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  • 1.
    Andersson, J
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Skoglund, T.
    Sweco Society AB, Sweden.
    Strand, N.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    The Human-Tech Matrix: A Socio-Technical Approach to Evaluation of Automated Transport Systems2019In: Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput., 2019, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated transport system has the potential to improve traffic safety and flow, but also to the accessibility and comfort for users of the transport system. Realizing the positive effects with automated transport is about shaping regulatory, organizational and technical systems. Here, appropriate evaluation enables steering efforts in the desired direction. The overall aim of this study was to develop a methodological framework that could identify effects of an automated transport system, and outline methods and metrics for evaluation of these effects. We propose a tentative case-based methodology to define measures of the effects of an automated transport system that will give key stakeholders new possibilities to evaluate research and development projects and efforts connected to automation of the transport system, and thereby manage these in a human-centered direction. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hello Human, can you read my mind?2017In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Introducing wireless charging for drivers of electrical vehicles in Sweden—Effects on charging behaviour and attitudes2017In: Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput., 2017, p. 951-962Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a Swedish large-scale research and demonstration study of wireless charging of electric vehicles. The study is the first of its kind outside North America. The purpose of the 18-month study was to test the technology during real life working conditions using 20 electric vehicles located at eight municipality and company sites in Sweden. The study indicates that the charging behaviour will most likely be different with inductive charging. There are clear benefits of inductive charging that have the potential to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles, and there are no substantial evidence that perceived safety should hinder a wider adoption of inductive charging. Further, we conclude that the usability of the technology can have a high impact on perceived attractiveness, and should therefore be of focus in future developments of the technology.

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden; Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Testing Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems in Driving Simulators2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative IntelligentTransport Systems include many actors in the transport system that are con-nected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact andcooperate. Majority of the actors in thesystems are vehicles, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles tomanually driven vehicles, equipped withwireless communication modules. Creating realistic scenarios for testing suchcomplex systems often need a com-bination of simulators. This paper presents a distributed simulation frameworkthat consists of a) a moving basedriving simulator; b) a real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulator; and c) anetwork simulator and traffic simulator. Wepresent our approach for connecting and co-simulating the mentioned simulators.As a first test of our simulationframework, a crossing scenario is simulated. Lastly, we discuss potentialbenefits and future work.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Detournay, Jerome
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Frimodig, Viktor
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Oscar U.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Diez Rodriguez, Victor
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Halmstad University, Sweden; Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria.
    Shahanoor, Golam
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss post-competition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

  • 6.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-inSituations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function,which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road spaceutilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are notdesired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especiallyfrom non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining thesafety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performsthe cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers usingtime to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks arealways high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

  • 7.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Nabo, Arne
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Simulation of cut-in by manually driven vehicles in platooning scenarios2017In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

  • 8.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pazirandeh, Ala
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    An ex ante evaluation of mobile depots in cities: A sustainability perspective2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 623-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a large share of cost, congestion, and emission in cities is attributed to light goods vehicles like carrier vans distributing to the last mile. The aim of many policy agendas is to reach cleaner cities with less disturbance from the distribution vehicles. Several suggestions have been put forward and tested in research and practice, such as access restrictions, multimodal transport, and use of cleaner vehicles. In this paper, we develop a case for a more sustainable freight distribution within cities using an ex ante case study. The idea of the mobile depot is built on the iteration between historical transitions within cities and contemporary developments in urban freight distribution, and then analyzed ex ante both quantitatively in calculations and qualitatively in two stakeholder workshops. The idea is integrated and multimodal, based on a mobile depot (e.g., a bus, truck, barge, or tram) that circles the city and connects to low emission last mile delivery options such as LEVs (Light Electrical Vehicles) or cargo bikes. We found that such a system can be environmentally and socially better for the city context, while maintaining economic viability above a certain utilization rate of the mobile depot for the transport operators.

  • 9. Avital, M.
    et al.
    Carroll, J. M.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Levina, N.
    Malhotra, A.
    Sundararajan, A.
    The sharing economy: Friend or foe?2015In: 2015 International Conference on Information Systems: Exploring the Information Frontier, ICIS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well as part of the IS research repertoire.

  • 10. Ayele, W.
    et al.
    Juell-Skielse, G.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Johannesson, P.
    Evaluating open data innovation: A measurement model for digital innovation contests2015In: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2015 - Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital innovation contests emerge as important intermediaries in open data markets. However the understanding of how contests affect innovation value chains is low and there is a lack of innovation measurement frameworks to support the management of digital innovation contests. Therefore, in this paper we apply design science to design a measurement model for digital innovation contests from the organizer's perspective that adds to the available knowledge of innovation measurement. We use a recent case of digital innovation contests to motivate the model and discuss its implications on the innovation value chain. The measurement model contributes with new knowledge in the area of open data innovation and provides support for practice in managing innovation through digital innovation contests. For future research we intend to enhance the model to also measure the effects on innovation ecosystems, to operationalize the measures and to evaluate the model in several digital innovation contests as well as to include the perspective of the participants.

  • 11.
    Ayele, Workneh
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    A Method for Designing Digital Innovation Contest Measurement Models2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As contests become more popular means for organizing digital innovation, the need for measuring contest performance increases. The Digital Innovation Contest Measurement-model(DICM-model), which is the basis for this study was designed based on a single case study,and its evaluation indicated that there is a need for a customizable methodological approachthat can accommodate differences in organizational requirements for designing and refiningDICM-models. Therefore, in this paper, we present a summary of the evaluation of the DICMmodel and propose a nine-step method to design and refine DICM-models using a qualityoriented approach. The proposed method is based on the Goal-Question-Metric and the Balanced Scorecard to elicit measures and to enable agility in measuring the fulfilment of measurement goals of innovation contests. Also, the method facilitates knowledge management torefine, record and communicate best practices. An ex-ante evaluation of the method indicatesthat the method provides practical support in designing and improving a DICM model. Forfuture study, it is suggested to widen the scope of the method to aid in the design of measurement models for digital innovations using open data, in general.

  • 12.
    Benderius, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    The Best Rated Human-Machine Interface Design for Autonomous Vehicles in the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1302-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an in-depth description of the best rated human-machine interface that was presented during the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge. It was demonstrated by the Chalmers Truck Team as the envisioned interface to their open source software framework OpenDLV, which is used to power Chalmers' fleet of self-driving vehicles. The design originates from the postulate that the vehicle is fully autonomous to handle even complex traffic scenarios. Thus, by including external and internal interfaces, and introducing a show, don't tell principle, it aims at fulfilling the needs of the vehicle occupants as well as other participants in the traffic environment. The design also attempts to comply with, and slightly extend, the current traffic rules and legislation for the purpose of being realistic for full-scale implementation.

  • 13.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Arby, Hans
    Ubigo, Sweden.
    Fredricson, Magnus
    Holmberg, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hult, Åsa
    IVL, Sweden.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Persson, Sara
    Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Tufvesson, Einar
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Kombinerade mobilitetstjänster pålandsbygd och i mindre tätorter– resultat från förstudien KomILand2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of mobility services in small towns and rural areas can increase accessibility among theresidents and reduce the need to travel by one’s own car. The purpose of this pre-study is to preparefor future demonstration projects for combined mobility (CM) in small towns and rural areas byproviding data on location, users, services and financing. Several activities have been carried out:identification of geographically appropriate areas and ongoing projects worldwide; analysis of userneeds; identification of service design and business models; and mobilization of local and regionalinvolvement. Services and business models have been developed using The Osterwalder BusinessModel Canvas. Several characteristics have been identified that a small town or rural area should havein order for CM to function. Services that could be included in a service package in a CM rural servicehave been validated theoretically in the fictional town of Småtorp. A public actor needs to provideorganisational and digital platforms to local organisations, and KomILand-consultants. KomILand cancontribute profitability, reduce mobility costs for customers, contribute new customers to the publictransport operators, and lead to increased sustainability for society, if there is a robust and qualitativepublic transport system as a basis

  • 14.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 15.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Traceability and Deep Learning: Safety-critical Systems with Traces Ending in Deep Neural Networks2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bout, Martijn
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 62-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

  • 17.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SAV2P - Exploring the impact of an interface for shared automated vehicles on pedestrians' experience2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, 2017, p. 136-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future communication needs between pedestrians and shared automated vehicles (SAVs), an interface that communicates the intentions of SAVs to pedestrians was designed and implemented in a virtual reality (VR) environment. This enabled the exploration of behaviors and experiences of 34 pedestrians when encountering SAVs, both with and without the interface, in several street crossing situations. All pedestrians assessed the level of perceived safety and comfort directly after each encounter with the SAV. The results show that the pedestrians' level of perceived safety and comfort is higher in encounters with the interface than in encounters without the interface. This may have a positive influence on the acceptance of SAVs, and implies that future SAVs may gain from this, or similar interface.

  • 18.
    Börjesson, Conny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    User Perspectives on Electric Roads2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector. The success of ERS depends on acceptance from potential users and it is thus crucial to study the user perspective prior to a large-scale implementation. There seems to be a general positive opinion regarding electric roads among hauliers and forwarders, but it will be crucial that large goods owners and transport buyers order transports utilizing electric roads. Innovative technology and business models could provide opportunities for actors in the transport sector and influence their ability for competition.

  • 19.
    Charisi, Vicky
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Li, Jamy
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Evers, Vanessa
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Children's views on identification and intention communication of self-driving vehicles2017In: IDC 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2017, p. 399-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major reasons behind traffic accidents is misinterpretation among road users. Self-driving vehicles are expected to reduce these accidents, given that they are designed with all road users in mind. Recently, research on the design of vehicle-pedestrian communication has emerged, but to our knowledge, there is no research published that investigates the design of interfaces for intent communication towards child pedestrians. This paper reports the initial steps towards the examination of children's views and understandings about the appearance and intention communication of self-driving vehicles. It adopts a design inclusive methodological approach for the development of a prototype for the communication of two basic intentions: "I am going to stop" and "I am going to proceed". The initial results indicate children's need to be aware about the autonomy of the vehicle and the use of their previous experience with traffic signs for the interpretation of communicative signs of the vehicle.

  • 20.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Choreographing Services for Smart Cities: Smart Traffic Demonstration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the fifth generation (5G) communication technologies on the horizon, the society is rapidly transformed into a fully connected world. The Future Internet (FI) is foreseeable to consist of an infinite number of software components and things that coordinate with each other to enable different applications. Transport systems, as one of the most important systems in future smart cities, will embrace the connectivity, together with the fast development of cooperative and automated vehicles to enable smart traffic. To facilitate this transformation, a service choreography composition platform is under development to enable fast innovation and prototyping of choreography-based Internet of Things (IoT) applications by automatically synthesizing choreographies. Based on the method, a smart traffic application is developed and demonstrated.

  • 21.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Every Second Counts: Integrating Edge Computing and Service Oriented Architecture for Automatic Emergency Management2018In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2018, article id 7592926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management has long been recognized as a social challenge due to the criticality of the response time. In emergency situations such as severe traffic accidents, minimizing the response time, which requires close collaborations between all stakeholders involved and distributed intelligence support, leads to greater survival chance of the injured. However, the current response system is far from efficient, despite the rapid development of information and communication technologies. This paper presents an automated collaboration framework for emergency management that coordinates all stakeholders within the emergency response system and fully automates the rescue process. Applying the concept of multiaccess edge computing architecture, as well as choreography of the service oriented architecture, the system allows seamless coordination between multiple organizations in a distributed way through standard web services. A service choreography is designed to globally model the emergency management process from the time an accident occurs until the rescue is finished. The choreography can be synthesized to generate detailed specification on peer-to-peer interaction logic, and then the specification can be enacted and deployed on cloud infrastructures.

  • 22.
    Dalén, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Krämer, Jan
    University of Passau, Germany.
    Towards a User-Centered Feedback Design for Smart Meter Interfaces to Support Efficient Energy-Use Choices: A Design Science Approach2017In: Business & Information Systems Engineering, ISSN 1867-0202, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on interviews of users’ experience with current smart-meter technologies the authors propose, implement and evaluate a user-centered design of an energy-use information system that assists private households in making efficient energy consumption decisions. Instead of providing disaggregated data, the envisioned system automatically calculates the monetary savings from replacing an appliance or by changing the operational behavior of an appliance. The information provided is personalized with respect to appliance use and also comprises information from external databases. A prototype is implemented and evaluated in a use case with white goods household appliances. The study concludes with directions for further interactivity improvements and research into the structures of an openly shared appliance database.

  • 23.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundgren, Victor Malmsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Schieben, Anna
    Institute of Transportation System, Germany.
    Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?2018In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods and metrics for studying interactions between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity, such as pedestrians, cyclists and non-automated vehicles, are not established yet. This workshop focuses on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies that could potentially be used to study such interactions. The objective lies in determining the proper experimental design, sensitivity of metrics for measuring user behavior, ecological validity, generalizability of findings, extraction of insights regarding how findings can be translated into actionable requirements, and the alternatives for conducting longitudinal field studies. It will be of an interactive nature and involve hands-on activities. The workshop will consolidate existing knowledge, identify recurring issues, and explore the path towards resolving these issues. The outcome will be compiled into a paper to share this valuable knowledge with a broader research community.

  • 24.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Kushnir, Duncan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tillman, Anne Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scrap happens: A case of industrial end-users, maintenance and component remanufacturing outcome2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 213, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended product life and reuse are cornerstones of the circular economy vision. Remanufacturing is one strategy that could be used to facilitate more reuse. Research on remanufacturing often addresses the use phase of a product from the perspective of the remanufacturer, not of the end-user of the product. Results are often described in terms of barriers and drivers, with end-user awareness of and trust in remanufactured products being common themes. It can be argued that such explanations are not sufficient for understanding why remanufacturing doesn't happen because they marginalize events during the use phase and the effects of end-user action. The study described here focuses on the use phase and the end-users’ role in product remanufacturing outcome. The study is based on the case of one type of mechanical component, prolific in industry and society at large, and ten of its end-users in heavy industry. The component is already remanufacturable and a functioning remanufacturing system for it is already in place, yet the bulk of used components are scrapped by end-users instead of being sent for remanufacturing. Interviews were conducted with maintenance personnel at ten paper, steel and cement factories. These personnel were asked how they determine when a component is obsolete and how they make decisions about whether to send them for remanufacturing. Responses were analyzed with the help of theories from maintenance management and decision-making. The analysis is presented as a conceptual model of the ‘End-user system’ of the component, in which complicating factors such as machine irregularities and tough work environments are mitigated by maintenance personnel with component replacement and remanufacturing protocols and where rigidities related to system-level risks and costs make it difficult for personnel to change. This study reveals the systemic nature of component remanufacturing outcomes, and specifically, how maintenance activities of both components and the machines around them influence such outcomes. Moreover, it highlights that while certain replacement protocols lend themselves to remanufacturing, convincing end-users to choose remanufactured products may be more difficult than just making them aware and confident in the remanufacturing offering. 

  • 25.
    Duran, Boris
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Habobovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Modeling vehicle behavior with neural dynamics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the interaction of vehicles during certain traffic situations is the starting point for creating autonomous driving. Data collected from field trials where test subjects drive through a single-vehicle intersection was used to create behavioral models. The present work describes two implementations of models based on the dynamical systems approach and compares similarities and differences between them. The proposed models are designed to closely replicate the behavior selection in the intersection crossing experiment.

  • 26.
    Edholm, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lidstrom, Michela
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Steghofer, Jan-Philipp
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Crunch time: The reasons and effects of unpaid overtime in the games industry2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, ICSE-SEIP 2017, 2017, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The games industry is notorious for its intense work ethics with uncompensated overtime and weekends at the office, also known as crunch or crunch time. Since crunch time is so common within the industry, is it possible that the benefits of crunch time outweigh the disadvantages? By studying postmortems and conducting interviews with employees in the industry, we aim to characterise crunch time and discover its effects on the industry. We provide a classification of crunch, i.e., four types of crunch which all have distinct characteristics and affect the product, employees and schedule in various ways. One of the crunch types stands out from the others by only having positive effects on product and schedule. A characteristic that all of the types have in common is an increase in stress levels amongst the employees. We identify a set of reasons for crunch and show that crunch is less pronounced in game studios where prioritisation of features is a regular practice.

  • 27.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Englund, Christofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Statistical Data for Free-floating Car Sharing versusPublic Transport2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing is a form of car rental used by people for short periods of time where the cars canbe picked up and returned anywhere within a given area. In this paper, we have collected free-floating carsharing data, for electric as well as fossil fueled cars, and data for alternative trips using cycling, walking andpublic transport for the cities of Amsterdam, Berlin, Denver, Madrid, San Diego and Seattle. From this data,free-floating car sharing seems to be a compliment to other type of transports, including public transports,bicycling and walking, and not a competitor.

  • 28.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Method for prediction of Utilization Rate of Electric Vehicle Free-Floating Car Sharing Services using Data Mining2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing is a form of car rental used by people for short periods of time where the cars can be picked up and returned anywhere within a given area. In this paper, we have collected free-floating car sharing data, for electric as well as fossil fueled cars, and data regarding e.g. size of the city, number of cars in the service, etc. The utilization rates of the free-floating car sharing services vary much between the cities, greatly influencing the success of the services. This paper presents the most important factors influencing the utilization rate, and also a methodology to predict the utilization rate for new cities, using data mining based on Random Forests.

  • 29.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Estrada, John
    eTrans Systems, USA.
    Jaaskelainen, Juhani
    MH Roine Consulting, Finland.
    Misener, John
    Qualcomm Technologies Inc, USA.
    Satyavolu, Surya
    Serna, Frank
    Draper Laboratory, USA.
    Sundararajan, Sudharson
    Booz Allen Hamilton Inc, USA.
    Enabling Technologies for Road Vehicle Automation2017In: Road Vehicle Automation 4: (Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)) / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, Springer, 2017, p. 177-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is to a large extent driving the development of road vehicle automation. This Chapter summarizes the general overall trends in the enabling technologies within this field that were discussed during the Enabling technologies for road vehicle automation breakout session at the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2016. With a starting point in six scenarios that have the potential to be deployed at an early stage, five different categories of emerging technologies are described: (a) positioning, localization and mapping (b) algorithms, deep learning techniques, sensor fusion guidance and control (c) hybrid communication (d) sensing and perception and (e) technologies for data ownership and privacy. It is found that reliability and extensive computational power are the two most common challenges within the emerging technologies. Furthermore, cybersecurity binds all technologies together as vehicles will be constantly connected. Connectivity allows both improved local awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle communication and it allows continuous deployment of new software and algorithms that constantly learns new unforeseen objects or scenarios. Finally, while five categories were individually considered, further holistic work to combine them in a systems concept would be the important next step toward implementation.

  • 30.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 31.
    Frischknecht, Rolf
    et al.
    treeze Ltd, Switzerland.
    Bauer, Christian
    Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Switzerland.
    Froemelt, Andreas
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hellweg, Stefanie
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Biemann, Kirsten
    IFEU Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Buetler, Thomas
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Cox, Brian
    PSI Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    de Haan, Peter
    Ernst Basler + Partner AG, Switzerland.
    Hoerl, Sebastian
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Itten, Rene
    Institute of Natural Resource Science, Switzerland.
    Jungbluth, Nils
    ESU-services Ltd, Switzerland.
    Ligen, Yorick
    EPFL Valais Wallis, Switzerland.
    Mathys, Nicole A.
    ARE Swiss Office for Spatial Development, Switzerland.
    Schiess, Samuel
    Bluewin, Switzerland.
    Schori, Salome
    SBB, Switzerland.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wang, Jing
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Wettstein, Sarah
    ZHAW Life Sciences und Facility Management, Switzerland.
    LCA of mobility solutions: approaches and findings—66th LCA forum, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 30 August, 20172018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Förstudie kring Roaming för elbilsladdning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att antalet laddbara fordon i Sverige ökar och att det blir vanligare medpublika laddningspunkter som erbjuder laddström mot betalning är det viktigt attundanröja risk för att användarna ställs inför komplicerade betallösningar och attbristande överblick över kostnader för laddning minskar attraktionskraften förelbilar och kan få användare att hålla kvar vid fossilbränslebilar.RISE Viktoria, ChargeStorm, Energiforsk, Ericsson, Power Circle och Q-Park hararbetat med ett projekt vars syfte har varit att bygga upp kunskap kring hurelbilsladdning och dess betalning kan göras på olika platser i elnätet på ett sättsom är enkelt för användarna.En viktig slutsats är att det är viktigt med interoperabilitet mellan deladdningspunkter som erbjuder laddström mot betalning så att elbilsanvändarnakan använda samma betalningslösning oavsett var de laddar. Projektet harsammanfört nyckelpersoner från marknadsaktörer i Sverige för diskussion omsamverkan kring laddningspunkter och försäljning av publik laddström.Energibolagssamverkan pågår och projektets resultat har potential att stärka ochpåskynda denna samverkan.Denna rapport innehåller en kort internationell utblick, beskrivningar av pågåendestandardiseringsarbete och energibolagssamverkan, resultat från intervjuer medanvändare och marknadsaktörer, samt sammanfattning av publiceradinternationell forskning. Förhoppningen är att projektets rapport skall komma tillanvändning hos Energimyndigheten, energibranschen, fastighetsägare och andraaktörer som är involverade i införandet av betalning för publik laddström förelbilar och att detta i sin tur leder till att risken för komplicerade betallösningarförsvinner.

  • 33.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Mats
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Förstudie om automatiserad sladdlöskonduktiv laddning av elbilar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkel och bekväm laddning av elbilar är en önskvärd egenskap. Automatisk sladdlös laddningfrån vägbana till bilar är en potentiell möjlighet till att förenkla vardagslivet för användare avelbilar samt öka effektiviteten hos taxibilar och bilpooler. Laddinfrastruktur för eldrivna personbilarskulle kunna nyttja den senaste utvecklingen av elvägar där elektrisk energi överförs underrörelse från väginfrastrukturen till fordonet för både framdrivning och laddning av batteri.RISE Viktoria och Volvo Cars har genomfört en studie för att utvärdera möjlighet och potential attanvända konduktiv elvägsteknik för att åstadkomma automatisk sladdlös laddning av personbilarsom är stillastående eller rör sig långsamt längs korta sträckor (t.ex. köer). Förväntningar ur ettpersonbilsperspektiv, användningsfall, generella krav, egenskaper som påverkar detaljeradkravställning, potentiella risker, samt rekommendationer för strukturerad systemsäkerhetsanalyshar dokumenterats. Styrkor, svagheter och mognadsgrad har undersökts för tekniklösningarnaAlstom ERS, Alstom SRS, Elonroad och Elways. Arbetet har även innefattat en jämförelsemellan konduktiv och induktiv laddning av elbilar.Det är en intressant framtida möjlighet att åstadkomma automatiserad laddning genom att nyttjakonduktiv energiöverföring från vägbana till personbilar som är stillastående eller rör siglångsamt längs korta sträckor (t.ex. köer). Men de studerade lösningarna har i dagsläget lågmognadsgrad avseende tillämpning för personbilar. Fortsatt utveckling måste ske innan definitivtsvar om framtida möjlighet kan ges och för varje lösning bedöms strömavtagare avsedd förpersonbilar vara den mest kritiska komponenten. Innan det kan bli fråga om bredmarknadsintroduktion för en lösning är det ytterst viktigt att lösningen uppfyller krav omanvändarvänlighet, tillgänglighet och systemsäkerhet.För att kunna diskutera medverkan från personbilsindustrin i framtida demonstrationsprojekt ärdet nödvändigt att utvecklarna av tekniklösningar och andra intressenter åstadkommer följande:• Precisering av lämpliga användningsområden där konduktiv energiöverföring frånvägbana med hög effekt gör skillnad (t.ex. taxiköer, central plats för publik bilpool).• Strömavtagare anpassad för personbilar med rätt utformning och tillförlitlighet.• Metodiskt systemsäkerhetsarbete och riskhantering (speciellt elsäkerhet).• Standardisering för publika lösningar påbörjat (eller åtminstone planerats).Trots den nuvarande låga mognadsgraden är konduktiv energiöverföring från vägbana till elbilarintressant på grund av möjligheten hos följande användningsfall:• Automatisk snabbladdning med justerbar effekt för olika fordonstyper.• Automatisk laddning på offentliga parkeringsplatser (t.ex. vid stormarknader)• Automatisk laddning vid privat parkering utan vägledning och automatisk körning• Automatisk laddning på platser där bilar ofta hämtas (t.ex. bilpool)• Automatisk laddning vid körning i köer med låg hastighet (t.ex. taxi)• Automatisk energiöverföring (för framdrift och/eller laddning) från väg till olikafordonstyper med olika effektbehov vid högre hastigheterVi som arbetat i projektet anser att det är nödvändigt med en dialog i gott samförstånd mellanpersonbilsindustrin och utvecklare av lösningar för konduktiv elvägsteknik i syfte att fortsättaarbetet med hur automatisk sladdlös laddning kan förverkligas på ett bra sätt för användare avelbilar.

  • 34.
    Gustavsson, Martin GH
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Mats
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Automatic conductive charging of electric cars2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Easy and convenient charging of electric cars is a desirable characteristic. Automatic cable-free conductivecharging from road surface to cars is a potential possibility for simplifying the everyday life for users ofelectric cars, as well as increasing the efficiency of taxis and car pools. Charging infrastructure for electriccars could utilize the recent development for electric road systems (ERS) in which electrical energy istransferred during movement from the road infrastructure to the vehicle for both propulsion and charging ofbattery. However, continued development must be done before it is feasible to implement automaticconductive cable-free charging of cars.

  • 35.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. RISE.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut e.V., Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg, Germany.
    Overview of ERS concepts and complementary technologies2019Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alex
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Comparison of free-floating car sharing services incities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered by many organizations as a moreflexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywherewithin a specified area of a city. FFCS can provide a high degree of utilization of vehicles and less usage ofinfrastructure in the form of parking lots and roads and thus has the potential to increase the efficiency of thetransport sector. However, there is also a concern that these compete with other efficient modes of transport suchas biking and public transport. The aim of this paper is to better understand how, when and where the vehiclesare utilized through logged data of the vehicles movements. We have access to data collected on FFCS servicesin 22 cities in Europe and North America which allows us to compare the usage pattern in different cities andexamine whether or not there are similar trends. In this paper, we use the collected data to compare the differentcities based on utilization rate, length of trip and time of day that the trip is made. We find that the vehicleutilization rates differ between cities with Madrid and Hamburg having some of the highest utilization levels forthe FFCS vehicles. The result form a first step of a better understanding on how these services are being usedand can provide valuable input to local policy makers as well as future studies such as simulation models.

  • 37.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alex
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling, Sweden.
    Success and Usage Pattern of Free-Floating Carsharing Services in Cities2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered as a more flexible mobility solution than other car sharing services. FFCS users can pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area in a city.The objective of this paper is to identify similar usage patterns of FFCS in different cities as well as city characteristics that make these services a viable option. The authors have access to real booking data for 32 cities in Europe and North America. Their study shows the share of daily car trips is negatively correlated to the utilization rate of these services. Also, the higher the congestion and the harder finding a parking lot, the lower the utilization rate of these services is in the cities. Moreover, our results suggest that FFCS services do not compete with public transport but are rather used in combination to it. These services are mainly used during midday and evening peak and the trips taken by these services are mainly chained trips.The clustering analysis shows that the trips are grouped into two or three clusters in different cities. The majority of clusters are the inner city clusters which contain a significantly higher number of trips than the clusters around other points of interest such as airports.

  • 38.
    Habibivic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Johan
    Nilsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, J
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Evaluating interactions with non-existing automated vehicles: three Wizard of Oz approaches2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated test vehicles are rare today, and (independent) researchers have often limited access to them. Also, developing fully functioning system prototypes is time and effort consuming. In this paper, we present three adaptions of the Wizard of Oz technique as a means of gathering data about interactions with highly automated vehicles in early development phases. Two of them address interactions between drivers and highly automated vehicles, while the third one is adapted to address interactions between pedestrians and highly automated vehicles. The focus is on the experimental methodology adaptations and our lessons learned.

  • 39.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

  • 40.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?2019In: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

  • 42.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Command-based driving for tactical control of highly automated vehicles2017In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 499-510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become highly automated, their drivers become more passive. A concern is it may take drivers out of the control loop, causing reduced satisfaction and perceived control. The study explores whether or not drivers feel the need to control tactical decisions when operating highly automated vehicles. An experiment involving 17 drivers was carried out in a driving simulator. Each driver tested two different tactical controllers, allowing him/her to give various tactical commands to the vehicle (e.g., overtake, park). The results indicate that the drivers experienced a need to affect tactical decisions of highly automated vehicles. Several of the tactical commands were found useful, especially on rural roads and highways. It also gave them a feeling of being in control of the vehicle, suggesting that command-based driving might be a way to keep drivers in the control loop.

  • 43.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Cars Group, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv AB, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

  • 44.
    Hamnerius, Y.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, T.
    Torptronics Engineering, Sweden.
    Rylander, T.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Winges, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekman, C.
    QRTECH, Sweden.
    Petersson, C.
    QRTECH, Sweden.
    Fransson, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Design of Safe Wireless Power Transfer Systems for Electric Vehicles2018In: 2018 2nd URSI Atlantic Radio Science Meeting, AT-RASC 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless charging of electric vehicles is convenient but in order to make it safe the exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields must be below acceptable limits. We have designed a prototype system that transmits 3 kW with an efficiency of 85% where the magnetic fields around and inside the vehicle are below the EU council recommendation of 6.25μT at 85 kHz.

  • 45.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Automotive Safety and Machine Learning: Initial Results from a Study on How to Adapt the ISO 26262 Safety Standard2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning (ML) applications generate a continuous stream of success stories from various domains. ML enables many novel applications, also in safety-critical contexts. However, the functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 did not evolve to cover ML. We conduct an exploratory study on which parts of ISO 26262 represent the most critical gaps between safety engineering and ML development. While this paper only reports the first steps toward a larger research endeavor, we report three adaptations that are critically needed to allow ISO 26262 compliant engineering, and related suggestions on how to evolve the standard.

  • 46.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Move Better with tripzoom2012In: International Journal On Advances in Life Sciences, ISSN 1942-2660, E-ISSN 1942-2660, Vol. 4, no 3-4, p. 125-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    —The increase of urban traffic confronts individualsand transport authorities with new challenges regarding trafficmanagement, personal mobility, sustainability, or economicefficiency. Existing resources cannot be arbitrarily extendedwithout negative effects on pollution, costs, or quality of livingand have to be used more efficiently. The SUNSET(Sustainable Social Network Services for Transport) projectaims to improve this situation on a city-wide level bymotivating users on a personal level to change their mobilitybehavior. To make personal mobility more sustainable,flexible, and rewarding for users, SUNSET combines mobilitydata and patterns from mobile sensing, a dynamic incentivesystem, and feedback from social networks. This paperdescribes how the tripzoom application implements thisconceptual approach, discusses critical issues and outlines theforthcoming living lab evaluation in several European cities.

  • 47.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Ayele, W.
    Rudmark, D.
    Johannesson, P.
    Juell-Skielse, G.
    From contest to market entry: A longitudinal survey of innovation barriers constraining open data service development2015In: 23rd European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open data services have emerged as a research field. One important area of investigation within this field is exploration into how sustainable open data markets are created. Contests have become a popular method to propel and catalyse open data service development providing services to such markets. Recent research has identified numerous innovation barriers hampering development adjacent to the contest in developers' effort to transform contest contributions to viable digital services based on open data. Little is however known about what innovation barriers over time constrain the post-contest process to transform initial innovations to finalized open data services ready for market entry. This paper presents a longitudinal survey of innovation barriers constraining teams performing open data service development after an innovation contest. The survey provides insights into 1) 24 innovation barriers constraining development, 2) a comparison of barrier importance based on team progress, and 3) a conceptualisation of phases structuring the process from contests to market entry, stipulating different innovation barriers impact open data service development. The results contribute to the understanding of how sustainable open data markets emerge and serve as a starting point for investigating how different stakeholders can manage innovation barriers constraining open data service development.

  • 48.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Johannesson, P.
    Juell-Skielse, G.
    Rudmark, D.
    Beyond innovation contests: A framework of barriers to open innovation of digital services2014In: ECIS 2014 Proceedings - 22nd European Conference on Information Systems, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the interest in the innovation of digital services based on open public information (i.e. open data) has increased dramatically. Innovation contests, such as idea competitions and digital innovation contests, have become popular instruments to accelerate the development of new service ideas and prototypes. However, only a few of the service prototypes developed at innovation contests become viable digital services. In order to strengthen the role of innovation contests as innovation instruments, we propose a framework of innovation barriers to open innovation of digital services. The framework has been designed using a systematic research approach including a literature review of existing barriers, an online survey with participants before an innovation contest, and systematic follow-up interviews with teams participating in the contest. The framework consists of 18 innovation barriers and is intended to be used when organizing innovation contests. It supports the process after the contest when prototypes are transformed into viable digital services. For future research, we suggest the framework to be validated in a longitudinal study involving additional cases. Furthermore, we suggest using the framework as a starting point for constructing guidelines that can help in designing innovation contests.

  • 49.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Johansson, N.
    Rudmark, D.
    Mind the gap: Exploring stakeholders' value with open data assessment2015In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2015, p. 1314-1323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing movement in society to provide open data as an enabler for innovation and growth. As more data is passed on beyond organizational borders to trigger third party development of services, the expectations on what could be developed using open data increase. Developers have been observed to express frustration over different challenges in the wake of open data provision, such as localization issues, lack of quality in data etc. Knowledge and tools are missing to assess available open data. This absence risks ensuring continual improvement of open data markets and the management of hampering gaps between developers' requests of data and data providers' provision of data. This paper explores the benefits with open data assessment based on an exploratory single case research design. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 50.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lind, M.
    Challenges in establishing sustainable innovation2011In: 19th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of information systems an interest in environmental issues has driven the agenda for research from green IT improvement to sustainable innovation. A challenge yet to investigate is how sustainable innovation involving a cluster of actors from multiple settings should be 1) designed and 2) orchestrated so that the innovation performed enables sustainable change. Processes for launching sustainable innovation should consequently be analysed in order to further investigate this notion. In northern Europe there is today a strong drive towards enabling initiatives utilizing mobile information technology improving the everyday transportation of people. This paper analysis the launch of a research and innovation cluster with the aim to develop information infrastructures and processes that stimulate distributed development of digital services for everyday travel. Events performed during the two-year start-up have been analysed identifying essential actions for network design and innovation orchestration, creating hypotheses, which enables further research about the establishment of sustainable innovation.

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