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  • 1.
    Ahmadkhaniha, D.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, F.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effect of SiC particle size and heat-treatment on microhardness and corrosion resistance of NiP electrodeposited coatings2018In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 769, p. 1080-1087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodeposition of NiP composite coatings with nano and sub-micron sized SiC has been carried out to investigate the possibility of replacing hard chromium coatings. The composition and structure of the coatings were evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Microhardness was measured by Vickers indentation and polarization measurements were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. The results showed that submicron particles can be codeposited with a higher content as compared to nano sized ones. However, even if a smaller amount of the nano-sized SiC particles are incorporated in the coating, the contribution to an increasing microhardness was comparable with the submicron sized particles, which can be related to the higher density of codeposited particles. SiC particles did not change the anodic polarization behavior of NiP coatings in a 3.5% NaCl solution. Finally, the effect of heat-treatment on the coatings properties at 400 °C for 1 h was studied to investigate the contribution of particles and heat-treatment on hardness and corrosion properties. It was found that the heat-treatment doubled the microhardness and changed the anodic polarization behavior of the coatings from passive to active with respect to the as-plated conditions.

  • 2.
    Ahmadkhaniha, Donya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pinate, Santiago
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Electrodeposition of Ni high P composite coatings containing nano and submicron ceramic particles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

  • 4.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Nordh, Andreas
    Zigrid AB, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fin‐Tube and Plate Heat Exchangers – Evaluation ofTransient Performance2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Belov, Ilja
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alavizadeh, Zahra
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Mats
    Omnisys Instruments AB, Sweden.
    Rydén, Jan
    Saab AB, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Experimental and CFD evaluation of active anti-condensation methods for non-hermetic cabinets2018In: 2018 19th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental evaluation of several active anti-condensation methods for application in non-hermetic electronics enclosures was performed in harsh climatic conditions, including RH = 70% and T = 43 °C. The studied methods included blowing the air along the exposed surface, combination of blowing and air heating as well as local heating of the exposed surface in natural convection conditions. The purpose was to prevent/remove the dew on/from the exposed surface of a micro-condensation sensor. The difference between the methods was quantified in terms of time for dew removal. The power consumption aspects were discussed. A CFD based optimization methodology was developed to determine the heating profiles for the local anti-condensation PCB heater in a non-hermetic cabinet exposed to the quickly changing climatic conditions. The potential for 60% energy savings was revealed by simulation.

  • 6.
    Belov, Vladimir
    et al.
    Ogarev Mordovia State University, Russian Federation.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Mannikoff, Anders
    Herrljunga Elektriska AB, Sweden.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Mathematical Model of Multi-Phase Power Converter for Parallel Computation2018In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, article id 20170114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model of a multi-phase power conversion system composed of modified bridge-elements (B-system) capable for parallel computation has been developed. Experimental validation on the example of a power system including a synchronous generator and an AC-DC rectifier has been performed. A mathematical algorithm for B-system assembly and steps to obtain mathematical model of the B-system have been developed. Integration of mathematical models of conversion system into the complete model of a multi-phase power system has been explained and evaluation of computational efficiency of parallel computation techniques for the developed model of an AC-DC-AC converter has been performed. The presented modelling method can be employed in the design phase of smart grids, for power quality and conducted emission analysis.

  • 7.
    Benavente, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Campana, Pietro
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural electrification programs usually do not consider the impact that the increment of demand has on the reliability of off-grid photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems. Based on meteorological data and electricity consumption profiles from the highlands of Bolivian Altiplano, this paper presents a modelling and simulation framework for analysing the performance and reliability of such systems. Reliability, as loss of power supply probability (LPSP), and cost were calculated using simulated PV power output and battery state of charge profiles. The effect of increasing the suppressed demand (SD) by 20% and 50% was studied to determine how reliable and resilient the system designs are. Simulations were performed for three rural application scenarios: a household, a school, and a health centre. Results for the household and school scenarios indicate that, to overcome the SD effect, it is more cost-effective to increase the PV power rather than to increase the battery capacity. However, with an increased PV-size, the battery ageing rate would be higher since the cycles are performed at high state of charge (SOC). For the health centre application, on the other hand, an increase in battery capacity prevents the risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. These results provide important insights for the application design of off-grid PV-battery systems in rural electrification projects, enabling a more efficient and reliable source of electricity.

  • 8.
    Bertilsson, Simon
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furlani, Maurizio
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Ingvar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lithium-ion battery electrolyte emissions analyzed by coupled thermogravimetric/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 365, p. 446-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years the use of Li-ion batteries has increased rapidly, powering small as well as large applications, from electronic devices to power storage facilities. The Li-ion battery has, however, several safety issues regarding occasional overheating and subsequent thermal runaway. During such episodes, gas emissions from the electrolyte are of special concern because of their toxicity, flammability and the risk for gas explosion. In this work, the emissions from heated typical electrolyte components as well as from commonly used electrolytes are characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-IR coupled with thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, when heating up to 650 °C. The study includes the solvents EC, PC, DEC, DMC and EA in various single, binary and ternary mixtures with and without the LiPF6 salt, a commercially available electrolyte, (LP71), containing EC, DEC, DMC and LiPF6 as well as extracted electrolyte from a commercial 6.8 Ah Li-ion cell. Upon thermal heating, emissions of organic compounds and of the toxic decomposition products hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoryl fluoride (POF3) were detected. The electrolyte and its components have also been extensively analyzed by means of infrared spectroscopy for identification purposes.

  • 9.
    Blomqvist, Urban
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Flink, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Maskinstyrningar i praktiken2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Machinery directive gives the requirements for safe machinery, and safe machine control, within the European Union. This report explains some of the requirements, especially for safety-related machine control systems. Practical examples with aspects on machine control are given in annexes to the report.

  • 10.
    Chen, De Jiu
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Becker, Mathias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sivencrona, Håkan
    Zenuity AB, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Design of a knowledge-base strategy for capability-aware treatment of uncertainties of automated driving systems2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2018, p. 446-457Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Driving Systems (ADS) represent a key technological advancement in the area of Cyber-physical systems (CPS) and Embedded Control Systems (ECS) with the aim of promoting traffic safety and environmental sustainability. The operation of ADS however exhibits several uncertainties that if improperly treated in development and operation would lead to safety and performance related problems. This paper presents the design of a knowledge-base (KB) strategy for a systematic treatment of such uncertainties and their system-wide implications on design-space and state-space. In the context of this approach, we use the term Knowledge-Base (KB) to refer to the model that stipulates the fundamental facts of a CPS in regard to the overall system operational states, action sequences, as well as the related costs or constraint factors. The model constitutes a formal basis for describing, communicating and inferring particular operational truths as well as the belief and knowledge representing the awareness or comprehension of such truths. For the reasoning of ADS behaviors and safety risks, each system operational state is explicitly formulated as a conjunction of environmental state and some collective states showing the ADS capabilities for perception, control and actuations. Uncertainty Models (UM) are associated as attributes to such state definitions for describing and quantifying the corresponding belief or knowledge status due to the presences of evidences about system performance and deficiencies, etc. On a broader perspective, the approach is part of our research on bridging the gaps among intelligent functions, system capability and dependability for mission-&safety-critical CPS, through a combination of development- and run-time measures. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 11.
    Condo Neira, Edith
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Jan, Carlsson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Kristian, Karlsson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Erik G., Ström
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Combined LTE and IEEE 802.11p Antenna for Vehicular Applications2015In: Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP) Proceedings of the 9th European Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, April 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles may contain multiple antennas for

    different applications. Among all of them, Vehicle-to-Vehicle

    and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2X) is one of the most recent

    applications. This new technology focuses on traffic safety and

    traffic efficiency. In this paper we present a new compact

    antenna module suitable for vehicular applications. This

    module could be easily integrated into the rear-spoiler on a

    vehicle. The module consists of two identical monopoles for

    V2X applications based on the IEEE 802.11p standard and two

    identical printed inverted F-antennas for Long-Term

    Evolution (LTE) communications. The evaluation of the

    proposed module is done by analyzing the simulated and

    measured antenna S-parameters, antenna efficiencies,

    radiation patterns, as well as by calculating the diversity

    performance. The results show that the antennas are well

    matched and well isolated for both LTE and V2X and exhibits

    a radiation pattern close to the desired omnidirectional in the

    horizontal plane for V2X. The two LTE antennas have

    radiation patterns that complement each other ensuring an

    omnidirectional coverage by combination. Furthermore the

    module presents good radiation efficiency for both LTE and

    V2X

  • 12.
    Eriksen, Jon
    et al.
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm/Hystorsys, Norway.
    Gjerløv, Jan Carsten
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway.
    Vik, Kristian E.
    Kunnskapsbyen Lillestrøm, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Bjørn Gregert
    NEL Hydrogen, Norway.
    Rambeck, Eric Lyche
    Oslo kommune , Norway.
    Rød, Benjamin Myklebust
    ZERO, Norway.
    Wiberg, Erik
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Björn
    Vätgas Sverige, Sweden.
    Aleryd, Henrik
    Innovatum, Sweden.
    Svedhem, S.
    Innovatum, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    The Blue Move for a Green Economy : Mulighetsstudie for hydrogen produksjon,industri, lagring og distribusjon 2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Blue Move har utarbeidet en rapport som belyser 12 ulike muligheter for produksjon, industri, lagring og distribusjon av hydrogen i ØKS-regionen.

    Rapporten belyser ogs viktigheten av lav elavgift for hydrogenproduksjon gjennom beregninger gjort for en nyetablert hydrogenstasjon.

    Interreg-prosjektet Blue Move arbeider for å fremme økt bruk av fornybar energi som erstatning for fossile drivstoff i ØKS-regionen. Mulighetsstudien som er samlet i denne rapporten ser nærmere på hvilke produksjonsmetoder som er mest relevante, relatert til tilgjengelig fornybar kraft. Videre beskriver den hvordan hydrogenet kan anvendes utover veitransport, og på hvilken måte det kan ha betydning for veitransport at det også kommer andre anvendelsesområder.

  • 13.
    Folkesson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Ayatolahi, Fatemeh
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Islam, Mafijul
    Volvo AB.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Back-to-Back Fault Injection Testing in Model-Based Development2015In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 34th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2015 Delft, The Netherlands, September 23-25, 2015 Proceedings / [ed] Floor Koornneef, Coen van Gulijk, 2015, Vol. 34, p. 135-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, embedded systems across industrial domains (e.g., avionics,automotive) are representatives of software-intensive systems with increasingreliance on software and growing complexity. It has become critically importantto verify software in a time, resource and cost effective manner. Furthermore,industrial domains are striving to comply with the requirements of relevantsafety standards. This paper proposes a novel workflow along with tool supportto evaluate robustness of software in model-based development environment,assuming different abstraction levels of representing software. We then showthe effectiveness of our technique, on a brake-by-wire application, byperforming back-to-back fault injection testing between two differentabstraction levels using MODIFI for the Simulink model and GOOFI-2 for thegenerated code running on the target microcontroller. Our proposed method andtool support facilitates not only verifying software during early phases of thedevelopment lifecycle but also fulfilling back-to-back testing requirements of ISO 26262 [1] when using model-based development.

  • 14.
    Hannes, Dave
    et al.
    Kiwa Inspecta Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Thomas
    TS Ingenjörsstatistik, Sweden.
    Anderson, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Dahlberg, Magnus
    Kiwa Inspecta Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental study of weld fatigue strength reduction for a stainless steel piping component2018In: Procedia Engineering, 2018, p. 383-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental mean curve and a design fatigue curve corresponding to 95% survival probability were derived from realistic fatigue experiments on a non-welded water pressurized piping component with primarily focus on high cycle fatigue. The components were subjected to a synthetic variable amplitude bending deformation. Comparison with the results obtained for a similar piping component with a circumferential butt weld allowed the determination of an experimental fatigue strength reduction factor. Comparison with the fatigue procedure and design curve in ASME BPVC Section III allowed to quantify its conservatism with regards to accounting for the presence of a weldment and more generally transferability. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 15.
    Jacobson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Westgaard Berg, Kari
    Lörenskog Kommune, Norway.
    Bügel, Daniel
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Flink, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Tornvall, Charlotta
    Borås Stad, Sweden.
    Lie Venjum, Mari
    Lörenskog Kommune, Norway.
    Självkörande bussar i stadstrafik - förstudie2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Automated road transport is regarded as a key enabler for sustainable transport. One example is the use of small automated buses as a supplement to already existing public transport services. There are several manufacturers of these kind of buses, and field trials are in progress.

    The goal of the pre-project is to evaluate the feasibility and criteria for transport with automated buses in two middle-sized Nordic municipalities, Lørenskog in Norway and Borås in Sweden, by analyzing at least two different test-cases in each location. Feasibility, adaptation to existing traffic and conditions for public acceptance are described. The pre-project concludes that automated buses are possible in these two municipalities. Further test and demonstrations should be made.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Rolf
    et al.
    Zenuity, Sweden.
    Alissa, Samieh
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Staffan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom, Sweden.
    Bridal, Olof
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Cassel, Anders
    Autoliv, Sweden.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gassilewski, Martin
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Zenuity, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Delphi E&S, Sweden.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Werneman, Anders
    Qamcom, Sweden.
    A Strategy for Assessing Safe Use of Sensors in Autonomous Road Vehicles2017In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, 36th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2017, Trento, Italy, September 13-15, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Stefano Tonetta, Erwin Schoitsch, Friedemann Bitsch, 2017, Vol. 10488, p. 149-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When arguing safety foran autonomous road vehicle it is considered very hard to show that the sensing capability is sufficient for all possible scenarios that might occur. Already for today’s manually driven road vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), it is far from trivial how to argue that the sensor systems are sufficiently capable of enabling a safe behavior. In this paper, we argue that the transition from ADAS to automated driving systems (ADS) enables new solution patterns for the safety argumentation dependent on the sensor systems. A key factor is that the ADS itself can compensate for a lower sensor capability, by for example lowering the speed or increasing the distances. The proposed design strategy allocates safety requirements on the sensors to determine their own capability. This capability is then to be balanced by the tactical decisions of the ADS equipped road vehicle.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Lang, John
    Autoliv, Sweden.
    Costagliola, Francesco
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Zheng, Tian
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Marel, Elias
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    HiFi Radar Target: High fidelity soft targets and radar simulation for more efficient testing (real and virtual)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 77 GHz radar is a crucial sensor in the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving (AD) system due to its ability to detect and track objects at distances up to 200 meters. To ensure high reliability of the radar function, extensive testing with soft surrogate targets is needed. However, the radar response of a surrogate target may differ from that of real targets, causing unexpected reactions of the ADAS and AD functions in real traffic situations. The first project goal was therefore to develop and validate realistic soft surrogate targets, a work which was performed in several steps. First radar reference targets were designed and verified. Secondly procedures for calibration of automotive radars were developed. Finally, a thorough investigation on Radar Cross Section (RCS) characterization methods for large test objects on the test track was conducted resulting in several measurement setups and measurement procedures including uncertainty analysis. Now, with the ability to perform repeatable and reliable RCS characterizations, several real and surrogate targets were characterized and work on improving RCS profile of surrogate targets were conducted.Strong competition in the automotive industry and the need to validate more and more complex functions (including autonomous drive) drives the development of virtual test methods. The ability to test the ADAS or AD functions virtually early in the development will save considerable time and cost. However, there were no such tools available with full radar simulation in-loop available prior to the project, which was the reason for the second goal of this project: an ADAS/AD system simulation tool-chain with radar simulation in-loop.The HiFi Radar Target project (diarienr. 2015-04852) was an FFI project within the Electronics, Software and Communications program. After prolongation it was a 30-month project that started 2015-12-31 and ended 2018-06-30. The project had a total budget of 15.9 MSEK.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Liinanki, Matilda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Transparent intelligens för en bättre värld - en sammanfattning av fyra år med TIME2017In: GLAS, no 2, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    “Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.

  • 20.
    Knauss, Alessia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schroder, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Software-related challenges of testing automated vehicles2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering Companion, ICSE-C 2017, 2017, p. 328-330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated vehicles are not supposed to fail at any time or in any situations during driving. Thus, vehicle manufactures and proving ground operators are challenged to complement existing test procedures with means to systematically evaluate automated driving. In this paper, we explore software related challenges from testing the safety of automated vehicles. We report on findings from conducting focus groups and interviews including 26 participants (e.g., vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, and researchers) from five countries.

  • 21.
    Knauss, Allesia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schroder, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Paving the roadway for safety of automated vehicles: An empirical study on testing challenges2017In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2017, p. 1873-1880Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology in the area of automated vehicles is gaining speed and promises many advantages. However, with the recent introduction of conditionally automated driving, we have also seen accidents. Test protocols for both, conditionally automated (e.g., on highways) and automated vehicles do not exist yet and leave researchers and practitioners with different challenges. For instance, current test procedures do not suffice for fully automated vehicles, which are supposed to be completely in charge for the driving task and have no driver as a back up. This paper presents current challenges of testing the functionality and safety of automated vehicles derived from conducting focus groups and interviews with 26 participants from five countries having a background related to testing automotive safety-related topics. We provide an overview of the state-of-practice of testing active safety features as well as challenges that needs to be addressed in the future to ensure safety for automated vehicles. The major challenges identified through the interviews and focus groups, enriched by literature on this topic are related to 1) virtual testing and simulation, 2) safety, reliability, and quality, 3) sensors and sensor models, 4)required scenario complexity and amount of test cases, and 5)handover of responsibility between the driver and the vehicle. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 22.
    Lang, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Belov, Ilia
    Jönköping University.
    Hellén, J.
    Lim, J-K.
    Schødt, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn M.J.
    Saab AB.
    Poder, Ralf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Thermo-Mechanical Reliability and Performance Degradation of a Lead-Free RF Power Amplifier with GaN-on-SiC HEMTs2016In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 897, no May, p. 715-718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – an electrified bus perspective2016In: Eurotransport, ISSN 1478–8217, Vol. 14, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries offer great energy and power densities accompanied with long battery life time. However, if a mechanical fault occurs or the batteries over-heat, the flammable electrolyte of the Li-ion battery may pose a  risk. For Eurotransport, colleagues  from  the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) and Chalmers University of Technology explore further, identifying the risks involved with electric buses.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 10018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Are electric vehicles safer than combustion engine vehicles?2017In: Systems Perspectives on Electromobility 2017 / [ed] Björn Sandén, Pontus Wallgren, Gothenburg: Chalmers University of Technology , 2017, p. 34-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests2016In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Furlani, Maurizio
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Ingvar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing2018In: Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 373, p. 220-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lithium-ion Batteries used in Electrified Vehicles – General Risk Assessment and Construction Guidelines from a Fire and Gas Release Perspective2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a general and broad risk assessment and construction guidelines for lithium-ion battery systems used in electrified vehicles, from the perspectives of fire and gas release. General types of Li-ion battery systems and electrified vehicles, ranging from light to heavy-duty vehicles, are included. The findings in the report are based on results obtained in the project “Safer battery systems in electrified vehicles – develop knowledge, design and requirements to secure a broad introduction of electrified vehicles”, conducted between the years 2012-2017 and lead by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. The guidelines focus on both how to design the battery system and on how to integrate and place the battery in the vehicle in order to increase the safety in terms or fire and gas release.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rytinki, Antti
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Istaq
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Ingvar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down2017In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of Overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  • 30.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    EAST Prizes for excellence in surface technology2017In: Transactions of the IMF / The international journal of surface engineering and coatings, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 183-184Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University.
    Examination of coatings and interfaces by CTX-ray2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Prizes and grants from the European Academy of Surface Technology2018In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 287-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Application of Assaf panel for evaluating throwing power of pulse reverse electroplating on complex geometries2018In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 258-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Assaf panel arrangement was used for evaluating pulse reverse plating processes and optimisation of the throwing power (TP) of complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries. Two different electroplating processes were investigated: an acid copper bath and a cyanide silver bath without additives. It has not been possible to establish a direct correlation factor for TP obtained with the Assaf panel and the 3D objects included in the trials. Nevertheless, the Assaf panel was found to be a useful tool for preliminary process parameter optimisation. The copper bath needs agitation to deposit coatings of good quality, whereas the silver bath obtains the best throwing power without agitation. The latter is probably due to inhibition by adsorbed cyanide.

  • 34.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Belov, I.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Edström, C.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Sandulache, G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Hansal, W. E. G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Control of silver throwing power by pulse reverse electroplating2017In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of electroplating parameters on throwing power (TP) is studied in additive-free silver cyanide solutions under direct current and pulse reverse electroplating conditions. It is found that the best TP is obtained when no agitation of the electrolyte is applied. The most important parameters for controlling the TP are the cathodic current density, the anodic to cathodic charge ratio, and the ratio between the anodic and cathodic current densities. Guidelines for process optimisation are given.

  • 35.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University.
    Introduction to pulse plating2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lekka, M.
    et al.
    University of Undine, Italy.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    New European Training Network solving corrosion problems on micro- and nanoscale: mCBEEs2017In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, no 6, p. 297-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    mCBEEs is an acronym for: Advanced integrative solutions to Corrosion problems beyond micro-scale: towards long-term durability of miniaturised Biomedical, Electronic and Energy systems. It is a doctoral student training network funded by the European Commission under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action scheme in the same way as the recently reported training network SELECTA that is focusing on smart electrodeposited alloys for environmentally sustainable applications.1.

  • 37.
    Lycken, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Torstensson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Engström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lagnelöv, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Förarlösa virkestruckar – en förstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study was initiated by the sawmill industry and aims to investigate the

    possibility of introducing autonomous vehicles in the form of forklift trucks for

    handling of timber packages at sawmills.

    The report presents the various levels of definition of autonomous vehicles, and in

    which activities we now can find examples of vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy.

    Various technical solutions to enable navigation and security for autonomous

    vehicles are presented as well as the security requirements of autonomous vehicles in

    different situations.

    To exemplify today’s and tomorrow’s use of forklifts, a sawmill’s package management

    is described, and a scenario for autonomous trucks is presented. Under that scenario,

    today’s six trucks are replaced with three or four driverless trucks. A brief economic

    calculation is made, describing the economic potential of driverless trucks. It shows

    that autonomous forklifts may be permitted to cost significantly more than conventional

    forklifts after the external security systems are installed, and still be profitable.

    The reason is mainly the personnel costs associated with running conventional forklifts.

    In conclusion, autonomous vehicles can be realized in the relatively near future in

    many industries. The sawmill industry is also expected to take advantage of the ongoing

    research and development. It is not least the economic parameters that weigh heavily

    pro an introduction of autonomous forklift trucks, while safety precautions can be a

    challenge.

    An intermediate step towards fully driverless forklift trucks can be a semi-autonomous

    solution, where the driver / operator manage a plurality of trucks by telemetry with

    manual assistance only when

  • 38.
    Magagnin, Luca
    et al.
    Politechnico de Milano, Italy.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Professor Pietro Luigi Cavallotti: 11 November 1938 – 12 October 20172018In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 7-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Nagalapur, Keerthi
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strom, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brannstrom, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    A Simple Method for Robust Vehicular Communication with Multiple Nonideal Antennas2018In: 2018 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility, ICMIM 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For critical vehicular communication services, such as traffic safety and traffic efficiency, it is advisable to design systems with robustness as the main criteria, possibly at the price of reduced peak performance and efficiency. We describe a simple, low-cost method for combining the output of L nonideal (i.e., nonisotropic) antennas to the input signal to a single-port receiver with the aim to guarantee robustness, i.e., to minimize the probability that K consecutive packets arriving from the worst-case angle-of-arrival are decoded incorrectly. To minimize complexity, the combining network does not estimate or use channel state information (complex channel gains, noise levels, etc.). The combining network consists of L -1 analog phase shifters whose phases are affine functions of time. For a general L and the case when the packet error probability decays exponentially with the received SNR, the optimum slopes of the affine functions can be computed by solving an optimization problem that depends on the antenna far field functions. We provide an analytical solution for the special case of L $=2$ antennas, which turns out to be independent of the antenna patterns. In an experimental setup consisting of two monopole antennas mounted on the roof of a Volvo XC90, the proposed combining method is shown to give significant performance gains compared to using just one of the antennas.

  • 40.
    Nielsen, Lars Pleth
    et al.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Møller, Per
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Surface technology is essential for transition to a hydrogen based energy system2018In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of advanced surface technology for the success of the ongoing energy turnaround in Germany has recently been discussed in this journal. The purpose of the present article is to add views based on the conditions valid for the Nordic region.

  • 41. Pelliccione, Patrizio
    et al.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Larsson, Tony
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Aderum, Tobias
    Agren, S. Magnus
    Jonsson, Göran
    Heldal, Rogardt
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Architecting Cars As Constituents of a System of Systems2016In: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Software-intensive Systems-of-Systems at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture, ACM , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Pettersson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Sixten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; Volvo Global Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    A proposal for an operating cycle description format for road transport missions2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article presents a proposal for an operating cycle format for describing transport missions of road vehicles, for example a logging truck fetching its cargo. The primary application is in dynamic simulation models for evaluation of energy consumption and other costs of transportation. When applied to product development, the objective is an ensemble of components and functions optimised for specific tasks and environments. When applied to selection of vehicle configuration, the objective is a vehicle specification tailored for its task. Method: The proposal is presented and its four main parts: road, weather, traffic and mission, are thoroughly explained. Furthermore, we implement the proposal in an example of a dynamic forward simulation model. Results: The example model is used for two case studies: a synthetic example of a complex transport mission (a logging truck fetching its cargo) that shows some advanced format features, and an example from a real vehicle log file (cargo transport) that seeks to compare the resulting simulated speed profile to the measured one. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed format works in practice. It can represent complex transport missions and it can be used to reproduce the main features of a logged speed profile even when combined with simple driver and vehicle models.

  • 43.
    Péter, L.
    et al.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungary.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    European training school for young scientists and EAST Forum 20172017In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 237-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Sainio Berntsson, Petter
    et al.
    Chalmers technical university, Sweden.
    Strandén, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Evaluation of Open Source Operating Systems for Safety-Critical Applications2017In: Proceedings of  9th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Resilient Systems, SERENE 2017 Geneva, Switzerland, September 4–5, 2017 / [ed] Alexander Romanovsky, Elena A. Troubitsyna, 2017, Vol. 10479, p. 117-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different open source real-time operating systems (RTOS) available, and the use of open source software (OSS) for safety-critical applications is considered highly interesting by industrial domains such as medical, aerospace and automotive, as it potentially enables lower costs and more flexibility. In order to use OSS in a safety-critical context, however, evidence that the software fulfills the requirements put forth in a functional safety standard for the relevant domain is necessary. However, the standards for functional safety typically do not provide a clear method for how one would go about certifying systems containing OSS. Therefore, in this paper we identify some important RTOS characteristics and outline a methodology which can be used to assess the suitability of an open source RTOS for use in a safety-critical application. A case study is also carried out, comparing two open source operating systems using the identified characteristics. The most suitable candidate is then assessed in order to see to what degree it can adhere with the requirements put forth in the widely used functional safety standard IEC 61508.

  • 45.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    A Study of the Interplay Between Safety and Security Using Model-Implemented Fault Injection2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of high mobility and wireless communication in many safety-critical systems have increased their exposure to malicious security threats. Consequently, many works in the past have proposed solutions to ensure safety and security of these systems. However, not much attention has been given to the interplay between these two groups of nonfunctional requirements. This is a concern as safety solutions may negatively impact system security and vice versa. This paper addresses the interplay between safety and security by proposing an attack injection framework, based on model-implemented fault injection, suitable for model-based design. The framework enables us to study and evaluate the impact of cybersecurity attacks on system safety early in the development process. To this end, we have implemented six attack injection models and conducted experiments on Simulink models of a CAN bus and a brake-by-wire controller. The results show that the security attacks modeled could successfully impact the system safety by violating our defined safety requirements.

  • 46.
    Skoglund, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Warg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Agreements of an Automated Driving System2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When introducing automated driving systems (ADS), it is imperative that there exist mutual agreements between the ADS and stakeholders – such as the ADS equipped vehicle user, other road users, and society at large – on how the ADS should behave. Lacking such agreements, the ADS may antagonize stakeholders and, even worse, pose severe safety risks. The ADS needs a complete and unambiguous set of machine-interpretable properties describing these interactions, while the human stakeholders need to understand and accept how the ADS is designed to behave. We propose to make these considerations explicit in the form of agreements. The completeness problem is tackled by cataloguing and categorizing all agreements that need to be considered during the lifetime of an ADS in a systematic way.

  • 47.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Hedberg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Folkesson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Safety-related Machine Control Systems using standard EN ISO 13849-12018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine control systems shall be designed according to the European Machinery Directive and appropriate European standards. This report gives guidance when applying EN ISO 13849-1:2015 in projects, both for companies developing subsystems and for companies that are developing complete machines.

  • 48.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Andreasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    A summary of the SIGHT project - Evaluation of sensors for obstacle detection2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile machinery in forestry, mining and construction, need the ability to detect obstacles in their surroundings. By detecting and then avoid these obstacles, safety will be increased both for the operator of the machine and for the people in the risk area. Also, it allows groups of autonomous vehicles to interact with each other in an unpredictable environment. An increased level of automation also means more efficient production, reduces vehicle wear and reduced fuel consumption.

    Atlas Copco Rock Drills, Komatsu Forest and Volvo CE, together with Örebro University, Luleå University of Technology, SP Technical Research Institute, Robotdalen and Association Heavy Vehicles, cooperates in this project to evaluate the sensors with the goal of creating the machine ability Obstacle detection.

    A single sensor alone is not expected to fulfil the safety requirements. Research is needed to develop sensor systems - combination of two or more sensor technologies.

  • 49.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. RISE Safety and Transport/Electronics.
    How to Perform EMC Testing of Autonomous Vehicles2017In: Electronic Environment, no 3, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    EMC TESTING of autonomous vehicles is challenging because the involved systems are designed to identify unrealistic driving conditions, which is exactly what we have in a typical anechoic EMC chamber. When the system detects unrealistic conditions, autonomous driving functions are disabled or set to predefined states, which means that EMC testing of autonomous functions is not possible. To fully test autonomous driving systems, we therefore need to emulate a realistic environment in many aspects, i.e., we need to stimulate involved sensors in a realistic way.

  • 50.
    Vedder, Benjamin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Vinter, Jonny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Accurate positioning of bicycles for improved safety2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists are not well protected in accidents with other road users, and there are few active safety systems available for bicycles. In this study we have evaluated the use of inexpensive Real-Time Kinematic Satellite Navigation (RTK-SN) receivers with multiple satellite constellations together with dead reckoning for accurate positioning of bicycles to enable active safety functions such as collision warnings. This is a continuation of previous work were we concluded that RTK-SN alone is not sufficient in moderately dense urban areas as buildings and other obstructions degrade the performance of RTK-SN significantly. In this work we have added odometry to the positioning system as well as extending RTK-SN with multiple satellite constellations to deal with situations where the view of the sky is poor and thus fewer satellites are in view. To verify the performance of the positioning system we have used Ultra-Wideband radios as an independent positioning system to compare against while testing during poor conditions for RTK-SN. We were able to verify that adding dead reckoning and multiple satellite constellations improves the performance significantly under poor conditions and makes the positioning system more useful for active safety systems.

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