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  • 1.
    De Goey, Heleen
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Engström, Dan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Design Thinking as Facilitator for Sustainable Innovation: Exploring Opportunities at SMEs in the Swedish Wood Products Industry2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Sustainable Innovation, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design thinking (DT) is the application of design practice as an approach to innovate and initiate change. Recently, DT has received increasing attention as an approach to address sustainability challenges. However, this area is less studied. The purpose of this study was to explore how DT could enable small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Swedish wood products industry to create more sustainable offers. Various actors from this industry have identified the need to develop sustainable offers, although few discuss how this is realized. Interviews have been conducted with six SMEs to increase understanding on challenges they perceive with developing sustainable products. Current practice is compared to potential benefits of DT described in literature. Three main benefits of DT for SMEs have been identified. It could enable SMEs [1] to redefine the purpose of their offers, [2] to better address needs and [3] to address conflicting requirements regarding sustainability.

  • 2.
    Fasth Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Åkerman, Magnus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Gullander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Creatinga structured MEETing arena for knowledge-sharing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe how to create and structure a meeting arena bycombining organisation structure and information structure; this will be used in orderto create an innovative and creative arena for knowledge sharing and problemsolving within the company. The model is exemplified by four industrial casestudies.Results reveal that most of the companies do not have any standards forinformation- or knowledge sharing, most improvement potentials are seen instructuring and storing the right information (IS), aiming from tacit towards explicitknowledge (OS) and this could be done by structuring the questions in the OS-M-ISmodel and by creating innovative and creative meeting arenas.

  • 3.
    Gullander, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Fast- Berglund, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Åkerman, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The innovative glue between the organization system and information system2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gullander, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Fässberg, Tommy
    Van Landeghem, Hendrik
    Zeltzer, Luiza
    Limère, Veronique
    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine
    Stahre, Johan
    Comparing Two Methods to Measure Assembly Complexity From An Operator Perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hagman, Joel
    RISE, Swerea.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    RISE, Swerea. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE, Swerea.
    Cosolvent and non-solvent effects on EmimAc-cellulose solutions’ rheology investigated inoscillatory shear and elongation2016In: 6th Avancell conference, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coagulation of cellulose-EmimAc-DMSO solutions studied in order to control properties of wet-spun cellulose fibers2016In: The 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, 2016, p. 49-52, article id 15Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Wernersson, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide2016In: The 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, 2016, p. 15-18, article id 1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied combining experimental and simulation techniques. It was found that the dissolution limit at 40 °C corresponded to a molar ratio close to one acetate per cellulose anhydroglucose units. MD simulations suggested that the acetate ions bind to cellulose by dual hydrogen bonds. This effectively turns cellulose into a polyelectrolyte, attracting the bulky tetrabutylammonium (TBA+ ) counter ions, which prevent close contact between chains in the dissolved state. This hypothesis was tested by 1 Hand 13C-NMR spectroscopy, which confirmed that acetate forms hydrogen bonds to cellulose, and by diffusion NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated a strong dynamic correlation between bound acetate and tetrabutylammonium in near-quantitative agreement with simulation. The present results suggest that offering hydrogen bonding to the acetate ions is the main driving force for dissolving cellulose and that the TBA+ counter ions form a diffuse layer around the acetate-decorated cellulose chains.

  • 8.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson, E.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Sundgren, M.
    Nayström, P.
    Ekolyftet, en förstudie: hinder och möjligheter i företags arbete med hållbarhet i sin produktframtagning2013Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Jönbrink, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristinsdottir, Anna Runa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Sundgren, Mats
    Johansson, Eva
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Nayström, Peter
    Why use Ecodesign in the industry 2013?: A Survey regarding Barriers and Opportunities related to Ecodesign2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Komenda, Jacek
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Martin, David
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Lönnqvist, Johan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    The effect of boron addition on precipitation and hot ductility of 1.5Mn-0.1Nb-Ti carbon steels in As-cast condition2016In: Materials Science Forum, 2016, Vol. 879, p. 990-995Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve experimental steels with a base composition 1.5wt% Mn, 0.01 wt% V and 0.1 wt% Nb and varying C (0.05, 010 and 0.20 wt%), Ti (20 - 260 ppm) and B (0 - 100 ppm) contents have been systematically examined to quantify the effects of composition on precipitation behavio-ur and hot ductility during simulated continuous casting conditions. Nb-rich precipitates were present in the alloys with 0.10 wt-% C and 0.20 wt-% C. Alloys with 0.05, 010 and 0.20wt% C contained 50 - 100 nm size Ti-Nb carbonitrides. Boron was bound in 20 - 100 nm size boronitrides located in prior austenite grain boundaries. A Gleeble 3800 was used to study hot ductility and strain induced precipitation processes in the alloys. Alloys without B and Ti additions exhibited poor hot ductility at 850°C and 950°C, whereas the 0.05 wt-% C and 0.10 wt-% C alloys showed improved hot ductility (reduction in area 40-50%) by the addition of either >50 ppm B or 250 ppm Ti. The 0.2 wt-% C alloys showed no improvement from B or Ti additions. Examination of fracture surfaces of hot ductility specimens showed that boronitrides were located at prior austenite grain boundaries in alloys containing 80 - 100 ppm of B. Compression-relaxation tests showed that alloying with boron caused a noticeable decrease of the start temperature of straininduced precipitation in the alloys.

  • 11.
    Lindell, Hans
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gretarsson, Sigurdur
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Machens, Michael
    RISE, Swerea.
    High Frequency Vibrations From Impact Tools: Measurement of Vibration and Simulating Pressure Propagation into Finger Tissue2016In: 6th American Conference on Human Vibration, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lu, Huiran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alvarado, Fernando
    RISE, Innventia.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    RISE, Swerea. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Jiebing
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lignin as a binder material for eco-friendly Li-ion batteries2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAh·g-1 for the positive electrode and 305 mAh·g-1 for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAh·g-1 and the negative electrode with 160 mAh·g-1 at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

  • 13.
    Marshakov, A. I.
    et al.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Rybkina, A. A.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Maksaeva, L. B.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Petrunin, M. A.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    A study of the initial stages of iron passivation in neutral solutions using the quartz crystal resonator technique2016In: Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, ISSN 2070-2051, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 936-946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial period of growth of a passive film of iron in borate solutions (pH 7.4 and 6.7) is studied using the quartz crystal resonator technique (EQSN) and pulsed chronoamperometry. Dependences of the surface layer thickness on time are obtained at the metal passivation and prepassivation potentials. Regions corresponding to different stages of passive layer formation are found in anodic current transients, which allowed the ambiguous effect of atomic hydrogen on kinetics of hydrogenated iron dissolution to be explained. It is shown that the iron hydrogenation promoter prevents formation of a primary passive film by accelerating iron dissolution at prepassivation potentials.

  • 14.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Chalmers Universitet.
    Fasth, Åsa
    Chalmers Universitet.
    Dencker, Kersin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gullander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers Universitet.
    Karlsson, Malin
    Chalmers Universitet.
    Davidsson, Anna
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Validation of the complexity index method at three manufacturing companies2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE, Swerea. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordenberg, Eva
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Strondl, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nano-sized by-products from metal 3D printing, composite manufacturing and fabric production2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1224-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the health and environmental perspective of nano-materials has gained attention. Most previous work focused on Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP). This paper examines some recently introduced production routes in terms of generated nano-sized by-products. A discussion on the hazards of emitting such particles and fibers is included. Fine by-products were found in recycled metal powder after 3D printing by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The process somehow generated small round metal particles (∌1–2 ÎŒm) that are possibly carcinogenic and respirable, but not small enough to enter by skin-absorption. With preventive measures like closed handling and masks, any health related effects can be prevented. The composite manufacturing in particular generated ceramic and carbonaceous particles that are very small and respirable but do not appear to be intrinsically toxic. The smallest features in agglomerates were about 30 nm. Small particles and fibers that were not attached in agglomerates were found in a wide range of sizes, from 1 ÎŒm and upwards. Preventive measures like closed handling and masks are strongly recommended. In contrast, the more traditional production route of fabric production is investigated. Here, brushing residue and recycled wool from fabric production contained few nano-sized by-products.

  • 16.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Marshakov, A. I.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Rybkina, A. A.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Iron hydrogenation under atmospheric corrosion. Studies using a scanning vibrating microscope2015In: Protection of Metals and Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, ISSN 2070-2051, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scanning vibrating capacitor (SVC, Kelvin probe) is used to study hydrogenation of iron and steel under the conditions of atmospheric corrosion. It is shown that hydrogen that forms in the course of corrosion or under cathodic polarization diffuses through the membrane and interacts with its opposite side, causing a decrease in the surface Volta potential. It is proposed that atomic hydrogen reduces Fe3+ ions in the passive film. It is shown that the SVC technique is informative for registration of local regions of hydrogenated metal at very low hydrogen flow into steel.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Oxfall, Henrik
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wandelt, Wojciech
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Rychwalski, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Melt spinning of conductive textile fibers with hybridized graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black filler2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 4, p. 2579-2587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) are studied as conductive fillers for the preparation of conductive polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. In order to obtain a homogenous dispersion of GNP, GNP/PP composites were prepared by two different methods: solid state mixing (SSM) and traditional melt mixing (MM). The result shows that MM is more efficient in the dispersion of GNP particles compared to SSM method. PP nanocomposites containing only one conductive filler and two fillers were prepared at different filler concentrations. Based on the analysis of electrical and rheological properties of the prepared nanocomposites, it shows that a hybridized composite with equal amounts of GNP and CB has favorable processing properties. Conductive fibers with a core/sheath structure were produced on a bicomponent melt spinning line. The core materials of these fibers are the hybridized GNP/CB/PP nanocomposite and the sheath is pure polyamide. It was found that GNPs were separated during melt and cold drawing which results in the decrease of conductivity. However, the conductivity could partly be restored by the heat treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 18.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Perez Caro, Lluis
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marth, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schill, Mikael
    DYNAmore GmbH, Germany.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Prediction of damage and fracture during forming simulations in Alloy 7182016In: Aerospace Technology Congress 2016: Swedish aerospace technology in a globalised world, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Perez Caro, Lluis
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Sweden.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Steffenburg-Nordenström, Joachim
    GKN Aerospace, Sweden.
    Comparison of forming, welding and heat treatment simulations in LS-DYNA and MSC Marc2016In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research & 9th International Welding Symposium of Japan Welding Society, 2016, p. 660-663Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of components for aero engine structures from a flat sheet to the final shape usually requires several steps that may introduce residual stresses and shape distortions in the part. Depending on the magnitude, sign and distribution with respect to the stresses induced by the service load, the remaining stresses may affect the service life of a component, especially when submitted to cyclic loading. Nowadays, several types of software that have the ability to predict the residual stresses and the final shape of a component subjected to various process steps are available. However, literature shows a lack of comparison studies among different software tools for multi-step simulations of a manufacturing process. In this study, the manufacturing process chain of an aerospace component including forming, welding and heat treatment in the nickel-based superalloy 718 is modelled and simulated using the two finite element software codes LS-DYNA and MSC.Marc. The results from the displacement of the blank in the punch stroke direction, the equivalent plastic strain and the von Mises stress are compared between both FE codes. The displacement of the blank after forming is slightly higher in LS-DYNA compared to MSC.Marc, as well as the equivalent plastic strain and the von Mises stress values. This tendency is also observed after trimming and welding. It can also be noted that the distribution of both strains and stresses on the trimmed and welded parts varies between the two compared codes, presumably due to the choice of different solver options, explicit and implicit.

  • 20.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, Anders
    RISE, Innventia.
    Carbon fibres from lignin-cellulose precursor2015In: 18th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, September 9-11, 2015, Vienna, 2015, Vol. Poster, p. 126-129Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of two-component precursor fibres for carbon fibre production has been produced by air-gap spinning of kraft lignin with cellulose as the fibreforming polymer, the latter from paper grade or dissolving grade pulps. The spun precursor fibres,containing 70% lignin and 30% cellulose, demonstrate mechanical properties equivalent to commercial textile fibres. Precursor fibres based on softwood kraft lignin were treated thermally in twosteps to carbon fibres, which had mechanical properties equal to or greater than those reported for neat lignin-based carbon fibres produced by melt spinning. An advantage of the wet-spun precursor fibres developed in this project is that they are more flexible and easier to handle with a decreased risk ofbrittle fracture. The potential for further improvement for the new type of carbon fibre is very high.

  • 21.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Idström, Alexander
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Urban
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wernersson, E.
    Tetrabutylammonium acetate as a solvent for cellulose2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Hagström, Joacim
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Chocholatý, Ondrej
    University of West Bohemia, Czech Republic.
    Taxen, Claes
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Serak, Jan
    University of Chemistry and Technology, Czech Republic.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Effect of the microstructure of Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Mg model alloys on corrosion stability2016In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 110, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn-5Al and Zn-3Al-2Mg model alloys were cast and heat treated in order to obtain specimens with distinct microstructures and identical chemical compositions. The microstructure was characterised in detail to identify composition, size and distribution of present phases. Mass losses of samples with different microstructures and identical chemical compositions that were subjected to a cyclic corrosion test and a test under non-rinsing conditions differed by a factor of up to two. The mechanism is discussed based on measurements of corrosion stability of individual phases and chemical and phase compositions of corrosion products.

  • 23.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Goodwin, F.
    International Zinc Association, USA.
    Serak, J.
    University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Czech Republic.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Improving corrosion stability of Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]Mg by alloying for protection of car bodies2016In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 306, p. 439-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium and magnesium are known for their ability to improve corrosion performance of zinc coatings used for steel protection in automotive applications. To investigate the inhibiting properties of other elements, series of model Zn[sbnd]X, Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]X, Zn[sbnd]Mg[sbnd]X and Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]Mg[sbnd]X alloys containing 0.2–2 wt% of titanium, mischmetal (mixture of cerium and other lanthanides), zirconium, molybdenum, chromium, boron, gallium, indium, copper, nickel, calcium, manganese and silicon were prepared and their corrosion performance in a cyclic accelerated test and at a marine field site and the ability to provide galvanic protection to steel in defects were characterized. On openly exposed surfaces, none of the investigated elements showed stronger inhibiting effect on atmospheric corrosion than Al and Mg. When exposed to marine climate, it was beneficial to combine Al and Mg. The corrosion stability of Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]Mg was further improved by addition of a fourth element. Quaternary Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]Mg[sbnd]X alloys outperformed binary Zn[sbnd]X and ternary Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]X and Zn[sbnd]Mg[sbnd]X alloys. In average, mass loss was 4-fold higher in confined zones simulating hem flanges. Strong inhibition with Mg and detrimental effects of Al on corrosion in confined zones was found. Several quaternary Zn[sbnd]Al[sbnd]Mg[sbnd]X alloys with improved corrosion stability in both open and confined configurations were identified

  • 24.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Coil-coated Zn-Mg and Zn-Al-Mg: Effect of climatic parameters on the corrosion at cut edges2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 83, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of temperature, wet/dry cycling, pH, and the type and concentration of the corrosion activator on cut edge corrosion of painted Zn-15Mg and Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg coated steel. In most accelerated tests, paint delamination and red rust formation were reduced compared to hot dip galvanised steel (HDG), and Zn-15Mg outperformed Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg; however, Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg showed better results when exposed outdoors. The alloyed materials were particularly resistant when HDG was prone to elevated corrosion, i.e. under permanent wetness, at higher temperatures, with high chloride loadings and in the presence of sulphate. Oxygen reduction on steel cut edges was inhibited by the alloying elements.

  • 25.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Role of steel and zinc coating thickness in cut edge corrosion of coil coated materials in atmospheric weathering conditions; Part 2: Field data and model2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paint delamination from cut edges of model coil coated hot dip galvanized materials exposed at a marine test site for 5 years increased with steel thickness and decreased with zinc coating thickness. It was larger in sheltered locations than for openly exposed cut edges whereas red rust protection was more efficient on sheltered edges due to higher electric conductivity of deposits. The rate of paint delamination increased or decreased in time depending on the relative amount of zinc ions available for formation of the protective film on steel controlled by the initial steel substrate and zinc coating thicknesses. 

  • 26.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Xue, HB
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Lamaka, S.
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal; Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Role of steel and zinc coating thickness in cut edge corrosion of coil coated materials in atmospheric weathering conditions; Part 1: Laboratory study2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 99, p. 356-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathode surface area and its ability to reduce oxygen controlled the rate of zinc dissolution and paint delamination from cut edges of hot dip galvanised steel sheets. Zinc corrosion products deposited on steel in atmospheric exposure conditions inhibited oxygen reduction decreasing galvanic current and zinc dissolution and paint delamination. The opposite effect was observed for iron corrosion products. The initial steel substrate and zinc coating thicknesses affected the availability of zinc ions for formation of the protective film.

  • 27.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Costa, Sergio
    RISE, Swerea.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coupling process and structural simulations in crash application2016In: 31st ASC Technical Conference and ASTM D30 Meeting, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy absorbed during crushing of composite structures is strongly dependent on the layup, fiber architecture and type of resin used. Modeling of the crash behavior of composites is therefore highly influenced by the composite material system chosen, and current constitutive models must be improved to include/account for the inherent properties from the manufacturing step. The ultimate goal of this contribution is to optimize the material system and manufacturing method for the required crushing performance in terms of energy absorption and cost. A first outcome of the study will be to provide information regarding the properties of the final manufactured composite material such as residual stresses and effects of defects. These properties are then used in the development of crash models. A robust link between manufacturing, experiments and crushing simulations is vital where there should be a generic routine towards the data transfer and constitutive models. The study of effects of defects will affect the input data into the material and constitutive models in form of change in strength and stiffness properties of the material. In this contribution, an experimental study on the material response under quasistatic crushing is performed where the manufacturing effects on the material properties are considered based on estimated data provided from vacuum infusion simulation. The crushing simulations are performed with ABAQUS where the material model developed in-house, which is a physically based damage model based on the LaRC05 failure criterion and progressive damage, is chosen to model the constitutive behavior. The parameters that are transferred to the system from manufacturing simulation are fiber content and voids. Consideration of these parameters into the constitutive behavior of the structure will directly influence the structural response. A parametric study is completed and results are discussed.

  • 28.
    Rozite, L.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Characterization and analysis of time dependent behavior of bio-based composites made out of highly non-linear constituents2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation is to predict mechanical behavior of bio-based composites and their constituents by generalizing existing models to capture their time-dependent behavior. In order to identify and quantify parameters needed for the modeling, extensive damage tolerance tests as well as creep experiments are carried out. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics Inc. 2013.

  • 29.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Micromorphology, moisture sorption and mechanical properties of a biocomposite based on acetylated wood particles and cellulose ester2007In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Seldén, Ragnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Långström, Runar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    UV aging of poly(propylene)/wood-fiber composites2004In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 543-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of accelerated UV-aging on properties of PP/wood-flber composites has been studied. Plates containing 0, 25 and 50 wt% wood-fibers were subjected to accelerated UV-aging in a QUV weatherometer for up to 8 weeks. Stabilization against UV-degradation was made by adding 3% of a UV stabilizer. The results showed that both the unfilled PP and the PP/wood-fiber composites displayed good UV resistance with regard to mechanical properties. The color of the PP/wood-fiber composite plates changed from brown to chalky white at the exposed area because of the formation of a thin, strongly degraded surface layer. Physical and chemical analysis of these surface layers using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that degradation of the PP matrix had occurred, leading to chemicrystallization and extensive surface cracking. A decrease in PP melting temperature was also noted, due to molecular chain scission and the formation of extraneous groups, such as carbonyls and hydroperoxides. These results indicate that the wood-fibers act as chromophores when incorporated in the PP matrix. Increasing the fiber content from 25 to 50 wt% increases the rate of degradation of the PP matrix by approximately a factor of two. © 2004 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 31.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola .
    Kurdve, Martin
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola .
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE, Swerea, IVF. Mälardalens högskola .
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola .
    Industrial waste management within manufacturing: A comparative study of Tools, policies, visions and concepts2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Olsson, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Influence of cure conditions on the properties of a one-compenent moisture-cured polyurethane adhesive in the context of green gluing of wood2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 126, no S1, p. E297-E304Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Stormvinter, A.
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Kristofferssen, H.
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Olofsson, A.
    Scania, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Biwersi, K.
    Scania, Sweden.
    Effect of hardenability and press quenching on distortion of crown wheels2014In: Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 / [ed] Papp R.MacKenzie S.Goldstein R.Ferguson B.L., ASM International , 2014, p. 149-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Press quenching is used to control distortion of large transmission components, e.g. case hardened crown wheels. The unsystematic distortion arises from non-uniformity in the steel properties and processing conditions and is a major concern for gear manufactures. In the present work a methodology is developed to analyze how various properties and parameters influence the distortion during press quenching of crown wheels. To obtain realistic quenching characteristics, to be used for simulation, a number of experiments are carried out on an industrial press quenching machine. In addition, the distortion potential from hardenability is surveyed on a set of non-press quenched crown wheels and quantified by 3D- scanning. Based on the experimentally obtained quenching characteristics the press quenching process is simulated by FEM. Impact of steel properties, quenching characteristics and processing conditions on the distortion is discussed and analyzed in relation to the experiments. From the results it may be concluded that press quenching is a powerful tool that can limit the impact of distortion carriers. However, to exploit the full capability of press quenching and thereby increase process optimization it is necessary to better quantify the distortion carriers in the parts to be hardened. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jérôme
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Impact of internal oxidation and quenching path on fatigue of powertrain components2015In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 498-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in l6MnCr5 and 2ONiMo9-7F. 

  • 35.
    Ström, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea.
    Raudberget, Dag
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Instant Set-based Design, an Easy Path to Set-based Design2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 50, p. 234-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simplified variant of Set-Based Design (SBD) was created. It was combined with the creative methods 6-3-5 and the Gallery method as well as the systematic method morphological matrix to generate solutions. This made it possible to introduce SBD in one day, which has been verified by tests on design problems at industrial firms. The methodology, Instant Set-Based Design (ISBD), was perceived easy to understand and was well received by the designers. The introduction of it was less cumbersome compared to the full version of SBD. The conclusion is that the developed methodology works as intended with good results.

  • 36.
    Sullivan, James
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Cooze, Nathan
    Swansea University, UK.
    Gallagher, Callum
    Swansea University, UK.
    Lewis, Tom
    Swansea University, UK.
    Prosek, Tomas
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    In situ monitoring of corrosion mechanisms and phosphate inhibitor surface deposition during corrosion of zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloys using novel time-lapse microscopy2015In: Faraday discussions (Online), ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 180, p. 361-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ time-lapse optical microscopy was used to examine the microstructural corrosion mechanisms in three zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloy coated steels immersed in 1% NaCl pH 7. Preferential corrosion of MgZn<inf>2</inf> lamellae within the eutectic phases was observed in all the ZMA alloys followed by subsequent dissolution of Zn rich phases. The total extent and rate of corrosion, measured using time-lapse image analysis and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) estimated mass loss, decreased as Mg and Al alloying additions were increased up to a level of 3 wt% Mg and 3.7 wt% Al. This was probably due to the increased presence of MgO and Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> at the alloy surface retarding the kinetics of cathodic oxygen reduction. The addition of 1 × 10-2 mol dm-3 Na<inf>3</inf>PO<inf>4</inf> to 1% NaCl pH 7 had a dramatic influence on the corrosion mechanism for a ZMA with passivation of anodic sites through phosphate precipitation observed using time-lapse image analysis. Intriguing rapid precipitation of filamentous phosphate was also observed and it is postulated that these filaments nucleate and grow due to super saturation effects. Polarisation experiments showed that the addition of 1 × 10-2 mol dm-3 Na<inf>3</inf>PO<inf>4</inf> to the 1% NaCl electrolyte promoted an anodic shift of 50 mV in open circuit potential for the ZMA alloy with a reduction in anodic current of 2.5 orders of magnitude suggesting that it was acting primarily as an anodic inhibitor supporting the inferences from the time-lapse investigations. These phosphate additions resulted in a 98% reduction in estimated mass loss as measured by SVET demonstrating the effectiveness of phosphate inhibitors for this alloy system.

  • 37.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Luckeneder, G.
    voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Weber, B.
    Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Dosdat, L.
    Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Bschorr, T.
    GSI GmbH, Germany.
    Rother, K.
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, German.
    Fatigue behavior of spot-welded joints in air and under corrosive environments: Part II: Fatigue under alternating and combined corrosion and fatigue load2016In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 1231-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the project was to evaluate the influence of combined effects of fatigue loading and exposure to cyclic corrosion testing on the corrosion and the fatigue resistances of coated steel-based materials joined by resistance spot welding. Seven steel-based materials including cold rolled mild steels, high-strength steels, and press-hardened steels (PHS) were selected and provided by steel suppliers with different surface coatings for resistance spot welding. Panels were joined using conventional resistance spot welding in both lap-shear and T-peel designs. Joined samples were painted by e-coating following the industrial process. Metallographic characterization of the steel materials revealed that microstructures and metallic coating composition and thickness were as expected. Cross section of spot welds showed good quality and typical evolutions of hardness. Tensile tests and fatigue tests were performed on reference samples (fatigue in “air,” i.e., nonexposed to corrosion) leading to typical SN-lines as described in part I of this paper. The results were used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on tensile strength of the joined samples. Fatigue tests performed on combined and alternating corrosion and fatigue revealed that fatigue life is affected by extent of corrosion near the spot weld, with a reduction of the fatigue life at higher applied load and slight increase for lower load, compared to tests “in air.” This phenomenon was not observed for lap-shear configuration in alternated fatigue-corrosion mode. 

  • 38.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Vucko, Flavien
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Luckeneder, Gerald
    Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Weber, Bastien
    Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Dosdat, Laurence
    Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Bschorr, Thomas
    GSI GmbH, Germany.
    Rother, Klemens
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Fatigue behavior of spot-welded joints in air and under corrosive environments: Part I: Materials, specimen and test results in air2016In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 1211-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the project was to evaluate the influence of combined effects of fatigue loading and exposure to cyclic corrosion testing on the corrosion and the fatigue resistances of coated thin sheet steel joined by spot welding. Seven types of steel including cold rolled mild steels, high-strength steels, and press-hardened steels (PHS) were selected and provided by steel suppliers for fatigue strength evaluation of resistance spot welding (RSW) assemblies. Panels were joined using conventional resistance spot welding in both lap-shear and T-peel designs. Joined samples were painted by e-coating following the industrial process. Metallographic characterization of the steels revealed that microstructures and metallic coating composition and thickness were as expected. Cross-section of spot welds showed good quality and typical evolutions of hardness. Tensile tests performed on reference samples (non-exposed to corrosion) showed tensile which were obviously configuration and material dependent. For each configuration, three replicates were tested and did not show significant scatter. The results were and will be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on tensile strength of the joined samples. Fatigue tests were performed “in air”, meaning without corrosion exposition, leading to typical SN-lines. The results will be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on the fatigue resistance of the joined samples. 

  • 39.
    Vucko, Flavien
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Weber, B.
    ArcelorMittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Dosdat, L.
    ArcelorMittal Maizieres Research SA, France.
    Luckeneder, G.
    Voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Austria.
    Bschorr, T.
    Gesellschaft für Schweisstechnik International mbH, Germany.
    Rother, K.
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sciaboni, C.
    Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Italy.
    Sczepanski, J.
    Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, Germany.
    Combined corrosion and fatigue performance of joined materials for automotive applications2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 1143-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue performance of joined assemblies (spot weld and/or adhesive bonding) in corrosive environment. Various assemblies have been tested in alternated and simultaneous fatigue-corrosion modes. Adhesive joints are strongly affected by simultaneous fatigue-corrosion with a large drop of the fatigue life compared to results in air. By alternating fatigue and corrosion, the reduction of fatigue life is important. For spot welding, fatigue life is decreased at higher load amplitudes and increased at lower amplitudes. These results are strongly linked to the opening of the gap near the spot weld at high load amplitudes. At low amplitudes, corrosion might limit the local stress at the notch root of the weld. 

  • 40.
    Yasri, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB. Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Lescop, Benoit
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Gallée, Francois
    Technopôle Brest-Iroise, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Rioual, Stephane
    Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Fundamental basis of electromagnetic wave propagation in a zinc microstrip lines during its corrosion2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 223, p. 352-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for corrosion monitoring based on the change of the radiofrequency (RF) wave propagation in a microstrip line during its corrosion is presented. For that purpose, the microstrip line is produced in the same metal as the mechanical structure under monitoring. Zinc material is considered in the study since it allows an investigation of uniform as well as localized corrosion when chloride is used. Experimental data and simulations results provide fundamental basis on the sensing mechanisms of the method and evidence the possibility to detect the created corrosion species and to distinguish between localized and uniform corrosion processes. As the consequence, the proposed method should be considered as promising and reliable tool for corrosion monitoring of several materials exposed to various environments

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