applications of these tools ranging from real-time power system operation to long-term planning are also discussed. Various approaches to gain confidence in the accuracy and applicability of the simulation models are presented. The paper then discusses emerging trends in simulation tools and techniques primarily stemming from the transition to a power system with increased penetration of inverter-based resources as these are used in variable renewable energy technologies.

  • 19.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Systemanalys av biodrivmedel baserade på halm och vall - samproduktion av etanol och bioolja2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of domestic raw material will be needed for future biofuel production in Sweden. Various grasses and straw are interesting alternatives for ethanol production. In the ethanol production, hydrolysis lignin residual is produced, which does not yet have a well-formulated end-use.

    HTL is a liquefaction process that can be used to produce bio-oil. In this project we have studied whether hydrolysis lignin residue from ethanol production could be used as raw material in the HTL process. The produced bio-oil can be upgraded together with fossil oil in a conventional refinery and converted into biofuel components.

    In this system study, biofuel production based on straw and ley grass as raw material have been studied in terms of climate impact, mass flows and economy. Four scenarios were investigated, two with straw as raw material and two with ley grass as raw materi-al. In all scenarios, the raw material was assumed to be used for ethanol production. In two scenarios, lignin residue from ethanol production was sent for incineration. In the other two scenarios, the lignin residue is further processed bio-oil via the HTL process.

    In all scenarios the climate impact was reduced compared to fossil fuels. Ethanol gives a reduction of 72 – 92% and biofuels from bio-oil a reduction of 64 – 81% compared to the fossil reference. Considering soil carbon however has a large effect on the climate impact; removing straw is a loss of carbon while cultivation of ley grass add carbon to the soil.

    The cost of producing ethanol was calculated to be between SEK 3 200 – 4 800 per metric ton ethanol. The fuels produced via HTL were estimated to have a production cost between SEK 11 600 – 15 100 per metric ton of fuel. Thus, biofuels from hydrolysis lignin were calculated to be much more expensive than ethanol. This is mainly due to the costs associated with the upgrade of bio-oil. However, results should be carefully interpreted as there is a lack of input data and major uncertainties in the estimations.

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  • 20.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Chen Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mousavi, Arash
    SCANIA CV AB, Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Minde, Tor Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Modular Model of a Data Centre as a Tool for Improving Its Energy Efficiency2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 46559-46573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most modern data centres, it is of high value to select practical methods for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy waste. IT-equipment and cooling systems are the two most significant energy consumers in data centres, thus the energy efficiency of any data centre mainly relies on the energy efficiency of its computational and cooling systems. Existing techniques of optimising the energy usage of both these systems have to be compared. However, such experiments cannot be conducted in real plants as they may harm the electronic equipment. This paper proposes a modelling toolbox which enables building models of data centres of any scale and configuration with relative ease. The toolbox is implemented as a set of building blocks which model individual components of a typical data centre, such as processors, local fans, servers, units of cooling systems, it provides methods of adjusting the internal parameters of the building blocks, as well as contains constructors utilising the building blocks for building models of data centre systems of different levels from server to the server room. The data centre model is meant to accurate estimating the energy consumption as well as the evolution of the temperature of all computational nodes and the air temperature inside the data centre. The constructed model capable of substitute for the real data centre at examining the performance of different energy-saving strategies in dynamic mode: the model provides information about data centre operating states at each time point (as model outputs) and takes values of adjustable parameters as the control signals from system implementing energy-saving algorithm (as model inputs). For Module 1 of the SICS ICE data centre located in Luleå, Sweden, the model was constructed from the building blocks. After adjusting the internal parameters of the building blocks, the model demonstrated the behaviour quite close to real data from the SICS ICE data centre. Therefore the model is applicable to use as a substitute for the real data centre. Some examples of using the model for testing energy-saving strategies are presented at the end of the paper.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Interactive research in production start-up—application and outcomes2020In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on interactive research as a means to create relevant knowledge in the domain of operations management in general and specifically in the context of production start-up. Design/methodology/approach: The reflection on the use of interactive research in production start-ups was based on a study of two completed interactive research projects. The lens for reflection was a framework including context, quality of relationship, quality of the research process itself and outcomes. Findings: The context was industrial manufacturing companies in Sweden, with different kind of challenges related to production start-ups, such as collaboration between involved functions and suppliers, competence development and work routines. Indicators of the quality of relationship between researchers and practitioners were initiated development activities and new collaboration between functions, within the company, between companies and in supply chains. The reflection of the quality of the research process itself was based on an interactive research process including four iterative steps with regular follow-ups allowing joint practitioner and researcher reflection on the progress. Identified outcomes included increased awareness and competence on how to deal with production start-ups, improvements of communication, work procedures and structures, better use of competences, increased cross-functional dialogue and cultural understanding. Practical implications: Implications for practitioners are the possibilities for knowledge creation through interactive collaboration in research projects enabling exchange between researchers from complementary fields and other companies dealing with production start-ups. Originality/value: The interactive research approach enables joint knowledge creation in a fast-changing context such as production start-ups as well as value-adding results both for practitioners in industry and for academia. 

  • 22.
    Berktas, Ilayda
    et al.
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Ghafar, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Fontana, Patrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Caputcu, Ayten
    Cimsa Cimento Sanayi AS, Turkey.
    Menceloglu, Yusuf
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Okan, Burcu
    Sabanci University, Turkey.
    Facile synthesis of graphene from waste tire/silica hybrid additives and optimization study for the fabrication of thermally enhanced cement grouts2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 4, article id 886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work evaluates the effects of newly designed graphene/silica hybrid additives on the properties of cementitious grout. In the hybrid structure, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) obtained from waste tire was used to improve the thermal conductivity and reduce the cost and environmental impacts by using recyclable sources. Additionally, functionalized silica nanoparticles were utilized to enhance the dispersion and solubility of carbon material and thus the hydrolyzable groups of silane coupling agent were attached to the silica surface. Then, the hybridization of GNP and functionalized silica was conducted to make proper bridges and develop hybrid structures by tailoring carbon/silica ratios. Afterwards, special grout formulations were studied by incorporating these hybrid additives at different loadings. As the amount of hybrid additive incorporated into grout suspension increased from 3 to 5 wt%, water uptake increased from 660 to 725 g resulting in the reduction of thermal conductivity by 20.6%. On the other hand, as the concentration of GNP in hybrid structure increased, water demand was reduced, and thus the enhancement in thermal conductivity was improved by approximately 29% at the same loading ratios of hybrids in the prepared grout mixes. Therefore, these developed hybrid additives showed noticeable potential as a thermal enhancement material in cement-based grouts. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 23.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Groen, E. C.
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Preface: REFSQ 2020 posters and tools track2020In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Groen, Eduard
    Preface: REFSQ 2020 posters and tools track2020In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2584Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Collection of Façade Fire Tests Including Timber Structures2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes three case studies that each involved an analysis of a fire test of an external wall that included a timber structure or part of a timber structure. These external walls all had wooden façade panels, were ventilated behind the façade panels and had glass wool or stone wool insulation. The three case studies aim to assess the contribution of structural timber to the fire development and the fire spread. In addition, the potential of façade systems with combustible materials to limit the fire spread through and along the external wall was assessed. The fire tests were performed for commercial purposes and their results were made available for this study. Not all details of the façade systems details are included in this report.

    The analysis discussed in this report indicates that the timber structures did not contribute to the fire development and the fire spread in two of the three tests. The structural members in the external wall remained unaffected during the test. Visual inspection of the third test showed locally some superficial coloring and charring. However, the temperature measurements of the remaining test did not indicate any contribution of the structural timber to the fire development and fire spread. The energy contribution corresponding to the local and superficial coloring and charring is considered negligible.

    Two of the three tests analyzed in this study were performed in accordance with the Swedish façade fire testing standard SP Fire 105. Both tests were assessed by the accredited testing institute to meet the requirements set by the Swedish Building regulations that: (1) the fire spread inside the external wall shall be limited; (2) the risk for fire spread along the façade surface shall be limited and; (3) the risk for injuries as a consequence of falling parts from the external wall shall be limited.

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  • 26.
    Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Charging of electric cars in parking garages2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

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  • 27.
    Brandt, Are W
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Ladding av elbil i parkeringsgarage2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Charging of electric cars in parking garages

    There has been a huge increase in the number of electric cars over the last few years, as of the 1st of September 2019 a total of 247,565 electric cars were registered in Norway. There is a clear political incentive to facilitate the charging of electric cars in parking garages in Norway. This has resulted in a public inquiry regarding a proposed amendment to the Norwegian Planning and Building Act (Planning and Building Act, the Norwegian Act relating to owner-tenant sections and the Norwegian Housing Cooperatives Act). The inquiry proposes that housing cooperative owners be given the right to install chargers for electric cars. The inquiry has resulted in a consultation paper in which the uncertainties regarding fire safety during electric car charging in confined spaces were highlighted.

    The study examined whether the charging of electric cars in parking garages results in unacceptable risk of fire and, if so, what sort of measures would be required to ensure acceptable risk levels.

    One of the objectives of the study was to identify the required measures to ensure acceptable safety levels when parking and charging electric cars in parking garages.

    This was done through the use of a comprehensive evaluation of the risk of fire in electric cars while charging, the risk of fire in electrical installations in parking garages during charging and also the layout of the parking garage and the possibility for active firefighting or extinguishing using sprinklers and water mist systems.

    It also investigated the relevant measures that could be taken to prevent increased fire risk arising from the installation of charging points for electric cars.

    Conclusions

    Based on the findings from statistics and a literature review, there were no indications that charging of electric cars in parking garages would result in an increased probability of fire. The regulations regarding charging points for electric cars seem to be adequate for ensuring that the risk of fire arising due to the charging of electric cars in parking garages is acceptable. This requires that the charging points are in accordance with the regulations and that the recommendations from the car manufacturers and the producers of the charging points are followed. It is important to avoid the use of power sockets not intended for the charging of vehicles and also to avoid the use of extension leads. Based on this, the need for fixed water-based firefighting systems in parking garages is no higher for parking garages with the possibility of charging of electric cars than in other parking garages.

    There are still unknown factors with regard to both the development of fire in parking garages in general and also regarding potential fire propagation to the battery pack specifically. More knowledge is needed in order to increase the accuracy of evaluations and recommendations.

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  • 28.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Design of a local energy market with multiple energy carriers2020In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 118, article id 105739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in the electric power sector as well as in district heating and cooling systems has led to an increased interest in local energy systems and markets. In the electricity sector, this is driven by the integration of distributed resources such as solar power, electric vehicles and demand response. For district heating, sustainability and energy efficiency targets drives the development to further exploit small-scale heat sources. A closer integration of these energy carriers can also unlock potential flexibility, to the benefit of local as well as overlaying systems. In this respect, there is a need to further explore the possibilities to design local energy markets to facilitate the integration between electricity and district heating, as well as providing adequate instruments enabling flexibility. This paper therefore presents a market clearing design, based on optimization, for local energy markets incorporating multiple energy carriers and bid structures suitable for representing flexibility. The market clearing model is applied in a case study to illustrate and validate key design elements. One conclusion is that even though various elements can be added to the market clearing function, there is a challenge to interpret the results due to an increased complexity of the resulting optimization problem. 

  • 29.
    Carlström, Ingeborg
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Rashad, Ahmad
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Campodoni, Elisabetta
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Sandri, Monica
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bolstad, Anne
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Mustafa, Kamal
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Cross-linked gelatin-nanocellulose scaffolds for bone tissue engineering2020In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 264, article id 127326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) have, in addition to high specific surface area and high surface reactivity, ability to mimic nanostructured collagen in bone extracellular matrix. These properties make CNFs promising materials for bone tissue engineering (BTE). The CNFs degrade slowly in vivo. By blending and cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with CNFs, scaffolds were produced with tuned degradation rate and enhanced mechanical properties, more suitable for BTE applications. This in vitro study aimed to examine initial biological responses of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to cross-linked Gel-CNF scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized CNF blended with Gel and cross-linked either by dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) or by a combination of hexamethylenediamine, genipin, and DHT. CNF scaffolds without cross-linking served as control. The produced scaffolds supported cell attachment, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. However, the early cell attachment after 1 day and the expression of RUNX2 and SPP1 genes after 7 days were highest in the CNF scaffolds. The results suggest that cross-linked Gel-CNF are cytocompatible and holds potential for BTE applications. 

  • 30.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Farmers current practices, and their opinion on supplying straw for production of second-generation biofuels in Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and especially focuses on the results from a survey looking at the current practices with straw use in Sweden as well as the farmer’s opinion on supplying straw for the production of second-generation biofuel. The survey was developed as a collaboration between LRF (Federation of Swedish farmers) RISE and Lantmännen.The reader can first read about the context within which the survey was developed and analysed. The questions and the methodology are then presented. The main part of the report presents the questionnaire results before drawing conclusions in line with the project’s objectives.The survey shows that about 60% of the straw from farmers participating in the survey, remains in the field while 40% is harvested mostly for animal production. The county of Skåne, the “ÖSÖ” region (Östergötland, Södermanland, and Örebro counties), the region including Uppsala, Stockholm and Västmanland counties, and the county of Västra Götaland have the largest potential for collection of straw for industrial processes in Sweden. However, farmers from these regions are the most concerned about the decrease of soil quality due to straw removal. The current common practices for straw handling in Sweden, including baling, collection, transport, storage and sale, are highlighted.Some interesting conclusions are drawn concerning the logistics needed for the handling of straw for the biobased industry. Moreover, the answers from the survey give some insights concerning a potential “straw contract” between Lantmännen and the farmers. The report also highlights the aspects to be further researched.More information concerning the Swedish contribution to the AGROinLOG project can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).

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  • 31.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lund, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A roadmap to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne Sweden - Case study grain milling industry2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and focuses on the development of a roadmap for the grain processing industry to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne. More information concerning the Swedish contribution can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).The Swedish partners of the AGROinLOG project have been interacting with different stakeholders from the grain processing industry in Skåne (South of Sweden) to investigate the existing hinders and drivers for the development of Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres (IBLC) in the region. This report focuses in particular into the milling industry in Skåne in regard to its potential, the utilization of the by-product bran and limitation for the implementation of IBLC. The objective of this reports is to propose a roadmap for the transformation of the current milling sector into an IBLC.The reader will first get a brief introduction to the IBLC concept and a detailed status of the cereal production and milling industry in Skåne. The process for data collection included many interactions with the industry and other relevant stakeholders. The results are then presented.The roadmap uses a backcasting approach starting with the development of a desired sustainable vision of the future. The vision foreseen that mills have developed into IBLCs and collaborate with many actors to produce a wider range of products and add values to other by-products than the mills’ own by-products. This new activity is profitable for the mills but also for other processing industries. The products developed are highly demanded by the consumers.The authors then mapped the current situation looking in particular at hinders, potential conflict of interest, and policy support. The hinders could be clustered into six categories: supply, communication, regulation, economy, market, and logistic. The conflict of interest for the valorisation of bran is low as it is used for human consumption to a low extent. It could however conflict with the animal feeding industry. Different kind of supports are needed at the different stage of the innovation development. Skåne, and Sweden in general have good access to supporting schemes. More technical data concerning the current status of the milling sector is included in the background chapter.Finally, concrete measures for moving from the current situation to the vision are discussed. The most important measure to implement would be to develop a market for the new bio-based products. To support this, a number of measures should be implemented in a joint effort. These measures include technical development, collaboration, and communication. Moreover, sustainability must be a red thread in this transformation, and new legislation should provide a supportive framework.

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  • 32.
    Chiulan, I.
    et al.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Panaitescu, D. M.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Radu, E. -R
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Frone, A. N.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Gabor, R. A.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Nicolae, C. A.
    ICECHIM, Romania.
    Jinescu, G.
    Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania.
    Tofan, V.
    Cantacuzino National Institute of Research and Development for Microbiology and Immunology, Romania.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Comprehensive characterization of silica-modified silicon rubbers2020In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 101, article id 103427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a commercially liquid silicone rubber was filled with fumed silica particles in different concentrations and evaluated for medical applications. The thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of silicone/silica composite samples were studied before and after aging, flexural tests and immersion in saline environment. Understanding the effect of silica content, aging conditions and thickness (from 0.6 to 2 mm) of the samples on the behavior of these materials in different environments is crucial for applications as implantable devices. Before inducing any mechanical stress, tensile strength was found to increase for samples containing 3 or 5 wt% of fumed silica, depending on the thickness. A similar trend was observed after 106 flexes for tensile strength, storage modulus and hardness at room temperature, which increased with the concentration of fumed silica. Moreover, tensile strength decreased with increasing the thickness of the samples from 0.6 to 2 mm. The thermal degradation was found to start at higher temperature in the case of the composites as compared with neat silicone, however, the glass transition and melting temperatures were only slightly modified by the presence of the silica particles, regardless the mechanical aging. The MTT assay using L929 fibroblasts mouse cells showed a good short-time cytocompatibility for both silicone elastomer and the composite with 3 wt% fumed silica. Similarly, the measurement of the cytokine secretion revealed no inflammatory response.

  • 33.
    Cintas, Olivia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Climate impact of BioZEment in the construction of residential buildings in Norway2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is a major contributor to global warming. One solution to the challenge is to develop new sustainable material alternatives. The BioZEment concept employs bio-catalytic dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate as a novel alternative to concrete. In this report, the reduction in global warming potential of using BioZEment is assessed with a building stock model, where the use of conventional concrete is compared to the use of BioZEment in Norwegian dwellings until 2100. The assessment is conducted with the assumption that BioZEment has expected material properties and is gradually penetrating the building stock until it reaches a full implementation by 2050.

    Results indicate that the use of BioZEment has a higher potential of reducing global warming potential than conventional concrete, regardless of the development of the cement industry. BioZEment could decrease cumulative greenhouse gas emissions with ca 15 % by 2100 compared to using conventional concrete with a conservative development and slightly less if compared to using concrete with an optimistic development (including among other initiatives breakthrough technologies like carbon capture and storage, and carbon capture and utilization).

    Results also indicate that, while BioZEment is not fully implemented in the entire building stock, using the optimistic development concrete instead of conservative concrete provides the lowest cumulative emissions by 2100. That means that including several migration strategies at the same time will reduce emissions further than taking one single action.

    The building stock model provides interesting indications about the potential of BioZEment, which can guide further development. If Norway is to meet its ambitious goals of emission reductions and climate neutrality, it is important to design thought through and robust strategies for the construction sector.

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    Climate impact of BioZEment in the construction of residential buildings in Norway
  • 34.
    De Menna, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Unger, Nicole
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Loubiere, Marion
    Deloitte Sustainability, France.
    Vittuari, Matteo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    A combined framework for the life cycle assessment and costing of food waste prevention and valorization: an application to school canteens2020In: Agricultural and Food Economics, ISSN 2193-7532, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About one third of global edible food is lost or wasted along the supply chain, causing the wastage of embedded natural and economic resources. Life cycle methodologies can be applied to identify sustainable and viable prevention and valorization routes needed to prevent such inefficiencies. However, no systemic approach has been developed so far to guide practitioners and stakeholders. Specifically, the goal and scoping phase (e.g. problem assessed or system function) can be characterized by a large flexibility, and the comparability between food waste scenarios could be not ensured. Within the Horizon2020 project Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain, this study aimed to provide practitioners with guidance on how to combine life cycle assessment and environmental life cycle costing in the context of food waste. Recent literature was reviewed to identify relevant methodological aspects, possible commonly adopted approaches, main differences among studies and standards and protocols, main challenges, and knowledge gaps. Basing on this review, an analytical framework with a set of recommendations was developed encompassing different assessment situations. The framework intends to provide a step by step guidance for food waste practitioners, and it is composed of a preliminary section on study purpose definition, three decision trees—respectively on assessment situation(s), costing approach, and type of study (footprint vs. intervention)—and two sets of recommendations. Recommendations can be applied to all levels of the food waste hierarchy, stating a generic order of preference for handling food chain side flows. This consistent and integrated life cycle approach should ensure a better understanding of the impact of specific interventions, thus supporting informed private and public decision making and promoting the design of sustainable and cost-efficient interventions and a more efficient food supply chains. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 35.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Proceedings from the 9thInternational Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB, Sweden.
    Joint effects of depth‑aiding augmentations and viewing positionson the quality of experience in augmented telepresence2020In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, Vol. 5, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual and augmented reality is increasingly prevalent in industrial applications, such as remote control of industrial machinery,due to recent advances in head-mounted display technologies and low-latency communications via 5G. However, theinfluence of augmentations and camera placement-based viewing positions on operator performance in telepresence systemsremains unknown. In this paper, we investigate the joint effects of depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positionson the quality of experience for operators in augmented telepresence systems. A study was conducted with 27 non-expertparticipants using a real-time augmented telepresence system to perform a remote-controlled navigation and positioningtask, with varied depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positions. The resulting quality of experience was analyzed viaLikert opinion scales, task performance measurements, and simulator sickness evaluation. Results suggest that reducing thereliance on stereoscopic depth perception via camera placement has a significant benefit to operator performance and qualityof experience. Conversely, the depth-aiding augmentations can partly mitigate the negative effects of inferior viewingpositions. However the viewing-position based monoscopic and stereoscopic depth cues tend to dominate over cues basedon augmentations. There is also a discrepancy between the participants’ subjective opinions on augmentation helpfulness,and its observed effects on positioning task performance.

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  • 37.
    Ehman, N. V.
    et al.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Lourenço, A. F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    McDonagh, B. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Vallejos, M. E.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Felissia, F. E.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Ferreira, P. J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Area, M. C.
    Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Argentina.
    Influence of initial chemical composition and characteristics of pulps on the production and properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers2020In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 143, p. 453-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aimed to study the influence of the initial chemical composition (glucans, lignin, xylan, and mannans), intrinsic viscosity, and carboxylate groups of pulps on the production process and final properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF). Pulps of pine sawdust, eucalyptus sawdust, and sugarcane bagasse subjected to conventional pulping and highly oxidized processes were the starting materials. The LCNF were obtained by TEMPO mediated oxidation and mechanical fibrillation with a colloidal grinder. The nanofibrillation degree, chemical charge content, rheology, laser profilometry, cristallinity and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the LCNF. The carboxylate groups, hemicelluloses and lignin of the initial pulps were important factors that affected the production process of LCNF. The results revealed that intrinsic viscosity and carboxylate groups of the initial pulps affected LCNF production process, whereas lignin and hemicelluloses influenced the viscosity of LCNF aqueous suspensions, the roughness of LCNF films, and the carboxylate groups content of LCNF

  • 38.
    Ehman, Nanci Vanesa
    et al.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Ita-Nagy, Diana
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Felissia, Fernando Esteban
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Vallejos, María Evangelina
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Quispe, Isabel
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Area, María Cristina
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Biocomposites of Bio-Polyethylene Reinforced with a Hydrothermal-Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pulp and Coupled with a Bio-Based Compatibilizer.2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 9, article id E2158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-polyethylene (BioPE, derived from sugarcane), sugarcane bagasse pulp, and two compatibilizers (fossil and bio-based), were used to manufacture biocomposite filaments for 3D printing. Biocomposite filaments were manufactured and characterized in detail, including measurement of water absorption, mechanical properties, thermal stability and decomposition temperature (thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to assess the fracture area of the filaments after mechanical testing. Increases of up to 10% in water absorption were measured for the samples with 40 wt% fibers and the fossil compatibilizer. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing the fraction of bagasse fibers from 0% to 20% and 40%. The suitability of the biocomposite filaments was tested for 3D printing, and some shapes were printed as demonstrators. Importantly, in a cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis of the biocomposites, we demonstrated that replacing fossil compatibilizer with a bio-based compatibilizer contributes to a reduction in CO2-eq emissions, and an increase in CO2 capture, achieving a CO2-eq storage of 2.12 kg CO2 eq/kg for the biocomposite containing 40% bagasse fibers and 6% bio-based compatibilizer.

  • 39.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Dolins, Sigma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    S3 – Shared Shuttle Services: Fas 1 (2017-05-03 – 2019-12-31)2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    S3-projektet handlar om att testa delade, elektrifierade och automatiserade skyttelbussar för att demonstrera hur dessa nya transportlösningar kan stimulera och stödja en förtätning av staden.Inom projektet har stadsutvecklare, näringsliv, akademi och offentlig sektor samlats för att gemensamt utforma och prova nya mobilitetskoncept för den första- och sista kilometern av resan. Rapporten beskriver den första fasen av projektet, från maj 2017 till och med december 2019, där skyttelbussarna testats vid Lindholmen Science Park, Chalmers campus Johanneberg samt i Härryda centrum. För att stärka projektet har arbete även utförts kring kompletterande mobilitetstjänster, öppen innovation, utvärdering, affärsmodell, färdplan, molninfrastruktur samt event och kommunikation kopplat till initiativet. Efter utmanande processer av projektering och tillståndsansökan lyckades testerna genomföras på vad som av teknik- och fordonsleverantörerna ansågs vara den mest utmanande rutten i världen som dessa fordon hittills kört på. Samtidigt är mognadsgraden för teknik och helhetstjänst fortfarande relativt låg, och kombinerat med givna säkerhetsprioriteringar lämnas en del att önska vad gäller grundläggande parametrar som hastighet och komfort. Dessutom innebär nuvarande tillståndskrav på säkerhetsoperatör ombord på fordonen begränsningar vad gäller till exempel hållbara affärsmodeller och möjligheten att studera vissa användarförhållanden. Tack till medverkande parter och finansiärer med ett särskilt tack till Vinnova, Drive Sweden och Lindholmen Science Park som gjort detta projekt möjligt. Tack till Transportstyrelsen, Trafikkontoret, Polisen och Chalmersfastigheter för snabba beslutsvägar och till Atrium Ljungberg för lånet av garageplats. Slutligen önskar projektet rikta ett stort tack till samtliga som varit med och testat skyttlarna.

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  • 40.
    Eriksson, Mimmi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Forces at superhydrophobic and superamphiphobic surfaces2020In: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, ISSN 1359-0294, E-ISSN 1879-0399, Vol. 47, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forces exerted at surfaces and interphases due to formation of gaseous (air or vapor) bridges describe the extreme liquid repellence in superhydrophobicity (SH) and amphiphobicity. The neighboring research areas of liquid capillary bridges and that of interactions between hydrophobic surfaces are highly valuable reference systems. We review recent findings with particular focus on the three-phase contact line and surface forces. Although macroscopic contact angles (>150°), low contact angle hysteresis (<10°, but can be high; parahydrophobic or petal type) and low roll-off angle (≤5–10°) are adequate criteria for SH and superamphiphobicity (SA) for most studies, a detailed understanding requires a view related to mechanisms. Experimental studies of liquid drop–substrate and particle–substrate adhesion in hydrophobic, SH, and SA systems are summarized by relating measured forces to the wetting tension, γcosθ. A low wetting tension value is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for SH and SA systems. The picture emerging from detailed force distance studies is that extreme liquid repellence in SH and SA systems is a progression of liquid repellence due to hydrophobicity, in which force curves can be explained by capillary forces of constant volume of the gaseous capillary. In SH and SA, neither the capillary force equation assuming constant volume nor constant pressure of the gaseous capillary explains experimental force measurements as the capillary increases in both volume and pressure. In recent experimental studies, a transition is observed into nonconstant volume and pressure which suggests an SH and SA wetting transition from constant volume or pressure to a capillary growth as driven by the γA and the PV works but also by forces at the three-phase contact SLV (solid-liquid-vapor) line, viz. pinning forces, Fpin and Fdepin, and line energy, (τL)SLV, terms. Supported by calculations of the different contributions, we suggest this transition being an appropriate definition for the onset of (appreciable) SH and SA. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 41.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Ledarskap i mellanrummen – fallstudie av gränsgångare och gränspraktiker i en komplex samverkansmiljö2020Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränsöverskridande samarbete, samverkan och tidsbegränsade arbetssätt är på modet. Stadsplanering, samhällsstyrning, välfärdsproduktion och tackling av samhälleliga utmaningar sker allt mer i projektform och inkluderar en blandning av offentliga verksamheter, privata aktörer och intressenter. Så kallad gränsöverskridande organisering sker över olika typer av professionella, organisatoriska, geografiska och institutionella gränser. Denna trend har även inneburit ett ökat intresse för gränsgångare och olika typer av gränspraktiker som enligt studier spelar en allt viktigare roll i gränsöverskridande samverkansmiljöer. Denna studie söker svar på hur en gränsgångarpraktik kommer till uttryck i en samverkansmiljö, vilka problem som uppstår och på vilket sätt praktiken eventuellt bidrar till samverkan. Studien har fokuserat på projektet

    Kraftsamling Sjöbo som har pågått sedan december 2017. I Kraftsamlingen deltar offentliga verksamheter, civilsamhället, myndigheter, föreningar, akademin, forskningsinstitut och invånare. Syftet är en hållbar omställning av en stadsdel. För det första visar studien att det krävdes en omfattande arbetsinsats för att åstadkomma ett fungerande samarbete över gränser. Det gränsöverskridande samarbetet försvårades delvis på grund av skillnader i kultur, intressen, värderingar och organisatoriska förutsättningar. För det andra visar studien att projektledarrollen förändrades och arbetet med Kraftsamlingen visade sig kräva omfattande gränsöverskridande interaktion, facilitering och ständigt pågående problemlösning. Gränsgångaren trädde in i en ledarskapsroll när situationer krävde det och arbetade aktivt för att skapa strukturella förutsättningar för att åstadkomma fungerande samarbete, baserat på Kraftsamlingens mission och värden. Gränsgångarpraktiken visade sig vara komplex och mångfacetterad. Gränsgångaren kopplade exempelvis samman aktörer, byggde sociala nätverk, mobiliserade resurser, försökte påverka rådande tanke- och arbetssätt, förflyttade information över gränser, agerade som översättare mellan professionella gemenskaper, löste uppblossande konflikter, skapade nya organisatoriska strukturer, försökte skapa engagemang och drev på för kollektiv handling. Gränsgångaren försökte etablera en gemensam samverkanskultur och arbetade aktivt med de sociala sammanhangen i organisationen.

    För det tredje indikerar studien att den här typen av gränsöverskridande ledarskapspraktik spelar en viktig roll i gränsöverskridande samverkansmiljöer där en mångfald av aktörer som har olika förutsättningar och intressen deltar. Studien illustrerar även de utmaningar som ett projektbaserat arbetssätt kan innebära när gränser korsas och när frågorna som hanteras är komplexa och sammansatta. Studiens resultat kan också omsättas till ett antal praktiska rekommendationer. För det första bör synen på projektledarskapet i komplexa samverkansprojekt nyanseras och utvidgas. För det andra bör gränsgångarroller och det informella ledarskapet synliggöras och uppvärderas i samverkansmiljöer. För det tredje bör de specifika kompetenserna och det nödvändiga sociala hantverket synliggöras och inkluderas i rekryteringsarbetet hos organisationer.

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  • 42.
    Fager, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Olsson, Anna
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    Särkkä, Aila
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Optimization of FIB-SEM Tomography and Reconstruction for Soft, Porous, and Poorly Conducting Materials.2020In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tomography using a focused ion beam (FIB) combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is well-established for a wide range of conducting materials. However, performing FIB-SEM tomography on ion- and electron-beam-sensitive materials as well as poorly conducting soft materials remains challenging. Some common challenges include cross-sectioning artifacts, shadowing effects, and charging. Fully dense materials provide a planar cross section, whereas pores also expose subsurface areas of the planar cross-section surface. The image intensity of the subsurface areas gives rise to overlap between the grayscale intensity levels of the solid and pore areas, which complicates image processing and segmentation for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. To avoid the introduction of artifacts, the goal is to examine porous and poorly conducting soft materials as close as possible to their original state. This work presents a protocol for the optimization of FIB-SEM tomography parameters for porous and poorly conducting soft materials. The protocol reduces cross-sectioning artifacts, charging, and eliminates shadowing effects. In addition, it handles the subsurface and grayscale intensity overlap problems in image segmentation. The protocol was evaluated on porous polymer films which have both poor conductivity and pores. 3D reconstructions, with automated data segmentation, from three films with different porosities were successfully obtained.

  • 43.
    Ferri, Maura
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Vannini, Micaela
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ehrnell, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Monari, Stefania
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Sisti, Laura
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Marchese, Paola
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Celli, Annamaria
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tassoni, Annalisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    From winery waste to bioactive compounds and new polymeric biocomposites: A contribution to the circular economy concept2020In: Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2090-1232, Vol. 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at optimising and validating possible routes toward the full valorisation of grape agrowaste to produce bioactive molecules and new materials. Starting from Merlot red pomace, phenol complex mixtures were successfully extracted by using two different approaches. Extracts obtained by solvent-based (SE) technique contained up to 46.9 gGAeq/kgDW of total phenols. Depending on the used solvent, the prevalence of compounds belonging to different phenol families was achieved. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) gave higher total phenol yields (up to 79 gGAeq/kgDW) but a lower range of extracted compounds. All liquid extracts exerted strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, both SE and PLE extraction solid residues were directly exploited (between 5 and 20% w/w) to prepare biocomposite materials by direct mixing via an eco-friendly approach with PHBV polymer. The final composites showed mechanical characteristics similar to PHVB matrix. The use of pomace residues in biocomposites could therefore bring both to the reduction of the cost of the final material, as a lower amount of costly PHBV is used. The present research demonstrated the full valorisation of grape pomace, an agrowaste produced every year in large amounts and having a significant environmental impact.

  • 44.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 45.
    Flink, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Hedberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Guide gällande dokumentationskrav för EN ISO 138492020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Machinery directive gives the requirements for safe machinery, and safe machine control, within the European Union. The European standard EN ISO 13849-1 describes safety-related machine control. This report explains some of the documentation requirements, especially for safety-related machine control systems.

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  • 46.
    Fontes-Candia, Cynthia
    et al.
    IATA, Spain.
    Ström, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    López-Rubio, Amparo
    IATA, Spain.
    Martínez-Sanz, Marta
    IATA, Spain.
    Rheological and structural characterization of carrageenan emulsion gels2020In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 47, article id 101873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrageenan emulsion gels containing sunflower oil were prepared using three different commercial carrageenan grades (κ-C, ι-C and λ-C). The effect of the carrageenan and salt content, as well as the oil:water ratio, on the emulsion gel strength was evaluated through a response surface methodology. Moreover, the rheological properties and the micro- and nanostructure from the stronger emulsion gel formulations were investigated and compared to their analogous hydrogel formulations. Interestingly, emulsion gels formed stronger and more thermally stable networks than the hydrogels, being this effect more evident in ι-C and λ-C. The results indicate that this was mainly due to a polysaccharide concentration effect, as no evidence of interactions between the carrageenan and the oil phase was found. Consequently, the rheological behaviour of the emulsion gels was mostly determined by the type of carrageenan. The association of carrageenan molecular chains was favoured in κ-C and λ-C (due to the presence of κ-carrageenan in the latter) and promoted by the addition of KCl. In contrast, a lower degree of chain association, mostly driven by ionic cross-linking, took place in ι-C. These results evidence the relevance of the gelation mechanism on the properties of emulsion gels and provide the basis for the design of these systems for targeted applications within the food industry.

  • 47.
    Fortes Brollo, Maria Eugenia
    et al.
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Domínguez-Bajo, Ana
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Tabero, Andrea
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Domínguez-Arca, Vicente
    Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Gisbert, Victor
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Prieto, Gerardo
    Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Garcia, Ricardo
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Villanueva, Angeles
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Serrano, María Concepción
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain.
    Morales, María Del Puerto
    Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Spain; IMDEA-Nanociencia, Spain.
    Combined Magnetoliposome Formation and Drug Loading in One Step for Efficient Alternating Current-Magnetic Field Remote-Controlled Drug Release.2020In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 4295-4307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a reproducible and facile one step strategy for the synthesis of doxorubicin loaded magnetoliposomes by using a thin-layer evaporation method. Liposomes of around 200 nm were made of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with negative, positive, and hydrophobic surfaces that were incorporated outside, inside, or between the lipid bilayers, respectively. To characterize how NPs are incorporated in liposomes, advanced cryoTEM and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques have been used. It was observed that only when the NPs are attached outside the liposomes, the membrane integrity is preserved (lipid melt transition shifts to 38.7 °C with high enthalpy 34.8 J/g) avoiding the leakage of the encapsulated drug while having good colloidal properties and the best heating efficiency under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). These magnetoliposomes were tested with two cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa cells. First, 100% of cellular uptake was achieved with a high cell survival (above 80%), which is preserved (83%) for doxorubicin-loaded magnetoliposomes. Then, we demonstrate that doxorubicin release can be triggered by remote control, using a noninvasive external AMF for 1 h, leading to a cell survival reduction of 20%. Magnetic field conditions of 202 kHz and 30 mT seem to be enough to produce an effective heating to avoid drug degradation. In conclusion, these drug-loaded magnetoliposomes prepared in one step could be used for drug release on demand at a specific time and place, efficiently using an external AMF to reduce or even eliminate side effects.

  • 48.
    Francart, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sargon Orahim, Allanmikel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System setup and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sharing indoor space: stakeholders’ perspectives and energy metrics2020In: Buildings and Cities, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing of indoor space can improve space and energy efficiency. The drivers and barriers to space-sharing initiatives are investigated from the perspectives of building users and building sector practitioners, based on interviews and a workshop. The role of energy performance metrics in promoting space efficiency is further analysed through a literature review. From the users’ perspective, space sharing can be understood through the interplay between tangible aspects (e.g. concrete benefits derived from sharing), organisational aspects (e.g. common decision processes and conflict resolution) and social aspects (e.g. group identity and consensus on appropriate behaviours). From the perspective of architects and property owners, shareable spaces require features such as flexibility and multifunctionality. The design of such spaces is limited by regulatory issues (e.g. building regulations poorly accommodate shared facilities) and business-related issues. One such issue is that building performance metrics normalised based on floor area do not incentivise the efficient use of space. A review of complementary metrics is provided, covering parameters such as number of users, layout, time of use, etc. Each metric serves a particular purpose; therefore, a set of complementary metrics can be used to support decisions at different phases of the building’s life cycle.

    Practice relevanceImproving space efficiency (e.g. by sharing indoor space) is a key strategy to meet simultaneously the future demand for facilities in cities and fulfil environmental objectives such as a reduction of climate change impact in the building sector. A clearer understanding of the specificities of space sharing is provided from the perspectives of building users and practitioners. This will assist practitioners to understand the needs of other stakeholders. Regulatory and business-related barriers to space-sharing initiatives are highlighted as a first step towards overcoming these barriers. Guidance is provided on complementary energy performance metrics appropriate for space efficiency. These metrics can be used to support various decisions during the different stages of a building’s life cycle.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 49.
    Françon, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Zhen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Marais, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mystek, Katarzyna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Piper, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Malti, Abdellah
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ambient-Dried, 3D-Printable and Electrically Conducting Cellulose Nanofiber Aerogels by Inclusion of Functional Polymers2020In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, article id 1909383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a novel, green, and efficient way of preparing crosslinked aerogels from cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and alginate using non-covalent chemistry. This new process can ultimately facilitate the fast, continuous, and large-scale production of porous, light-weight materials as it does not require freeze-drying, supercritical CO2 drying, or any environmentally harmful crosslinking chemistries. The reported preparation procedure relies solely on the successive freezing, solvent-exchange, and ambient drying of composite CNF-alginate gels. The presented findings suggest that a highly-porous structure can be preserved throughout the process by simply controlling the ionic strength of the gel. Aerogels with tunable densities (23–38 kg m−3) and compressive moduli (97–275 kPa) can be prepared by using different CNF concentrations. These low-density networks have a unique combination of formability (using molding or 3D-printing) and wet-stability (when ion exchanged to calcium ions). To demonstrate their use in advanced wet applications, the printed aerogels are functionalized with very high loadings of conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:TOS) polymer by using a novel in situ polymerization approach. In-depth material characterization reveals that these aerogels have the potential to be used in not only energy storage applications (specific capacitance of 78 F g−1), but also as mechanical-strain and humidity sensors. © 2020 The Authors. 

  • 50.
    From, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; Nouryon Pulp and Performance Chemicals AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health.
    Andreasson, Bo
    Nouryon Pulp and Performance Chemicals AB, Sweden.
    Medronho, Bruno
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; University of Algarve, Portugal.
    Svanedal, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Tuning the properties of regenerated cellulose: Effects of polarity and water solubility of the coagulation medium2020In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 236, article id 116068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effect of different alcohols and esters as a coagulation medium in the regeneration of cellulose dissolved in an aqueous LiOH-urea-based solvent was thoroughly investigated using various methods such as solid state NMR, X-ray diffraction, water contact angle, oxygen gas permeability, mechanical testing, and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that several material properties of the regenerated cellulose films follow trends that correlate to the degree of cellulose II crystallinity, which is determined to be set by the miscibility of the coagulant medium (nonsolvent) and the aqueous alkali cellulose solvent rather than the nonsolvents’ polarity. This article provides an insight, thus creating a possibility to carefully tune and control the cellulose material properties when tailor-made for different applications.

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