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  • 1.
    Andersson, J
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Skoglund, T.
    Sweco Society AB, Sweden.
    Strand, N.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    The Human-Tech Matrix: A Socio-Technical Approach to Evaluation of Automated Transport Systems2019In: Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput., 2019, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An automated transport system has the potential to improve traffic safety and flow, but also to the accessibility and comfort for users of the transport system. Realizing the positive effects with automated transport is about shaping regulatory, organizational and technical systems. Here, appropriate evaluation enables steering efforts in the desired direction. The overall aim of this study was to develop a methodological framework that could identify effects of an automated transport system, and outline methods and metrics for evaluation of these effects. We propose a tentative case-based methodology to define measures of the effects of an automated transport system that will give key stakeholders new possibilities to evaluate research and development projects and efforts connected to automation of the transport system, and thereby manage these in a human-centered direction. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hello Human, can you read my mind?2017In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Introducing wireless charging for drivers of electrical vehicles in Sweden—Effects on charging behaviour and attitudes2017In: Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput., 2017, p. 951-962Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a Swedish large-scale research and demonstration study of wireless charging of electric vehicles. The study is the first of its kind outside North America. The purpose of the 18-month study was to test the technology during real life working conditions using 20 electric vehicles located at eight municipality and company sites in Sweden. The study indicates that the charging behaviour will most likely be different with inductive charging. There are clear benefits of inductive charging that have the potential to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles, and there are no substantial evidence that perceived safety should hinder a wider adoption of inductive charging. Further, we conclude that the usability of the technology can have a high impact on perceived attractiveness, and should therefore be of focus in future developments of the technology.

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Detournay, Jerome
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Frimodig, Viktor
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Oscar U.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Diez Rodriguez, Victor
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria.
    Shahanoor, Golam
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss post-competition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Jansson, Jonas
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Nåbo, Arne
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden.
    Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-inSituations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function,which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road spaceutilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are notdesired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especiallyfrom non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining thesafety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performsthe cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers usingtime to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks arealways high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

  • 6.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI, Sweden.
    Nabo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Simulation of cut-in by manually driven vehicles in platooning scenarios2017In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

  • 7.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pazirandeh, Ala
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    An ex ante evaluation of mobile depots in cities: A sustainability perspective2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 623-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a large share of cost, congestion, and emission in cities is attributed to light goods vehicles like carrier vans distributing to the last mile. The aim of many policy agendas is to reach cleaner cities with less disturbance from the distribution vehicles. Several suggestions have been put forward and tested in research and practice, such as access restrictions, multimodal transport, and use of cleaner vehicles. In this paper, we develop a case for a more sustainable freight distribution within cities using an ex ante case study. The idea of the mobile depot is built on the iteration between historical transitions within cities and contemporary developments in urban freight distribution, and then analyzed ex ante both quantitatively in calculations and qualitatively in two stakeholder workshops. The idea is integrated and multimodal, based on a mobile depot (e.g., a bus, truck, barge, or tram) that circles the city and connects to low emission last mile delivery options such as LEVs (Light Electrical Vehicles) or cargo bikes. We found that such a system can be environmentally and socially better for the city context, while maintaining economic viability above a certain utilization rate of the mobile depot for the transport operators.

  • 8.
    Benderius, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    The Best Rated Human-Machine Interface Design for Autonomous Vehicles in the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1302-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an in-depth description of the best rated human-machine interface that was presented during the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge. It was demonstrated by the Chalmers Truck Team as the envisioned interface to their open source software framework OpenDLV, which is used to power Chalmers' fleet of self-driving vehicles. The design originates from the postulate that the vehicle is fully autonomous to handle even complex traffic scenarios. Thus, by including external and internal interfaces, and introducing a show, don't tell principle, it aims at fulfilling the needs of the vehicle occupants as well as other participants in the traffic environment. The design also attempts to comply with, and slightly extend, the current traffic rules and legislation for the purpose of being realistic for full-scale implementation.

  • 9.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 10.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Traceability and Deep Learning: Safety-critical Systems with Traces Ending in Deep Neural Networks2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SAV2P - Exploring the impact of an interface for shared automated vehicles on pedestrians' experience2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, 2017, p. 136-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future communication needs between pedestrians and shared automated vehicles (SAVs), an interface that communicates the intentions of SAVs to pedestrians was designed and implemented in a virtual reality (VR) environment. This enabled the exploration of behaviors and experiences of 34 pedestrians when encountering SAVs, both with and without the interface, in several street crossing situations. All pedestrians assessed the level of perceived safety and comfort directly after each encounter with the SAV. The results show that the pedestrians' level of perceived safety and comfort is higher in encounters with the interface than in encounters without the interface. This may have a positive influence on the acceptance of SAVs, and implies that future SAVs may gain from this, or similar interface.

  • 12.
    Charisi, Vicky
    et al.
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Li, Jamy
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Evers, Vanessa
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Children's views on identification and intention communication of self-driving vehicles2017In: IDC 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 2017, p. 399-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major reasons behind traffic accidents is misinterpretation among road users. Self-driving vehicles are expected to reduce these accidents, given that they are designed with all road users in mind. Recently, research on the design of vehicle-pedestrian communication has emerged, but to our knowledge, there is no research published that investigates the design of interfaces for intent communication towards child pedestrians. This paper reports the initial steps towards the examination of children's views and understandings about the appearance and intention communication of self-driving vehicles. It adopts a design inclusive methodological approach for the development of a prototype for the communication of two basic intentions: "I am going to stop" and "I am going to proceed". The initial results indicate children's need to be aware about the autonomy of the vehicle and the use of their previous experience with traffic signs for the interpretation of communicative signs of the vehicle.

  • 13.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Choreographing Services for Smart Cities: Smart Traffic Demonstration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the fifth generation (5G) communication technologies on the horizon, the society is rapidly transformed into a fully connected world. The Future Internet (FI) is foreseeable to consist of an infinite number of software components and things that coordinate with each other to enable different applications. Transport systems, as one of the most important systems in future smart cities, will embrace the connectivity, together with the fast development of cooperative and automated vehicles to enable smart traffic. To facilitate this transformation, a service choreography composition platform is under development to enable fast innovation and prototyping of choreography-based Internet of Things (IoT) applications by automatically synthesizing choreographies. Based on the method, a smart traffic application is developed and demonstrated.

  • 14.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Every Second Counts: Integrating Edge Computing and Service Oriented Architecture for Automatic Emergency Management2018In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2018, article id 7592926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management has long been recognized as a social challenge due to the criticality of the response time. In emergency situations such as severe traffic accidents, minimizing the response time, which requires close collaborations between all stakeholders involved and distributed intelligence support, leads to greater survival chance of the injured. However, the current response system is far from efficient, despite the rapid development of information and communication technologies. This paper presents an automated collaboration framework for emergency management that coordinates all stakeholders within the emergency response system and fully automates the rescue process. Applying the concept of multiaccess edge computing architecture, as well as choreography of the service oriented architecture, the system allows seamless coordination between multiple organizations in a distributed way through standard web services. A service choreography is designed to globally model the emergency management process from the time an accident occurs until the rescue is finished. The choreography can be synthesized to generate detailed specification on peer-to-peer interaction logic, and then the specification can be enacted and deployed on cloud infrastructures.

  • 15.
    Dalén, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Krämer, Jan
    University of Passau, Germany.
    Towards a User-Centered Feedback Design for Smart Meter Interfaces to Support Efficient Energy-Use Choices: A Design Science Approach2017In: Business & Information Systems Engineering, ISSN 1867-0202, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on interviews of users’ experience with current smart-meter technologies the authors propose, implement and evaluate a user-centered design of an energy-use information system that assists private households in making efficient energy consumption decisions. Instead of providing disaggregated data, the envisioned system automatically calculates the monetary savings from replacing an appliance or by changing the operational behavior of an appliance. The information provided is personalized with respect to appliance use and also comprises information from external databases. A prototype is implemented and evaluated in a use case with white goods household appliances. The study concludes with directions for further interactivity improvements and research into the structures of an openly shared appliance database.

  • 16.
    Duran, Boris
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Habobovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Modeling vehicle behavior with neural dynamics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the interaction of vehicles during certain traffic situations is the starting point for creating autonomous driving. Data collected from field trials where test subjects drive through a single-vehicle intersection was used to create behavioral models. The present work describes two implementations of models based on the dynamical systems approach and compares similarities and differences between them. The proposed models are designed to closely replicate the behavior selection in the intersection crossing experiment.

  • 17.
    Edholm, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lidstrom, Michela
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Steghofer, Jan-Philipp
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Crunch time: The reasons and effects of unpaid overtime in the games industry2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, ICSE-SEIP 2017, 2017, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The games industry is notorious for its intense work ethics with uncompensated overtime and weekends at the office, also known as crunch or crunch time. Since crunch time is so common within the industry, is it possible that the benefits of crunch time outweigh the disadvantages? By studying postmortems and conducting interviews with employees in the industry, we aim to characterise crunch time and discover its effects on the industry. We provide a classification of crunch, i.e., four types of crunch which all have distinct characteristics and affect the product, employees and schedule in various ways. One of the crunch types stands out from the others by only having positive effects on product and schedule. A characteristic that all of the types have in common is an increase in stress levels amongst the employees. We identify a set of reasons for crunch and show that crunch is less pronounced in game studios where prioritisation of features is a regular practice.

  • 18.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Englund, Christofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Statistical Data for Free-floating Car Sharing versusPublic Transport2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing is a form of car rental used by people for short periods of time where the cars canbe picked up and returned anywhere within a given area. In this paper, we have collected free-floating carsharing data, for electric as well as fossil fueled cars, and data for alternative trips using cycling, walking andpublic transport for the cities of Amsterdam, Berlin, Denver, Madrid, San Diego and Seattle. From this data,free-floating car sharing seems to be a compliment to other type of transports, including public transports,bicycling and walking, and not a competitor.

  • 19.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Estrada, John
    eTrans Systems, USA.
    Jaaskelainen, Juhani
    MH Roine Consulting, Finland.
    Misener, John
    Qualcomm Technologies Inc, USA.
    Satyavolu, Surya
    Serna, Frank
    Draper Laboratory, USA.
    Sundararajan, Sudharson
    Booz Allen Hamilton Inc, USA.
    Enabling Technologies for Road Vehicle Automation2017In: Road Vehicle Automation 4: (Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)) / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, Springer, 2017, p. 177-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is to a large extent driving the development of road vehicle automation. This Chapter summarizes the general overall trends in the enabling technologies within this field that were discussed during the Enabling technologies for road vehicle automation breakout session at the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2016. With a starting point in six scenarios that have the potential to be deployed at an early stage, five different categories of emerging technologies are described: (a) positioning, localization and mapping (b) algorithms, deep learning techniques, sensor fusion guidance and control (c) hybrid communication (d) sensing and perception and (e) technologies for data ownership and privacy. It is found that reliability and extensive computational power are the two most common challenges within the emerging technologies. Furthermore, cybersecurity binds all technologies together as vehicles will be constantly connected. Connectivity allows both improved local awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle communication and it allows continuous deployment of new software and algorithms that constantly learns new unforeseen objects or scenarios. Finally, while five categories were individually considered, further holistic work to combine them in a systems concept would be the important next step toward implementation.

  • 20.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 21.
    Frischknecht, Rolf
    et al.
    treeze Ltd, Switzerland.
    Bauer, Christian
    Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Switzerland.
    Froemelt, Andreas
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hellweg, Stefanie
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Biemann, Kirsten
    ifeu–Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Buetler, Thomas
    empa, Switzerland.
    Cox, Brian
    Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Switzerland.
    de Haan, Peter
    Ernst Basler + Partner AG, Switzerland.
    Hoerl, Sebastian
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Itten, Rene
    Institute of Natural Resource Science, Switzerland.
    Jungbluth, Nils
    ESU-services Limited, Switzerland.
    Ligen, Yorick
    EPFL Valais Wallis, Switzerland.
    Mathys, Nicole A.
    Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung ARE, Switzerland.
    Schiess, Samuel
    Bluewin, Switzerland.
    Schori, Salome
    SBB, Switzerland.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wang, Jing
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Wettstein, Sarah
    ZHAW Life Sciences und Facility Management, Switzerland.
    LCA of mobility solutions: approaches and findings—66th LCA forum, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 30 August, 20172018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Förstudie kring Roaming för elbilsladdning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att antalet laddbara fordon i Sverige ökar och att det blir vanligare medpublika laddningspunkter som erbjuder laddström mot betalning är det viktigt attundanröja risk för att användarna ställs inför komplicerade betallösningar och attbristande överblick över kostnader för laddning minskar attraktionskraften förelbilar och kan få användare att hålla kvar vid fossilbränslebilar.RISE Viktoria, ChargeStorm, Energiforsk, Ericsson, Power Circle och Q-Park hararbetat med ett projekt vars syfte har varit att bygga upp kunskap kring hurelbilsladdning och dess betalning kan göras på olika platser i elnätet på ett sättsom är enkelt för användarna.En viktig slutsats är att det är viktigt med interoperabilitet mellan deladdningspunkter som erbjuder laddström mot betalning så att elbilsanvändarnakan använda samma betalningslösning oavsett var de laddar. Projektet harsammanfört nyckelpersoner från marknadsaktörer i Sverige för diskussion omsamverkan kring laddningspunkter och försäljning av publik laddström.Energibolagssamverkan pågår och projektets resultat har potential att stärka ochpåskynda denna samverkan.Denna rapport innehåller en kort internationell utblick, beskrivningar av pågåendestandardiseringsarbete och energibolagssamverkan, resultat från intervjuer medanvändare och marknadsaktörer, samt sammanfattning av publiceradinternationell forskning. Förhoppningen är att projektets rapport skall komma tillanvändning hos Energimyndigheten, energibranschen, fastighetsägare och andraaktörer som är involverade i införandet av betalning för publik laddström förelbilar och att detta i sin tur leder till att risken för komplicerade betallösningarförsvinner.

  • 23.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Mats
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Förstudie om automatiserad sladdlöskonduktiv laddning av elbilar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkel och bekväm laddning av elbilar är en önskvärd egenskap. Automatisk sladdlös laddningfrån vägbana till bilar är en potentiell möjlighet till att förenkla vardagslivet för användare avelbilar samt öka effektiviteten hos taxibilar och bilpooler. Laddinfrastruktur för eldrivna personbilarskulle kunna nyttja den senaste utvecklingen av elvägar där elektrisk energi överförs underrörelse från väginfrastrukturen till fordonet för både framdrivning och laddning av batteri.RISE Viktoria och Volvo Cars har genomfört en studie för att utvärdera möjlighet och potential attanvända konduktiv elvägsteknik för att åstadkomma automatisk sladdlös laddning av personbilarsom är stillastående eller rör sig långsamt längs korta sträckor (t.ex. köer). Förväntningar ur ettpersonbilsperspektiv, användningsfall, generella krav, egenskaper som påverkar detaljeradkravställning, potentiella risker, samt rekommendationer för strukturerad systemsäkerhetsanalyshar dokumenterats. Styrkor, svagheter och mognadsgrad har undersökts för tekniklösningarnaAlstom ERS, Alstom SRS, Elonroad och Elways. Arbetet har även innefattat en jämförelsemellan konduktiv och induktiv laddning av elbilar.Det är en intressant framtida möjlighet att åstadkomma automatiserad laddning genom att nyttjakonduktiv energiöverföring från vägbana till personbilar som är stillastående eller rör siglångsamt längs korta sträckor (t.ex. köer). Men de studerade lösningarna har i dagsläget lågmognadsgrad avseende tillämpning för personbilar. Fortsatt utveckling måste ske innan definitivtsvar om framtida möjlighet kan ges och för varje lösning bedöms strömavtagare avsedd förpersonbilar vara den mest kritiska komponenten. Innan det kan bli fråga om bredmarknadsintroduktion för en lösning är det ytterst viktigt att lösningen uppfyller krav omanvändarvänlighet, tillgänglighet och systemsäkerhet.För att kunna diskutera medverkan från personbilsindustrin i framtida demonstrationsprojekt ärdet nödvändigt att utvecklarna av tekniklösningar och andra intressenter åstadkommer följande:• Precisering av lämpliga användningsområden där konduktiv energiöverföring frånvägbana med hög effekt gör skillnad (t.ex. taxiköer, central plats för publik bilpool).• Strömavtagare anpassad för personbilar med rätt utformning och tillförlitlighet.• Metodiskt systemsäkerhetsarbete och riskhantering (speciellt elsäkerhet).• Standardisering för publika lösningar påbörjat (eller åtminstone planerats).Trots den nuvarande låga mognadsgraden är konduktiv energiöverföring från vägbana till elbilarintressant på grund av möjligheten hos följande användningsfall:• Automatisk snabbladdning med justerbar effekt för olika fordonstyper.• Automatisk laddning på offentliga parkeringsplatser (t.ex. vid stormarknader)• Automatisk laddning vid privat parkering utan vägledning och automatisk körning• Automatisk laddning på platser där bilar ofta hämtas (t.ex. bilpool)• Automatisk laddning vid körning i köer med låg hastighet (t.ex. taxi)• Automatisk energiöverföring (för framdrift och/eller laddning) från väg till olikafordonstyper med olika effektbehov vid högre hastigheterVi som arbetat i projektet anser att det är nödvändigt med en dialog i gott samförstånd mellanpersonbilsindustrin och utvecklare av lösningar för konduktiv elvägsteknik i syfte att fortsättaarbetet med hur automatisk sladdlös laddning kan förverkligas på ett bra sätt för användare avelbilar.

  • 24.
    Gustavsson, Martin GH
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Mats
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Automatic conductive charging of electric cars2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Easy and convenient charging of electric cars is a desirable characteristic. Automatic cable-free conductivecharging from road surface to cars is a potential possibility for simplifying the everyday life for users ofelectric cars, as well as increasing the efficiency of taxis and car pools. Charging infrastructure for electriccars could utilize the recent development for electric road systems (ERS) in which electrical energy istransferred during movement from the road infrastructure to the vehicle for both propulsion and charging ofbattery. However, continued development must be done before it is feasible to implement automaticconductive cable-free charging of cars.

  • 25.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alex
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Comparison of free-floating car sharing services incities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered by many organizations as a moreflexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywherewithin a specified area of a city. FFCS can provide a high degree of utilization of vehicles and less usage ofinfrastructure in the form of parking lots and roads and thus has the potential to increase the efficiency of thetransport sector. However, there is also a concern that these compete with other efficient modes of transport suchas biking and public transport. The aim of this paper is to better understand how, when and where the vehiclesare utilized through logged data of the vehicles movements. We have access to data collected on FFCS servicesin 22 cities in Europe and North America which allows us to compare the usage pattern in different cities andexamine whether or not there are similar trends. In this paper, we use the collected data to compare the differentcities based on utilization rate, length of trip and time of day that the trip is made. We find that the vehicleutilization rates differ between cities with Madrid and Hamburg having some of the highest utilization levels forthe FFCS vehicles. The result form a first step of a better understanding on how these services are being usedand can provide valuable input to local policy makers as well as future studies such as simulation models.

  • 26.
    Habibivic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Johan
    Nilsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, J
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Evaluating interactions with non-existing automated vehicles: three Wizard of Oz approaches2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated test vehicles are rare today, and (independent) researchers have often limited access to them. Also, developing fully functioning system prototypes is time and effort consuming. In this paper, we present three adaptions of the Wizard of Oz technique as a means of gathering data about interactions with highly automated vehicles in early development phases. Two of them address interactions between drivers and highly automated vehicles, while the third one is adapted to address interactions between pedestrians and highly automated vehicles. The focus is on the experimental methodology adaptations and our lessons learned.

  • 27.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

  • 28.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Command-based driving for tactical control of highly automated vehicles2017In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, Springer Verlag , 2017, p. 499-510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become highly automated, their drivers become more passive. A concern is it may take drivers out of the control loop, causing reduced satisfaction and perceived control. The study explores whether or not drivers feel the need to control tactical decisions when operating highly automated vehicles. An experiment involving 17 drivers was carried out in a driving simulator. Each driver tested two different tactical controllers, allowing him/her to give various tactical commands to the vehicle (e.g., overtake, park). The results indicate that the drivers experienced a need to affect tactical decisions of highly automated vehicles. Several of the tactical commands were found useful, especially on rural roads and highways. It also gave them a feeling of being in control of the vehicle, suggesting that command-based driving might be a way to keep drivers in the control loop.

  • 30.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Cars Group, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv AB, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

  • 31.
    Hamnerius, Y.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, T.
    Torptronics Engineering, Sweden.
    Rylander, T.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Winges, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekman, C.
    QRTECH, Sweden.
    Petersson, C.
    QRTECH, Sweden.
    Fransson, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Design of Safe Wireless Power Transfer Systems for Electric Vehicles2018In: 2018 2nd URSI Atlantic Radio Science Meeting, AT-RASC 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless charging of electric vehicles is convenient but in order to make it safe the exposure of humans to electromagnetic fields must be below acceptable limits. We have designed a prototype system that transmits 3 kW with an efficiency of 85% where the magnetic fields around and inside the vehicle are below the EU council recommendation of 6.25μT at 85 kHz.

  • 32.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Automotive Safety and Machine Learning: Initial Results from a Study on How to Adapt the ISO 26262 Safety Standard2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning (ML) applications generate a continuous stream of success stories from various domains. ML enables many novel applications, also in safety-critical contexts. However, the functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 did not evolve to cover ML. We conduct an exploratory study on which parts of ISO 26262 represent the most critical gaps between safety engineering and ML development. While this paper only reports the first steps toward a larger research endeavor, we report three adaptations that are critically needed to allow ISO 26262 compliant engineering, and related suggestions on how to evolve the standard.

  • 33.
    Hylving, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sociomaterial Quasi-objects: From Interface to Experience2017In: AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1944-3900, E-ISSN 1944-3900, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 202-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I examine design practices by contrasting the Cartesian view of separation with an ontologicalperspective and argue for a dynamic, multiple, and entangled world (namely, sociomateriality). In the digital era welive in, sociomateriality helps move design practices forward in order to embrace constant changes and reconfigurations.The word interface manifests a worldview of separation. Researchers typically conceive an interfaceas belonging to an artifact; that is, the technology, the material. More so, [people] typically considers user interfacesas the layer that separates and connects the technology and the user, which enables interaction. I recognize thelimitations of the well-established perspective of interface design and contrast two traditional HCI concepts (namely,usability and context) from a Cartesian versus a sociomaterial perspective. However, to embrace and capitalize on theemergent digital reality, we need a new vocabulary. I introduce helpful concepts that one can use when designing andtalking about experiences, and I ground the concepts in a sociomaterial ontological perspective. The concepts anddesign approach presented in this paper invite and encourage researchers to focus on experiences as sociomaterialentanglements and re-configurations and not as separated social and material entities. By using Michel Serres’ (1980)term quasi-objects, I call attention to the complexity of sociomaterial entanglements that make up experiences andemphasize a holistic and inclusive design approach. In addition, introducing sociomaterial concepts, such as agentialcuts and intra-actions, into the human-computer interaction domain invites researchers to think and act in new ways inthe era of digitalized experiences. I examine the benefits of the sociomaterial design approach and present practicalguidelines on how to approach experiential design with a sociomaterial take

  • 34.
    Hylving, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bygstad, Bendik
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Responding to Enterprise Architecture Initiatives: Loyalty, Voice and Exit2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many large organizations have on-going Enterprise Architecture initiatives. Key aims include achieving more organizational agility, and to tidy up a messy portfolio of IT silo systems. A holistic approach to IT architecture has been an accepted strategy, but the results of these initiatives have been variable. An under-researched aspect is how different organizational units respond to the call for a holistic approach. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders connected to three ongoing projects responded to the call for EA. With a qualitative approach, we identify three options of response to EA initiatives: (i) compliance with the EA strategy, (ii) loyal but isolated response, and (iii) rebel solutions. We argue for the need of a more nuanced repertoire of actions for dealing with EA, and show how these responses are useful for understanding and managing successful EA.

  • 35.
    Isaksson, Vincent
    et al.
    Vincea, Sweden.
    Hylving, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    The Effect of Anarchistic Actions in Digital Product Innovation Networks:The Case of “Over the Air” Software Updates2017In: Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore mirroring challenges when an incumbent firm endeavor digital innovation. More specifically, we describe how AutoInc, organized according to the physical vehicle it produces, is challenged when an “over the air” software service is developed and implemented. Using the mirroring hypothesis as a point of departure to understand existing and emerging innovation networks, we recognize anarchistic actions. The analysis reveals the emergence of anarchic actions and how they challenge well-established federative innovation networks within the organization. With continued focus on technology, the project and organization disregarded necessary social structure development, which resulted in reduced capabilities to utilize the digitalized service. This qualitative paper also illustrates how the mirroring hypothesis, although originating from product innovation literature, can be used to understand digitalization dynamics. To the end, the analysis shows that the digital product innovation classification structure may need additional tuning.

  • 36.
    Jelica, Darijan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Taljegard, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorson, L.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnsson, F.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hourly electricity demand from an electric road system – A Swedish case study2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the hourly electricity demand related to implementing an electric road system (ERS) on five Swedish roads with the highest traffic flows that connect the three largest cities in Sweden. The study also compares the energy demands and the CO2 mitigation potentials of the ERS with the use of carbon-based fuels to obtain the same transportation work, and extrapolates the results to all Swedish European- and National- (E- and N) roads. The hourly electricity demand along the roads are derived by linking 12 available measurement points for hourly road traffic volumes with 12,553 measurement points for the average daily traffic flows along the roads. The results show that applying an ERS to the five Swedish roads with the highest traffic flows can reduce by ∼20% the levels of CO2 emissions from the road transport sector, while increasing by less than 4% the hourly electricity demand on the peak dimensioning hour. Extending the ERS to all E- and N-roads would electrify almost half of the vehicle kilometers driven annually in Sweden, while increasing the load of the hourly peak electricity demand by only ∼10% on average.

  • 37.
    Karlson, Marianne
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Koglin, Till
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mukhtar-Landgren, Dalia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Emma
    Trivector, Sweden.
    Wendle, Björn
    Trivector, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Smith, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; Västra Götalandsregionen (VGR), Sweden ; K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework2017In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a continued global urbanisation trend and increasing demand for transportation with consequences interms of, for example, congestion, emissions, and noise, urban mobility is a major challenge for the future.Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution by contributing to reducing the use ofprivate cars and increasing the use of public transport and ride sharing services: “MaaS has the potentialto fundamentally change the behaviour of people in and beyond cities, hence it is regarded as the biggestparadigm change in transport since affordable cars came into the market” (maas-alliance.eu). However,even though a number of initiatives have been taken, including pilots which have shown positive outcomes(see e.g., Karlsson et al., 2016), the implementation of MaaS has been slow.Different sources refer to different challenges. The purpose of the project ‘Institutional Frameworks forIntegrated Mobility Services in Future Cities’ (IRIMS) is to determine how, and to what extent, existinginstitutional factors affect the further development of MaaS. The project aims to provide suggestions for howinstitutions can be modified to enable the implementation of MaaS to contribute to sustainable mobility. Thispaper presents part of the work: a tentative framework, intended to support the analysis of the institutionalfactors that facilitate or create barriers to the further development and dissemination of MaaS (see alsoMukhtar-Landgren et al., 2016).

  • 38.
    Koutsikouri, Dina
    et al.
    University of Goothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    University of Goothenburg, Sweden.
    Henfridsson, Ola
    University of Warwick, UK.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Extending Digital Infrastructures: A Typology of Growth Tactics2018In: Journal of the Association for Information Systems, ISSN 1536-9323, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1001-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital infrastructures enable delivery of information services in functional areas such as health, payment, and transportation by providing a sociotechnical foundation for partnership governance, resource reuse, and system integration. To effectively serve emerging possibilities and changing purposes, however, a key question concerns how an infrastructure can be extended to cater for future services in its functional area. In this paper, we approach such digital infrastructure growth as a challenge of aligning new partners whose digital capabilities spur innovative services that attract more users. We advance an initial typology that covers four growth tactics (i.e., adding services, inventing processes, opening identifiers, and providing interfaces) with the potential to set extension of infrastructures in motion. We then explore the proposed typology by investigating the ways in which its particular tactics successfully extended the scope of a digital infrastructure for public transportation in Stockholm, Sweden. Our insights invite IS scholars to engage more deeply in the development of growth tactics that achieve infrastructure extensions necessary for improving the durability of service delivery.

  • 39.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Johansson, Mats
    Cost and value drivers in circular material flow logistics2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study paper presents system costs and effect on costs due to variation inmanufacturing performance in recycling of manufacturing generated waste. One caseconcern metal, manufacturing waste and the other plastic assembly process waste. Thereexist potentials for improvements in logistics and operation planning which could beaided by sharing production performance information. There are also potentials toincrease value of the recycling material.

  • 40.
    Liebel, Grischa
    et al.
    ChalmersUniveristy of Technolgoy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Heldal, Robgardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    For free: continuity and change by team teaching2017In: Teaching in Higher Education, ISSN 1356-2517, E-ISSN 1470-1294, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team teaching is advocated in education to offer students multiple explanations to complex concepts and to improve teacher development. However, team teaching is typically associated with high staff cost due to the increased amount of teachers involved. The authors argue that team teaching can be conducted in a cheap way by including novice teaching assistants in the lectures and train them ‘on the job’. Additionally, novice assistants cause reflection on action and prevent a mechanization of the course. The authors use Brookfield’s four lenses to reflect on the application of team teaching in a Swedish undergraduate course on software modeling over three years, involving 3 teachers and collecting evaluation data from close to 400 students. The reflection shows that team teaching can be used as a cost-effective way to introduce novice teachers to a course, while at the same time receiving benefits from their participation in lectures and course development.

  • 41.
    Linder, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    A Metric for Quantifying Product-Level Circularity2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circularity metrics are useful for empirically assessing the effects of a circular economy in terms of profitability, job creation, and environmental impacts. At present, however, there is no standardized method for measuring the circularity of products. We start by reviewing existing product-level metrics in terms of validity and reliability, taking note of theoretically justified principles for aggregating different types of material flows and cycles into a single value. We then argue that the economic value of product parts may constitute a useful basis for such aggregation; describe a set of principles for using economic value as a basis for measuring product circularity; and outline a metric that utilizes this approach. Our recommendation is to use the ratio of recirculated economic value to total product value as a circularity metric, using value chain costs as an estimator. In order to protect value chain actors’ sensitive financial data and facilitate neutrality regarding outsourcing or insourcing, we suggest a means to calculate product-level circularity based on sequential approximations of adding one product part and activity at a time. We conclude by suggesting potential avenues for further research, including ways in which the proposed metric can be used in wider assessments of the circular economy, and ways in which it may be further refined.

  • 42.
    Linder, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Williander, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Circular Business Model Innovation: Inherent Uncertainties2017In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 182-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular business models based on remanufacturing and reuse promise significant cost savings as well as radical reductions in environmental impact. Variants of such business models have been suggested for decades, and there are notable success stories such as the Xerox product–service offering based on photocopiers that are remanufactured. Still, we are not seeing widespread adoption in industry. This paper examines causes for reluctance. Drawing on a hypothesis-testing framework of business model innovation, we show that circular business models imply significant challenges to proactive uncertainty reduction for the entrepreneur. Moreover, we show that many product–service system variants that facilitate return flow control in circular business models further aggravate the potential negative effects of failed uncertainty reduction because of increased capital commitments. Through a longitudinal action research study we also provide a counterexample to many of the challenges identified in previous studies, which could be overcome in the studied case.

  • 43.
    Lund, Agnetha
    et al.
    Prospero Management AB, Sweden.
    Arnestrand, Elias
    Zeto AB, Sweden.
    Östlund, Håkan
    Samtrafiken i Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Kraftsamling Öppna Trafikdata- en målbild för Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitaliseringen i Sverige går bra och vi ligger på tredje plats i Europa enligt Digital Economyand Society Index, DESI, undersökningen för 2017. Index inom offentlig sektor drar dock nervår placering. Motiveringen gör gällande att Sverige ligger över medel i Europa men i arbetetkring öppna data ligger Sverige efter. Mätningar som gjorts av bl.a. Open Data Barometer visapå liknande resultat. Detta är något som Forum för Transportinnovation i Sverige vill ändra på.En grundsten för att påskynda digitaliseringen inom mobilitetsområdet i syfte att bättre kunnahantera klimatmålen och skapa ett smartare resande i framtiden är att tillgängliggöra trafikdatafrån alla aktörer i transportsystemet. På så sätt läggs grunden för att nya smarta tjänster kanutvecklas av tredjepartsutvecklare. Omvärldsanalysen visar att flera globala initiativ somPlannerstack i Holland och Transport for London har nått kraftfulla resultat genom atttillgängliggöra trafikdata. Dessutom har flera nya arbetstillfällen skapats och takten iutvecklingen av smarta tjänster har ökat dramatiskt.Ett gemensamt initiativ tog form i Sverige under 2016 och projekt Kraftsamling ÖppnaTrafikdata startades samma år. Målet med projektet var att hitta en gemensam nationellmålbild för öppna trafikdata med start i den offentliga sektorn och ta fram en handlingsplanmed åtgärder för att realisera målbilden. Projektet delades upp i sex workshops där olikafokusområden bearbetades av sex regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter, Trafikverket,Samtrafiken och tredjepartsutvecklare. Projektet finansierades av Vinnova samt av deltagandebranschaktörer inkind där intresset var stort av att få delta i projektet. Arbetet med en målbildför nationella öppna kollektivtrafikdata resulterat i fem områden med förankrade lösningar;datamängder och tjänster, licenser och villkor, IT-arkitektur, organisation samt finansiering.Under projektet gjordes en GAP-analys över vilka data som idag saknas. Fullständiganationella data kring både realtid och mer utförliga tidtabellsdata, biljettförsäljningstjänstersamt pendelparkeringsdata var några data och tjänster som idag saknas. Projektet har därföridentifierat 12 datamängder och tjänster som kollektivtrafiken behöver tillhandahålla i sinhelhet för att möjliggöra smarta mobilitetstjänster. Dessa inkluderar datamängder kringplanerad trafik och realtidsinformation samt tjänster för reseplanering och biljettförsäljning.De licenser och villkor som reglerar vidareutnyttjande av tillgängliggjord trafikinformation skaharmoniseras. Tre olika typer av villkor behövs; för vidareanvändning av datamängder, förtillgång/access samt för biljettförsäljning.IT-arkitekturen innehåller en nationell utvecklarportal för tredjepartsutvecklare och en nationellåtkomstpunkt där samtliga 12 datamängder och tjänster tillgängliggörs. En vidareutveckladversion av dagens trafiklab.se kommer vara utgångspunkt för den nationellautvecklingsportalen. Centrala standarder mellan trafikföretag och nationell åtkomstpunkt ärNOPTIS och BoB. Centrala standarder mot tredjepartsutvecklare är GTFS, NeTEx och BoB.Den organisation som krävs ska baseras på ledorden öppenhet och synlighet,professionalism, samskapande och samhällsnytta. Organisationen får en central roll både i attansvara för de centrala tekniska lösningarna och för samverkan inom och utom branschen.Genom denna samverkan får de organisationer som levererar data en aktiv roll i att styraarbetet framåt i den centrala organisationen. Dessutom kommer respektive organisation attansvara för sin dataleverans till den nationella åtkomstpunkten och egna dataleveranserutöver de nationella datamängder som tillgängliggörs genom den nationella åtkomstpunkten.Branschgruppen föreslår att denna organisation realiseras genom Samtrafiken.Finansiering av lösningen kommer på sikt (3 år beräknas för implementering) föreslåsfinansieras via det pågående uppdraget att inrapportera viss gemensam trafikantinformation Fram till denna tidpunkt kommer nödvändiga projektkostnaderfinansieras genom en kombination av resurser från initialt deltagande parter, samtliga parterinom gemensam trafikantinformation samt genom extern finansiering

  • 44.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv Research, Sweden.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Will There Be New Communication Needs When Introducing Automated Vehicles to the Urban Context?2016In: Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s encounters with vehicles, pedestrians are often dependent on cues in drivers’ behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With an increased level of automation, and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, the pedestrians cannot rely on such cues anymore. The question is: will there be new communication needs to warrant safe interactions with automated vehicles? This question is addressed by exploring pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street and their emotional state in encounters with a seemingly automated vehicle. The results show that pedestrians’ willingness to cross the street decrease with an inattentive driver. Eye contact with the driver on the other hand leads to calm interaction between vehicle and pedestrian. In conclusion, to sustain perceived safety when eye contact is discarded due to vehicle automation, it could be beneficial to provide pedestrians with the corresponding information in some other way (e.g., by means of an external vehicle interface).

  • 45.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Using weekly open defect reports as anindicator for software process efficiency : Theoretical framework and a longitudinal automotive industrial case study2017In: Proceedings of IWSM/Mensura'17, October 25–27, 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden (MENSURA’17), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-defined, informative and cheap indicators are important inany software development organization that needs to evaluateaspects of its development processes and product quality. This isespecially true for large organizations and for organizationsdeveloping complex products; for example automotive safetyfunctions where mechanical, electronic and software systemsneed to interact. In this paper we describe defect backlog profilesas a well-defined, cheap and informative indicator. We definedefect backlog profiles in terms of ISO/IEC 15939, provide atheoretical framework for interpretation, and finally present anevaluation in which we applied the indicator in a longitudinalcase study at an automotive manufacturer. In the case study, wecompare the software integration defect backlog profile for theactive safety component released in 2010 to the profile for thefollowing generation of the same component released in 2015.The results are then linked to a number of process and productchanges that occurred between the two product generations. Weconclude that defect backlog profiles are cheap in terms of datacollection and analysis, and can provide valuable process andproduct quality information although with limitations.

  • 46.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Lind, Kenneth
    HiMinds Göteborg AB, Sweden.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Contrasting Big Bang with Continuous Integration Through Defect Reports2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration promises earlier defect detection, quality improvements and more customer value delivered faster. But what evidence is there? In this longitudinal case study we examined the development of software for the advanced safety and driver support component of a Swedish vehicle manufacturer in two consecutive projects, where the first was developed in a big bang fashion, typical to a traditional waterfall process, while the second project utilized continuous integration. By contrasting the two projects, we evaluated the introduction of continuous integration and supplement earlier claims based on interview studies with a quantitative analysis of defect reports.

  • 47.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pirie, Jamie
    Cambridge Econometrics, UK.
    Smith, Alistair
    Cambridge Econometrics, UK.
    Stenning, Jon
    Cambridge Econometrics, UK.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    Cambridge Econometrics, UK.
    Williander, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    DECARBONISING THE SWEDISH ROAD TRANSPORTSECTOR2017In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transport contributes to around one-fifth of the EU’s total CO2 emissions and is the only majorsector in the EU where greenhouse gas emissions are still rising. Swedish road transport causes 30% ofall emissions. Addressing transport emissions is therefore crucial for meeting the Paris Agreementcommitments on Climate Change. The Swedish government aims to have a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2050; moreover, anemissions reduction target for the road transport sector of 80% (compared to 2010) by 2030 has beensuggested. The government-initiated investigation “Fossilfrihet på väg” sets out potential pathways, buta knowledge gap currently remains in regards to which path would be the most beneficial or leastburdensome in terms of macroeconomic effects while still decarbonising the road transport sector. This paper contributes to fill that knowledge gap by applying a vehicle stock modelling frameworkand a demand-driven global econometric model (E3ME) and by evaluating different technologypathways for Sweden to meet the 2030- and 2050- government targets. The stock model has beenadjusted to be consistent with “Fossilfrihet på väg” and uses technology deployment and cost estimatesto model the Swedish vehicle stock emissions in three technology-driven scenarios. The analysis shows that decarbonisation of transport can have positive impacts upon the Swedisheconomy, primarily through the replacement of imported fossil fuels with domestically producedelectricity and biomass, while a further stimulus is provided by the construction of infrastructure tosupport electric vehicle recharging and fuel cell refuelling. Through quick action to encourage thedeployment of new technologies and powertrains into the vehicle stock, plus policies aimed atpromoting the domestic production of sustainable biomass, Sweden can maximise the potential gainsfrom the decarbonisation process

  • 48.
    Mohagheghzadeh, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Accelerated Tuning of Platform Boundary Resources2017In: Scandinavian Conference on Information SystemsSCIS 2017: Nordic Contributions in IS Research . Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 294), 2017, p. 98-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platform owners develop boundary resources to transfer design capabilities to third-party developers and boost innovation within platform ecosystems. The literature on boundary resources suggests the concept of tuning to depict the process where such resources are shaped through an interactive process involving platform owners, third-party developers and other actors within the platform ecology. While the literature on the tuning of boundary resources is promising and emerging, there is to our knowledge no current studies on platform owners’ measures to speed up this often prolonged process. In this research, we studied how a platform owner sought to accelerate the tuning process of its boundary resource through a case study at Volvo Group Truck Technology. In doing so, Volvo used an innovation contest where third-party developers used several boundary resources and engaged in an accelerated tuning process with Volvo Group Technology

  • 49.
    Nylander, Jan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sundelin, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Elvägars utveckling– Från demonstratorer till storskaligutbyggnad2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den övergripande utvecklingen mot el som energikälla för transporter sker nu snabbt. Förtyngre transporter på väg samlas arbetet kring elvägar, d.v.s. att befintliga vägar förses mednågon teknik där fordon, utefter hela eller delar av vägarna, kan tillföras elenergi under drift.Drivkraften för tyngre kommersiella transportfordon är i huvudsak ekonomisk, relaterat tilltransportköpares kostnader och intäkter samt risker och möjligheter relaterat till bl.a.transporter, transportsystem, arbetsmiljö, tillgång till marknader och påverkan avvarumärke. Ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv är det helt centralt att övergången till el sker i tid,med bibehållen flexibilitet för framtida teknik och system samt med så lågatransaktionskostnader som möjligt. Till detta kommer en politisk ambition som påverkarmyndigheter, skatter, avgifter och regelverk med en katalyserande och systemförändrandeansats. Det är dock viktigt att notera att den offentliga ambitionen aldrig kommer attresultera i leverans av en lösning om inte transportköparna finner det motiverat att nyttjaelvägar.Utvecklingen mot eldrivna transportsystem är tydlig. Däremot är det fortfarande osäkert hurenergin tillförs eller transporteras i fordonet. Det finns inte EN lösning på detta. Olikatillämpning, teknikutveckling och parters förmåga att ta fungerande lösningar till marknadoch nytta kommer steg för steg att styra utvecklingen. Vi kommer under många år att ha olikasamverkande lösningar, beroende på utveckling, kommersiell mognadsgrad, tillämpning ochbehov. Teknik och affärsekosystem kommer på samma sätt att variera. Varor och tjänstermed kort livslängd ska i dessa modeller kombineras med lösningar med mycket långlivslängd. Utvecklingen ska på ett sätt som gör att finansieringen säkras, och på ett sätt somgör att en komplex samling behov från olika intressenter tillgodoses samtidigt som finansiellaincitament och risker balanseras långsiktigt. Så måste även balansen hållas mellan olikaparters mål och medel, så att forskning och utveckling balanseras med utbyggnad och nytta ikundledet. Arbetet inom FFI-projektet ”Forsknings- och innovationsplattform för elvägar”visar att om sträckan mellan Gävle och Borlänge (120 km) skulle elektrifieras skulleinvesteringen betala sina egna kostnader om den trafikerades av en volym om 190elektrifierade lastbilar, givet samma kostnader för infrastruktur som det pågåendedemonstrationsprojektet visat. Mellan Sandviken och Gävle hamn (30 km) bär det sig med50 elektrifierade lastbilar. Möjligheterna är tydliga, finansieringen möjlig, nyttan sannolik, regelverk och förordningar hanterbara, nu gäller det att hålla igång samarbete och tryck föratt tillsammans få detta på plats, nationellt och internationellt.Ur ett samlat hållbarhetsperspektiv är elektrifiering centralt. Det gäller ekonomisk ochmiljörelaterad hållbarhet men även nationalekonomisk där en nationell komparativ fördel ärvår förmåga att driva på och implementera förändringar i multidisciplinära komplexasamhällssystem. Hållbarhetsfrågan har i detta sammanhang även att göra med vår förmågaatt implementera, bygga ut och nyttja klimatsmart väginfrastruktur. Det kombinerar teknik,finansiering, flexibilitet och hänsyn med behov av konkretisering, beslut, utbyggnad ochimplementering; d.v.s. ytterst om ledarskap i multidisciplinära innovationssystem, någotsom är väldigt svårt men där Sverige genom åren visat sig vara bland de bästa.Det är ett mycket viktigt ansvar för politik och myndigheter att sköta denna balans på ett brasätt. Balansen kräver dialog och samarbete, utefter hela förädlingskedjan, från forskning tillkommersiellt nyttjande. De kommande åren är en spännande utmaning för att lagom snabbt,säkert och till rimlig kostnad balansera offentliga och privata roller så attkonkurrensutsättning, upphandlingsbarhet, innovation och utveckling kombineras medansvar, säkerhet och hållbarhet. En central del i utvecklingen är att det affärsekosystem somomger elvägar identifieras, definieras, utvecklas och i viss mån implementeras. Dettakommer även att variera internationellt, bara jämfört med Tyskland finns olika syn där vissadelar är gemensamma och andra alltid kommer att variera. Denna rapport har ambitionen attbidra med ett första steg för en principiell plattform för fortsatt strategiarbete.Denna rapport bör läsas tillsammans med huvudrapporten från förstudien avaffärsekosystem för elvägar (Håkan Sundelin et.al). Denna rapport har ambitionen att bidratill den första strategiska plattform som Trafikverket arbetar med kring utveckling,uppbyggnad, utrullning och nyttjande av elvägar som pågår.Just dialog, diskussion, överväganden och förankring kombinerat med pådrivning leder tillatt denna rapport bara är ett första steg och att en dialog nu tar vid, där alla utefterförädlingskedjan engageras, bidrar och samlas för att elvägar ska komma till nytta isamhället. Rapporten har inget externt syfte, målgruppen är de redan insatta, varförreferenser, direkta eller indirekta, samt annat underlag utelämnats utom där det har direktrelevans i syfte att hålla rapporten kort, effektiv och fokuserad.

  • 50.
    Nyman, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Making an electrification analysis tool for multiple types of transportation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an existing tool for analyzing the viability and cost effectiveness of different electric bus systems, the extension to other types of transportation is discussed. Similarities and dissimilarities are explored, the implications on the analysis tool in general and on its principal components are described, and the implementation of support for refuse collection is reported. Besides route- and timetable data, relatively few and minor issues need to be considered.

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