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  • 1.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lufttäta klimatskal under verkligaförhållanden2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beständigheten hos klimatskalets lufttäthetsystem är helt avgörande för om näranollenergihus, passivhus och plushus kommer att fungera som det var tänkt över tid. Eftersom produkterna som säkerställer lufttätheten oftast befinner sig inuti konstruktionen kan det därför innebära stora ingrepp i byggnader om de behöver bytas ut i förtid. Att i laboratorium i förväg kunna utvärdera beständigheten hos det lufttätande systemet är viktigt och för detta behövs en provningsmetod.

    Det överordnade syftet med hela projektet är att utveckla en metod där hela system för lufttäthet kan undersökas. Detta så att god lufttäthet och låg energianvändning kan erhållas under lång tid hos framtidens lufttäthetssystem. Denna etapp av projektet har innehållit utveckling och provkörning av en ny provningsmetod. Provningsmetodiken har dokumenterats i SP-metod 5264, utgåva 2, bilaga 2 till denna rapport. Provningsmetoden har fungerat ypperligt vid pilotprovningarna. Man ser en förändring av lufttätheten vid mätningar före respektive efter värmebehandlingen. Provningsmetoden är mycket noggrann och känslig på så sätt att förändring i lufttätheten kan registreras.

    Provningsmetoden är ett mycket bra verktyg för producenter av lufttäthetssystem vid produktutveckling. Metoden är också lämplig för användning vid utvärdering av lufttäthetssystem för olika godkännandesystem och certifiering. Samtliga provade lufttäthetssystem var mycket lufttäta före värmebehandlingen. Alla systemen visar på resultat under 0,1 l/(s∙m²). Efter värmebehandlingen visar alla undersökta lufttäthetssystem dock en ökande luftgenomsläpplighet, i varierande grad.

    I projektet har även montage av lufttäthetssystem gjorts i miljöer som valts för att efterlikna realistiska byggarbetsplatsförhållanden. Alla de undersökta lufttäthetssystemen visar på förändringar i lufttätheten då montaget har skett i kall och fuktig miljö och vid montage i dammig miljö. Variationen mellan de olika systemen har dock varit ganska stor.

    Det är vår uppfattning om alla lufttäthetsystem i framtiden undersöks med hjälp av denna provningsmetod så kommer man att få en stark förbättring av lufttätheten och därmed lägre energianvändning.

    .

  • 2.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Utveckling av metodik för verifiering av beständighet hos system för lufttäthet, etapp 12015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Development of methodology for verification of the durability of systems for airtightness, stage 1 This is a project that is intended to treated durability of airtightness systems for buildings with typically related details, such as foil, tape, prefabricated lead-through, etc. This stage of the project has included the development, design and construction of prototype equipment. This is so that dimensioning, heating method, the level of dynamic loading, etc. could be selected and tested. Some shorter pilot tests of dimensions stability have been performed and testing methodology has been documented.

  • 3.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jansson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Utmaningar och möjligheter vid renovering av våtrum2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att redogöra för vad som krävs när man skall bygga eller renovera våtrum på ett fuktsäkert sätt. Eftersom det finns många olika typer av konstruktioner, material, förutsättningar och tätskikt är det svårt men framför allt tidsödande att göra rapporten heltäckande. Vi har dock försökt att med dagens kunskap ta fram ett dokument där helheten är överskådlig men som även ger information om de viktigaste detaljkunskaperna från vår fältverksamhet och tidigare utförda forskningsprojekt.

  • 4.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Samuelson, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är andra gången ett forskningsprojekt av denna typ genomförs och syftet och målet är att kunna visa på tätskiktssystem som har god prognos att uppfylla kravet på vattentäthet och därmed vara vattenskadesäkrande. Ett annat syfte har varit att se om tillverkarna har tagit till sig av resultaten från den tidigare utförda undersökningen som rapporterades 2014 i SP Rapport 2014:45.

  • 5.
    Bekhta, Pavlo
    et al.
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine.
    Sedliacik, Jan
    Technical University in Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Effect of short-term thermomechanical densification of wood veneers on the properties of birch plywood2017In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from pre-compressed birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) veneer were evaluated. Veneer sheets underwent short-term thermo-mechanical (STTM) compression at temperatures of 150 or 180 °C and at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 3.5 MPa for a period of 1 min prior to adhesive being applied and pressed into panels using phenol formaldehyde adhesive at 100 g/m2 spread rate; this was one-third less than the adhesive spread used for the control panels (150 g/m2). The pressing pressure was 1.0 MPa, which was almost half of the pressure used for the control panels (1.8 MPa); and pressing time was 3 min, also half of the pressing time used for the control panels (6 min). The results showed that surface roughness of compressed veneer, water absorption and thickness swelling of plywood panels made from compressed veneer were significantly improved. The shear strength values of plywood panels made from compressed birch veneer even with reduced adhesive spread were higher than those of plywood panels made from uncompressed veneer. The findings in this study indicated that compression of birch veneer could be considered as an alternative to produce more eco-friendly (owing to smaller adhesive spread) value-added material with enhanced properties.

  • 6.
    Björngrim, N.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellström, P-A
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hagman, O.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Resistance measurements to find high moisture content inclusions adapted for large timber bridge cross-sections2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 3570-3582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One challenge of monitoring and inspecting timber bridges is the difficulty of measuring the moisture content anywhere other than close to the surface. Damage or design mistakes leading to water penetration might not be detected in time, leading to costly repairs. By placing electrodes between the glulam beams, the moisture content through the bridge deck can be measured. Due to the logarithmic decrease of the resistance in wood as a function of electrode length, the model must be calibrated for measurement depth. Two models were created: one for electrode lengths of 50 mm and one for electrode lengths up to 1355 mm. The model for short electrodes differed by no more than 1 percentage points compared with the oven dry specimens. The model for long electrodes differed up to 2 percentage points for lengths up to 905 mm, and over that it could differ up to 4 percentage points.

  • 7.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

  • 8.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Systematisk utvärdering av hållbarhet vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det europeiska fastighetsbeståndet är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, men också för att skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor samtidigt som fastighetsägare drivs av ökad ekonomisk bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur mål av detta slag ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier.

    Med hjälp av Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar med hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Med Renobuild Skola utvärderas skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på inte bara ekonomi och miljö, utan också med hänsyn till elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Metodiken genererar en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som ska ge fastighetsägare och samarbetspartners fördjupad förståelse för möjliga hållbarhetskonsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ samt tillfälle att diskutera och göra avvägningar mellan olika mål.

    Renobuild består av en Excelfil och en användarhandbok fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbplats, tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial för den som vill få en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Förhoppningen är att metodiken nu ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 9.
    Boss, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sacco, Francesco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Folland, Anna
    Hedén, Alice
    Renobuild 2.0 – verktyg för systematisk hållbarhetsutvärdering vid renovering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fastighetsbeståndet i Sverige och resten av Europa är i behov av omfattande renoveringar för att uppnå minskade koldioxidutsläpp, skapa förbättrade livsvillkor för människor och öka dess ekonomiska bärkraft. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta hur dessa mål ska uppnås och balanseras. Därför har RISE tillsammans med partners i fastighetsbranschen tagit fram Renobuild – en beslutsmetod för att utvärdera renoveringar utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. I projektet har två versioner av metodiken tagits fram, testats och vidareutvecklats via fallstudier. I Renobuild Bostad utvärderas renoveringar av flerbostadshus och deras omgivningar. Analysen tar hänsyn till klimatpåverkan, livscykelkostnader och sociala faktorer så som trygghet, säkerhet, hälsa och sociala relationer. Renobuild Skola utvärderar skolrenoveringar och dess effekter på ekonomi, miljö och sociala aspekter så som elevers lärande, trygghet och sociala relationer. Resultatet ger en sammantagen hållbarhetsvärdering som fördjupar fastighetsägares och samarbetspartners förståelse för möjliga konsekvenser av olika renoveringsalternativ. Renobuild består av ett Excelark och en användarhandbok som är fritt tillgängliga för vem som helst att använda. Dessa nås via en webbsida tillsammans med bakgrundsmaterial. En del av det materialet är den här rapporten som ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för hur metodiken har utvecklats. Rapporten beskriver vad användaren kan utvärdera med hjälp av dessa verktyg, hur verktyget behandlar indata, hur resultatet framställs och visualiseras samt hur den nya version 2.0 skiljer sig från en tidigare version. Här beskrivs också hur bakgrundsdata och teori har används för att utveckla innehållet i verktygen. Dessutom diskuteras det vilka avgränsningar som har gjorts i den miljömässiga, ekonomiska och sociala analysen – alltså reflektioner kring systemgränserna för respektive hållbarhetsdimension. Förhoppningen är att metodiken ska spridas i fastighetsbranschen och därmed generera en större medvetenhet om hållbarhetsfrågor vid renoveringar.

  • 10.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Anna, Pettersson Skog
    Emilsson, Tobias
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Jägerhök, Tove
    Edwards, Ylva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Grönatakhandboken: Vägledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    University at Albany, US.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin and their risks on childhood asthma and allergies within damp homes2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds of purported microbial origin on childhood symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema, and doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, remain unclear. Objective To test hypotheses that total sum of 28 microbial volatile organic compounds (Σ26 MVOCs): 1) poses independent risk on doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, as well as multiple symptom presentation with a minimum of the two of the above conditions (i.e. case); 2) is associated with significant interaction with absolute humidity (AH) on additive scale. Methods In a case-control investigation, 198 cases and 202 controls were examined during November 2001 – March 2002 period through home indoor air sampling, air quality inspection, and health outcome ascertainment. Results Not only the Σ28 MVOCs but also the global MVOC index were significantly higher within the homes of the cases with a high AH, compared to the controls with a low AH (all Ps < 0.001). Only the cases, but not the controls, were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the exposure variables of interest (Σ28 MVOCs) per quartile increase in AH (P < 0.0001 for the cases; P = 0.780 for the controls). Only among the children who live in a high AH homes, a natural log (ln)-unit of Σ 28 MVOCs was associated with 2.5-times greater odds of the case status (95% CI, 1.0–6.2; P = 0.046), compared to 0.7-times the odds (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = 0.074) of the same outcome among the low AH homes. Specifically, joint exposure to a high MVOCs and high AH was associated with 2.6-times greater odds of the doctor-diagnosed asthma status (95% CI, 0.7–8.91; P = 0.137). Conclusion Joint occurrence of high Σ28 MVOCs and AH was associated with a significant increase in the case status and asthma risks in an additive scale.

  • 12.
    Femenías, Paula
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rethinking deep renovation: The perspective of rental housing in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines renovation strategies among owners of rental housing in Sweden in response to European energy policies that promote deep renovation as a means to reduce carbon emissions from residential buildings. Case studies of eleven housing companies, seven public and three private, were designed with the aim to examine housing owners’ attitudes and renovation strategies, and how policies and objectives for energy efficiency become incorporated into these attitudes and strategies. Results are illustrated in typologies that distinguish between renovation strategies with either a more commercial or a more societal focus and spanning between deep and partial renovation. The typologies can be used to discuss how different aspects influence renovation, and illustrates how strategies change over time. The study identifies a trend in which housing owners are increasingly relying on partial or over-time renovation. Cost is one important driver, but social responsibility toward tenants and in some cases the protection of cultural heritage are also found to be important. A distrust of fixed models for renovation was observed. The paper questions the concept of deep renovation and suggests instead partial and over-time renovation as a way forward toward sustainable renovation. Partial renovation can bring together energy efficiency with environmental, financial, social, and cultural objectives of housing management. If managed properly, over-time renovation can reduce the risk of an investment, and has the advantage of allowing future technological advancements in energy efficiency to be included in current planning.

  • 13.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Vad betyder det nya regelverket runt buller och bostadsbyggande för ljudmiljön inomhus?2016In: Bo i Ro: Texter från ett tvärvetenskapligt symposium om bostäder, buller och hälsa / [ed] Frans Mossberg, Lund: Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet , 2016, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish regulations for outdoor sound levels at facades in housing construction in new areas will also affect indoor levels, especially low-frequency noise levels. However, the perception of indoor noise is even more affected. The disturbance or annoyance of noise is generally stronger in the low frequency range, and this is accentuated by the fact that facades are generally performing worse in this region, in combination with the dynamics of hearing in the low frequency region .

  • 14.
    Glebe, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Larsson, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Persson, Kent
    Lund University, LTH.
    Comparisons of various approaches to low frequency in-situ measurements and corresponding models2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016: 45th International Congress and Exposition  on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future / [ed] Wolfgang Kropp, Otto von Estorff, Brigitte Schulte-Fortkamp, Berlin: German Acoustical Society (DEGA) , 2016, Vol. 45, p. 1154-1161, article id 07-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New recommendations for environmental noise levels have been issued in Sweden. The permissible levels at facades of new buildings have been increased, which has resulted in a risk for higher indoor low frequency noise levels, since the recommended indoor levels are A-weighted. The additional Swedish low frequency third octave band requirements might be violated. Therefore, there is a need for reviewing how well façade insulation properties are manifested in measurements, and how accurate the measurement results indicate the indoor noise situation from the residents' perspective. In this paper, the results of façade insulation measurements are compared with corresponding models, with a special attention to associated challenges (e.g. to establish representative microphone positions in low frequency sound fields). The measurements are performed in a demonstrator house, which replicates a modern single family house. The models are evaluated both with respect to the total sound energy integrated over the entire room volumes, and as sampled sound fields, where the sample points may correspond to microphone positions. The congruence of the measured and the modelled results are analysed and discussed, as well as the relevance of different approaches

  • 15.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Physical properties and Raman Spectroscopy of mixed alkali/alkaline earth silicate glassesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Improved mechanical properties and chemical durability by modifying the float glass composition and thermo-chemical strengthening for photovoltaic cover glass2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy where glass is an important material and have a significant impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module. The cover glass of PV-modules constitutes a large part of the total weight of the unit. In a recent Solar-ERA.NET project, LIMES (www.limes.nu), have we been aiming towards developing 1 mm thin glass for PV modules by improving the indentation mechanical properties and by investigating a novel thermo-chemical strengthening method.

    Starting from traditional soda-lime-silicate float composition different components was studied in a DoE fashion. The mechanical properties were studied using nano- and microindentation, the chemical durability by P98 analysis and weathering experiments. The findings resulted in a suggested composition for improving the properties of float glass by adding small amounts of zinc and titanium oxide as well as increasing the amount of aluminum and magnesium oxide. The components found to improve the chemical resistance were alumina, zirconia, zinc, lanthanum and titanium oxide. The surface hardness, crack- and scratch resistance were improved when magnesia was replaced with zinc oxide. When magnesia was replaced with titania, the hardness was increased.

    Some results from the thermo-chemical strengthening experiments will be presented. Heating and quenching in a reactive gas atmosphere using aluminum precursors have resulted in chemically modified surface in addition to the thermal strengthening.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Jesper
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Framtidens utmaningar för flervåningshus i trä: Del 2b: Övergripande helhetsperspektiv på flervåningshus2017In: Bygg&Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 3, p. 50-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017, 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Conference proceedings from the conference ICTB 2017, the 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges, 26-29 June 2017 in Skellefteå, Sweden. Content of the conference is presented in the Conference programme included in these proceedings on pages 3-10.  Papers presented at the conference were distributed on USB to participants at the conference.

    The conference contained 5 Keynote presentations and 45 Technical papers presented in 10 sessions, and also a technical visit to wooden buildings and bridges in Skellefteå.

    A pre-tour included visit to several timber bridges between Skellefteå and Umeå, and the pretour programme is included in these proceedings on pages 11-15.

  • 19.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Measures and Steps for More Efficient Use of Buildings2018In: Sustainability, article id 1949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As urbanization continues and more people move into cities and urban areas, pressure on availablelandfornewconstructionswillcontinuetoincrease. Thissituationconstitutesanincentiveto reviewtheneedforinteriorspaceandusesofexistingbuildings. Agreatdealcanbegainedfromusing existingbuildingsmoreefficientlyinsteadofconstructingnewones: Reducedresourceusageduring construction(investments,naturalresources,andenergy),operation,andmaintenance;moreactivityper squaremeterofbuildingscreatesagreaterbasisforpublictransportandotherservices;moreintensive useofbuildingscreatesamorevibrantcitywithoutbuildingonvirginland. Theaimofthispaperisto initiateadiscussionregardinghowdigitalizationcanaffectthedemandandsupplyofinteriorspace in existing buildings and elaborate on how policy can support more resource-efficient uses of space. New activity-based resource measurements intended for use in buildings are proposed, and several principles that have the potential to decrease environmental impact through more efficient usage of space are outlined. Based on these ideas for encouraging the flexible use of building spaces that are facilitatedbydigitalizationandthenewmeasurementapproaches,afour-stepprincipleforconstruction isproposed: Thefirststepistoreducethedemandforspace,thesecondistointensifyusageofexisting space, the third is to reconstruct and adapt existing buildings to current needs, and the fourth is to constructnewbuildings. Urgingpolitical,municipal,construction,andreal-estatedecisionmakersto contemplatethisprinciple,particularlyinviewofthenewconditionsthatdigitalizationentails,willlead tomoresustainableconstructionand,inthelongterm,asustainablebuiltenvironment.

  • 20.
    Joffre, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Characterization of interfacial stress transfer ability in acetylation-treated wood fibre composites using X-ray microtomography2017In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 95, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of the fibre/matrix interface contribute to stiffness, strength and fracture behaviour of fibre-reinforced composites. In cellulosic composites, the limited affinity between the hydrophilic fibres and the hydrophobic thermoplastic matrix remains a challenge, and the reinforcing capability of the fibres is hence not fully utilized. A direct characterisation of the stress transfer ability through pull-out tests on single fibres is extremely cumbersome due to the small dimension of the wood fibres. Here a novel approach is proposed: the length distribution of the fibres sticking out of the matrix at the fracture surface is approximated using X-ray microtomography and is used as an estimate of the adhesion between the fibres and the matrix. When a crack grows in the material, the fibres will either break or be pulled-out of the matrix depending on their adhesion to the matrix: good adhesion between the fibres and the matrix should result in more fibre breakage and less pull-out of the fibres than poor adhesion. The effect of acetylation on the adhesion between the wood fibres and the PLA matrix was evaluated at different moisture contents using the proposed method. By using an acetylation treatment of the fibres it was possible to improve the strength of the composite samples soaked in the water by more than 30%.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Svennberg, Kaisa
    Kvalitet hos byggnadsmaterial i cirkulära flöden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in the report was that construction and demolition waste will be recycled or recycled to a greater extent and at the same time fulfil the quality requirements on the materials.

    The purpose of the project has been to map and compile the knowledge and experience of the technical aspects of circular flows of building materials, focusing on quality issues, identifying new projects that can reduce the amount of construction and demolition waste deposited or burned, as well as creating new networks. There is widespread knowledge in the construction industry about these issues and there are also a wide range of research results in different areas. In the project, knowledge and experience have been gathered through literature studies, workshops and seminars, study visits and interviews.

    The first part of the report discusses general technical experiences and challenges in different parts of the building chain, while challenges for specific material groups are discussed in the second part of the report. These material groups are polymeric materials, flat glass, stone wool, glass wool, plasterboard, crushed concrete, wood and wood-based materials. The report also presents a survey conducted by Optimera among their professional costumers, which aimed at collecting their experiences and views on sustainable construction.

    In general, we can find that there are major challenges in increasing recycling rates for demolition and refurbishment waste. For installation and construction waste, the technical challenges are not as big. Challenges and conditions for increased recycling and reuse with retained good quality vary between different types of materials / products, type of construction project and intended use.

    The report proposes a number of proposals in areas where work can be continued. These include improved / expanded inventory for demolition and refurbishment, routines and sampling methods, proper sorting, handling and storage to ensure the right quality, to provide the ability to separate compound materials, logistics, production technology and quality assurance. The results also show the importance of education, networks and meeting places and that research projects are conducted interdisciplinary. There are good opportunities for increased recycling through cooperation throughout the entire building chain.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Examples of characteristics of wood that affect mould growth: a meta-analysis2017In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 603-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building materials differ in their susceptibility to mould growth. Wood is a material often considered to have a low mould resistance. However, wood is not a homogenous material and different characteristics of the material are expected to have an impact on mould growth. In this paper, it was shown that wood species (pine or spruce), sawing pattern (centre-board or side-board) and surface structure (planed or sawn) affected mould growth. In addition, it was indicated that the susceptibility cannot be described by one single parameter, but also depends on other parameters. It is therefore difficult to estimate the susceptibility of wood in general. These conclusions were drawn from a meta-analysis, using data from five separate, previously performed laboratory studies conducted at 90% relative humidity and 22 °C, and from a laboratory study performed at 95% RH and 22 °C. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  • 23.
    Järn, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Mesoporous sol-gel based SiO2 thin films with ordered pore orientation as antireflective coatings on glass2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antireflective coatings on glass have increasing applications, on e.g. cover glass of PV modules, display glass, spectacle lenses or window glazing’s. Sol-gel derived mesoporous coatings can be tuned both in terms of porosity and thickness, thus allowing tuning of the refractive index. Additionally, the sol-gel approach is bottom-up, which facilitates easy upscaling. In the current work we present dip-coated mesoporous silica coatings of different pore orientation and film thickness prepared on microscope glass slides and silicon wafers. The silica coatings were derived from TEOS (tetraorthosilicates) mixed with ethanol and diluted HCl. Hexagonal and cubic pore ordering of the thin films with a pore size in the range of 5-10 nm were obtained. The thin films were characterized in terms of non-contact profilometry, stylus profilometry,  nanohardness, scratch resistance, UV-Vis-NIR transmittance and UV-Vis-NIR reflectance. The thicknesses of the studied films varied from 100 nm up to several hundreds of nm without jeopardizing the film homogeneity. All the mesoporous films exhibited higher transmittance than the uncoated glass substrate. The film with hexagonal pore orientation has a somewhat higher nanohardness than the cubic one, however,  no difference was found in the scratch resistance for the films with different pore orientations.

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Energi och klimateffektiva byggsystem med hjälp av Modellbaseradprognosstyrning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A general optimization model has been developed and applied for a representative apartment in the condominium association "Viva", which is an apartment building area planned to be erected by Riksbyggen, at Dr. Allard street in Gothenburg. The optimization model's purpose is to find the optimum supply of heat from an environmental perspective without compromising thermal comfort. The building's heating system is updated with the heat source CO

    2-load, external climatic variations and internal loads, three days ahead and at the same time, the apartment’s heating system and thermal behavior is also taking into account. The aim is to assess the potential for CO2-savings depending on the choice of building structures and heating systems.

    The model of the Viva's apartment shows that it is possible to control and optimize the heat supply with respect to comfort requirements, internal and external loads, and environmental damage from the heat production. The extent of CO

    2 savings will be entirely dependent on how much CO2 impact of energy varies over time. A variation with a standard deviation of about 25 grams of CO2 / kWh provides savings of up to 20% for an apartment with a concrete frame and up to 16% for the same apartment with wooden frames. The difference between the heating systems; underfloor heating or air heating, is marginal in this case. On the other hand, if the standard deviation would be five times larger, corresponding to the use of margin generated heat, there could be savings of as much as 171% in the concrete apartment with underfloor heating and 145% for the same apartment with wooden frames. If air heating is used the savings will decrease by 20%-units in each case. All these findings are a result of optimization of heat source CO2-load and a comparison with the corresponding apartment controlled without optimization of heat source and were inside temperature could vary between 21-23 degrees. During optimization the temperature has been allowed to vary between 20-24 degrees.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kartläggning av svenska aktörer relevanta för utvecklandet av funktionaliteter hos smarta fönster: Appendix till förstudie för Smart Windows Technology Center (SWTC)2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya innovationer bäddar för tunnare och starkare glas i solceller, fönster och fasader2017In: Glas, no 3, p. 26-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Spontaneous Fracture in Thermally Strengthened Glass - A Review and Outlook2017In: Ceramics-Silikáty, ISSN 0862-5468, E-ISSN 1804-5847, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 188-201Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal strengthening of glass is common for many different purposes including architecture, automotive, glasses for solar energy, tableware and occasionally also containers. It is an easy and relatively cheap method to make glasses stronger, however, with an Achilles heel that it can spontaneously fracture without the slightest applied external force. Though, fracture due to applied external force is the most common case, spontaneous fracture is rare. The current paper reviews the literature of spontaneous fracture and NiS inclusions and what kind of mitigation measures that have been done in order to reduce the frequency of spontaneous fracture. Finally is also an outlook for the alternative mitigation measures and their advantages as well as disadvantages. A personal perspective is given in discussions and gives an outlook to the most promising alternative methods to reduce and hopefully eliminate the NiS inclusions. These include multi-functional methods where not only the NiS inclusion issue is solved. 

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Spontangranulering: Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas2017In: Glas, no 4, p. 54-56Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla somhar läst Homeros epos Iliaden känner till Akilles, den grekiska mytologinsstörste hjälte som dessvärre hade en sårbar punkt, akilleshälen. Termiskthärdat glas är nästintill en perfekt produkt där man får både ett starkare glasoch ett betydligt säkrare glas genom den karaktäristiska sprickbildningen somger kantiga glasbitar som inte är så vassa och som ofta kallas granuler

  • 29.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Bingham, Paul A.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Advances and Challenges of Cover Glasses for Efficient Harvesting of Solar Electricity2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harvesting of solar energy through photovoltaic (PV) modules is an essential technology for increasing the share of renewable energy sources, both immediately and in the future. The glass cover material constitutes a significant part of the cost. Research and development of the cover glass is needed to increase the service lifetime and to reduce the cost per watt peak [1]. Recent research efforts in the LIMES project show that the addition of optically active components absorb harmful UV light and simultaneously convert those UV photons into visible light [2]. Thus, the profit is two-fold, increasing both service lifetime and efficiency by up to 4%. Further, the cover glass composition can be optimized to enhance the mechanical and chemical durability. It has been shown that it is possible to increase the indentation crack resistance [2] and the hydrolytic durability by three and four times respectively by modifying the glass composition. Thermal strengthening of glass for PV modules are required for mechanical durability. However, there is an increasing demand of light-weight PV modules, therefor is thermal strengthening of thin cover glass needed to meet the increasing demand. In-situ chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of Al2O3 and thermal strengthening of the cover glass provides an additionally crack resistant and chemically durable glass surface. Developments of transparent and robust multifunctional coatings that provide anti-reflective and self-cleaning properties on the outer glass surface are desired [4]. Thereby is maximal transmission and reduced soiling achieved. On the interior surface are anti-reflective and chemical barrier multifunctional coatings desirable to increase transmission and reducing potential induced degradation (PID) [5]. The LIMES concept has been demonstrated by quantitative measurements and as Si solar cells. The scale-up of the LIMES concept and additional material challenges to increase the efficiency and service lifetime will be discussed. Replacing the conventional silver strings in PV modules with transparent conductive tape and back-reflecting backsheet materials are among the promising techniques for further maximizing the efficiency.

  • 30.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sehati, Parisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lätta Innovativa Material för Effektiva Solcellsmoduler (LIMES)2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extraction of solar energy through solar cells is a promising technology for increasing the share of renewable energy sources, both now and in the future. Glass for solar cells is a significant part of the cost, and a necessity to develop to increase life expectancy and reduce the cost per watt recovered. In the LIMES project have adding optically active components been studied, these absorb harmful UV light and simultaneously converts those UV photons into visible light, which in turn can be converted into energy in solar cells. Thus, the profit is twofold, increasing both the lifetime and efficiency by up to 4%. Further, it has been studied how to optimize the mechanical and chemical properties of glass by optimizing the glass composition in order to increase the mechanical and chemical lifetime. It has shown that resistance to cracking of the new composition increases by a factor of 3 and that the chemical resistance is increased by a factor of 4. Novel thermo-chemical strengthening of glass has been demonstrated in the lab and giving rise to at least equal strengthening level and increases the crack resistance by a factor of 2. It enables the use of thinner glass and thus significantly lighter photovoltaic modules. In the thermo-chemical strengthening process, the glass surface composition is modified significantly by increasing the content of aluminum oxide and thus gives rise to improved properties. The thermo-chemical treatment increases the glass surface contact angle of water, which contributes to a self-cleaning glass. Multifunctional glass surfaces that are both anti-reflective and self-cleaning have been studied by two different approaches, nanostructured surface modification and porous antireflective coatings with photocatalytic degradation ability. Nanostructured glass surfaces gives rise to an increased light scattering and can thus effectively guide diffused light to the solar cells and simultaneously change the glass contact angle with water. The LIMES-concept has been demonstrated by quantitative measurements and manufacturing of small silicon photovoltaic modules. The project has significantly increased the potential for commercialization by increasing the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) level from 2-4 to 4-6. Investigations on how to scale up manufacturing flat glass in order to take the next step towards commercialization is on-going.

  • 31.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Liinanki, Matilda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Transparent intelligens för en bättre värld - en sammanfattning av fyra år med TIME2017In: GLAS, no 2, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kinsella, David
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Osby Glas AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kvalitetshöjning av planglas: Icke-förstörande provning av glasets hållfasthet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållfastheten och därmed kvaliteten på planglas varierar kraftigt beroende på förekomsten sprickor i glasets yta. Sprickorna fungerar som brottanvisningar vilket medför att man måste räkna med stora säkerhetsfaktorer då glas belastas i olika byggnadskonstruktioner. Trä som konstruktionsmaterial har en liknande problematik där man utvecklat virkessortering för att kvalitetsklassning. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt om det går att kvalitetsklassa planglas med hjälp av en oförstörande provningsmetod baserad på icke-linjärt ultraljud. Tre olika kantbearbetningar (A) dragen, (B) obehandlad och (C) polerad kant undersöktes i 4-punktsböjprovning med tre olika belastningshastigheter (0.6, 2 och 5mm/min) och kontinuerlig mätning av skadevärde med icke-linjärt ultraljud. Hållfastheten för de olika kantbearbetningar följer trenden (C) polerad > (A) dragen > (B) obehandlad  med avtagande hållfasthet. Som förväntat gav provningarna ett ökande skadevärde med en ökande last. Provningarna visade även att hållfastheten var lägre för lägre belastningshastigheter. Skadevärdet ökade mest för obehandlad kant vilket tyder på att det fanns en stor spricktillväxt medan lägst ökning gav polerad kant. Vi har även undersökt obehandlade brutna kanter med optiskt profilometri och i ljusmikroskop. Med ljusmikroskopi kunde vi linjärt korrelera kantskadans tjocklek till tjockleken på glaset. Luftsidan på planglas undersöktes med optisk profilometri och man fann tydliga skillnader i ytornas karakteristik. Skillnaderna är inte synliga för blotta ögat men de skulle kunna ge upphov till andra skillnader såsom t ex fuktkänslighet, mekanisk skärbarhet och hållfasthet. Sammanfattningsvis så finns det god potential för kvalitetsklassning av planglas men det kommer att behövas fler tester i ett större forskningsprojekt för att ta detta till marknaden. Marknadspotentialen är enorm med 80 miljoner ton planglas i marknadsbehov.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Fransson, Anna-Lena
    GFAB Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    GFAB Lindberg & Co AB, Sweden.
    Spontangranulering av härdade glas: En litteraturstudie och en genomlysning av problemet inom glasbranschen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härdat glas har många fördelar i flera avseenden bl a sprickmönstret, hållfastheten och ett överkomligt pris. Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas är spontangranulering som är ovanligt men som trots allt förekommer. Syftet med den här förstudien var att genomlysa hur vanligt förekommande det är genom enkäter till företag inom duschväggsbranschen samt göra en litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka vilka metoder det finns att råda bot på problemet. Enkäterna visade att branschen inte direkt ser det som ett problem men endast en relativt liten andel för statistik på hur vanligt förekommande spontangranulering är. Litteraturstudien visade på en splittrad bransch varav en del förespråkar den standardiserade HST-metoden (heat soak test) medan andra kritiserar den. Oavsett har man lagt ner mest arbete på HST-metoden och det är den som fått störst genomslag, men den används inte i hela branschen. Metoden har sina brister men just nu pågår arbete med att uppdatera den befintliga standarden vilket kommer att göra den mer tillförlitlig. HST-metoden har dock fortfarande nackdelarna att den är relativt dyr och minskar härdningsgraden något. För alternativa metoder krävs tydliga satsningar som dock är osannolika eftersom problemet anses vara litet. De alternativ som identifierats som mest intressanta är metoder som ger ytterligare fördelar såsom t ex hållfasthetssortering av planglas eller att man utvecklar en glassammansättning som lämpar sig för termisk härdning av glas.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Otto Schott Institute of Materials Science, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology, Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology, Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses2017In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 4, no 13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    “Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.

  • 36.
    Kårekull, Oscar
    et al.
    Fläkt Woods, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Noise and indoor air quality: HVAC noise characteristics2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings have an influence on the residents´ well-being. The characteristics of HVAC noise have been investigated as to recommend typical spectra for the design of a listening test using sound recordings. An HVAC system layout is developed to represent a system in a residential building where variations of the noise spectrum are possible without the use of unrealistic conditions. From a spectrum shape perspective the main parameter of the system is the balance between noise originated from the heat recovery unit and the duct component related noise. The receiving room spectrum is here mainly modified by the use of different silencers close to the heat recovery unit and the balance between the pressure loss of the air terminal device and a nearby damper. Modifications of the heat recovery unit total airflow and the inflow properties to the air terminal device are also investigated. Variations at both low and high frequencies are possible, at a constant total A-weighted sound pressure level, using these system properties.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Krister
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Holmes, Maria
    Göteborgs Stad; Göteborg, Sverige.
    Nyttoberäkningar av minskat buller från elbusstrafik i Göteborg2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social benefit calculations of reduced noise from electric bus transport in Gothenburg

    In this study we examine noise from different types of buses. The aim is to calculate the economic benefits of electric buses over other bus types used in Gothenburg in terms of noise reduction. Since there is no established method to investigate the economic effects of noise from buses a large part of this study focuses on if methods currently available to quantify the health effects and economic costs of noise are sufficient to assess the effects of noise from buses. DALYs is a measure that has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to quantify the health effects by counting the number of healthy life years lost every year because of the noise. ASEK is a Swedish method used to calculate the costs caused by the transport sector to society every year.

    In order to calculate noise from buses in a sufficiently correct way, it is necessary to have knowledge on how the different bus types operating in Gothenburg today sound. In Gothenburg there are diesel, gas, hybrid and electric buses. The method we used to calculate the bus noise was Nord2000, which is a more advanced method of calculation than the one usually used for calculations in Sweden, i.e. the Nordic Prediction method from 1996 (RTN: 96). The advantage with Nord2000 is that you can use specific input data for each bus type, something that is impossible with RTN where in-data for light and heavy vehicles are based on measurements carried out in the early 1990s. Nord2000 has been implemented in different noise calculation software, of which SoundPLAN is the computational tool used in this project. The drawback with SoundPLAN however, is that it is not possible to calculate maximum sound levels with the Nord2000 model as this has not been implemented in the software. For calculations with Nord2000 new input data has been collected based on measurements of gas, electrically charged hybrid buses driving in diesel mode, and electrically charged hybrid buses driving in electric mode on a test track in the autumn of 2016. For diesel buses existing input data for Nord2000 was used based on measurements in real traffic in 2015. The results of these measurements are used not only to do outdoor calculations of bus noise, but also for calculations of indoor noise.

    Another disadvantage of Nord2000 is that the calculations are more time consuming, which meant that we had to limit the geographic calculation area to 32 km2 in central Gothenburg. It is the most densely populated area in Gothenburg is where the bus traffic is most intense. In this area, bus traffic along with car traffic and other heavy vehicles was calculated within 100 meters from the road center, as well as within 30 meters of all bus stops to see the effect of starting and stopping on noise levels.We have also calculated a small residential area in the center of town where buses dominate namely the area around Bäckegatan, to analyze the impact of bus traffic noise in more detail.

    Measurements of the various bus types demonstrates that there are differences between the bus types and that diesel buses cause more noise than the other bus types. A frequency analysis of the sound also shows that the sound from diesel buses contains much more low frequency sound than electric buses. Gas and hybrid buses lie somewhere in between when it comes to the content of low-frequency sound.

    The estimates of the health effects and economic costs of bus noise show that diesel buses cause the highest costs of the various bus types included. But despite electric buses being perceived as much quieter it is in general difficult to show any significant difference between the bus types, even if hybrid buses in diesel mode and gas-powered buses contain more low frequency sound than electric buses. There is however a greater difference between bus types at bus stops because diesel, hybrid bus in diesel mode and gas-powered buses make a lot more noise than electric buses during acceleration. When the buses are calculated together with other road traffic, the other road traffic tends to dominate due to the fact that the volume of other traffic tends to be much greater than the volume of buses.

    However if you only have bus services near homes (without other traffic), the differences in exposure, especially from 55 dBA and above, is large between bus types and the electric bus is by far the quietest option. For exposure at night, calculated both with buses only and with buses and other traffic included, the differences in exposure to sound levels that can cause sleep disturbances are greater between bus types, and electric bus clearly contribute least to increased sleep disturbance.

    Research shows that the link between annoyance to and loudness of noise from heavy traffic, measured or calculated as a daily equivalent noise level in decibel A, is not particularly good. Low-frequency sounds are perceived as more disturbing and are perceived as louder than sound sources that are dominated by sounds in the higher frequencies, such as car traffic. The methods for quantifying the health impact and economic costs of traffic noise need to be developed or supplemented by other methods which more accurately include annoyance and sleep disturbance from heavy traffic in order to be able to make more accurate cost-benefit calculations.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Krister
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jonasson, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Uppdaterade beräkningsmodeller för vägtrafikbuller2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's models for road traffic noise are based on the Nordic prediction model from 1996. Since then, several projects have been carried out to develop prediction models, both in Scandinavia and in Europe. In other Nordic countries for example the calculation model Nord2000 Road is used and within Europe the model CNOSSOS-EU will be used for noise mapping. Nord2000 Road has the advantage that the model has a broader scope and can provide more detailed results compared with 1996 model, and there is a willingness to move to that model in Sweden. The model gives slightly higher estimated levels compared to the old model. Input data for the prediction model Nord2000 Road are based on measurements carried out in the Nordic countries and the latest measurements in Sweden are 10 years old. In 2015 new measurements of noise emissions from vehicles in real traffic on Swedish roads were carried out. The results show that the source data to Nord2000 Road needs to be updated to represent current Swedish conditions. The results indicate that Nord2000 Road overestimate levels and suggested adjusted input data are presented. Spectrum adaptation to Swedish conditions are revised. The measurements confirm, however, speed coefficients for Swedish conditions.

    Spectrum adaptation terms for other road surfaces than SMA 0/16 (stone mastic asphalt with 16 mm maximum aggregate size, ABS 0/16), which is the most common pavement for high traffic roads in Sweden require more extensive measurement data, but some data for a Swedish drainage asphalt road surface are presented in the report.

    Updated input is proposed for Category 1, 2 and 3 for Nord2000 Road. For motorcycles input data can be based on data from previous Harmonoise- and Imagine projects, even if they are designed for Southern European conditions. Some data from the measurement series 2015 are presented in the report, but additional measurements needed when the spread in the results are great. Also for vehicles with alternative powertrains such as electric or hybrid vehicles sufficient information is lacking today to determine reliable input data for the prediction models for Swedish conditions.

    CNOSSOS-EU underestimates clearly the emission levels for Swedish conditions, and also have different speed-dependency, so a speed-dependent correction is proposed in the report. Maximum levels are proposed to be calculated in basically the same way in CNOSSOS-EU as is made in Nord2000 Road.

    To calculate the traffic noise at different driving conditions such as in urban areas with accelerations or decelerations associated with intersections or roundabouts it is proposed that the methods of CNOSSOS-EU and Nord2000 Road for heavy vehicles (category 2 and 3) is applied. CNOSSOS-EU gives corrections for the total sound power depending on distance from the crossing or roundabout, while Nord2000 Road gives a general increase of the rolling noise with 3 dB for heavy vehicles in urban traffic.

    The Nord2000 Road source model allows for separation of rolling and propulsion noise from measurements in real traffic. For the CNOSSOS-EU model this is more difficult because of the co-localization of the two model sources. Separation of rolling and propulsion noise could be beneficial for separation of tire/road noise and vehicle noise for evaluation of the tire noise and vehicle noise regulations.

  • 39.
    Limbach, René
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Scannell, Garth
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    The effect of TiO2 on the structure of Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses and its implications for thermal and mechanical properties2017In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 471, no C, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania represents an important compound for property modifications in the widespread family of soda lime silicate glasses. In particular, such titania-containing glasses offer interesting optical and mechanical properties, for example, for substituting lead-bearing consumer glasses. Here, we provide a systematic study of the effect of TiO2 on the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties for three series of quaternary Na2O–CaO–TiO2–SiO2 glasses with TiO2 concentrations up to 12 mol% and variable Na2O, CaO, and SiO2 contents. Structural analyses by Raman and magic-angle spinning 29Si NMR spectroscopy reveal the presence of predominantly four-fold coordinated Ti[4] atoms in glasses of low and moderate TiO2 concentrations, where Si–O–Si bonds are replaced by Si–O–Ti[4] bonds that form a network of interconnected TiO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra, with a majority of the non-bridging oxygen ions likely being located at the SiO4 tetrahedra. At higher TiO2 contents, TiO5 polyhedra are also formed. Incorporation of TiO2 strongly affects the titanosilicate network connectivity, especially when its addition is accompanied by a decrease of the CaO content. However, except for the thermal expansion coefficient, these silicate-network modifications seem to have no impact on the thermal and mechanical stability. Instead, the compositional dependence of the thermal and mechanical properties on the TiO2 content stems from its effect on the network energy and packing efficiency.

  • 40.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    A simulation based study of low frequency transient sound radiation from floors - A concrete vs. a hybrid floor2017In: 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber is a renewable and human friendly construction material and thereby a potential solution to achieve life cycle sustainable buildings. However, it is clear that impact sound and vibrations wit hin the low frequency range still are challenges for wooden joist floors. Another challenge is the, mostly, larger building heights of wooden or hybrid floors compared to the heights of concrete floors. Using timber as the structural joist floor material could imply fewer stories due to maximum allowed building heights, which renders in less income in a building project. Accurate simulations of impact sound may decrease the need for prototypes; thus saving money and time in the timber building industry. Here, a hybrid joist floor consisting of wood, sand and steel is compared to a concrete floor in terms of radiated impact sound into a rectangular cavity. The hybrid floor is designed such that its mass distribution and globa l stiffness are close to the same properties of the concrete floor. Finite element models are used for simulations of the radiated transient sound induced by impact forces having the characteristics of human walking. The simulations indicate that similar surface mass and bending stiffness of a floor intersection give similar impact sound transmission properties around the first bending mode, while it is not necessary so at higher frequencies.

  • 41.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Moisture safety of tall timber facades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture safety of tall timber facades

    The main purpose of the project was to facilitate safe design of sustainable and cost-effective solutions for wood facades of high-rise buildings. Studies have been carried out of different designs of the wall itself and of different details in the wall. Direct and indirect consequences of moisture damage have been considered but mainly risk of mould or decay. Façade details with high risk were identified e.g. window and balcony, and the types of damage that may occur, and what the consequences may be. Based on this, some damage scenarios were selected where detailed solutions were analysed more carefully. Details were also compared with modified designs with improvements such as addition of a sealing strip or plate covering. LCA and LCC have been calculated for some damage scenarios to show consequences of damages and the importance of well-executed designs and details.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Low-frequency impact sound pressure fields in small rooms within lightweight timber buildings — Suggestions for simplified measurement procedures2018In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 324-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-frequency impact sound insulation, down to 20 Hz, has a significant effect on humans' dissatisfaction due to noise in timber buildings. Today, the low-frequency procedure of the ISO 16283-2:2015 impact sound measurement standard covers the frequency range down to 50 Hz for the use of an ISO tapping machine, but does not yet cover the use of an ISO rubber ball. Here, microphone grid measurements were made in two small rooms that were excited by an ISO rubber ball from the rooms above. In each grid, 936 microphone positions were used to capture data representing the full spatial fields of impact sound pressures from 10 to 500 Hz for one excitation location for each room. The data show that the positions at the radiating ceiling surfaces have low maximum sound pressure levels compared to the pressure levels at the floors, especially in the floor corners. First, a measurement procedure to predict the maximum exposure of low-frequency sound in a room is proposed It is suggested that the maximum values for each frequency band in the corners opposite to the partition being excited (i.e., the floor corners) be used. Second, a procedure to predict the room average sound pressure level and the prediction's normal distribution is suggested. Iterative measurements with random microphone locations and random excitation locations are used. The advantage of this method is that the required precision and information about the sensitivity due to different excitation points are obtained.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rain intrusion rates at façade details - A summary of results from four laboratory studies2017In: Energy Procedia, 2017, p. 387-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More knowledge and realistic data on inward leakage is needed not only to better understand and confirm rain resistance of different facades, but also to carry out reliable theoretical moisture risk assessments of façade details in external walls. This article is an attempt to highlight amounts of expected leakage based on four laboratory studies. The results show that under heavy driving rain conditions, there may be continuous point leakage of significant volumes of water (0,01-0,05 l/min) in small invisible deficiencies, and corresponds to up to 2% of the applied water load. The leakage rate also depends, more or less, on the size, position and geometry of the deficiency, cumulative runoff rates, size of projecting details and surface properties. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 44.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rain resistance of façades with façade details: A summary of three field and laboratory studies2018In: Journal of Building Physics, ISSN 1744-2591, E-ISSN 1744-2583, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 521-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ne of the main functions of the exterior walls and façades is to protect the indoor and the sensitive parts of construction from the outdoor climate. Exposure of driving rain is the most prominent moisture source a wall has to resist. Despite this, there is a lack of information on rain resistance. Field measurements on real-life external walls show that recurrent water leakage under driving rain conditions is observed in five out of seven new-built houses in Sweden, including those with ventilated façades. About a 100 commercial laboratory façade tests, mounted by façade suppliers, and targeted laboratory experiments showed that it is almost impossible to achieve fully tight façade solutions, and keep them sealed. Nearly, all test walls with façade details leaked, almost regardless of façade type and sealing efforts. The results from field and laboratory measurements of rain resistance in new buildings in Sweden show that façades are usually not water-tight and also that very small deficiencies can cause substantial amount of water leakage. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

  • 45.
    Olsson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Väderskyddat byggande: - eller omfattande fukt- och mögelkontroll av fuktexponerat virke, konstruktioner och KL-trä?2017In: Bygg & Teknik, no 5, p. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    När det gäller byggnadskonstruktioner så behöver allt fuktkänsligt byggmaterial skyddas mot förhöjd fuktighet och vatten. Görs inte detta så är risken stor bland annat för mikrobiell påväxt och byggnadsdelar behöver undersökas med avseende på fukt och mikrobiell påväxt.Anledningen till att det behöver undersökas med avseende på mikrobiell påväxt handlar inte bara om risken för hälsobesvär hos framtida brukare av byggnaden eller sanerings- och undersökningskostnader och utbyte av material och konstruktioner som följd av uppfuktning, utan även etik- och miljökonsekvensfrågor som blivit alltmer betydelsefullt i byggprojekt

  • 46. Pettersson Skog, Anna
    et al.
    Jonatan, Malmberg
    Emilsson, Tobias
    Jägerhök, Tove
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Grönatakhandboken: Växtbädd och vegetation2017Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Sweden ; IVL, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Climate impacts from road bridges: effects of introducing concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage in wood2018In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector faces the challenge of mitigating climate change with urgency. Life cycle assessment (LCA), a widely used tool to assess the climate impacts of buildings, is seldom used for bridges. Material-specific phenomena such as concrete carbonation and biogenic carbon storage are usually unaccounted for when assessing the climate impacts from infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to explore the effects these phenomena could have on climate impact assessment of road bridges and comparisons between bridge designs. For this, a case study is used of two functionally equivalent design alternatives for a small road bridge in Sweden. Dynamic LCA is used to calculate the effects of biogenic carbon storage, while the Lagerblad method and literature values are used to estimate concrete carbonation. The results show that the climate impact of the bridge is influenced by both phenomena, and that the gap between the impacts from both designs increases if the phenomena are accounted for. The outcome is influenced by the time occurrence assumed for the forest carbon uptake and the end-of-life scenario for the concrete. An equilibrium or 50/50 approach for accounting for the forest carbon uptake is proposed as a middle value compromise to handle this issue. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 48.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Martinsons Group, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erik
    Moelven Töreboda AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Warg, Christine
    Swedish Transport Admninistration, Sweden.
    Improved edge design for stress-laminated decks made of spruce2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-laminated bridge decks in Sweden are usually made of glulam beams of spruce and it is therefore crucial to avoid moisture as the wood has no impregnation that can protect it from decay. Typically the protection of the deck consists of a waterproof bitumen sheet under the asphalt layers on the top surface and of claddings along the edges. The aim of this work was to study the risk of damages and how to ensure the function of the deck plates. The adhesion of bitumen sheets and the effect of different primers was studied. The design at the edges was studied and an improved solution with a steel angle along the deck edge was developed and tested. The improved design should be robust and easy to install to always assure a correct performance. The new design has been developed within the European research project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges and is now included in general recommendations for timber bridges in Sweden.

  • 49.
    Pousette, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Malo, Kjell Arne
    NTNU, Norway.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Fortino, Stefania
    VTT, Finland.
    Salokangas, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wacker, James
    USDA, US.
    Durable Timber Bridges - Final Report and Guidelines2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report from the project DuraTB - Durable Timber Bridges. The goal of the project was to contribute to the development of sustainable timber bridges by making guidelines for moisture design and developing new and improved bridge concepts and details in terms of durability and maintenance aspects.

    In this report the analyzes, surveys, results and guidelines are described. More detailed descriptions are referred to the many publications that the project has delivered.

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the WoddWisdom-Net Research Programme which is a transnational R&D programme jointly funded by national funding organisations within the framework of the ERA-NET WoodWisdom-Net 2.

  • 50.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Study of the transient release of water vapor from a fuel bed of wet biomass in a reciprocating-grate furnace2018In: Journal of the Energy Institute, ISSN 1743-9671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates how sudden changes in fuel moisture affected the combustion characteristics of the fuel bed in a 4-MW reciprocating-grate furnace. The moisture content of the fuel fed to the furnace was monitored online using a near-infrared spectroscopy device, and the water vapor concentration in the flue gas was measured continuously. To obtain experimental data on fuel-bed conditions, the temperature and gas composition in the bed were measured using a probe. A simplified drying model was developed using the measured gas composition values as inputs. The model was then used to estimate the drying rate and to simulate the extent of the drying zone along the grate. Measurements indicated that a change in the moisture content of the fuel fed to the furnace was detected as a change in water vapor concentration in the flue gas with a delay of about 2 h. The model predicted that a portion of wet fuel would need about 2 h to become dry, in line with the measured time delay of the water vapor concentration change in the flue gas. Overall, there was good alignment between the measured and simulated results, supporting the validity of the model and the assumed mechanisms. © 2018 Energy Institute

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