Change search
Refine search result
1234 1 - 50 of 162
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response2017In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

  • 3.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental comparisons in façade fire testing considering SP Fire 105 and the BS 8414‐12018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between full‐scale façade fire tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414‐1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modeling to discern changes in the setups is presented. Two test series according to BS 8414‐1 were repeated outside using the same façade systems on 2 different days, whereas for the SP Fire 105 a set of common façade systems in Sweden were tested indoors. In particular, the results show that the wind around the test setup may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will depend on the thickness of the test specimen where an increased temperature in front of the façade, and a decreased temperature on the façade 2.1 m above the fire room, is observed experimentally. The heat exposure to the test specimen varies to a more limited extent when an uncontrollable free burning fire source is used (in this study heptane and wood, respectively) and that this variation increases when wind is present.

  • 4.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modeling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

  • 5.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. RISE.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-heating process in a laboratory scale experiment has been modelled using the Comsol Multiphysics software. In the simulations the gas flow and air movement in the volume and heat diffusion in the bulk were taken into account however only one reaction in the pellets bulk is considered. The input data is found from measurements of the reaction chemistry and the heat transfer properties. It is found that all relevant physics is needed in order to obtain reasonable predictions in particular the heat transfer between the bulk and the gas is important but also condensation and evaporation of moisture.   

  • 6.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Aras, Silvia
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sundström, BjörnRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from 4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, October 5-6, 2016 Baltimore, USA2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

  • 9.
    Andrea, Anders
    et al.
    Huawei Technologies Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Manzetti, Sergio
    Fjordforsk AS, Norway.
    A theoretical hypothesis of beverage cooling by reverse heating inconsumer microwave ovens by using fullerenol (polyhydroxylatedfullerenes) dissolved in acetone2018In: International Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 2367-9034, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling of beverages is of large interest. Here a theoretical idea of how microwave ovens can be usedfor cooling beverages is presented. The proposed theoretical idea based on heat transfer features a microwavesafe (isoprene rubber) torus shaped rubber ring (MWSR) holding a liquid (L) at room temperature. Fullerenoldissolved in acetone (L) inside MWSR (L) will absorb energy directly from the microwave radiation and therebyincrease its temperature. The liquid to be cooled (B) will also absorb energy from the microwave radiation, butthe net effect is the cooling of B as the heat transfer is faster in L than in B due to L’s lower boiling point andheat of vaporization. The cooling fan of the microwave oven facilitates the heat transfer mechanism. Thebeverage B is theoretically cooled from room temperature (20 °C) to around 4 °C in around 58 seconds. Basedon heat absorption of fullerenol—which could be transformed from liquid phase to vapour phase—a beverageliquid (300 g water) in a glass put inside the microwave oven could be cooled (reversely heated) by the heatgenerated by the microwave oven. The user of the proposed method would be able cool 300 ml of beverage toless than 4 °C in just a minute using consumer microwave ovens.

  • 10.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandförsök med boendesprinkler och vattendimma2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Funktionskontroll av sprinkler – erfarenheter från uppdrag 2013-20162017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    The Response Time of Different SprinklerGlass Bulbs in a Residential Room FireScenario2018In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response time of fire sprinklers is essential for their performance,especially in applications where life safety protection is desired. The earlier the sprin-kler activates, the smaller the size of the fire. Most commercial residential sprinklersare fitted with 3 mm, 68C glass bulbs. However, thinner sprinkler glass bulbs withlower operating temperatures are available. The aim of this study was to determinethe response time—and the corresponding heat release rate—of different glass bulbsin a residential room fire scenario. A series of tests were conducted inside a compart-ment measuring 3.66 m by 3.66 m having a ceiling height of 2.5 m. The compartmentwas either enclosed or had two walls removed to provide a more ventilated scenario.A propane gas burner was positioned at one of the corners. The mass flow rate ofthe gas was controlled such that either ‘slow’, ‘medium’ or ‘fast’ fire growth rate sce-narios were simulated. In each test, nine Response Time Index (RTI) and operatingtemperature combinations were tested. Each test was replicated three times. In addi-tion, two commercial fire detectors were tested. The results show that the fire is con-siderably smaller upon activation with a combination of a low RTI and a lowoperating temperature, as compared to the 3 mm, 68C glass bulb typically used forresidential sprinklers. The operating temperature proved to have a larger impact onthe results than the RTI. The heat from the fire was typically detected by the firedetectors prior to the activation of the sprinkler glass bulbs, especially for the ‘slow’and ‘medium’ fire growth rate scenarios.

  • 13.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Val av släcksystem: Värdering av brandscenarier, skyddsmål och släcksystem2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Zhang, Xidong
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Santos, Filipe
    New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland ; Lund University, Sweden.
    Arrigoni, Michel
    ENSTA Bretagne, France.
    Figuli, Lucia
    University of Žilina, Slovakia.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Performance of structural glass facades under extreme loads – Design methods, existing research, current issues and trends2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 163, p. 921-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass has been overwhelmingly used for windows and facades in modern constructions, for many practical reasons, including thermal, energy, light and aesthetics. Nevertheless, due to the relatively low tensile strength and mostly brittle behaviour of glass, compared to other traditional materials, as well as to a multitude of interacting structural and non-structural components, windows/facades are one of the most fragile and vulnerable components of buildings, being representative of the physical line of separation between interior and exterior spaces. As such, multidisciplinary approaches, as well as specific fail-safe design criteria and analysis methods are required, especially under extreme loading conditions, so that casualties and injuries in the event of failure could be avoided and appropriate safety levels could be guaranteed. In this context, this paper presents a review of the state of art on analysis and design methods in use for glass facades, with careful consideration for extreme loading configurations, including natural events, such as seismic events, extreme wind or other climatic exposures, and man-made threats, i.e. blast loads and fire. Major results of available experimental outcomes, current issues and trends are also reported, summarising still open challenges.

  • 15.
    Beyler, C
    et al.
    Jensen Hughes, USA.
    Croce, P
    Factory Mutual Emeritus, USA..
    Dubay, C
    National Fire Protection Association, USA.
    Johnson, P
    Arup, Australia.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Oxygen consumption calorimetry, William Parker: 2016 DiNenno Prize2017In: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2016 DiNenno Prize recognizes oxygen consumption calorimetry as a significant technical achievement that has had a major impact on public safety. Oxygen consumption calorimetry has made the measurement of heat release rate of a fire a routine part of fire testing for both research and for regulatory compliance. Heat release rate is a primary metric of fire size which is foundational in modern fire protection engineering. The 2016 Philip J. DiNenno Prize is awarded to Dr. William Parker, with ample commendation to his deceased collaborator, Dr. Clayton Huggett. Others who made contributions to the early development and application of oxygen consumption calorimetry include Peter Hinkley, William Christian, Thomas Waterman, Darryl Sensenig, Ralph Krause, Richard Gann, Vyto Babrauskas, Gunnar Heskestad, Norm Alvares, Donald Beason, and Brady Williamson. This review presents an overview of the background to the technological development and its impact on public safety

  • 16.
    Beyler, Craig
    et al.
    Jensen Hughes, Baltimore, US.
    Lucht, David
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johnson, Peter
    Arup, Denmark.
    Dubay, Chris
    National Fire Protection Association, US.
    The affordable home smoke alarm, Lyman Blackwell- 2015 DiNenno Prize winner2017In: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Philip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded for the affordable home smoke alarm. This technology developed and implemented by Lyman L. Blackwell and Duane D. Pearsall paved the way for installation of smoke alarms in all residences. This has had a major impact on the reduction of deaths due to fire. The 2015 Philip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded to Lyman L. Blackwell, with ample commendation to his deceased compatriot, Duane D. Pearsall. Contributions were made by Paul Staby, B. K. Sweeney, Rexford Wilson, Myrle Wise, Gus Degenkolb, Eugene Cray, Jack Rhodes, Dick Bright, and Dick Bukowski. This review presents an overview of the background to the technological development and its impact on public safety.

  • 17.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Oskar L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Practical bond model for corroded RC bridges2017In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, 2017, p. 1793-1803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a common cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete bridges and many existing bridges are damaged to varying degrees. The rate of deterioration of the bridge stock has been shown to increase due to climate change. Unsympathetically, the demand for load-carrying capacity is however often increased with time. Therefore there is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess the load-carrying capacity and remaining service-life of existing infrastructure. A simple model for the assessment of Anchorage in corroded Reinforced Concrete structures (ARC) has previously been developed. It was originally based on fib Model Code 1990 and has been verified with experiments and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (3D NLFE) analyses for both accelerated and natural corrosion as well as for different degrees of corrosion. The model was applied when assessing two road bridges in Sweden. The investigation demonstrated great cost savings but also areas for improvement, in particular regarding (a) applicability to practical cases and (b) incorporation of uncertainties in the assessment. The primary focal point of this paper is to present an overview of the development of the ARC model together with recent verifications against a large bond test database as well as foreseen future developments. It was found that the ARC model represents the physical behaviour reasonably well, and gives conservative values of bond strength compared to the bond tests database. In future works, among others, uncertainties of the input variables will be incorporated by means of probabilistic modelling, making way for implementation of the ARC model into semi-probabilistic safety concepts by extraction of modification factors. Overall, with more accurate and reliable assessment methods for corroded RC structures, environmental and economic savings are imminent as more of the potential of existing structures can be realized.

  • 18.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    Moder, Istvan
    EMI, Hungary.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. RISE.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a European approach to assess the fire performance of facades2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC.

  • 19.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johansson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Screening test methods for determination of fire spalling of concrete2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire resistance of concrete structures is generally good, but for some types of concrete fire spalling can reduce the fire resistance significantly. Therefore, methods are needed to predict whether a concrete will spall when exposed to fire and the severity of spalling.

    The objective of the present project was to develop an intermediate scale test method for the evaluation of the spalling behavior of concrete. The test method shall be cost effective and enable screening of different concretes before a full scale approval test is performed. A number of different intermediate scale test methods have been evaluated regarding the precision to reproduce the spalling behavior of that observed in full scale tests.

    Of the different test specimen shapes and methods, a circular test specimen where the concrete is casted in a steel tube has shown the best correlation to the full scale tests performed. This specimen is easy to produce, and the fire test can be performed on a small furnace.

  • 20.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Analysis and Computer Simulations2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with

    visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is

    such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a

    combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental

    impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the

    fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the

    contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out,

    because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas

    (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber.

    If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire,

    it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression.

    Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess

    of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT

    structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates

    pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using

    parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of

    gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off

    is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work.

    The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of

    the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum

    board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the

    timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

  • 22.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Exposed Wooden Surfaces2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tall buildings made of CLT have been built in recent years. Current architectural trends involve having visible timber surfaces in these tall CLT structures. This results in new fire safety challenges, especially because fire service interference is increasingly difficult for increasingly tall buildings.

     

    Recently, a number of research projects involving large scale compartment fire testing studied the development of fires in (1) compartments with a fully encapsulated CLT structure and (2) compartments with exposed CLT surfaces. The studies have shown that sufficient gypsum board protection can avoid the involvement of CLT in a fire. However, fall-off of the base layer of gypsum boards during can result in continuous fires that do not extinguish without fire surface interference, as during fall-off large areas of initially protected timber surfaces start to contribute as fuel to the fire.

     

    If CLT is exposed to a fire, fire induced delamination of CLT (also lamella fall-off or char fall-off) could occur due to weakening of bond lines within the CLT. During fire induced delamination the exposed lamella falls from the CLT and a new relatively cold timber surface becomes exposed to potentially high temperatures, which effectively makes additional fuel suddenly available to a fire.

     

    Very recent studies involved the development of CLT products that are not subject to delamination. The studies indicate that the use of (a) sufficient fire protection, (b) CLT products with thermally resistant adhesives and (c) a limit regarding the surface area of CLT that can be exposed, result in fires that decay and eventually self-extinguish.

    This paper reviews the studies and includes a summary of conclusions.

  • 23.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linne University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

  • 24.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Building Research Institute, Japan.
    Hakkarainen, Tuula
    VTT, Finland.
    Performance based design for mass timber structures in fire– A Design Example2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent fires in tall buildings occurring in for example London, Dubai, Sao Paulo and Tehran evidence the risk of high consequences of fires in tall buildings and difficulties for fire service interference in case of large fire spread. In order to reduce the risk of deadly and large damage fires in especially tall buildings it is of importance to limit fire spread and avoid collapse .

    It was previously indicated that prescriptive fire safety regulations are mostly based on experience rather than on scientific facts. Therefore, the application of regulations for less conventional buildings, such as tall timber buildings, is questionable. In contrast with prescriptive requirements, performance based requirements, such as a requirement for a building to withstand a full fire without effective fire service interference, require accounting for the design and the function of the building. Multiple performance based methods for the fire safety design are available for buildings with conventional structural materials, i.e. steel and concrete. For buildings with timber as a structural material performance based structural design is rarely applied due to lack of methods available.

    The number of tall buildings with timber as their main structural material is increasing globally, which involves new fire safety challenges. In contrast with more conventional structural materials for tall buildings, timber can fuel the fire and influence its duration and severity. A number of previous experimental studies have shown that enough contribution of exposed timber to the fuel of a fire can result in continuous fully developed fires. Additionally, events that lead to increased combustion, such as sudden exposure of initially protected timber or bond line failure in glued timber members, can lead to fire regrowth after a period of decay. Without effective sprinkler or fire service interference, these fires would eventually lead to collapse, which can lead to potentially unacceptable consequences in very tall buildings.

  • 25.
    Carlson, Eva-Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Dederich, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zakirov, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Upphöjda gångbanor i spårtunnlar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increasing amount of elevated platforms in railway tunnels has been designed. The platforms are positioned at the same level as the body of the train or above the rail top in purpose to facilitate off-platform evacuation. The purpose of using elevating platforms has been to increase personal safety, but knowledge on their actual impact on the evacuation is based on very limited experience.

    The purpose of the performed tests was to study human behavior when evacuating along an elevated platform for different scenarios and the overall project objective was to develop guidelines for fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The tests presented in this report aimed to deliver both quantitative and qualitative results as basis for those guidelines.

    The analysis includes flow rate of people, the effect of the width of the elevated walkway, people’s ability to pass others who are walking with lower speed and the possibility for people using wheelchairs to evacuate. The report also includes observations made when processing the video material during the analysis.

    Several large scale experiments were carried out at the subway station at Skarpnäck in Stockholm. Since the existing station platform is wider than is normally the case for elevated tunnel walkway platforms, a temporary walkway was built by using screen walls placed next to the platform edge. There were a total of 111 participants, including three wheelchair users.

    Five evacuation experiments were conducted. In the 1st, 3rd and 5th experiment all the participants walked from one end of the walkway to the other end. The width of the walkway varied between 1.20 m, 1.05 m and 0.90 m. In the 2nd and 4th run the participants were divided into two groups. One group walked, as in the previous experiments, from one end of the walkway to the other, and the second group started in the train that was parked next to the walkway and joined the flow on the walkway as the first group passed the train doors. The width of the walkway in the experiments was 1.2 m and 1.05 m respectively. Reference tests were carried out prior to the main tests in a corridor, which was also built with screen walls on the platform. After the test was completed a survey was conducted to identify parameters that could have affected the decisions and behaviour during the tests.

    The results from the tests show that the flow along the elevated walkway decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. This was true for all the areas where the flow was measured, including the flow out of the train. It is also shown that the entire width of the walkway is used to a larger extent when a train was parked next to the walkway compared to when one side was open to the rail tracks.

    In the survey it appears that almost 50 % of the participants felt that it was a problem passing others who were walking slower then themselves. Some of them passed others, but with difficulties and some wanted to pass, but never got the opportunity to do so.

    Of the three wheelchair users participating in the test, one user experienced discomfort caused by the height and limited width of the elevated walkway. As a consequence the person only took part in experiments 1 and 2.

  • 26.
    Debuyser, Michael
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sonck, Dolphine
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Belis, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Behaviour of monolithic and laminated glass exposed to radiant heating2017In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 130, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is seeing a growing interest as a structural material as a result of its relatively good strength to weight ratio and the obvious aesthetic benefits of its use in buildings. However due to the sensitivity of glass to thermal shock and the considerably temperature-dependent behaviour of interlayer materials as a result of their visco-elastic nature, the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass will be severely influenced by exposure to fire. Relatively little research has been conducted in the past to study the response of load bearing structural glass, and laminated glass in particular to radiant heating. This paper represents an effort to try to understand the effects of through depth radiation absorption and temperature conduction through laminated glass with a view to ultimately developing a model for studying load bearing glass exposed to elevated temperatures, such as those that would be expected in a fire. The paper reports on an experimental research programme in which several monolithic and laminated glass configurations were exposed to a radiant heat flux to study the different phenomena that occur upon exposure to fire conditions, including the ratios of absorbed, transmitted and reflected heat flux to the incident heat flux. The paper then presents a numerical heat transfer model which is developed based on these experimental results and that is able to determine the evolution of the temperature profile as a result of a given incident heat flux. The effectiveness of the heat transfer model is demonstrated through comparison with the temperatures measured during the experimental work.

  • 27.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days: Book of abstracts from the NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days 17-18 August in Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is our pleasure to hand over to you this book of abstracts for the Nordic Fire & Safety

    Days 2017 organized by RISE, Research Institutes of Sweden in collaboration with the

    Technical University of Denmark, Lund University, Norwegian University of Science and

    Technology, University of Stavanger, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences,

    Lulea University of Technology and Iceland University as well as VTT Technical Research

    Centre of Finland Ltd, the Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology and Aalborg

    University in Copenhagen.

    We are very proud to present the abstracts of 62 Nordic and international contributions

    in the present book of abstracts. The work demonstrates a significant scientific depth

    and societal relevance. The conference is a response to the extensive interest in the

    areas of fire and safety engineering in the Nordic countries in the past decades. As the

    programme and the abstracts show, the NFSD follow up on challenges with respect to

    safety dealing with aspects of fire and actions of the rescue service as well as human

    behavior and risk management. This year there is a special focus on fire safe furniture

    and the intervention of the rescue service.

  • 28.
    Delin, Mattias
    et al.
    DeBrand Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Norén, Johan
    Briab Brand & Riskingenjörerna AB, Sweden.
    Ronchi, Enrico
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Halder, Amitava
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ascending stair evacuation: walking speed as a function of height2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 514-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is reason to believe that factors such as physical exertion and behavioural changes will influence the ascending walking speed and ultimately the possibility of satisfactory evacuation. To study these effects, a 2-year research project was initiated with the focus on effects of physical exertion on walking speeds, physiological performance and behaviours during long ascending evacuations. Two sets of experiments on human performance during ascending long stairs, with a height of 48 and 109 m, were performed. The results include aspects such as walking speeds, physical exertion (oxygen consumption, heart rates and electromyography data), perceived exertion and behavioural changes, showing that physical work capacity affects walking speeds in case of long ascending evacuation and should be considered while using long ascending evacuation. Analysis of both walking and vertical speeds is recommended because it provides additional insights on the impact of stair configuration on vertical displacement and the importance of not using the same value for walking speed for different stairs because the design of the stairs has an impact. The novel datasets presented in this paper are deemed to provide useful information for fire safety engineers both for assisting fire safety design as well as the calibration of evacuation modelling tools.

  • 29.
    Edelbro, Catrin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Hulthén, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clausen, Elisabeth
    Technical University of Clausthal, Germany.
    Tanner, David
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Herrera Herbert, Juan
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Jonsson, Kristina
    Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB), Sweden.
    Bealieu, Stephan
    RUSAL Aughinish Alumina, Ireland.
    Kamp, Aldert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on a cost-efficient, secure, sustainable supply and use of raw materials, a new generation of skilled people entering industry, universities and research needs to be developed. Today’s technical MSc graduates in raw materials and especially primary resources (i.e. exploration, extraction, mining and mineral processing and metallurgy) best suits large companies where they often act as specialists and experts. For small to medium enterprises as well as for our future engineers other skills than technical are necessary. As a part of the KIC Raw Materials, the education project “The implementation of CDIO in raw material programmes” started in 2016. The project focuses, during 2016-2017, on (WP1) faculty- and (WP2) pilot case development. There are no academic institutes in Europe that have yet applied CDIO for primary resource related MSc programmes. This paper describes an education project within the KIC Raw material and presents key outputs with implementing CDIO in mining and metallurgy related programmes.

  • 30.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Spectral element FNPF simulation of focused wave groups impacting a fixed FPSO2018In: Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers , 2018, p. 1443-1450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the assessment of experimental measurements of focused wave groups impacting a surface-piecing fixed structure, we present a new Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow (FNPF) model for simulation of unsteady water waves. The FNPF model is discretized in three spatial dimensions (3D) using high-order prismatic - possibly curvilinear - elements using a spectral element method (SEM) that has support for adaptive unstructured meshes. This SEM-FNPF model is based on an Eulerian formulation and deviates from past works in that a direct discretization of the Laplace problem is used making it straightforward to handle accurately floating structural bodies of arbitrary shape. Our objectives are; i) present detail of a new SEM modelling developments and ii) to consider its application to address a wave-body interaction problem for nonlinear design waves and their interaction with a model-scale fixed Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO). We first reproduce experimental measurements for focused design waves that represent a probably extreme wave event for a sea state represented by a wave spectrum and seek to reproduce these measurements in a numerical wave tank. The validated input signal based on measurements is then generated in a NWT setup that includes the FPSO and differences in the signal caused by nonlinear diffraction is reported.

  • 31.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Spectral element FNPF simulations of focused wave groups impacting a fixed FPSO2018In: Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth (2018) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineering , 2018, p. 1443-1450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For  the assessment of experimental measurements of focused wave groups impacting a surface-piecing fixed structure, we present a new Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow (FNPF) model for simulation of unsteady water waves. The FNPF model is discretized in three  spatial dimensions (3D) using high-order prismatic - possibly curvilinear - elements using a  spectral  element  method (SEM) that has support for adaptive unstructured meshes. This  SEM-FNPF model is based on an Eulerian formulation and deviates from past works in that a  direct discretization of the Laplace problem is used making it straightforward to handle  accurately floating structural bodies of arbitrary shape. Our objectives are; i) present detail of a new SEM modelling developments and ii) to consider its application to address a wave-body interaction problem for nonlinear design waves and their interaction with a model-scale fixed Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO).  We first reproduce  experimental measurements for focused design waves that represent a probably extreme  wave event for a sea state represented by a wave spectrum and seek to reproduce these measurements in a numerical wave tank. The validated input signal based on measurements is then generated in a NWT setup that includes the FPSO and differences in the signal caused by nonlinear diffraction is reported.

  • 32.
    Erikson, Martin G
    et al.
    University of Boras, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Boras, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Boras, Sweden.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Boras, Sweden.
    A conceptual model of how research caninfluence student development2017In: Connecting Higher Education International perspectives on research-based education BOOK OF ABSTRACTS. Tues 27 June to Wed 28 June 2017. London, United Kingdom, 2017, p. 71-72, article id 86Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Framework for crisis planning: Four required areas for developing a learning process.2016In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 519-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To outline a framework for preparedness planning at the organizational level.The study is based on a content analysis of research literature as well as an analysis of interviews with six preparedness planners working in Swedish local authorities.The study setting included Swedish local authorities of different sizes.The participants are preparedness planners responsible for coordinating crisis management work in Swedish local authorities. The study includes preparedness planners with different backgrounds, education, experiences, and gender.A presentation of 19 factors of preparedness planning identified in the literature and a discussion around how preparedness planners perceive those factors.The main outcome measures are knowledge about how both researcher and practitioner understand and argue around different factors of preparedness planning.The result of this study is a framework for preparedness planning. As preparedness planning ought to be a learning process, the presented framework builds on four areas connected to learning: prerequisites for preparedness planning, who should be involved, what is to be learned, and how should the work be shaped.The analysis of factors identified in the literature and also in the interviews with preparedness planners illustrates that the four areas connected to learning are required for developing a preparedness planning process.

  • 34.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Sweden.
    Palm, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulations of floating wave energy devices using adaptive mesh refinement2019In: Advances in Renewable Energies Offshore / [ed] C. Guedes Soares, 2019, p. 431-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CFD simulations of floating wave energy converters are computationally very heavy. This paper deals with a straightforward attempt to cut down on the computational effort by using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We investigate the use of AMR for simulations involving floating bodies inside the open-source finite volume framework OpenFOAM. A simple error indicator based on the pressure jump over cell faces is used to drive the AMR. First the use of the error indicator is illustrated for propagation of a very steep stream function wave. Then the AMR technique is applied to two cases of floating bodies: (i) a floating box and (ii) a bottom reacting point-absorber. As expected the AMR significantly reduce the number of cells in the computational meshes and subsequently lower the  computational effort.

  • 35.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire risk assessment of alternative ship design2017In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procedure to evaluate fire safety of alternative ship design solutions, described in MSC/Circ.1002, has been found insufficient for novel and large scopes. In this paper, it is analysed with regards to function and applicability as a risk-based assessment procedure. Deficiencies are addressed based on risk assessment research and involvement in over a dozen performed assessments. Clarified are inconsistencies in the fire safety regulations, which must be considered particularly during identification of hazards. It is also suggested that affected safety functions are evaluated separately if possible and that the assessment sophistication is adapted to the scope of introduced hazards; four levels to perform parts of or the whole assessment are proposed.

  • 36.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire safety and FRP composite structures in maritime applications2017In: Proceedings of the Energy, Material & Nanotechnology Meeting on Smart & Multifunctional Material - ENM-SMM, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    proFLASH: Methanol fire detection and extinguishment: SP Rapport 2017:222017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stricter emission requirements have led to ship operation on low flashpoint fuels, such as liquefied natural gas and methanol. These differ in many ways from traditional fuels (e.g. heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil), but requirements and guidelines for fire detection and extinguishment have been sparse. This was addressed in the proFLASH project, first theoretically and then experimentally. This report documents the experimental part of the project, focusing on methanol, and gives technical guidance for fire detection and extinguishing systems. It was for example concluded that methanol flames exhibit similar radiation to ethanol in the IR spectrum, despite limited observability in the visual spectrum. Approved IR flame detectors (tested against ethanol) are thereby likely suitable to detect methanol fire; tested detectors could even detect fully obstructed methanol fire. The design concentration of carbon dioxide gas fire-extinguishing systems should be increased from 40 % to 55 % to achieve the same safety margin for methanol as for traditional fuels. The primary extinguishing mechanism of a water-based fire-extinguishing system used against methanol is dilution, but almost 90 % water may be necessary for extinguishment. Furthermore, dilution makes the methanol flames increasingly invisible. It is recommended to use alcohol resistant foam injection with fixed water-based extinguishing systems, since this significantly reduces the time required for extinguishment. The effectiveness of the system depends on the foam/water application rate. Hence, a higher discharge rate is more effective and a concealed pool is difficult to extinguish. In different compartment fire test scenarios, water-spray with foam injection was more effective against methanol than water-spray without foam against standardized fuels. High and low pressure water mist performed better than water spray against standardized fuels but worse against methanol (with foam injection).

  • 38.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    SP Technology develop next generation of fire-safe island ferries for use between Sweden and Denmark2014In: International Fire Buyer, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 52-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Evegren, Franz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire safety regulations and performance of fibre-reinforced polymer composite ship structures2017In: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment (Part M), ISSN 1475-0902, E-ISSN 2041-3084, Vol. 231, no 1, p. 46-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a procedure for how to relate fire performance of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structures to the fire safety regulations in SOLAS II-2. It can be used as basis when performing a fire risk assessment to demonstrate that the degree of safety is at least equivalent to that provided by prescriptive requirements. A key issue is that requirements and test methods are based on a use of steel structures, which requires seeking the safety level implied by the regulations. This was demonstrated for the regulations and introduced hazards affecting the growth stage of a fire. The safety implied by regulations was related to fire performance of FRP composite by reference to fire tests involving typical materials and some relevant safety measures. Ignition was described as uncritical whilst the fire growth on an FRP composite surface can be rapid. Flammability requirements are generally not achieved by an untreated panel but different means can be used for protection. A fire protective coating can be used to prevent ignition and sprinkler is effective both for fire prevention and extinguishment on interior and external surfaces. For interior spaces it can be relevant with a coating or thermal insulation also to hinder increased generation of smoke and toxic gases during fire evacuation. In total it is shown that fire hazards during the fire growth stage are manageable and a foundation is lain out for a well-structured fire risk assessment.

  • 40.
    Evegren, Franz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire protection of FRP composite ship balconies2016In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Sandwich Structures, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China ; School of Transportation Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of sidewall effect on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires with different aspect ratios and orientations in a channel2017In: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 3121-3129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small scale tests was conducted to investigate the influence of sidewall on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires in a channel, considering pool shape (aspect ratio: 1, 2, 4 and 8) and pool orientation relative to sidewall. Distance between fire and sidewall was changed systematically. Both transverse flame development (along the direction of channel width) and longitudinal flame development (along the direction of channel length) were recorded by digital video. Results show that for a fixed fire location, the heat release rate increases with the increasing pool aspect ratio (namely a larger pool perimeter), which indicates more air entrainment and more intense combustion. In wall fire cases, when the long pool rim is perpendicular with channel sidewall, the flame can obtain more air entrainment with a weaker boundary restriction from the sidewall, compared to the case with the long pool rim being parallel with sidewall. Comparison of some previously established correlations based on various experimental conditions with our test results is made. Due to the fact without considering sidewall effect and fuel shape on the air entrainment of fire plume, the classic correlations need to be further improved. Therefore, an integral flame length model considering both sidewall effect and fuel shape is developed, which correlates well with all the data from cases with various pool positions, orientations and aspect ratios. © 2016 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 42.
    Fink, Gerhard
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kohler, Jochen
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Dietsch, Philipp
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Basis of Design Principles for Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402 / WG 12018Book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Methodology for Mesomechanical Study of Concrete Material2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focuses on detailed studies of how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by the concrete micro- and mesostructure. The aim is to increase knowledge of how critical parameters affect the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels has been developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After the test, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 44.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    3D Analysis of Strains in Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using X-Ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fibre reinforced concrete (FRC), understanding the underlying interaction mechanisms between discrete fibres and the surrounding concrete matrix can lead to the optimization of the fibre-matrix combination. This paper presents the initial development of a method enabling the analysis of this given interaction on ameso-mechanical level. The method is such that volume images are initially captured using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) on small-scale FRC specimens under loading which are thereafter analysed to measure full 3D strainand deformation via Digital Volume Correlation (DVC). It is anticipated that the method developed in this project can be a useful tool for the developmentof new innovative and high performance FRC.

  • 45.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Failure Modes in Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using X-rayTomography and Digital Volume Correlation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigatedusing adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an x-ray micro tomograph(µXRT). High-resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clearvisualization of aggregates, pores, the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface.Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distributionand pores was found suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis.From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the straindistribution in the matrix around the fiber at the different load levels up tofinal failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. This studydemonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix can beobtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to anincreased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fibre reinforcedconcrete under mechanical loading.

  • 46.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements2018In: International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN 1976-0485, E-ISSN 2234-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EC funded project smart elements for sustainable building envelopes, carbon textile reinforcement was incorporated into reactive powder concrete, namely textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC), to additionally improve the post-cracking behaviour of the cementitious matrix. This high-performance composite material was included as outer and inner façade panels in prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich elements along with low density foamed concrete (FC) and glass fibre reinforced polymer continuous connecting devices. Experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) were applied to characterize the structural performance of the developed sandwich elements. The mechanical behaviour of the individual materials, components and large-scale elements were quantified. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC-FC sandwich element beams to quantify the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on digital image correlation were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behaviour of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels. As for the FEA, the applied modelling approach was found to accurately describe the stiffness of the sandwich elements at lower load levels, while describing the stiffness in a conservative manner after the occurrence of connector failure mechanisms.

  • 47.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements2018In: International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN 1976-0485, E-ISSN 2234-1315, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EC funded project smart elements for sustainable building envelopes, carbon textile reinforcement was incorporated into reactive powder concrete, namely textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC), to additionally improve the post-cracking behaviour of the cementitious matrix. This high-performance composite material was included as outer and inner façade panels in prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich elements along with low density foamed concrete (FC) and glass fibre reinforced polymer continuous connecting devices. Experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) were applied to characterize the structural performance of the developed sandwich elements. The mechanical behaviour of the individual materials, components and large-scale elements were quantified. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC-FC sandwich element beams to quantify the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on digital image correlation were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behaviour of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels. As for the FEA, the applied modelling approach was found to accurately describe the stiffness of the sandwich elements at lower load levels, while describing the stiffness in a conservative manner after the occurrence of connector failure mechanisms. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 48.
    Gall, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Davidsson, Kent O.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Online Measurements of Alkali and Heavy Tar Components in Biomass Gasification2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 8152-8161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tar and alkali metal compounds are released during biomass gasification and have a major impact on the operation and performance of gasification processes. Herein we describe a novel method for characterization of alkali and heavy tar compounds in the hot product gas formed during gasification. Gas is continuously extracted, cooled and diluted, which results in condensation of tar and alkali into aerosol particles. The thermal stability of these particles is subsequently evaluated using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) method. The technique is adopted from aerosol science where it is frequently used to characterize the thermal properties of aerosol particles. Laboratory studies show that pure and mixed alkali salts and organic compounds evaporate in well-defined temperature ranges, which can be used to determine the chemical composition of particles. The performance of the VTDMA is demonstrated at a 4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier using two different types of online sampling systems. Alkali metal compounds and a wide distribution of heavy tar components with boiling points above 400°C are observed in the product gas. Implications and potential further improvements of the technique are discussed.

  • 49.
    Gall, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Anton
    Göteborg Energi AB, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Online Measurements of Alkali Metals during Start-up and Operation of an Industrial-Scale Biomass Gasification Plant2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 532-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali metal compounds may have positive influences on biomass gasification by affecting char reactivity and tar reforming but may also disturb the process by formation of deposits and agglomerates. We herein present results from online measurements of alkali compounds and particle concentrations in a dual fluidized bed gasifier with an input of 32 MWth. A surface ionization detector was used to measure alkali concentrations in the product gas, and aerosol particle measurement techniques were employed to study concentrations and properties of condensable components in the gas. Measurements were performed during start-up and steady-state operation of the gasifier. The alkali concentration increased to approximately 200 mg m-3 when fuel was fed to the gasifier and continued to rise during activation of the olivine bed by addition of potassium carbonate, while the alkali concentration was in the range from 20 to 60 mg m-3 during steady-state operation. Addition of fresh bed material and recirculated ash had noticeable effects on the observed alkali concentrations, and K2CO3 additions to improve tar chemistry resulted in increased levels of alkali in the product gas. Addition of elemental sulfur led to reduced concentrations of CH4 and heavy tars, while no clear influence on the alkali concentration was observed. The study shows that alkali concentrations are high in the product gas, which has implications for the fluidized bed process, tar chemistry, and operation of downstream components including coolers, filters, and catalytically active materials used for product gas reforming.

  • 50.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    The theoretical framework of fire safety design: Reflections and alternatives2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to discussions and reflections upon the practice and theory of fire safety design. Are we reaching the results we want by the best available means? The theoretical framework of fire safety design is today restricted by a linear design process where mainly quantitative data and methods matters. A deterministic approach to safety ignores the decision-making context and considers each objective in isolation. Alternative methods for the fire safety design could view the design work as an iterative problem solving process between the designers and the stakeholders. Then decision making theory can be applied to solve the problem. In the iterative process key objectives are identified and the problem and its solutions are being reframed, creative inherently safer (cannot fail) and fail safe (forgiving to errors) alternatives are initially aimed at. Design should further embrace a function-centred view of the human-technology-structure system. A utilitarian evaluation that includes also qualitative factors can identify the best trade-offs between conflicting objectives. With a diversity of perspectives on fire safety design, the field of fire safety will be strengthened and be able to assist a rapidly changing world.

1234 1 - 50 of 162
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.4